EP3077603B1 - A thermally-insulating composite elevation panel, a method of its preparation and a use of the thermally-insulating composite elevation panel - Google Patents

A thermally-insulating composite elevation panel, a method of its preparation and a use of the thermally-insulating composite elevation panel Download PDF

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EP3077603B1
EP3077603B1 EP14827539.9A EP14827539A EP3077603B1 EP 3077603 B1 EP3077603 B1 EP 3077603B1 EP 14827539 A EP14827539 A EP 14827539A EP 3077603 B1 EP3077603 B1 EP 3077603B1
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Prior art keywords
elevation
board
panel
thermally
mould
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German (de)
French (fr)
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EP3077603A1 (en
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Wieslaw Galus
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Eutherm Sp Z OO
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Eutherm Sp Z OO
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Priority to PCT/IB2014/066528 priority patent/WO2015083084A1/en
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04FFINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
    • E04F13/00Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings
    • E04F13/07Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor
    • E04F13/08Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor composed of a plurality of similar covering or lining elements
    • E04F13/0875Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor composed of a plurality of similar covering or lining elements having a basic insulating layer and at least one covering layer
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C2/00Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels
    • E04C2/02Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials
    • E04C2/26Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials composed of materials covered by two or more of groups E04C2/04, E04C2/08, E04C2/10 or of materials covered by one of these groups with a material not specified in one of the groups
    • E04C2/284Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials composed of materials covered by two or more of groups E04C2/04, E04C2/08, E04C2/10 or of materials covered by one of these groups with a material not specified in one of the groups at least one of the materials being insulating
    • E04C2/296Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by specified materials composed of materials covered by two or more of groups E04C2/04, E04C2/08, E04C2/10 or of materials covered by one of these groups with a material not specified in one of the groups at least one of the materials being insulating composed of insulating material and non-metallic or unspecified sheet-material
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04CSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
    • E04C2/00Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels
    • E04C2/30Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by the shape or structure
    • E04C2/38Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by the shape or structure with attached ribs, flanges, or the like, e.g. framed panels
    • E04C2/384Building elements of relatively thin form for the construction of parts of buildings, e.g. sheet materials, slabs, or panels characterised by the shape or structure with attached ribs, flanges, or the like, e.g. framed panels with a metal frame
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04FFINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
    • E04F13/00Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings
    • E04F13/07Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor
    • E04F13/08Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor composed of a plurality of similar covering or lining elements
    • E04F13/14Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor composed of a plurality of similar covering or lining elements stone or stone-like materials, e.g. ceramics concrete; of glass or with an outer layer of stone or stone-like materials or glass

Description

  • The object of the present invention is a ready-to-use thermally-insulating composite elevation panel, a method of its preparation and the use of the thermally-insulating composite elevation panel for simultaneous mounting of the elevation and the thermal insulation of buildings. Such type of thermally-insulating panels are for instance known from EP2061091 which discloses an insulating material foamed between a fixing frame and an elevation board. Nowadays, building facades are usually covered with various types of plasters. However, the increase in prices of energy carrier and new legal regulations enforce investments in thermal insulation of buildings. The most common technology for thermally insulating external walls is the so-called light wet method. In this method, expanded polystyrene boards are bonded to building walls and are mechanically mounted by means of special pins passing through an insulation layer. Then, an adhesive layer is applied onto the expanded polystyrene boards so as to completely cover the expanded polystyrene layer on which a reinforcing mesh (most commonly a fibre glass) is bonded, which is then covered with another adhesive layer. Finally, thus insulated and prepared building wall is covered with a layer of thin-coat plaster. Price of thus obtained elevation is acceptable by the construction market but durability of this type of elevation is limited in time. In addition, it is a multi-step and technologically complex process which must be performed by adequately trained personnel (insulation fitters).
  • Simultaneously, there is a significant market segment of everlasting elevations made of natural or artificial materials, sandstone, marbles and granites, basalts, as well as in the form of imitations of these stones. Elevation boards made of these materials have a thickness of 12 to 40 mm. The huge weight of these boards requires a system of grillages and mechanical slings capable of supporting the weight of up to 400 kg per 1 m2 of elevation surface. With this type of elevations, a thermal insulation made of mineral wool or expanded polystyrene is shoved under the boards. It must, however, be steered clear of a fixing frame and of panel fixing hooks. However, in this manner, thermal bridges are formed, which dramatically deteriorate insulation properties of building elevations. Due to the high absorbability of the thermally insulating materials used and the inability to diffuse moisture by monolithic sheathing boards, it is necessary to use ventilated elevations in which the sheathing boards are spaced by 1 to 4 cm from the thermally insulating material. The thus obtained air gap allows drying of moistened insulation. However, a stack formed in the air gap enhances long-range convection processes, which additionally deteriorates insulation properties of the elevation.
  • The situation is slightly improved by using, as elevation linings, fibre cement boards or boards of ceramic materials, such as gres, clinker, terracotta etc. Boards of these materials have a thickness of 6 to 12 mm. This allows the system of fixing frames and slings to be more delicate and to lead to lower thermal losses. It is also possible to use boards of larger surfaces, which is preferred by architects, for aesthetic reasons. However, most often, the use of ventilated elevations is still required.
  • Yet another technique used to manufacture everlasting elevations consists in, first, mounting the insulation, e.g. expanded polystyrene boards, on a building wall, and then covering the thus insulated wall with light elevation tiles. This requires, however, to apply them onto the surface of expanded polystyrene by bonding techniques using special adhesives and grouting gaps between the boards. Adhesives existing on the building materials market have a limited lifetime and, at the same, a relatively high price. Bonding of relatively heavy tiles onto a soft ground, which is the surface of the expanded polystyrene board, poses a risk of deformation of the surface of the entire elevation. Furthermore, water approaching the gaps poses a risk of loosening of elevation tiles, as a result of freezing during the winter season.
  • The invention and the first performing implementation, in Italian company LAMINAM, of technology of deep sintering of pure quartz silts, which allows preparation of large-scale ceramic boards with typical dimensions of 1000 x 3000 mm and with a thickness of 3 mm, have revolutionised the building materials market. Now, further improvements of the technology have been developed, which allows production of boards having a thickness of 2 mm. These boards can be dyed arbitrarily in sintering phase, and therefore highest aesthetic values can be obtained. In addition, the low thickness of this type of boards allowed further decrease in the weight and simplification of the system of mechanical slings.
  • Ceramic boards having a thickness of 3 mm to 10 mm are currently attached on metal slings without integration with the thermally insulating material, in the ventilated system, where boards are mounted on a complex supporting substructure connected to a thermally insulating layer, by means of a permanent elastic adhesive. Elevation boards are bonded after mounting thermally insulating elements connected to the supporting substructure on building walls, by qualified personnel, according to recommendations and instructions of the supplier of adhesive system. Consequently, the effectiveness of mounting of panels by means of an adhesive depends mainly on atmospheric conditions during their mounting. Moisture, low temperature and dustiness may have a negative effect on bond strength of the adhesive.
  • In the case of ceramic boards having a thickness of 2 mm, any effective method of connecting to either the supporting substructure or directly to the thermally insulating layer has not been developed so far. This is due to the fact that boards of such a thickness are too fragile and susceptible to damage so that they cannot be mounted on the supporting substructure by means of an adhesive system. However, all attempts to develop a technology of bonding directly to the layer of thermally insulating material were unsuccessful because the so thin boards, especially in the case of large-surface boards, after bonding, were subject to deformation in many different ways, due to the difference in thermal expansions of the materials connected, which resulted in a drastic decrease in the adhesion of the board to the thermally insulating material, and as a consequence in its falling off.
  • Therefore, in the field of everlasting elevations, there is a need for ready-to-use structural panels, being at the same time thermally-insulating elevation panels, and for developing a method of permanent connection of elevation boards, especially of smaller thicknesses and larger surfaces, to the thermally insulating panel and to the system of attaching thereof to the building wall with the performing of a ready-to-use thermally-insulating elevation panel.
  • Thus, the aim of the present invention was to develop a ready-to-use, thermally-insulating composite panel which simultaneously combines three elements:
    • ceramic board performing protective and decorative functions;
    • layer performing a function of thermal insulation; and
    • system for attaching the thermally-insulating elevation panel on building walls.
  • Another aim of the present invention was to develop a method for permanent connection of elevation boards with the layer of thermal insulation and with the system for attaching the panel, the method allowing to manufacture of ready-to-use, thermally-insulating composite elevation panels.
  • These aims have been realised by developing thermally-insulating composite elevation panels as defined in claim 1 and a method as defined in claim 6 for their preparation.
  • Preferably, the elevation board is selected from the group comprising ceramic board, board of natural or artificial stone, glass board, board of metal or metal alloys, board of wood, board of wood or wood-iike veneer, fibre cement board, plasterboard and the like.
  • Preferably, the elevation board is constituted by a ceramic board.
  • Preferably, the elevation board has a thickness of 0.1 mm to 10 cm.
  • Preferably, the thickness of the insulating layer is of 4 to 25 cm, more preferably of 8 to 16 cm, and most preferably of 10 to 14 cm.
  • Preferably, in the method according to the invention, a mould whose side walls are covered with a material which does not adhere to the polymerising foam, such as Teflon, Tarflen, is used.
  • Preferably, opening of the mould is supported by an air pulse of a high pressure getting between the walls of the panel and the mould by means of channels formed in the walls of the mould.
  • Preferably, the prepared panels are then subjected to conditioning at a temperature of 10 to 30°C for a period of 2 to 30 hours.
  • The invention relates also to the use of the thermally-insulating composite elevation panel according to the present invention for simultaneous mounting of elevations and thermal insulation of buildings, especially high buildings.
  • An embodiment of the thermally-insulating composite elevation panel according to the present invention is shown in the figure of the drawing, where:
    • in Fig. 1, a thermally-insulating composite elevation panel according to the invention is illustrated in a perspective view;
    • in Fig. 2, the thermally-insulating composite elevation panel according to the invention is illustrated in a sectional view taken along line A-A shown in Fig. 1.
  • A thermally-insulating composite elevation panel according to the invention, shown in the Figures of the drawing, is prepared by a known process of low-pressure pouring, into the mould, of a mixture of raw materials for the formation of plastic polystyrene polyurethane foam. At the bottom of the open mould made of known materials of high strength and rigidity, e.g. of steel or of cast iron, having a shape reflecting the target panel shape, an elevation board is placed. The elevation board can be made of any known elevation materials. They can comprise ceramic boards, boards of natural or artificial stone, of glass, of metals or of wood, and wood or wood-like veneer, fibre cement boards, plasterboards and the like. The thickness and type of board needs to be chosen so that its weight per unit area does not cause stresses exceeding the strength of the thermally insulating foam used, the said strength being obtained upon completing the production process, which could, otherwise, cause damage to the foam, detachment of the elevation board, and its falling off from the panel. Calculation of the maximum thickness of the foam, meeting this condition, is made using known engineering methods. The minimum thickness of the elevation boards used is limited by aesthetic considerations associated with possible showing of the foam through the board layer. Thicknesses of the boards, resulting from this condition, range from 0.1 mm for metal sheets up to 10 mm for fibre cement boards and other lightweight materials. The side walls of the mould are covered with a material not adhering to the polymerising foam, e.g. with Teflon, Tarflen etc. The mould is closed with a board of a high strength, selected, using known design principles, so that it could withstand the pressure of the expanding and polymerising foam. A pre-made metal frame is attached to the surface of the cover. The attaching is made by means of permanent magnets attached in the cover of the mould, or by other known methods. The foam is dispensed from the head of mixing and dispensing machines commonly available on the market. The interior of the mould is pre-heated to a temperature of 10 to 100 degrees Celsius. The thermally insulating foam, while expanding, fills the interior of the mould, and adheres strongly to the elevation board, as well as to the frame thanks to adhesion forces. The foam remains in the mould until the process of polymerisation and curing is completed. The process of polymerisation and curing having been completed, the mould is opened by lifting the cover and moving apart the side walls of the mould. This process is supported by an air pulse of a high pressure getting between the walls of the panel and the mould by means of small channels pre-formed in the walls of the mould. After removing from the mould and cooling down to ambient temperature, the thermally-insulating composite elevation panel is ready for use.
  • The solution proposed by the present inventors is a thermally-insulating composite elevation panel consisting of three elements which fulfil three separate functions. The first element is a metal framework, preferably lightweight and of steel, which is a supporting structure and, at the same time, an element of the system for attaching the panel on the building wall. The second element is elevation boards, such as ceramic boards, boards of natural or artificial stone, of glass, of metals or of wood, and of wood or wood-like veneer, fibre cement boards, plasterboards and the like, preferably ceramic boards, for example such as the boards produced by Italian company Laminam S.P.A. The choice of ceramic boards, as those preferred ones, results from the specific characteristics of this material. The surface of these boards is very hard and resistant to mechanical scratches, and completely chemically passive. These very properties of the ceramic boards make them resistant to atmospheric conditions and allow for easy cleaning (resistance to graffiti). In addition, the ceramic boards of this type are characterised by a close to zero absorbability and thereby by a complete frost resistance. At the same time, they are a great decorative material, with exceptional aesthetic value.
  • The element that unites the metal frame and the elevation boards is the third component - a layer of insulating polystyrene polyurethane foam, PSUR. This material is a composite consisting of two plastic materials: rigid polyurethane foam (PUR) and expanded polystyrene (EPS). It is their physical mixture. In the proposed embodiment, these three components are connected in a single process: as a result of pressing, bonding and simultaneous cross-linking of polyurethane foam and expansion of polystyrene, there is a very durable connection of the elevation board with the system of mechanical slings and with the thermally insulating material, PSUR.
  • Construction of a prototype for the thermally insulating panel by the present inventors confirmed the possibility of integration, in a single process (in a single step), of three different materials, such as steel, ceramic board and insulation material. A key element was the choice of PSUR composite as a material connecting ceramic boards with the system of mechanical slings. This composite is one of very few polymeric materials, which is also a thermally insulating material, a construction material, with very good mechanical properties, and has, at the moment of formation, excellent adhesion properties allowing connection of the composite material into a single whole. Thus, the use of PSUR composite created the possibility to permanently connect a steel supporting framework with a ceramic board in a single process - during the synthesis of polyurethane foam and the expansion of polystyrene granulate. PSUR composite is a much cheaper material than rigid polyurethane foams, which is an equally important fact and very significant for the building materials market.
  • Another advantageous property of the solution proposed by the present inventors, as opposed to the previously described multi-step technologies for making building elevations, is that the use of panels of this type allows the creation of thermally insulated building walls in a single step. The façade of the building is, at the same time, covered with an insulating layer and a ceramic protective layer. Furthermore, mounting of this type of boards can be performed by workers after their general training, using basic construction tools.
  • The proposed solution is therefore unique, so far unheard of among other manufacturers of construction materials. This is a solution thanks to which it will be possible to introduce, for the first time, on the global market of construction materials, a panel simultaneously consisting of a attaching system, an insulating layer and a ceramic board of a small thickness, for example 2 and 3 mm, allowing the creation of everlasting elevations of buildings, with a very attractive appearance and excellent utility parameters.
  • Description of PSUR composite
  • Combining two very different materials into a composite material is always a great unknown for its constructors. As a result of such a combination, it is possible to obtain a material having the disadvantages of its two components but it is also possible to obtain a new material of unusual and particularly valuable properties. It was the case after combining two previously well-known materials: rigid polyurethane foam (PUR) and expanded polystyrene (EPS).
  • EPS (expanded polystyrene) is a cheap insulation material which is very often used in the construction industry. Its key advantages are easy mounting and price of this type of insulation. However, it is not devoid of a number of disadvantages, such as:
    • low resistance to mechanical damages;
    • relatively high operating costs associated with the repair of mechanical damages, with plastering and painting of the elevation;
    • Under the influence of elevated temperatures, EPS boards melt and completely lose their thermal insulation and mechanical properties;
    • EPS boards used in the construction industry are self-extinguishing boards but they are not inflammable, therefore they cannot be used in high buildings;
    • very low resistance to chemical substances, in particular to solvents contained in adhesives;
    • EPS, due to open channels in its structure, is not a completely waterproof material. It is thus vulnerable to the possibility of freezing and freezing out of water condensing in the dew zone.
  • The coefficient of thermal conductivity of EPS depends on density and technology of its production, and varies between 0.032-0.042 W/mK, (Elżbieta Radziszewska-Zielina: Przegl
    Figure imgb0001
    d Budowlany, 4/2009).
  • Rigid polyurethane foam (PUR) does not have all of the disadvantages mentioned for EPS boards. It is an excellent thermal insulation material, also characterized by very good mechanical properties. Its density is similar to EPS, while the thermal conductivity coefficient of PUR is comprised in the range of 0.023 W/mK (closed cells) to 0.035 W/mK (open cell foam). Despite all of these advantages, the use of this material in the construction industry is limited by its price. The cost of boards made of rigid polyurethane foam is several times higher than for analogous boards of expanded polystyrene. It is the cost of this type of insulation that greatly limits its use in housing construction, (Elżbieta Radziszewska-Zielina: Przegl
    Figure imgb0001
    d Budowlany, 4/2009).
  • Composite polymeric material, PSUR, is a combination of two plastic materials, the characteristics of which are described above. It is a new material with special characteristics, which in the future, will be widely used in technologies of insulation and construction materials. This material was developed by Polish company HIT Konsulting, and the process for the preparation of the composite has been applied for patent protection in a series of patent applications ( PL387535 , PL395886 , PL396151 , PL396152 ). Preparation of PSUR consists in simultaneous synthesis and cross-linking of rigid polyurethane foam (two component process) and co-foaming (co-expansion) of polystyrene granulate, used for the production of expanded polystyrene. The thus obtained material is therefore a mixture of two plastic materials, and a composite exhibiting emergent characteristics not present separately in each of the components which constitute the target product. Combination of two so different materials - expanded polystyrene and rigid polyurethane foam, in a single process as described above, allowed creation of a special material combining the unique advantages of rigid polyurethane foam, and significant decrease in its cost, without significantly impairing the properties of the foam.
  • The composite of polyurethane and polystyrene, obtained in the process of simultaneous cross-linking and co-foaming, is an excellent adhesive material, closely adjacent to porous coatings (brick, concrete, natural and artificial stone, ceramics) but also to the metal supporting framework. It is this property of the material, combined with the process of simultaneous pressing at an elevated temperature in the preparation of the composite thermally insulating panel according to the invention, which allows its use as a material bonding the steel system of slings and the ceramic board to each other. In this way, gaps are not formed, which could otherwise be penetrated by rain water or water condensing in conditions of high humidity. Furthermore, the phenomenon of water approaching the gaps, which poses a risk of loosening of elevation tiles, as a result of freezing during the winter season, is not observed.
  • Because rigid polyurethane foam is the matrix of PSUR, this material generally retains its excellent properties: it is mechanically stable, does not crack and does not crumble. At the same time, it has appropriate structural properties allowing the mounting of ceramic elevation boards, not as ventilated façades, but as boards which are bonded and mounted directly on the exterior walls of insulated buildings.
  • PSUR composite is characterised by a low coefficient of moisture absorption. Consequently, any significant diffusion of moisture to the outer insulation layers does not occur. In the winter period, freezing out of water in the closed cells of insulating foam does not occur. As a result, the proposed structure of elevation panel integrated with thermal insulation of PSUR material is not exposed to destructive effects of water being frozen out. Therefore, deterioration of thermal insulation due to water absorption in the insulating layer and possibility of loosening of the outer ceramic layer does not occur.
  • Because PSUR composite material is based on cross-linked polyurethane plastic material, it is also very resistant chemically. This makes it possible to use a variety of very strongly binding industrial adhesives, e.g. at the time of bonding of this material to the building wall or bonding of individual panels to each other during mounting of the elevation.
  • Also, the composite structure of PSUR material results in the material having good parameters for acoustic attenuation. It attenuates sounds much better than single-phase materials, i.e. expanded polystyrene and polyurethane foam. Only mineral wool is better in this area.
  • Although thermally insulating material PSUR is a flammable material in class:
    "fire retardant", panels of this type are of high fire resistance class because their mounting ensures the absence of oxygen reaching the insulating material. Furthermore, the polyurethane matrix, annealing at a temperature above 140°C, does not disintegrate, but forms specific slag which continues to be able to maintain the outer ceramic layer due to its low thickness and therefore also its low weight. This in turn continues to cut off the thermal insulation from oxygen supply and ensures safety during a possible rescue or fire fighting operation.
  • Similarly to the case of polyurethane foams, PSUR composite, due to its mechanical and chemical properties, is resistant to various kinds of microorganisms, fungus and rodents.
  • The basic characteristics of this material are summarised in the following table:
    1. Higher thermal insulation Thermal conductivity of the material, coefficient of heat transfer through the wall. λ = 0.03 W/m K, U = 0.2 W/m2 K
    2. Everlasting durability Resistance to freezing, mechanical, chemical, biological degradation etc. Minimum durability of 50-100 years
    3. Composite structure Extremely good adhesion of PSUR material to all building materials was used, thereby assembling ceramic boards with a layer of PSUR material in the process of expanding PSUR foam in closed moulds. Process for making insulations in buildings was thus industrialised, moving it from the construction site to the factory floor. Its ease of use ensures low costs of mounting. Insulation and elevation board is mounted in a single operation.
    4. Good resistance to fire Lack of oxygen reaching the insulating material. Low weight of the ceramic boards ensures that they remain on the elevation even by means of a thermally degraded material, thereby cutting off of the oxygen is ensured for a long period of time. Fire resistance class: EI 60 (for high buildings)
    5. Very low moisture absorption Material with closed cells, without interphase gaps Low water content ensures not damaging the cells by water being frozen out and condensing in the dew layer. This makes it possible not to use ventilated elevations. µ < 3% (for mineral wool µ > 90%)
    6. Very low weight for large size panels Due to the possibility of using very thin boards, surface density together with weight of the insulation and the mounting system is extremely low. Surface density < 10 kg/m2
    7. High aesthetics In the case of using ceramic boards from LAMINAM company, high purity of quartzites allows obtaining pure colours of laminated boards. Very attractive appearance - "Italian design"
    8. Lower thickness of walls results from good insulation power of PSUR and from not using ventilation gap, composite structure and innovative solutions of the mounting system. Total thickness of the elevation together with its insulation is about 12 cm for energy efficient house
    9. Good acoustic attenuation Composite structure ensures scattering of sound waves at the borders of polyurethane and polystyrene phase. Attenuation > 32 dB
    10 Attractive price Prices of PSUR material, lower than for PUR foam, lower cost of thin ceramic boards, lower costs of mounting result in the possibility of achieving record low prices for performing high-quality, everlasting, energy-efficient elevation. 350 z
    Figure imgb0003
    /m2 - energy-efficient elevation 390 z
    Figure imgb0003
    /m2 - elevation for passive house
  • Description of the thermally insulating panel
  • The present inventors have produced a prototype of the thermally-insulating composite elevation panel. Construction of a suitable mould and production of such a panel was a significant construction and technological challenge, but by doing so it was demonstrated that it is possible to produce, in a single step, a thermally-insulating composite elevation panel, consisting of a system of mechanical slings, an elevation board and a layer of composite thermally insulating material which is, at the same time, a construction and thermally insulating material which bonds individual elements.
  • Particular thermally-insulating elevation panels are attached to building walls by means of expansion bolts. Structure of the system of mechanical slings allows position adjustments of individual panels relative to the wall and relative to consecutive elements of the elevation. The individual elements of the façade - thermally-insulating elevation panels are not bonded to each other but only connected by scarf joint - successive panels overlap one another. Between the building wall and the rear wall of the panel, a gap of 1 cm is maintained, which can be filled with a light polyurethane foam. Such a solution allows arranging the thermally-insulating elevation panels on the building with an uneven wall surface and prevents formation of thermal bridges at the joints of individual boards.
  • To prevent water intrusion in between the elevation elements and to retain a very attractive appearance of the thus formed elevation, in the proposed solution, welds between individual boards of the elevation panels are grouted and sealed with suitable adhesive masses.
  • Bilateral sealing of PSUR insulating layer, by means of polyurethane foam from the inside and by means of adhesive mass between the individual elevation boards, results in this material not having any contact with oxygen of the air. Thereby, slow degradation of organic material, such as PSUR, is not possible, which could occur over many years of exploitation. This makes the use of this type of panels and the described method of their mounting allow performing of everlasting building elevations.
  • The presented structure of the thermally-insulating elevation panels and the method of their mounting as an elevation on building walls have also a number of additional advantages:
    • quick and easy mounting of ready thermally-insulating elevation panels;
    • possibility to perform the elevation by personnel with only general training and basic construction tools;
    • structure of the system of mechanical slings and the use of a system of tabs allow easy levelling and shifting of individual panels relative to each other so as to be able to adapt the thus performed elevation to variable dimensions of building walls;
    • individual thermally-insulating elevation panels in the proposed attaching system are connected mechanically to the building wall and to each other, so there is not any possibility of separation or even falling off of individual elements of the building elevation;
    • the system of mechanical slings hidden behind the thermal insulation prevents formation of thermal bridges;
    • a layer of PSUR thermally insulating material of 10-14 cm, and especially of 12 cm corresponds to a layer of expanded polystyrene of about 15-20 cm used in energy-efficient houses;
    • lower vapour permeability as compared to traditionally performed elevations.
    Advantageous effects of the invention
  1. 1. High thermal insulation: energy savings and lower costs for the heating of facilities.
  2. 2. Everlasting durability: longer periods of exploitation (without any need for repairs), greater resistance to atmospheric conditions, mechanical and biological damages, easy maintenance, fire resistance higher than in expanded polystyrene boards and the related possibility of using it on the walls of high buildings.
  3. 3. Composite structure: easy mounting, reduction of time and costs of mounting, economic efficiency of transport, industrialisation of the production process of insulation (no risk of insufficient insulation due to craft nature of its preparation at the construction site: lack of supervision, bad atmospheric conditions, lack of skilled workers, i.e. insulation fitters).
  4. 4. Very low moisture absorption: increase in the durability of the building by avoiding of insulation degradation and spalling or detachment of elevation boards due to freezing and freezing out of water condensing in the dew zone and longer period of exploitation.
  5. 5. Reduction in wall thickness: elimination of air void/gap necessary in ventilated elevations, possibility to manufacture much thinner insulated walls, consequently improving aesthetics of architecture due to reduced window recess, possibility of obtaining a larger effective area of the facility in its outline.
  6. 6. Very low weight for large size panels: reduction in the loading of the walls, increase in the safety both during the mounting and exploitation, increase in the safety in case of fire or earthquakes and landslides, lower transport costs.
  7. 7. High aesthetics: possibility to create unlimited patterns and colours of façades, possibility to use insulating panels of large sizes, desired on the market, possibility of achieving the effect of modern elevation resistance to dirt and graffiti.
  8. 8. Attractive price: possibility of reducing the cost of the highest quality everlasting elevation while maintaining high aesthetics and excellent thermal insulation properties.
  • An example of the thermally-insulating composite elevation panel according to the present invention is shown in Fig. 1 and in Fig. 2. The panel consists of a ceramic elevation board 1 having a thickness of 3 mm, a width of 50 cm and a height of 150 cm, a steel frame 3 having a structure shown in Fig. 1 and in Fig. 2, which are connected to each other by means a bonding layer of foamed PSUR material 3 having a thickness of 12 cm. This panel was prepared as follows:
    At the bottom of the open steel mould, Laminam ceramic board 1 of the above dimensions was placed. Side walls of the mould were coated with Teflon. The mould was closed with a cover having a high strength, to the surface of which a pre-formed steel frame, shown in Fig. 2, was mounted by means of permanent magnets. Then, the foam was dispensed from the head of a mixing and dispensing machine. The interior of the mould was pre-heated to a temperature of about 50 degrees Celsius. The thermally insulating foam, while expanding, filled the interior of the mould, and adhered strongly to the ceramic board, as well as to the steel frame thanks to adhesion forces. The foam was left in the mould until the process of polymerisation and curing was completed. The process of polymerisation and curing having been completed, the mould was opened by lifting the cover and moving apart the side walls of the mould. This process was supported by an air pulse of a high pressure getting between the walls of the panel and the mould by means of small channels pre-formed in the walls of the mould. After removing from the mould and cooling down to ambient temperature, the thermally-insulating composite elevation panel was ready for use.
  • The obtained thermally-insulating composite elevation panel was subjected to flammability tests according to standard procedure of Building Research Institute, Warsaw.
  • The object of the test was an elevation panel made of Laminam board integrated with an insulation made of PSUR material. Dimensions:
    Laminam board: 1500 x 500 x 3 mm
    PSUR insulation: 1510 x 510 x 120 mm
  • The test stand imitated a window with the test panel placed above the window. The flammability test imitated a natural fire inside a building, near the window. It was assumed that burning time will be 30 minutes which is sufficient to obtain a certificate allowing for use in the construction industry. The fire was produced by burning a measured amount of wood so as to obtain an energy pulse, provided for by the procedure, and a predetermined amount of heat. Dry birch wood was used for burning. During burning, it turned out that this amount of wood was not sufficient to sustain the fire throughout the testing period. For this reason, an additional portion of wood was added after 15 minutes, and then yet another portion after 30 minutes of the test. Rear wall and side walls of the panel were insulated with mineral wool to prevent direct burning of PSUR insulating material. The outside temperature was about 10°C.
  • Conbest pyrometer, testo 845 model, was used for measuring temperature. Thermographic cameras, V20 and V50 models, used for low and high temperature measurements were used to study the temperature distribution. Course of the process was documented with photographic images and filmed.
  • Due to its excellent fire resistance, time of the test was extended to 50 minutes. The recorded thermograms reflected temperature distribution on the surface of the panel tested. The rear side of the panel did not show any significant increase in temperature which reached a maximum of about 20°C. The maximum temperature was obtained at the lower edge of the board and it reached 485.2°C.
  • After the test, the panel was cut along its centre line. The fire did not spread to the inside of the panel, only an outer layer of PSUR material charred, which however did not lead to destruction of the panel, loosening of the metal frame and separation of the outer layer of the elevation. Though a high temperature gradient caused rupture of the surface of the ceramic board, falling off of any fragments thereof from the panel was not observed, due to its strong adhesion to the insulating material.
  • The panel tested withstood 45 minute burning test. Any fire spreading was not observed. Any fragments of the laminam board did not fall off from the panel. Any loosening of the steel frame was not observed. Partly burnt rear surface of the panel was the result of poor thermal insulation of the rear surface. When attached to the wall of the building, this effect did not appear due to lack of contact with open fire.
  • From the viewpoint of fire resistance, the greatest danger is posed by high temperature gradients which lead to cracking of the surface of the ceramic board. Gaps formed at that time provide air access to the insulating material. Nevertheless, due to the very low mass of laminam tiles, these tiles remain adhered to the slag produced by partial burning of PSUR material. For this reason, supply of oxygen is limited and further burning of the insulating material is not possible. This protects the entire structure of the elevation against the spread of fire and allows use of thermally insulating panels for covering high buildings.
  • Claims (10)

    1. A thermally-insulating composite elevation panel, characterised in that it comprises an elevation board (1) and a frame (3) for supporting and attaching the panel to a building wall, preferably a metal one, which are permanently connected to each other through an insulating layer (2) between them, the insulating layer being constituted by a plastic foam which, during its foaming process, permanently connects the elevation panel (1) with the frame (3), wherein the plastic foam is composed of a polystyrene polyurethane foam, PSUR, wherein PSUR is a composite material composed of a mixture of two plastic materials: rigid polyurethane foam (PUR) and expanded polystyrene (EPS).
    2. The thermally-insulating composite elevation panel according to claim 1, characterised in that the elevation board (1) is selected from the group comprising ceramic board, board of natural or artificial stone, glass board, board of metal or metal alloys, board of wood, board of wood or wood-like veneer, fibre cement board, plasterboard and the like.
    3. The thermally-insulating composite elevation panel according to claim 1 or 2, characterised in that the elevation board (1) is constituted by a ceramic board.
    4. The thermally-insulating composite elevation panel according to claim 1 or 2, or 3, characterised in that the elevation board (1) has a thickness of 0.1 mm to 10 cm.
    5. The thermally-insulating composite elevation panel according to any one of claims 1-4, characterised in that the thickness of the insulating layer (2) is of 4 to 25 cm, preferably of 8 to 16 cm, and most preferably of 10 to 14 cm.
    6. A method of preparing the thermally-insulating composite elevation panel, characterised in that it comprises steps in which:
      - at the bottom of an open mould, pre-heated to a temperature of 10 to 100°C, the elevation board (1) is placed,
      - the mould is closed with a board of high strength, to the surface of which a pre-formed frame (3) for supporting and attaching the panel to a building wall is mounted,
      - then a plastic foam is dispensed to the mould, then the foam, while expanding, fills the interior of the mould and is left in the mould until the process of polymerisation and curing is completed, wherein the plastic foam is composed of a polystyrene polyurethane foam, PSUR, wherein PSUR is a composite material composed of a mixture of two plastic materials: rigid polyurethane foam (PUR) and expanded polystyrene (EPS),
      - the process of polymerisation and curing having been completed, the mould is opened by lifting the cover and moving apart the side walls of the mould.
    7. The method according to claim 6, characterised in that a mould whose side walls are covered with a material which does not adhere to the polymerising foam, such as Teflon, Tarflen, is used.
    8. The method according to claim 6 or 7, characterised in that opening of the mould is supported by an air pulse of a high pressure getting between the walls of the panel and the mould by means of channels formed in the walls of the mould.
      (amended claims: 27th March 2017)
    9. The method according to claim 6 or 7, or 8, characterised in that the panels prepared are then subjected to conditioning at a temperature of 10 to 30 °C for a period of 2 to 30 hours.
    10. The use of the thermally-insulating composite elevation panel according to any one of claims 1 to 5 for simultaneous mounting of elevations and thermal insulation of buildings, especially high buildings.
    EP14827539.9A 2013-12-03 2014-12-02 A thermally-insulating composite elevation panel, a method of its preparation and a use of the thermally-insulating composite elevation panel Active EP3077603B1 (en)

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    PL406346A PL230119B1 (en) 2013-12-03 2013-12-03 Composite facade insulating cladding, method for producing it and application of the composite facade insulating cladding
    PCT/IB2014/066528 WO2015083084A1 (en) 2013-12-03 2014-12-02 A thermally-insulating composite elevation panel, a method of its preparation and a use of the thermally-insulating composite elevation panel

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    CN107401264B (en) * 2016-05-20 2019-02-12 刘友柱 A kind of production technology of lightweight SGA green wallboard
    CN107401263B (en) * 2016-05-20 2019-06-21 广东粤鲁湘环保装饰材料有限公司 A kind of production technology of lightweight SGA green 3D effect wallboard
    RU182307U1 (en) * 2017-12-28 2018-08-14 Закрытое акционерное общество "ПЦЦ РЕЙЛ" COMBINED BUILDING PANEL
    DE202018106673U1 (en) 2018-11-23 2018-12-19 LifeRock Verwaltungs- und Beteiligungs GmbH Fire resistant multilayer panel
    RU196925U1 (en) * 2019-12-04 2020-03-20 федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего образования "Брянский государственный инженерно-технологический университет" Front facing tiles with photocatalytic effect

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