The invention relates to a building system, in particular for residential and working purposes, according to the preamble of claim 1.
Buildings for living and working purposes are available in multiple versions and different floor plans. By default, most buildings use rectangular, square, or L-shaped floor plans. In addition, polygonal floor plans, in particular six- or octagonal and round floor plans, are known. Polygonal floor plans are especially known for wooden houses, garden sheds or trade fair buildings. However, six- or octagonal buildings are not widely used, since, especially in small buildings, a disadvantage is that the interior layout and furnishing difficulties. In particular, the roof structure is complicated with conical roofs and a multi-storey structure is difficult.
While most buildings are built in traditional stone construction, many buildings and industrial buildings are also assembled from factory-made prefabricated elements, so that the construction can be done easily and quickly. Nevertheless, their purpose is regularly in a continuous use.
For certain purposes, eg. As for the temporary housing of people in disaster areas or for temporary reception of non-sedentary people, often simple and inexpensive housing units are needed, which must be built quickly, are inexpensive to produce, are composed of simple elements, are again dismantled, suitable for families, but at the same time Residential claims that go beyond emergency shelters, as they are known in particular from container settlements with their disadvantages.
The invention is therefore based on the object, a corresponding building system, in particular for residential and working purposes, specify that can be constructed easily and wiederzerlegbar that can be built from largely standardized elements that is easy to build and also meets high standards.
This object is achieved by the invention defined in claim 1. Advantageous developments of the invention are specified in subclaims.
The building system specified in claim 1 contains exterior and interior wall elements erected on a floor slab, the floor slab being arranged on point or line foundations with a small vertical distance to the terrain, a ceiling slab similar to the floor slab being parallel to the floor slab. It is a building system that is designed as a flat roof building with parallel floor and ceiling panels. The bottom plate rests on a point or line foundation so that it does not rest directly on the ground. Thus, no major tillage is required to build the building system.
According to the characterizing features of claim 1, the building has a hexagonal floor plan with a central floor element, in which connect radially to the central floor element trapezoidal or triangular, isosceles floor outer elements whose respective longer base sides receive an outer wall element. The central floor element is supported by one or more point foundations and the floor edge elements are mounted on a ring beam. The ceiling plate is supported by a central support mounted on the central floor element.
A hexagonal floor plan has the particular advantage that several similar buildings can be placed honeycomb together, with only 1/6 of the side wall surface has a common wall to adjacent similar building when the buildings abut directly. A hexagonal structure thus offers the possibility of constructing a looser settlement structure in a variable arrangement, which also offers particular advantages if a high residential density of the residents is to be achieved.
The bottom plate of the housing includes a central floor element, on which a central support is mounted, the support of the central ceiling element of the ceiling plate serves. This allows the free diameter of the ceiling to be halved, which considerably reduces the static requirements for the ceiling. Between the central floor element or central ceiling element and the outer wall of the building, there are preferably six trapezoidal or triangular isosceles floor outer elements, whose respective longer base sides are connected to an outer wall element.
Preferably, the bottom outer elements each consist of two mirror-inverted arranged trapezoidal rectangular bottom edge elements, whereby both the bottom plate and the top plate are formed from twelve identical bottom edge elements. All bottom edge elements can be designed identically, so that their production costs can be greatly simplified.
To support the central floor element with respect to the floor, the central floor element is supported by one or more point foundations. The floor outer elements are stored on a ring beam, which in turn is supported by point or line foundations with a vertical distance to the terrain.
Preferably, the ring beam superimposes the floor outer members between the outer wall and the central floor member in a radial range of about 1/2 to 2/3 of the distance from the center of the building to the outer wall. The exact place of storage of the ring beam can be determined by static calculation so that the central base plate is loaded as evenly as possible.
The foundations used for the storage of the ring beam are preferably made of point foundations, which store the ring beams in each case in the region of the edge sides of the bottom edge elements. As a result, the ring foundations support each on the supporting edge structure.
The point foundations are preferably designed as Schraubfundamente so that they can be easily screwed into the terrain with appropriate equipment. Alternatively or on unsuitable ground, z. B. rocky ground, can However, the foundations may also be designed as concrete foundations, which may be arranged either point-like or form a circumferential line foundation.
For easy connection with each other, the bottom edge elements are preferably connected to each other via releasable bolt lock. The connection of the bottom edge elements with the central floor element or the ceiling edge elements with the central ceiling element also preferably takes place via releasable bolt latch. Such bolts can already be factory-set in the bottom edge elements, so that the connection with each other and with the central floor and ceiling elements can be made with a few simple steps. With appropriate bolts bolts can also be the connection between the bottom edge elements and the outer wall elements and produce with the foundations.
The central floor and / or ceiling element can be designed either as a hexagonal plate element provided with a border, on the outer edges of which the respective shorter base sides of the trapezoidally shaped bottom outer elements join. Alternatively, the central floor and / or ceiling elements may be formed as a support plate, in particular as a steel plate, on which the shorter base sides or the ends of the base outer elements directed towards the center support are mounted and fastened thereto. This results in a radial floor surface without interruption in the radial direction of the building.
The building can be single or multi-storey, in particular two-storey, be formed, each floor ceiling is formed of a central ceiling panel and ceiling edge elements, which are similar to the central bottom plate and the bottom edge elements. Between the floors a central central support is provided in each case. In this embodiment, the bottom plate can therefore be formed in the same way as the ceiling plate and parallel thereto.
Several building systems of the type claimed can be combined to form a building arrangement, in each of which an outside of a building system is directed to an adjacent building system, so that these buildings form a unit according to Art form a terraced house with each other or are connected to each other with open walls. In a preferred manner, a plurality of building systems can also be connected to one another in such a way that these building systems are coupled via a terrace arrangement, wherein the terrace arrangement is likewise hexagonal in shape and thus enables a simple connection of corresponding building systems.
The invention will be explained in more detail below with reference to an embodiment. Show it:
- Fig. 1
- a single storey hexagonal building with adjoining terrace,
- Fig. 2
- a two-storey building with adjoining terrace,
- Fig. 3
- a single storey building according to Fig. 1 in an oblique bottom view,
- Fig. 4
- a sectional view through a single-storey building with adjoining terrace,
- Fig. 5
- a floor plan of a building,
- Fig. 6
- a foundation in side view with supported ring beams,
- Fig. 7
- a foundation with supported ring beams in 90 ° opposite Fig. 6 rotated side view,
- Fig. 8
- a central floor element in plan view,
- Fig. 9
- a bottom edge element in plan view,
- Fig. 10
- a central floor element, a central support and a central ceiling element in side view,
- Fig. 11
- a beam shoe in plan view,
- Fig. 12
- an outer wall element in plan view,
- Fig. 13
- an outer wall element in side view,
- Fig. 14
- a bolt bolt connection for connecting ground edge elements,
- Fig. 15
- a bolt lock for locking with a foundation or an outer wall element, and
- Fig. 16
- a plug-in connection.
A built according to the invention single storey building is in Fig. 1 shown. The building 1 has a hexagonal floor plan, which in this example is provided with windows 3, 4 and a door 6. The roof 5 is formed as a flat roof. In front of the building is a terrace 2 pre-built, via the stairs 7 access to the building 1 takes place. If there is no terrace, access can also be made via the stairs directly at the front door. The terrace 2 may also be formed hexagonal and is provided with wood panels or other flooring. The terrace is bordered by plant baskets 9 edge. Both the building 1 and the terrace 2 are mounted on foundations 8 and 10, which are designed as Schraubfundamente or concrete foundations.
Fig. 2 shows a building accordingly Fig. 1 , which is however formed double-storey. Again, the roof 5 is formed as a flat roof. Ground floor 12 and upper floor 11 are designed essentially the same. Here, too, follows the access via the stairs 7 and the terrace 2. Here it is clear that the terrace 2 is supported on the foundations 10.
Fig. 3 shows an oblique bottom view of the building Fig. 1 , Here it can be seen that the building with a variety of foundations 8 is anchored to the ground. The terrace is supported by the foundations 10. Both foundations 8 and foundations 10 are screw foundations. In the Fig. 3 is also shown that the foundations do not store the building at the edge, but at a certain distance from the outer edge of the building. The connecting area between the foundations 8 and the building underside is covered by a pillar garnish 13. The bottom plate of the housing is in this way not directly on the ground, but has a distance from the ground, which is about 20 - 50 cm or more, depending on the statics, but not more than at the height of a house, so that the ground itself is not equalize, but only the Schraubfundamente are anchored in the ground. Therefore, such a building can be set up without much tillage even on uneven terrain. In rocky terrain, concrete foundations, tub foundations or line foundations can be used instead of screw foundations.
Fig. 4 shows a sectional view through a single storey building with attached terrace. The building is supported via a ring beam 14 on the foundations 8. In the center of the building is a central support 23, which is itself mounted on one or more foundations and supports both the center of the bottom plate and the center of the roof 5. The bottom plate is formed by a central bottom element 15 and bottom edge elements 16 and 17. On the outside, the building is formed by an outer wall element 20 with an insulating facade 28 and a facade cladding 29.
Fig. 5 shows a floor plan of the building. In the center of the central floor element 15 is arranged, in the middle of the central support 23 is mounted. Trapezoidal isosceles ground outer elements each adjoin the outer edge of the central floor element 15, each being composed of two mirror-symmetrically arranged trapezoidal and rectangular bottom edge elements 16, 17. The bottom outer elements are formed isosceles, wherein they have a shorter base side 19, which adjoin an edge side of the central bottom element, and have a longer base side 18, which receives an outer wall element 20 each. The central floor element 15 is connected to the bottom edge elements 16, 17 via bolt latch 24. The bottom edge elements 16 and 17 are mutually bolt bolt 26 coupled. The bottom outer elements are connected to each other via bolt latches 25. The bottom outer elements are also connected via the bolt latch 27 with the outer wall elements 20.
Fig. 5 also shows the arrangement of the ring beam 21, which extends approximately in the range of 1/2 - 2/3 of the radius of the building to the outer wall elements below the bottom plate. The interior of the building has interior walls 22, which can be variably designed and arranged and are fastened in particular via rail or clamping systems on the floor and ceiling.
Fig. 6 shows the formation of a point foundation in side view with supported ring beams. The point foundation 8 is designed as a threaded rod 30, which can be screwed into the ground via a suitable screwing device and is substantially flush with the upper edge of the terrain. At the top of the foundation 8 a round tube for forming a spacer 31 is arranged, which contains a perforated plate 32 for a support 33 on the upper side. Over the length of this support, the vertical distance to the ground can be adjusted. At the top there is another perforated plate 34 for connection to various floor elements. On a support member 35, a vertically directed mandrel is arranged, on which the ring beam 14 can be placed.
Fig. 7 shows a foundation 8 with accumulated ring beam 14 in side view. The ring beam 14 includes on its outside slightly inwardly inclined holes into which a bolt of the support cover 13 can be inserted. The support cladding 13 can thus be suspended in a simple manner in the ring beam 14.
This in Fig. 8 shown central floor element 15 includes at the edge a number of receiving plates 40 for connection to the bottom edge elements. Further, a plurality of T-plates 41 are arranged on the edge of the central bottom element 15, which engage in insertion plates, which are arranged on the edge side of the bottom edge elements.
In the center of the central floor element, a beam shoe 36 is attached, which serves to receive the central support 23. The beam shoe 36 is located on a cross-shaped support frame 37 of the central floor element 15. Between support frame 37 and the edge of the central floor element a Gefachdämmung 38 is provided. The cover of Gefachdämmung via a cover formwork 39th
Fig. 9 shows a plan view of a bottom edge element. The support frame 45 includes on the outside a series of T-plates 43 for horizontal locking with adjacent plates. A series of stud bolts 24, 26 and 27 are also disposed on the support frame 45 to lock the bottom edge members to adjacent bottom edge members, an outer wall member, and the perforated panels of the foundations. At the points where bolt bolts are provided in a bottom wall plate, receptacles 42 are arranged at the opposite points of an adjacent bottom wall element. The T-plates 43 engage in slide-in plates 44 on an adjacent bottom edge element.
Fig. 10 shows the central floor element, the central support and the central ceiling element in side view. In the center of the floor element are an upper beam shoe 46 and a lower beam shoe 47. The lower beam shoe 47 is used for attachment to the support 33, while the upper beam shoe 46 receives the central support 23. On the outside of the central floor element are a plurality of T-plates 41, which engage in insertion plates 44 of the shorter base sides 19 of the bottom outer elements. The center support is received in the upper beam shoe 46 and the ceiling beam shoe 48. Again, a number of T-plates 51 are arranged on the outer edge of the central ceiling element, which engage in receptacles on the edge of the ceiling edge elements, which are to be connected to the central cover element. For bolt locking with the ceiling edge elements receiving plates 50 are provided.
Fig. 11 shows a plan view of a bottom beam shoe 46 for receiving the center support 23rd
Fig. 12 shows an outer wall element in a plan view. It consists essentially of an inner formwork 53, a Gefachdämmung 56 and outer formwork 52nd Stirnseite sind im Change plug-in plates or T-plates 58 provided for connection to adjacent outer wall elements. For the tight connection of two outer wall elements with each other, the abutting end faces contain a double rebated panel joint 59. Such double rebated joints are also provided on the floor and ceiling panels. Windows 57 or doors are installed in the usual way in the outer wall element.
Fig. 13 shows a side view of the outer wall element. At the top of a perforated plate 54 is arranged for a bolt latch to connect the outer wall member with the ceiling plate. Accordingly, located at the bottom of the outer wall member a perforated plate 55 for connection to the bottom plate by means of Bolzenriegeln. The connection of outer wall elements with each other via plug-in plates 60th
The Fig. 14 shows a bolt bolt connection in plan view and side view of the connection z. B. two bottom edge elements. The bolt bolt 62 is designed as a sliding bolt and includes an operating lever which is pivotable through 90 °. The bolt latch 62 runs on a plate 64 and engages in a receptacle 61 of a vertical leg of a plate 63 a. The locking takes place by simply pulling or pulling back and pivoting the bolt bolt 62nd
In Fig. 15 a bolt latch connection between a plate 64 and an outer wall element is shown. This attached to the outer wall member plate 65 has a right angle protruding therefrom mounting plate 66. The perforated plates 54 and 55 projecting at right angles to the outer wall element engage in the gap of the mounting plate 66 and are fixed there with the bolt bolt 62.
Finally shows Fig. 16
the connection of a plug-in plate 68 and a T-plate 67. The T-plate 67 is dovetail-shaped and engages in the recess 69 of the insertion plate 68 a. The connection is made by mutual vertical displacement of provided with such T-plates and slide plates floor or ceiling panels reference numeral
1 building 31 spacer
2 terrace 32 perforated plate
3 window 33 support
4 window 34 perforated plate
5 top, roof 35 Support element
6 door 36 joist hanger
7 stairway 37 supporting frame
8th foundation 38 cavity insulation
9 plant baskets 39 deck formwork
10 foundation 40 mounting plate
11 upstairs 41 T-plate
12 ground floor 42 admission
13 column cladding 43 T-plate
14 ring beam 44 insert plate
15 central floor element 45 supporting frame
16 Bottom edge element 46 upper beam shoe
17 Bottom edge element 47 lower beam shoe
18 longer base page 48 Ceiling joist hanger
19 shorter base page 49 central ceiling element
20 Outer wall element 50 admission
21 ring beam 51 T-plate
22 inner wall 52 external formwork
23 center support 53 inner formwork
24 bar bolt 54 perforated plate
25 bar bolt 55 perforated plate
26 bar bolt 56 insulation
27 bar bolt 57 window
28 Dämmfassade 58 T-plate
29 façade 59 double fold
30 thread 60 insert plate
61 admission 66 mounting plate
62 bar bolt 67 T-plate
63 plate 68 insert plate
64 plate 69 recess