EP3027450A1 - Hybrid drive of a motor vehicle and method for controlling same - Google Patents

Hybrid drive of a motor vehicle and method for controlling same

Info

Publication number
EP3027450A1
EP3027450A1 EP14734462.6A EP14734462A EP3027450A1 EP 3027450 A1 EP3027450 A1 EP 3027450A1 EP 14734462 A EP14734462 A EP 14734462A EP 3027450 A1 EP3027450 A1 EP 3027450A1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
gear
superposition
switching
drive
electric machine
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
EP14734462.6A
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Johannes Kaltenbach
Michael Roske
Uwe Griesmeier
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
ZF Friedrichshafen AG
Original Assignee
ZF Friedrichshafen AG
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE102013215114.4A priority Critical patent/DE102013215114A1/en
Application filed by ZF Friedrichshafen AG filed Critical ZF Friedrichshafen AG
Priority to PCT/EP2014/063794 priority patent/WO2015014555A1/en
Publication of EP3027450A1 publication Critical patent/EP3027450A1/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

Links

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K6/00Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00
    • B60K6/20Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs
    • B60K6/22Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs characterised by apparatus, components or means specially adapted for HEVs
    • B60K6/36Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs characterised by apparatus, components or means specially adapted for HEVs characterised by the transmission gearings
    • B60K6/365Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs characterised by apparatus, components or means specially adapted for HEVs characterised by the transmission gearings with the gears having orbital motion
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K6/00Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00
    • B60K6/20Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs
    • B60K6/22Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs characterised by apparatus, components or means specially adapted for HEVs
    • B60K6/38Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs characterised by apparatus, components or means specially adapted for HEVs characterised by the driveline clutches
    • B60K6/387Actuated clutches, i.e. clutches engaged or disengaged by electric, hydraulic or mechanical actuating means
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K6/00Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00
    • B60K6/20Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs
    • B60K6/22Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs characterised by apparatus, components or means specially adapted for HEVs
    • B60K6/40Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs characterised by apparatus, components or means specially adapted for HEVs characterised by the assembly or relative disposition of components
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K6/00Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00
    • B60K6/20Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs
    • B60K6/42Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs characterised by the architecture of the hybrid electric vehicle
    • B60K6/48Parallel type
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K6/00Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00
    • B60K6/20Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs
    • B60K6/50Architecture of the driveline characterised by arrangement or kind of transmission units
    • B60K6/54Transmission for changing ratio
    • B60K6/547Transmission for changing ratio the transmission being a stepped gearing
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
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    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W10/00Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function
    • B60W10/02Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function including control of driveline clutches
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
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    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W10/00Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function
    • B60W10/04Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function including control of propulsion units
    • B60W10/06Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function including control of propulsion units including control of combustion engines
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
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    • B60W10/00Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function
    • B60W10/04Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function including control of propulsion units
    • B60W10/08Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function including control of propulsion units including control of electric propulsion units, e.g. motors or generators
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W20/00Control systems specially adapted for hybrid vehicles
    • B60W20/40Controlling the engagement or disengagement of prime movers, e.g. for transition between prime movers
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16HGEARING
    • F16H3/00Toothed gearings for conveying rotary motion with variable gear ratio or for reversing rotary motion
    • F16H3/02Toothed gearings for conveying rotary motion with variable gear ratio or for reversing rotary motion without gears having orbital motion
    • F16H3/08Toothed gearings for conveying rotary motion with variable gear ratio or for reversing rotary motion without gears having orbital motion exclusively or essentially with continuously meshing gears, that can be disengaged from their shafts
    • F16H3/087Toothed gearings for conveying rotary motion with variable gear ratio or for reversing rotary motion without gears having orbital motion exclusively or essentially with continuously meshing gears, that can be disengaged from their shafts characterised by the disposition of the gears
    • F16H3/091Toothed gearings for conveying rotary motion with variable gear ratio or for reversing rotary motion without gears having orbital motion exclusively or essentially with continuously meshing gears, that can be disengaged from their shafts characterised by the disposition of the gears including a single countershaft
    • F16H3/0915Toothed gearings for conveying rotary motion with variable gear ratio or for reversing rotary motion without gears having orbital motion exclusively or essentially with continuously meshing gears, that can be disengaged from their shafts characterised by the disposition of the gears including a single countershaft with coaxial input and output shafts
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16HGEARING
    • F16H3/00Toothed gearings for conveying rotary motion with variable gear ratio or for reversing rotary motion
    • F16H3/02Toothed gearings for conveying rotary motion with variable gear ratio or for reversing rotary motion without gears having orbital motion
    • F16H3/08Toothed gearings for conveying rotary motion with variable gear ratio or for reversing rotary motion without gears having orbital motion exclusively or essentially with continuously meshing gears, that can be disengaged from their shafts
    • F16H3/087Toothed gearings for conveying rotary motion with variable gear ratio or for reversing rotary motion without gears having orbital motion exclusively or essentially with continuously meshing gears, that can be disengaged from their shafts characterised by the disposition of the gears
    • F16H3/093Toothed gearings for conveying rotary motion with variable gear ratio or for reversing rotary motion without gears having orbital motion exclusively or essentially with continuously meshing gears, that can be disengaged from their shafts characterised by the disposition of the gears with two or more countershafts
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
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    • F16H3/44Toothed gearings for conveying rotary motion with variable gear ratio or for reversing rotary motion using gears having orbital motion
    • F16H3/72Toothed gearings for conveying rotary motion with variable gear ratio or for reversing rotary motion using gears having orbital motion with a secondary drive, e.g. regulating motor, in order to vary speed continuously
    • F16H3/724Toothed gearings for conveying rotary motion with variable gear ratio or for reversing rotary motion using gears having orbital motion with a secondary drive, e.g. regulating motor, in order to vary speed continuously using external powered electric machines
    • F16H3/725Toothed gearings for conveying rotary motion with variable gear ratio or for reversing rotary motion using gears having orbital motion with a secondary drive, e.g. regulating motor, in order to vary speed continuously using external powered electric machines with means to change ratio in the mechanical gearing
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    • B60K6/00Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00
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    • F16H3/087Toothed gearings for conveying rotary motion with variable gear ratio or for reversing rotary motion without gears having orbital motion exclusively or essentially with continuously meshing gears, that can be disengaged from their shafts characterised by the disposition of the gears
    • F16H3/093Toothed gearings for conveying rotary motion with variable gear ratio or for reversing rotary motion without gears having orbital motion exclusively or essentially with continuously meshing gears, that can be disengaged from their shafts characterised by the disposition of the gears with two or more countershafts
    • F16H2003/0931Toothed gearings for conveying rotary motion with variable gear ratio or for reversing rotary motion without gears having orbital motion exclusively or essentially with continuously meshing gears, that can be disengaged from their shafts characterised by the disposition of the gears with two or more countershafts each countershaft having an output gear meshing with a single common gear on the output shaft
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
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    • F16H2200/0043Transmissions for multiple ratios characterised by the number of forward speeds the gear ratios comprising four forward speeds
    • Y02T10/6221
    • Y02T10/626
    • Y02T10/6286
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S903/00Hybrid electric vehicles, HEVS
    • Y10S903/902Prime movers comprising electrical and internal combustion motors
    • Y10S903/903Prime movers comprising electrical and internal combustion motors having energy storing means, e.g. battery, capacitor
    • Y10S903/904Component specially adapted for hev
    • Y10S903/909Gearing
    • Y10S903/91Orbital, e.g. planetary gears
    • Y10S903/911Orbital, e.g. planetary gears with two or more gear sets
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S903/00Hybrid electric vehicles, HEVS
    • Y10S903/902Prime movers comprising electrical and internal combustion motors
    • Y10S903/903Prime movers comprising electrical and internal combustion motors having energy storing means, e.g. battery, capacitor
    • Y10S903/904Component specially adapted for hev
    • Y10S903/912Drive line clutch
    • Y10S903/914Actuated, e.g. engaged or disengaged by electrical, hydraulic or mechanical means
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S903/00Hybrid electric vehicles, HEVS
    • Y10S903/902Prime movers comprising electrical and internal combustion motors
    • Y10S903/903Prime movers comprising electrical and internal combustion motors having energy storing means, e.g. battery, capacitor
    • Y10S903/951Assembly or relative location of components

Abstract

The invention relates to a hybrid drive (1.1 - 1.10) of a motor vehicle, which hybrid drive comprises: an internal combustion engine (VM) having a drive shaft (2); an electrical machine (EM), which can be operated as a motor and as a generator and which has a rotor (3); an automated manual transmission (4.1 - 4.6), which has a countershaft design and comprises an input shaft (GE) and at least one output shaft (GA; GA1, GA2); and a superposition transmission (5.1, 5.2), which has a planetary design and comprises two input elements (6, 7) and an output element (8). For said hybrid drive, it is provided that the superposition transmission is arranged coaxially over a free end (9, 9') of the output shaft (GA; GA2), that the first input element (6) of the superposition transmission is connected in a rotationally fixed manner to a hollow shaft (10) arranged coaxially over the output shaft, which hollow shaft can be connected in a rotationally fixed manner to an idler gear (11, 12) of the immediately axially adjacent spur gear stage (Z2, Z3) of the manual transmission by means of a coupling shift element (K) in order to couple the internal combustion engine (VM) and can be connected in a rotationally fixed manner to the second input element (7) or the output element (8) of the superposition transmission by means of a bridging shift element (L, L') in order to bridge the superposition transmission, that the second input element (7) of the superposition transmission has a permanent drive connection to the rotor (3) of the electric machine (EM), and that the output element (8) of the superposition transmission is connected in a rotationally fixed manner to the superposition transmission.

Description

 HYBRID DRIVE OF A MOTOR VEHICLE AND METHOD FOR CONTROLLING THEREOF

The invention relates to a hybrid drive of a motor vehicle comprising an internal combustion engine with a drive shaft, an electric machine operable as a motor and as a generator with a rotor, an automatic gearbox having an input shaft and at least one output shaft, and a planetary gearbox with two input elements and an output element, wherein the input shaft of the gearbox is connected via a separating clutch to the drive shaft of the internal combustion engine and via a plurality of selectively switchable spur gears with the output shaft in drive connection can be brought into drive connection, and wherein the drive shaft of the internal combustion engine and the rotor of the electric machine via the superposition gear with the output shaft of the gearbox are connectable.

It is generally known that in a hybrid drive for a motor vehicle, a superposition gear designed in planetary construction can be used to superimpose the torques and speeds of an internal combustion engine and an electric machine. Compared with other types of superposition gears, a planetary gear has the advantage of compact dimensions and balanced bearing forces of the transmission components.

DE 199 34 696 A1 describes a combination of an internal combustion engine, an electric machine and an overlay gearbox, which is referred to as an electrodynamic drive system (EDA), which is arranged upstream of a gearbox designed in the countershaft design and enables a wear-free starting. In a first embodiment of this hybrid drive according to the local Fig. 1, the superposition gear is designed as a simple planetary gear with a sun gear, a planet carrier carrying a plurality of planet gears and a ring gear. The ring gear of the planetary gear is rotatably connected to the drive shaft of the internal combustion engine and forms the first input element of the superposition gear. The sun gear of the planetary gear is rotatably connected to the rotor of the electric machine and forms the second input element of the superposition gear. The planet carrier of the planetary gear bes is rotatably connected to the input shaft of the gearbox and forms the output element of the superposition gear.

In this hybrid drive, the wear-free startup takes place in that at substantially constant speed of the engine, the electric machine is initially controlled in generator mode with increasing drag torque until reaching the rotor standstill and then accelerated in the engine operation in the reverse direction until reaching the synchronization of the transmission components of the planetary gear. With the achievement of synchronism in the planetary gear arranged between the sun and the planet carrier lock-up clutch is closed, so that the planetary gear in the course of an internal combustion engine driving operation in the block rotates. The electric machine can be operated in this operating state for a boost operation as a motor, operated to charge an electrical energy storage as a generator, or be switched powerless. If the drive shaft of the internal combustion engine is connected to the ring gear of the planetary gear via a disengageable and disengageable separating clutch, the internal combustion engine can also be decoupled and switched off in order to enable pure electric driving operation. The manual transmission of this hybrid drive can be used unchanged for a conventional drive, in which the start-up with the engine wear-related via the slip operation of a designed as a friction clutch disconnect clutch.

In construction and function similar, also a manual transmission associated arrangements of an internal combustion engine, an electric machine and a

Superposition gear are also known from US 5,839,533 A and the

DE 10 2004 005 349 A1.

In contrast to the aforementioned hybrid drives is in the

DE 10 2007 042 949 A1 describes a hybrid drive in which an arrangement of an internal combustion engine, an electric machine and a superposition gear is preceded by a drive gear designed in Vorgelegebauweise gearbox with two input shafts and a common output shaft. The superposition gear is again designed as a simple planetary gear. The ring gear of the planetary gear is non-rotatably connected to the first input shaft of the gearbox, the input side connected via a clutch formed as a friction clutch to the drive shaft of the engine and geared selectively selectively via a first group of switchable spur gears with the output shaft of the gearbox can be brought into drive connection. The ring gear of the planetary gear thus forms the first input element of the superposition gear. The sun gear of the planetary gear is rotatably connected to the rotor of the electric machine and therefore forms the second input element of the superposition gear. The planet carrier of the planetary gear is non-rotatably connected to the second input shaft of the gearbox, which is designed as a hollow shaft, is arranged coaxially over the first input shaft, and geared selectively selectively via a second group of switchable spur gears with the output shaft of the gearbox can be brought into drive connection. The planet carrier of the planetary gear therefore forms the output element of the superposition gear.

In this hybrid drive, starting with a switched spur gear stage of the second group can take place without wear, as in the case of the hybrid drives described above. In normal driving operation, the two input shafts are rotatably connected to each other via a coupling switching element, whereby the planetary gear is blocked in itself, so circulating in the block. In addition, with this hybrid drive it is possible to synchronize the clutch of the spur gear stage of the target gear when the coupling element is open by means of the electric machine in a circuit between two spur gear stages of both groups. Such a transmission can be derived from a dual-clutch transmission, in which instead of the electric machine and the superposition gear designed as a friction clutch second separating clutch is provided, via which the second input shaft to the drive shaft of the internal combustion engine is connectable.

In construction and function similar, a gearbox with two input shafts and an output shaft drive technology upstream arrangements of an internal combustion engine, an electric machine and a superposition gear are also known from US 6,645,105 B2 and DE 10 2006 059 591 A1. In contrast to the aforementioned hybrid drives described in DE 10 2010 030 567 A1 and DE 10 2010 043 354 A1 hybrid drives in which a trained in Vorgelegebauweise gearbox, which is combined for driving connection of a Eiektromaschine formed with a planetary gear superposition gear, respectively specially designed for use in a hybrid drive.

In a first embodiment of the hybrid drive of

DE 10 2010 030 567 A1 according to the local Fig. 1, the two input shafts coaxially and axially adjacent to each other and rotatably connected to each other via a coupling switching element. The first input shaft can be connected to the drive shaft of the internal combustion engine via a separating clutch formed as a friction clutch and can be brought into driving connection with the output shaft via a shiftable spur gear. The superposition gear formed as a simple planetary gear is arranged coaxially and axially adjacent to the second input shaft. The ring gear of this planetary gear is rotatably connected to the second input shaft of the gearbox, which is rotatably connected via a coupling switching element with the first input shaft and can be brought via a switchable spur gear with the output shaft in drive connection. The ring gear of the planetary gear thus forms the first input element of the superposition gear. The sun gear of the planetary gear is rotatably connected to the rotor of the Eiektromaschine and therefore forms the second input element of the superposition gear. The planet carrier of the planetary gear is rotatably connected via a bridging switching element with the second input shaft of the gearbox and connectable via a further switchable spur gear with the output shaft in drive connection. The planet carrier of the planetary gear therefore forms the output element of the superposition gear.

This known hybrid drive has in addition to the possibility of wear-free starting three gears for the internal combustion engine driving and two gears for the electromotive driving operation. Likewise, there is the possibility for stand charge of an electrical energy storage means of the internal combustion engine and an engine start of the internal combustion engine by means of Eiektromaschine. When Disadvantages of this hybrid drive can be called the low number of available in the combustion driving gears and the low due to the drag losses of the spur gear transmission efficiency in electric driving.

In the hybrid drive according to DE 10 2010 043 354 A1, a superposition gear formed as a simple planetary gear is arranged within the gearbox designed in the countershaft design, having two input shafts and one output shaft. The first input shaft of the gearbox is arranged axially parallel to the output shaft, connected via a friction clutch designed as a separating clutch with the drive shaft of the engine, and can be brought via two each only from idler gears existing spur gears with the output shaft of the gearbox in drive connection. The second input shaft of the gearbox is arranged axially parallel to the first input shaft and the output shaft, rotatably connected to the rotor of an electric machine, and via two each also only from idler gears existing spur gears with the output shaft of the gearbox can be brought into drive connection. The spur gear stages of the first input shaft and the second input shaft are arranged in identical or nearly identical gear wheel planes and in one case use a common idler gear arranged on the output shaft. In the other case, the arranged on the output shaft idler gears of the two spur gear rotatably connected to each other. The superposition gear formed as a simple planetary gear is arranged coaxially between the two gear levels on the output shaft. The ring gear of the planetary gear is rotatably connected to the two rotatably connected idler gears of the first gear level, which can be connected via a respective switching element with the first input shaft or the second input shaft in drive connection and a further switching element directly rotatably connected to the output shaft. The ring gear of the planetary gear can thus form the first input element or the second input element of the superposition gear. The sun gear of the planetary gear is rotatably connected via a switching element with the common idler gear of the second gear level, which can be brought via a respective switching element with the first input shaft or the second input shaft in drive connection and another Switching element directly rotatably connected to the output shaft can be connected. The sun gear of the planetary gear can therefore also form the first input element or the second input element of the superposition gear. The planet carrier is rotatably connected to the output shaft and thus forms the output element of the superposition gear.

This known hybrid drive has in addition to the possibility of wear-free start-up seven gears for internal combustion engine driving, including four Windungsgänge, and seven gears for the electromotive driving, including four Windungsgänge on. With this hybrid drive, it is also possible to charge the stand of an electrical energy store via the internal combustion engine and to start the engine by means of the electric motor. A disadvantage of this hybrid drive, however, are the high total number of required switching elements, the large number of size for each of the courses respectively aus- and einzurückenden switching elements, and the poor transmission efficiency in the Windungsgängen.

Due to the disadvantages of the aforementioned hybrid drives, the invention has for its object to propose a hybrid drive of the type mentioned, which has a sufficiently high number of gears for internal combustion engine driving and at least two gears with high transmission efficiency for the electromotive driving, and the manual transmission with low Changes can be derived from a conventional manual transmission.

This object is achieved in conjunction with the features of the preamble of claim 1, characterized in that the superposition gear is arranged coaxially over a free end of the output shaft, and that the first input element of the superposition gear rotatably connected to a coaxially arranged on the output shaft hollow shaft, the Coupling of the internal combustion engine via a coupling switching element rotationally fixed to a loose wheel of the immediately axially adjacent spur gear of the gearbox and for bridging the superposition gear via a bridging switching element rotationally fixed to the second input gangselement or connectable to the output element of the superposition gear, that the second input element of the superposition gear is permanently in driving connection with the rotor of the electric machine, and that the output element of the superposition gear is non-rotatably connected to the output shaft.

Advantageous embodiments and further developments of the hybrid drive according to the invention are specified in the subclaims. In an independent method claim, a method for smooth connection of the internal combustion engine in the electric driving mode is defined.

The invention is therefore based on a known hybrid drive of a motor vehicle, an internal combustion engine with a drive shaft, an operable as a motor and as a generator electric machine with a rotor, an executed in Vorgelegebauweise automated transmission with an input shaft and at least one output shaft, and a in Has planetary construction executed superposition gearbox with two input elements and an output element. The input shaft of the gearbox is connected on the input side via a controllable separating clutch to the drive shaft of the internal combustion engine and the drive side via a plurality of selectively switchable spur gears with the output shaft of the gearbox in drive connection brought, whereby several gear stages for the internal combustion engine driving are available. In addition, the drive shaft of the internal combustion engine and the rotor of the electric machine via the superposition gear drive technology with the output shaft of the gearbox can be connected, whereby a wear-free starting as with the from

DE 199 34 696 A1 known electrodynamic drive system is possible.

In contrast to the hitherto known hybrid drives running in planetary design overlay transmission is arranged in the hybrid drive according to the invention at the edge or outside of the gearbox on the output shaft and drive technology connected to this. For the creation of the presently proposed hybrid drive can thus be based on a conventional drive from the internal combustion engine and the manual transmission resorted to by slight changes in the possibility to arrange at a correspondingly extended free end of the output shaft, the superposition gear and standing in drive connection with this electrical machine. For the wear-free starting, the drive shaft of the internal combustion engine is connected by the engagement of the coupling switching element via the axially adjacent spur gear and the hollow shaft to the first input element of the superposition gear. When Überbrückungsschaltele- ment the superposition gear is blocked in itself, so that the output shaft of the gearbox can then be driven solely by the electric machine.

Since at least one further gear ratio is advantageous for the electric driving operation, the first input element of the superposition gear or the hollow shaft for switching a effective between the rotor of the electric machine and the output shaft of the gearbox second gear on a Arretierungsschaltelement fixed to the housing can be locked. By the Arretierungsschaltelement the superposition gearing is thus a two-stage manual transmission for electric driving. Regardless of the specific embodiment of the superposition gearing, the second gear stage has a ratio which is absolutely greater than one and is thus provided for the lower gear of the electric driving operation.

The electric machine can be arranged to save space coaxially to the output shaft of the gearbox axially outside next to the superposition gear, wherein the rotor of the electric machine can be directly connected rotationally fixed to the second input element of the superposition gearing.

Alternatively, however, it is also possible that the electric machine is arranged coaxially to the output shaft of the gearbox axially outward of the superposition gear, but that the rotor of the electric machine via a arranged axially between the superposition gear and the electric machine, designed as a planetary gear reduction step with the second input element the superposition gearbox is in drive connection. By the reduction stage, the speed of the electric machine is reduced and their torque increased accordingly, so that the electric machine higher turning and torque weaker and thus smaller and lighter than can be formed in a direct connection to the second input element of the superposition gearing. Due to the arrangement of the reduction stage, however, an increase in the axial length of the hybrid drive must be taken into account.

In a more favorable with respect to the axial length arrangement of the electric machine and the reduction stage is provided that the electric machine is disposed axially parallel to the output shaft of the gearbox radially adjacent to the superposition gear, and that the rotor of the electric machine via a trained as Stirnradgetriebestufe reduction stage with the second input element of Superposition gearbox is in drive connection.

In order to achieve a greater transmission efficiency and thus a limited storage capacity of an associated electrical energy storage of the vehicle in the electric driving operation, the fixed gears of all spur gears of the gearbox are rotatably mounted on the input shaft. As a result, the idler gears of the spur gear stages of the gearbox are necessarily arranged on the output shaft or on the output shafts, whereby the spur gears are not driven in the electric driving and corresponding rolling and drag losses are avoided.

Basically, that gear of the gearbox whose spur gear is arranged directly axially adjacent to the superposition gear, rotatably connected via the associated gear shift element with the output shaft and via the coupling switching element rotatably connected to the hollow shaft. Advantageously, however, it is also possible that this gear is only switchable via the coupling switching element and the lock-up switching element, since in this case the associated gear shift element can be omitted and saved according to installation space and manufacturing costs.

In addition, that gear of the gearbox, the spur gear is arranged as the next axially adjacent to the superposition gear, via the associated gear shift element and the bridging Schaltele- ment be switchable, wherein the gear shift element in question is then combined together with the coupling switching element in a double switching element.

The coupling switching element and / or the bridging switching element and / or the Arretierungsschalteiement are preferably each formed as an unsynchronized claw clutch, since these switching elements can be synchronized by means of the electric machine. Compared to a synchronizer clutch or a friction clutch, a dog clutch is cheaper to produce, largely wear-free, more compact and easier to control.

However, at least the bridging switching element can also be designed as a friction clutch, since then in the electric driving train trains can be performed as load circuits. In a pull upshift, the lock-up switching element is closed so far until the Arretierungsschalteiement is largely free of load. After disengaging the Arretierungsschaltelementes the lock-up switching element is completely closed. In a Zugrückschaltung the lock-up switching element is opened until the transition to the slip mode, causing the electric machine up because of their relief. Upon reaching the synchronous speed at the Arretierungsschalteiement this is engaged, and then fully opened the lock-up switching element.

However, it is also possible that the bridging switching element and the Arretierungsschalteiement are designed as friction clutches, since then Zugschaltungen and thrust circuits can be performed in the electric driving as load circuits. In this case, the switching element of the active before the circuit load stage is opened at Zughochschaltungen and Zugrückschaltungen as well as shear upshifts and push-downs overlapping in time and the switching element of the target gear stage effective after the circuit closed.

For the practical design of the superposition gear different designs of planetary gears in question. Due to the simple design and compact design, the superposition gearbox is preferred is designed as a simple planetary gear with a sun gear, a planet carrier carrying a plurality of planet gears and a ring gear. In this planetary gear, the sun gear is rotatably connected to the hollow shaft first input element, the planet carrier rotatably connected to the output shaft of the gearbox output element, and the ring gear which is in driving connection with the rotor of the electric machine second input element.

In this configuration and arrangement of the superposition gearing, the gear ratio effective in the lower gear stage of the electric driving mode is between 1, 25 and 1, 67, whereas the gear ratio in the higher gear stage of the electric driving mode is effective when the bridging switch element is closed of the planetary gear is equal to one. For the determination of the total ratio of the gear ratios of the electric drive, these translations may need to be multiplied by the translation of the reduction stage, via which the rotor of the electric machine with the second input element of the superposition gear is in drive connection.

The bridging switching element and the locking switching element are arranged in this embodiment of the superposition gear space-saving and circuitry low axially one behind the other between the coupling switching element and the superposition gear. In the execution of the relevant switching elements as synchronous clutches or jaw clutches they can also be combined in a double switching element.

To produce an output-free, so unpolluted, drive connection between the drive shaft of the engine and the rotor of the electric machine, which can be used in the generator mode of the electric machine for a charge level of an electrical energy storage by the engine and in engine operation of the electric machine for starting the engine by the electric machine , The planet carrier of the superposition gearbox is connected via a disengageable and engageable disconnecting switching element to the output shaft of the gearbox. For the production of this drive connection the coupling switching element and the lock-up switching element engaged or closed and the disconnect switching element disengaged.

In a second embodiment of the hybrid drive according to the invention, the superposition gear is designed as a simple planetary gear with a sun gear, a planetary planet carrier carrying a plurality of planetary gears and a ring gear, the sun gear with the rotor of the electric motor in drive connection second input element, the planet carrier rotatably with the Output shaft of the gearbox connected output element, and the ring gear rotatably connected to the hollow shaft first input element of the superposition gearing forms. In this configuration and arrangement of the superposition gear is the closed gearshift in the lower gear of the electric drive effective translation of the planetary gear between 2.5 and 5.0, whereas the effective with closed lock-up switching element in the higher gear stage of the electric drive ratio of the planetary gear is one.

The bridging switching element and the Arretierungsschaltelement are preferably space-saving radially staggered next to and / or arranged above the superposition gearing in this embodiment of the superposition gearing.

In order to enable in this embodiment of the superimposed gearbox the production of a drive-free, so unpowered drive connection between the drive shaft of the engine and the rotor of the electric machine, it is provided that the rotor of the electric machine or the output gear of the reduction stage via a double switching element alternately with the ring gear or with the Sun gear of the superposition gear is connectable. The switching connection of the rotor of the electric machine or the driven gear of the reduction stage with the effective as a second input element of the superposition gear sun gear of the planetary gear corresponds to normal operation, whereas with switched connection with the effective as the first input element of the superposition gear ring gear of the planetary gear and engaged coupling switching element, the zero drive or drive train connection between the drive shaft of the internal combustion engine and the rotor of the electric machine is made.

In electric vehicle operation, the power flow takes place when the locking switching element is closed via the first gear stage of the planetary gear or when the lockup element is closed via the second gear stage of the planetary gear, which is effective as a two-stage gearbox in this mode of operation of the hybrid drive. If then the connection of the internal combustion engine is required, which may be the case for example due to a largely discharged electrical energy storage, the internal combustion engine is first started, which by means of an associated starter or an engaged gear shift element of a spur gear of the gearbox by closing the clutch, optionally below simultaneous increase of the output by the electric motor torque can be done by a pulse start.

In order to couple the running internal combustion engine largely without jerk, the following method steps are provided:

a) engagement of the gearshift clutch of the spur gear of the lowest gear of the gearbox,

b) load transfer by the internal combustion engine by partially closing the disconnect clutch and simultaneous load reduction of the electric machine,

c) load-free opening of the switching element of the engaged in the superposition gear ratio,

d) synchronizing the coupling switching element by a corresponding speed change of the electric machine and load-free closing of the coupling switching element, e) load structure of the electric machine and simultaneous load reduction of the internal combustion engine,

f) load-free disengagement of the gear shift clutch of the spur gear of the lowest gear of the gearbox,

g) synchronizing the separating clutch by a corresponding speed change of the electric machine and / or the internal combustion engine,

h) complete closing of the separating clutch and transition to the above-mentioned EDA driving operation. To clarify the invention, the description is accompanied by a drawing with exemplary embodiments. In this shows

1 shows a first embodiment of a hybrid drive according to the invention in a schematic representation,

1 a shows an operating and switching diagram of the hybrid drive according to FIG. 1 in the form of a table, FIG.

2 shows a second embodiment of a hybrid drive in a schematic representation,

2a is an operating and circuit diagram of the hybrid drive of FIG. 2 in the form of a table,

3 shows a third embodiment of a hybrid drive in a schematic representation,

4 shows a fourth embodiment of a hybrid drive in a schematic representation,

5 shows a fifth embodiment of a hybrid drive in a schematic representation,

5a shows an operating and switching diagram of the hybrid drive according to FIG. 5 in the form of a table, FIG.

6 shows a sixth embodiment of a hybrid drive in a schematic representation,

6a shows an operating and switching diagram of the hybrid drive according to FIG. 6 in the form of a table, FIG. 7 shows a seventh embodiment of a schematic representation,

7a shows an operating and switching diagram of the hybrid drive according to FIG. 7 in the form of a table, FIG.

8 shows an eighth embodiment of a hybrid drive according to a schematic illustration,

8a shows an operating and switching diagram of the hybrid drive according to FIG. 8 in the form of a table, FIG.

9 shows a ninth embodiment of a hybrid drive according to a schematic illustration, and

10 shows a tenth embodiment of a hybrid drive according to the invention in a schematic representation.

The schematically illustrated in Fig. 1 first embodiment of a trained according to the features of the invention hybrid drive 1 .1 has an internal combustion engine VM with a drive shaft 2, an operable as a motor and as a generator electric machine EM with a rotor 3, a trained in Vorgeleebauweise automated transmission 4.1 with an input shaft GE and an output shaft GA, and a planetary gear superposition gear 5.1 with two input elements 6, 7 and an output element 8 on.

The input shaft GE of the gearbox 4.1 is connected on the input side via a clutch designed as a friction clutch K1 with the drive shaft 2 of the engine VM. Geared internally, the input shaft GE of the gearbox 4.1 via four selectively switchable spur gears Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4, each consisting of a fixed gear 14, 15, 1 6, 17 and a loose wheel, can be brought into drive connection with the output shaft GA. The fixed wheels 14-17 of the four spur gears Z1 - Z4 are rotatably connected to the input shaft GE. The idler gears of the spur gears Z1 - Z4 are rotatably mounted on the output shaft GA and rotatably connected via associated gear shift elements A, B, C, D with this. The gear shift elements A - D are combined in pairs in two double shift elements S1, S2. As a result of the four spur gear stages Z1-Z4, the manual transmission 4.1 has four shiftable gears G1, G2, G3, G4. The output shaft GA of the gearbox 4.1 is connected via a two gears comprehensive output constant KA with Achsdifferenziai 21 in drive connection, from which two drive shafts 22, 23 lead to not shown in FIG. 1 drive wheels of the respective vehicle axle.

The superposition gearing 5.1 is arranged coaxially above the free end 9 of the output shaft GA facing away from the engine VM and designed as a simple planetary gearing PG with a sun gear S, a planetary carrier T carrying a plurality of planetary gears P and a ring gear R.

The sun gear S of the planetary gear PG and the superposition gear 5.1 is rotatably connected to a hollow shaft 10 which is arranged coaxially over the output shaft GA of the gearbox 4.1 and rotatably connected via a coupling element K with the idler gear 1 1 of the immediately axially adjacent spur Z2 is connectable. The coupling switching element K in the present case forms a single switching element S3. Since the drive shaft 2 of the internal combustion engine VM is in drive connection with the hollow shaft 10 via the input shaft GE and the spur gear Z2 of the second gear G2 when the clutch K1 and the clutch element K are engaged, the sun gear S of the planetary gear PG forms the first input element 6 of the superposition gear 5.1. The planet carrier T of the planetary gear PG is rotatably connected to the output shaft GA of the gearbox 4.1 and thus forms the output element 8 of the superposition gearbox 5.1.

The electric machine EM is axially parallel to the output shaft GA of the

Gearbox 4.1 and the planetary gear PG arranged. The rotor 3 of the electric machine EM is connected via a two-gear reduction stage KEM with the ring gear R of the planetary gear PG in drive connection. The ring gear R of the planetary gear PG thus forms the second input element. 7 of the superposition gearing 5.1. By the reduction stage K E M, the speed of the Eiektromaschine EM is reduced and their torque increased accordingly, so that the Eiektromaschine EM higher-revving and torque weaker and thus smaller and lighter than in an immediate drive efficient connection to the second input element 7 of the superposition gear 5.1 can be formed.

In addition, the ring gear R of the planetary gear PG via a bridging switch element M rotatably connected to the hollow shaft 10 can be connected. When the bridging switch element M is engaged, the planetary gear PG is locked in and runs around as a block. About a Arretierungsschaltelement L, which is summarized together with the bridging switching element M in a double switching element S4, the hollow shaft 10 and rotatably connected with this sun gear S of the planetary gear PG can be locked fixed to the housing. In addition to the function of a superposition gear for driving technology coupling of the internal combustion engine VM and Eiektromaschine EM with the output shaft GA of the gearbox 4.1, the planetary gear PG thus also has the function of a two-stage gearbox for electric driving, in which the drive of the motor vehicle is only via the Eiektromaschine EM. In the present case, the first gear stage E1 of the electric driving operation is engaged with a gear ratio greater than one with the locking element L engaged, whereas the second gear stage E2 of the electric driving mode is effective with the gear ratio one with the bridging switching element M engaged.

The four gear shift elements A - D of the gearbox 4.1 and the coupling switching element K, the bridging switch element M and the locking switching element L are presently designed as unsynchronized jaw clutches, since these can be synchronized by means of the Eiektromaschine EM and / or the internal combustion engine VM.

The superposition gearbox 5.1 is flanged together with the Eiektromaschine EM frontally to the transmission 4.1. In order to realize the present hybrid drive 1 .1 from a conventional drive, which consists of the internal combustion engine VM and a substantially identical gearbox, are thus only minor changes to the gearbox required, such as a corresponding extension of the output shaft GA and a supplement of the switching device to the coupling switching element K.

The possible operating modes of the hybrid drive 1 .1 are summarized in the table of FIG. 1 a, in which for the internal combustion engine VM the respective effective gear G1, G2, G3, G4 of the gearbox 4.1, for the electric machine EM the respective effective gear stage E1, E2 of the planetary gear PG, and for the double switching elements S1, S2, S4 and the individual switching element S3, the respectively engaged switching element A, B, C, D; K, L, M is indicated.

In the operating mode EDA operation, which is mainly used for wear-free starting, the planetary gear PG is effective as a superposition gear 5.1, that is, the torques and speeds of the engine VM and the electric machine EM are superimposed in the superposition gear 5.1 and transmitted to the output shaft GA , For this purpose, the drive shaft 2 of the engine VM by closing the clutch K1 and the engagement of Koppelschaltelementes K driving technology via the input shaft GE, the spur gear Z2 of the gearbox 4.1 and the hollow shaft 10 to the first input element 6 of the superposition gear 5.1 effective sun gear S of the planetary gear PG connected. The rotor 3 of the electric machine EM is via the reduction stage K E M in any case permanently with the effective as a second input element 7 of the superposition gear 5.1 ring gear R of the planetary gear PG in drive connection. Likewise, the effective as the output element 8 of the superposition gear 5.1 planet carrier T of the planetary gear PG is permanently connected rotationally fixed to the output shaft GA of the gearbox 4.1.

Analogously to the operation of the electrodynamic drive system (EDA) described in DE 199 34 696 A1, the wear-free starting takes place in that at substantially constant speed of the internal combustion engine VM, the electric machine EM initially controlled in generator mode with increasing drag torque until reaching the rotor standstill and then in Motor operation is accelerated in the reverse direction. This can take until the synchronization the transmission components R, S, T of the planetary gear PG done, whereupon the lock-up switching element M is closed and thus the EDA operation is terminated.

Since the drive shaft 2 of the internal combustion engine VM but is connected via the spur gear Z2 of the second gear G2 drive technology to the superposition gear 5.1, the EDA operation can also be terminated prematurely, namely, when the gear shift element A spur gear Z1 of the first gear G1 synchronous operation is reached. The transition to the combustion mode then takes place by the engagement of the gearshift element A of the spur gear Z1 of the first gear G1, the powerless switching of the electric machine EM, and the disengagement of the coupling element K. Due to the premature termination of the EDA operation, depending on the specific gear ratios of the engine operation the electric machine EM shortened or even completely prevented, which is particularly advantageous in a largely discharged electrical energy storage.

In the electric driving (E-driving), the planetary gear PG is effective as a two-stage manual transmission, and the gear ratios E1, E2 are switchable via the Arretierungsschaltelement L and the lock-up switching element M. In the present embodiment and arrangement of the superposition gearing 5.1, the translation of the planetary gearing PG then effective as a gearbox is between 1.25 and 1.67, whereas in the case of the closed lock-up shifting element L in the lower gear E1 of the electric drive, the gearshift shift element M is closed higher gear stage E2 of the electric drive operation effective translation of the planetary gear PG is equal to one. For the determination of the overall ratio of the gear ratios E1, E2 of the electric driving operation, these ratios must still be multiplied by the ratio of the reduction stage K E M over which the rotor 3 of the electric machine EM is in driving connection with the second input element 7 of the superposition gear 5.1.

In the combustion driving mode (V-driving), the corresponding gears G1 - G4 are switched via the gear shifting elements A - D of the spur gears Z1 - Z4 of the gearbox 4.1. In hybrid mode (V + E-driving), the electric machine EM is connected via a suitable gear stage E1, E2 of the planetary gear PG, ie with a fixed gear ratio, to the output shaft GA of the gearbox 4.1. In this case, the electric machine EM can optionally be operated in boost mode to support the internal combustion engine VM as a motor or to charge an electrical energy store as a generator.

The standing charge of an electrical energy storage device, in which the electrical machine EM operated as a generator is driven by the internal combustion engine VM when the vehicle is stationary, is indeed possible in the present hybrid drive 1 .1 with the disconnect clutch K1 and the engaged switching element K engaged. For this purpose, however, the output shaft GA of the gearbox 4.1 must be blocked for locking the planet carrier T of the planetary gear PG, which can be done for example by inserting a parking brake.

A schematically illustrated in Fig. 2 second embodiment of a hybrid drive 1 .2 according to the features of the invention differs in substantially the same structure of the first embodiment of the hybrid drive 1 .1 of FIG. 1 by a stronger integration of the coupling element K in the transmission 4.2. Now, namely, the immediately axially adjacent to the superposition gear 5.1 arranged spur gear Z2 of the gearbox 4.2 exclusively via the coupling switching element K switchable, so the previously assigned gear shift element B saved. This means that for engaging the second gear G2 of the gearbox 4.2 in addition to the coupling element K and the bridging switching element M must be engaged so that the idler gear 1 1 of the spur gear Z2 on the hollow shaft 10 and the self-locking planetary gear PG rotatably connected to the output shaft GA of the gearbox 4.2 is connected. In the present case, the idler gear 13 of the next axially adjacent to the superposition gear 5.1 arranged spur gear Z4 via the associated gear shift element D 'rotatably connected to the hollow shaft 10, whereby the summary of this gear shift element D' with the coupling element K in a double switching element S2 'is possible. However, this also means that even for engaging the fourth gear G4 of the gearbox 4.2 next to the gear shift element D 'level- if the bridging switch element M must be engaged, so that the idler gear 13 of the spur gear Z4 on the hollow shaft 10 and the self-locking planetary gear PG rotatably connected to the output shaft GA of the gearbox 4.2 is connected.

Analogous to the table according to FIG. 1a, the possible operating modes of the hybrid drive 1 .2 are summarized in the table according to FIG. 2a. Since the engagement of the bridging switching element M is required in each case for engaging the second gear G2 and the fourth gear G4, in the hybrid driving mode the electric machine EM can only be connected to the output shaft GA of the gearbox 4.2 with these gears in the second gear stage E2.

A third hybrid drive 1 .3 schematically illustrated in FIG. 3 differs from the first embodiment of the hybrid drive 1 .1 according to FIG. 1 in the same mode of operation only by a different construction of the gearbox 4.3. The gearbox 4.3 in this case has two axially parallel to the input shaft GE arranged output shafts GA1, GA2, which in each case via two switchable spur gears Z1, Z3; Z2, Z4 can be brought into driving connection with the input shaft GE, and which are each connected via a two gears comprehensive output constant KA1, KA2 with the axle differential 21 in drive connection. The spur gears Z1, Z3 of the first and third gears G1, G3 of the gearbox 4.3 are disposed between the input shaft GE and the first output shaft GA1. The spur gears Z2, Z4 of the second and fourth gears G2, G4 of the gearbox 4.3 are arranged between the input shaft GE and the second output shaft GA2. In addition, the four spur gears Z1 - Z4 are arranged in pairs in common gear levels and use two common, non-rotatably mounted on the input shaft GE fixed wheels 19, 20. The idler gears of the four spur gears Z1 - Z4 are rotatably mounted on the respective output shaft GA1, GA2 and over associated gearshift elements A, B, C, D rotatably connected to this. The gear shift elements A, B, C, D are in turn combined in pairs in two double switching elements S1, S2. The overlay transmission 5.1 formed identically to the above-described hybrid drives 1 .1, 1 .2 according to FIGS. 1 and 2 is arranged coaxially above the free end 9 'of the second output shaft GA2 facing away from the engine VM in the hybrid drive 1 .3. For drive connection of the internal combustion engine VM, the sun gear S of the planetary gear PG is rotatably connected to the hollow shaft 10, which is now arranged coaxially over the second output shaft GA2 of the gearbox 4.3 and via a coupling switching element K rotatably connected to the idler gear 1 1 of the immediately axially adjacent spur gear Z2 connectable is. The mode of operation of the present hybrid drive 1 .3 is completely identical to that of the hybrid drive 1 .1 according to FIG. 1, so that the possible operating modes of the hybrid drive 1 .3 can be taken from the operating and switching diagram given in the table of FIG ,

A fourth embodiment, shown schematically in FIG. 4, of a hybrid drive 1 .4 designed in accordance with the features of the invention differs from the third embodiment of the hybrid drive 1 .3 of FIG. 3 in substantially the same construction by a stronger integration of the coupling switching element K into the manual transmission 4.4 , Analogously to the second embodiment of the hybrid drive 1 .2 according to FIG. 2, the spur gear stage Z2 of the gearbox 4.4, which is arranged directly axially adjacent to the superposition gearbox 5.1, can now be switched exclusively via the coupling switching element K. Likewise, the idler gear 13 of the next axially adjacent to the superposition gear 5.1 arranged spur gear Z4 via the associated gear shift element D 'rotatably connected to the hollow shaft 10 to allow the summary of this gear shift element D' with the coupling element K in a double switching element S2 '. The mode of operation of the present hybrid drive 1 .4 is completely identical to that of the second embodiment of the hybrid drive 1 .2 according to FIG. 2, so that the possible operating modes of the hybrid drive 1 .4 are taken from the operating and switching scheme indicated in the table of FIG can be.

A fifth embodiment, schematically illustrated in FIG. 5, of a hybrid drive 1 .5 designed in accordance with the features of the invention differs from the hybrid drive 1 .2 according to FIG. 2 with a similar mode of operation Manual transmission 4.5 with five gears G1, G2, G3, G4, G5 and by a designed as a friction clutch bridging switching element M '.

The input shaft GE of this gearbox 4.5 is now via five selectively switchable spur gears Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4, Z5, each consisting of a fixed gear and a loose wheel, with the output shaft GA in drive connection can be brought. The five fixed gears 14, 15, 1 6, 17, 18 of the five spur Z1 - Z5 are rotatably mounted on the input shaft GE. The four idler gears of the first, second, fourth and fifth spur gear Z1, Z2, Z4, Z5 are rotatably mounted on the output shaft GA and via associated gear shift elements A, B, D, E, which in pairs in two double switching elements S1 ', S2 "are summarized The idler gear 12 of the third spur gear Z3, which in the present case is arranged directly axially adjacent to the superposition gearing 5.1, is also rotatably supported on the output shaft GA, but analogous to the idler gear 1 1 of the second spur gear Z2 of FIG 2 can only be switched via the coupling switching element K. Accordingly, for engaging the third gear G3 of the gearbox 4.5, the bridging switching element M 'must be closed in addition to the coupling switching element K. However, the present invention is designed as a friction clutch K and the locking switching element L in a double switching element S3 ' summarized. The bridging switching element M 'connects the sun gear S with the ring gear R. Alternatively, it could also be connected between the sun gear S and the web T. The third alternative would be an interconnection between the ring gear R and the web T. In any case, the planetary gear PG is bridged by the bridging switching element M '.

The possible operating modes of the hybrid drive 1 .5 are summarized in the table of FIG. 5a, in which for the internal combustion engine VM the respective effective gear G1, G2, G3, G4, G5 of the gearbox 4.5, for the electric machine EM the respective effective gear E1 , E2 of the planetary gear PG, and for the double switching elements S1 ', S2 ", S3' the respectively engaged switching element A, B, C, D, K, L indicated, as well as the closed state of the bridging Schaltememen- tes M 'each with the letter" X "is marked. Since the drive shaft 2 of the internal combustion engine VM when wear-free starting in EDA operation is now connected via the spur gear Z3 of the third gear G3 drive technology to the superposition gearbox 5.1, the EDA operation can optionally when reaching the synchronizing to the gear shift element A of the spur gear Z1 of the first Gangs G1 or on the gear shift element B of the spur gear Z2 of the second gear G2 prematurely, ie before reaching the synchronization of the transmission components R, S, T of the planetary gear PG, be terminated.

The design of the bridging switching element M 'as a friction clutch allows the implementation of train circuits in electric driving as load circuits. In a pull upshift, the lock-up switching element M 'is closed so far until the locking switching element L is largely free of load. After disengaging the locking switching element L, the bridging switching element M 'is completely closed. In a train downshift, the lock-up switching element M 'is opened until the transition to the slip mode, whereby the electric machine EM up because of their relief, so undergoes a speed increase. Upon reaching the synchronous speed of the locking switching element L, this is engaged, and then the lock-up switching element M 'is fully opened.

The sixth embodiment of a hybrid drive 1 .6 shown schematically in FIG. 6 is based on the hybrid drive 1 .3 according to FIG. 3. The spur gear stages Z1, Z2 of the first gear G1 and of the second gear G2 are now opposite the latter of the gearbox 4.6 arranged in different gear levels and therefore each have their own, non-rotatably mounted on the input shaft GE fixed wheel 14, 15. As a result, there is greater freedom in determining the translations of the four gears G1 - G4, which can be used for example for the realization of a progressive gear gradation of the gearbox 4.6.

Another difference to the hybrid drive 1 .3 of FIG. 3 is that in this case both the lock-up switching element M ' and the locking switching element U are designed as friction clutches. This is now both Zugschaltungen and thrust circuits in electric driving as load circuits feasible. In these load circuits, the switching element (U or M ') of the load stage (E1 or E2) acting before the shift is opened in each case over time and the switching element (M' or L ') of the target gear stage (E2 or E1) active after the shift is closed.

Analogous to the valid for the hybrid drive 1 .3 of FIG. 3 operating and switching scheme of Fig. 1 a are the possible modes of the present hybrid drive 1 .6 summarized in the table of Fig. 6a, wherein the closed state of the Arretierungsschaltelementes L ' and the bridging switch element M ! each marked with the letter "X".

In the seventh embodiment of a hybrid drive 1 .7 embodied according to the features of the invention, which is shown schematically in FIG. 7, the hybrid drive 1 .2 according to FIG. 2 is modified by way of example in that the bypass switch element M 'is analogous to the hybrid drive 1 Fig. 5 is designed as a friction clutch, and that the effective as the output element 8 of the superposition gear 5.1 planet carrier T of the planetary gear PG is connected via an off and engageable disconnect switching element U with the output shaft GA of the gearbox 4.2.

As has already been explained in the description of the fifth hybrid drive 1 .5 according to FIG. 5, the design of the bridging switch element M 'as a friction clutch makes it possible to carry out pull circuits in the electric drive mode as load circuits. In addition, in the present embodiment of the gearbox 4.2, this results in that the latching switching element L is designed as a single switching element S4 ' .

The arrangement of the disconnecting switching element U between the planet carrier T of the superposition gearbox 5.1 and the output shaft GA of the gearbox 4.2 allows the production of an output-free, ie as a result vortriebslosen drive connection between the drive shaft 2 of the engine VM and the rotor 3 of the electric machine EM. When the coupling switching element K is engaged, closed lock-up switching element M 'and disengaged disconnecting switching element U, the drive shaft 2 of the engine VM and the rotor 3 of the electric machine EM are independent of the output shaft GA of the gearbox 4.2 in drive connection. This can be used by the internal combustion engine VM during generator operation of the electric machine for charge charging of an electrical energy store and in the engine operation of the electric machine EM for starting the internal combustion engine VM by the electric machine EM.

The possible modes of operation of the present hybrid drive 1 .7 according to FIG. 7 are summarized in the table of FIG. 7 a, the switching combination for the output-free charge of an electrical energy store and the propulsion-free starting of the internal combustion engine under the operating mode charging / starting and the engaged state of the a single switching element S5 forming separating switching element U are analogous to the switching elements S1, S2 ', and S4' are specified.

In the eighth embodiment of a hybrid drive 1 .8 designed according to the features of the invention shown in FIG. 8, the manual transmission 4.6 illustrated in the hybrid drive 1 .6 according to FIG. 6 is used by way of example and combined with a modified design of the superimposed gearbox 5.2.

Although the superposition gear 5.2 is indeed designed as a simple planetary gear PG with a sun gear S, a planetary carrier P carrying planet carrier T and a ring gear R, but now the drive connection of the sun gear S and the ring gear H is reversed compared to the previous design of the superposition gear 5.1 , In the present embodiment of the superposition gearing 5.2, the ring gear R of the planetary gear PG is rotatably connected to the hollow shaft 10 and thus forms the first input element 6 of the superposition gearing 5.2. The sun gear S of the planetary gear PG is now on the reduction stage E K M with the rotor 3 of the electric motor EM in switchable drive connection, and therefore forms the second input element of the superposition gearing 7 5.2. The planet carrier T of the planetary gear PG, however, as previously rotatably connected to the second output shaft GA2 of the gearbox 4.6 and thus forms the output element 8 of the Superposition gearbox 5.2. The latching and bridging switching elements L ', M' designed as friction clutches as in the sixth embodiment of the hybrid drive 1 .6 according to FIG. 6 are in this case radially staggered, arranged coaxially next to and partially above the superposition gearing 5.2.

In this configuration and arrangement of the superposition gearing 5.2 of FIG. 8, the translation of the planetary gear PG effective in the lower gear stage E1 of the electric driving operation is between 2.5 and 5.0, whereas with the lock-up switching element M 'closed in the higher gear stage E2 of the electric driving operation effective translation of the planetary gear PG is equal to one.

In order to enable the production of a drive-free or non-driven drive connection between the drive shaft 2 of the engine VM and the rotor 3 of the electric machine EM analogously to the previously described seventh embodiment of the hybrid drive 1 .7 of FIG. 7, the output gear 24 of the reduction stage K E M via a double switching element S5 'with the switching positions N and O alternately with the ring gear R or the sun gear S of the planetary gear PG connectable. The switching connection of the output gear 24 of the reduction stage K E M with the effective as a second input element 7 of the superposition gear 5.2 sun gear S in the switching position N of the double switching element S5 'corresponds to the normal operation. In contrast, when switched connection with the effective as the first input element 6 of the superposition gear 5.2 ring gear R of the planetary gear PG and engaged Koppelschaltelement K in the switching position O of the double switching element S5 'the output drive connection between the drive shaft 2 of the engine VM and the rotor 3 of the electric machine EM made ,

The possible modes of operation of the hybrid drive 1 .8 according to FIG. 8 are summarized in the table of FIG. 8a, wherein the switching combination for the output-free or unpowered charge of an electric energy storage and the output-driven or unpowered starting the engine under the operating mode charging / starting and the respective switching position of the double switching element S5 'analogous to the switching elements S1 - S3 are indicated.

In the ninth embodiment of a hybrid drive 1 .9 constructed in accordance with the features of the invention, shown schematically in FIG. 9, an alternative arrangement as well as a different drive connection of the electric machine EM to the superposition gearing 5.1 is exemplified by the hybrid drive 1 .4 according to FIG. 4 illustrated. In contrast to the previously described embodiments of the hybrid drives 1 .1 - 1 .8, the electric machine EM is now arranged coaxially to the second output shaft GA2 of the gearbox 4.4 axially outboard of the superposition gear 5.1, and the rotor 3 of the electric machine EM is directly against rotation with the the second input element 7 of the superposition gear 5.1 forming ring gear R of the planetary gear PG connected. The present arrangement of the electric machine EM has an increase in the axial length of the hybrid drive 1 .9 result. In addition, it makes the direct connection to the second input element 7 of the superposition gearbox 5.1 requires that the electric machine EM must be low-revving and torque stronger and thus larger and heavier than in a connection via a reduction stage K E must be formed.

A further arrangement and drive connection of the electric machine EM to the superposition gearing 5.1 is realized in a tenth embodiment of a constructed according to the features of the invention hybrid drive 1 .10, which also exemplifies the transmission 4.4 and the superposition gear 5.1 of the hybrid drive 1 .4 of FIG uses. Although in this hybrid drive 1 .10 the electric machine EM is also arranged coaxially to the second output shaft GA2 of the gearbox 4.4 axially outboard of the superposition gearbox 5.1, however, the rotor 3 of the electric machine EM is now arranged axially between the superposition gearbox 5.1 and the electric machine EM , designed as a planetary gear reduction step K E M 'with the second input element 7 of the superposition gear 5.1 forming ring gear R of the planetary gear PG in drive connection. As a result of this drive connection of the electric machine EM, the electric machine EM can again turn higher and rotate. torque weaker and be smaller and lighter, so that compared to the direct connection of the electric machine EM of FIG. 9, no significant increase in the axial length of the hybrid drive 1 .10 must result.

The hybrid drives 1 .1 - 1 .10 shown in FIGS. 1 to 10 show, by way of example only, preferred combinations of manual transmissions 4.1 - 4.6, superimposed transmissions 5.1, 5.2 and drive connections of the electric machine EM to the superposition gearing 5.1, 5.2 and via the superposition gearing 5.1, 5.2 to the hollow shaft 10 and the relevant output shaft GA; GA2 of the gearbox 4.1 - 4.6. Within the scope of the present patent application, therefore, hybrid drives with other versions of manual transmissions and / or superposition transmissions, as well as with a different arrangement and drive connection of the electric machine EM are possible.

For example, the input side clutch K1 may not be present, so that the drive shaft of the engine is firmly connected to the input shaft of the automated transmission. Furthermore, the superposition gear 5.1, 5.2 may be formed as a plus or minus gear, or have a stepped planetary gear set. It can further be provided that the electric machine EM surrounds the superposition gear 5.1, 5.2 radially and coaxially and the rotor is rotatably connected to the ring gear of the superposition gear. It is also possible to provide a separate spur gear for a reverse gear in the gearbox, so that with a suitable switchability of the reverse gear and an EDA driving in reverse gear is possible. Further, a second electric machine with low power in the inventively designed hybrid drive may be present, which is connected to the drive shaft of the engine VM, for example via a belt drive or a spur gear and allows operation as a generator or starter motor. In generator mode, such a second electric machine can provide electrical power for the onboard power supply of the vehicle, such as for a serial electric motor drive with the internal combustion engine at low driving speed, in particular when reversing. REFERENCE CHARACTERS

1 .1 - 1 .10 hybrid drive

 2 drive shaft of internal combustion engine VM

 3 rotor of electric machine EM

4.1 - 4.6 Manual transmission

 5.1, 5.2 Superposition gearbox

 6 First input element of superposition gear 5.1, 5.2

7 Second input element of superposition gear 5.1, 5.2

8 Output element of superposition gear 5.1, 5.2

9 Free end of output shaft GA

 9 'Free end of second output shaft GA2

 10 hollow shaft

 1 1 idler gear of spur gear stage Z2

 12 idler gear of spur gear Z3

 13 idler gear of spur gear Z4

 14 Fixed gear of spur gear Z1

 15 Fixed gear of spur gear Z2

 1 6 Fixed gear of spur gear Z3

 17 fixed gear of spur gear Z4

 18 Fixed gear of spur gear Z5

 19 Fixed gear of spur gears Z1 and Z2

 20 fixed gear of spur gears Z3 and Z4

 21 axle differential

 22 First drive shaft

 23 Second drive shaft

24 Output gear from reduction stage K E M

 A - E gear shifting elements of spur gear Z1 to Z5

 D 'gear shift element of spur gear Z4

 E1, E2 Gear ratios of superposition gears 5.1, 5.2

 EDA electrodynamic drive system

EM electric machine G1 - G5 gears of manual transmission 4.1 - 4.6

 GA output shaft of gearbox 4.1, 4.2, 4.5

 GA1 First output shaft of manual transmission 4.3, 4.4, 4.6

 GA2 Second output shaft of gearbox 4.3, 4.4, 4.6

 G E input shaft

 K coupling switching element

 KEM reduction stage of electric machine EM, spur gear stage

KE 'reduction stage of electric machine EM, planetary gear stage

K1 separating clutch, friction clutch

 KA output constants of manual transmissions 4.1, 4.2, 4.5

 KA1 First output constant of manual transmission 4.3, 4.4, 4.6

 KA2 Second output constant of manual transmission 4.3, 4.4, 4.6

 L, U locking switch element

 M, M 'bridging switching element

N, 0 switching elements of double switching element S5 '

 P planetary gear of planetary gear PG

 PG planetary gear

 R ring gear of planetary gear PG

 S sun gear of planetary gear PG

 S1 double shift element of manual transmission 4.1 - 4.6

sr Double shift element of manual transmission 4.5

 S2 double shift element of manual transmission 4.1, 4.3, 4.6

 S2 'double shift element of manual transmission 4.2, 4.4

 S2 "Double shift element of manual transmission 4.5

 S3 Single shift element of manual transmission 4.1, 4.3, 4.6

S3 ' double shift element of manual transmission 4.5, 5.1

 S4 double shift element of superposition gear 5.1

 S4 'Single shift element of superposition gear 5.1

 S5 Single shift element of superposition gear 5.1

 S5 'double shift element of superposition gear 5.2

 T planet carrier of planetary gear PG

 U switching element of single switching element S5

VM internal combustion engine Z1 spur gear of gear G1

Z2 spur gear from gear G2

Z3 spur gear from gear G3

Z4 spur gear from gear G4

Z5 spur gear from gear G5

Claims

claims
1 . Hybrid drive (1 .1 - 1 .10) of a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine (VM) with a drive shaft (2), an electric machine (EM) operable as a motor and as a generator with a rotor (3), an automatic gearbox designed as a countershaft design (4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6) with an input shaft (GE) and at least one output shaft (GA; GA1, GA2), and a planetary gear superposition gear (5.1, 5.2) with two input elements (6, 7) and an output element (8), wherein the input shaft (GE) of the gearbox (4.1 - 4.6) via a controllable separating clutch (K1) with the drive shaft (2) of the internal combustion engine (VM) is connectable or fixedly connected to this and the input shaft ( GE) via a plurality of selectively switchable spur gear (Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4, Z5) with the output shaft (GA, GA1, GA2) can be brought into drive connection, and wherein the drive shaft (2) of the internal combustion engine (VM) and the rotor (3 ) of the electric machine (EM ) via the superposition gearing (5.1, 5.2) in terms of drive technology with the output shaft (GA; GA2) of the gearbox (4.1-4.6), characterized in that the superposition gear (5.1, 5.2) is arranged coaxially over a free end (9, 9 ' ) of the output shaft (GA; GA2), and in that the first input element (5.1; 6) of the superposition gearing (5.1, 5.2) is non-rotatably connected to a hollow shaft (10) which is arranged coaxially over the output shaft (GA; GA2) and which is used to couple the internal combustion engine (VM).
via a coupling switching element (K) rotatably with a loose wheel (1 1, 12) of the immediately axially adjacent spur gear (Z2, Z3) of the gearbox (4.1 - 4.6) and for bridging the superposition gear (5.1, 5.2) via a bridging switch element (M , M ') rotatably connected to the second input element (7) or the output element (8) of the superposition gearing (5.1, 5.2) is connectable, or that for bridging the superposition gearing (5.1, 5.2) via a bridging switch element (M, M') the second input element (7) of the superposition gearing (5.1, 5.2) is connectable to the output element (8) of the superposition gearing (5.1, 5.2), that the second input element (7) of the superposition gearing (5.1, 5.2) is permanently connected to the rotor (3) the electric machine (EM) is in drive connection, and that the output element (8) of the superposition gear (5.1, 5.2) is non-rotatably connected to the output shaft (GA, GA2).
2. Hybrid drive according to claim 1, characterized in that the first input element (6) of the superposition gearing (5.1, 5.2) or the hollow shaft (10) for switching between the rotor (3) of the electric machine (EM) and the output shaft (GA; GA2) effective first gear (E1) via a Arretierungsschaltelement (L, L ') fixed to the housing can be locked.
3. Hybrid drive according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the electric machine (EM) is arranged coaxially to the output shaft (GA, GA2) of the gearbox (4.1 - 4.6) axially outside next to the superposition gear (5.1, 5.2), and that of Rotor (3) of the electric machine (EM) directly rotatably connected to the second input element (7) of the superposition gear (5.1, 5.2) is connected.
4. Hybrid drive according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the electric machine (EM) is arranged coaxially to the output shaft (GA, GA2) of the gearbox (4.1 - 4.6) axially outboard of the superposition gear (5.1, 5.2), and that of rotor (3) of the electric machine (EM) via an axially between the superposition gear (5.1, 5.2) and the electric machine (EM) is arranged, designed as a planetary gear stage reduction stage Ε ') to the second input element (7) of the superposition gear (5.1, 5.2 ) is in drive connection.
5. Hybrid drive according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the electric machine (EM) axially parallel to the output shaft (GA GA2) of the gearbox (4.1 - 4.6) radially adjacent to the superposition gear (5.1, 5.2) is arranged, and that of Rotor (3) of the electric machine (EM) via a trained as Stirnradgetriebestufe reduction stage (K E ) with the second input element (7) of the superposition gear (5.1, 5.2) is in drive connection.
6. hybrid drive according to at least one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the fixed wheels (14 - 18, 19, 20) of all spur gears (Z1 - Z5) of the gearbox (4.1 - 4.6) rotatably on the input shaft (GE) are arranged ,
7. Hybrid drive according to claim 6, characterized in that the one gear (G2, G3) of the gearbox (4.2, 4.4), the spur gear (Z2, Z3) immediately is arranged axially adjacent to the superposition gear (5.1, 5.2), only via the coupling switching element (K) and the lock-up switching element (M, ') is switchable.
8. Hybrid drive according to claim 7, characterized in that also that gear (G4) of the gearbox (4.2, 4.4), whose spur gear (Z4) as the next axially adjacent to the superposition gear (5.1, 5.2) is arranged, via the associated gear shift element ( D ' ) and the lock-up switching element (M, M') is switchable, and that the respective gear shift element (D ') together with the coupling switching element (K) in a double switching element (S2') is summarized.
9. hybrid drive according to at least one of claims 1 to 8, characterized in that the coupling switching element (K) and / or the bridging switching element (M) and / or the Arretierungsschaltelement (L) is in each case designed as an unsynchronized jaw clutch.
1 0. A hybrid drive according to at least one of claims 1 to 9, characterized in that at least the lock-up switching element (Μ ') is designed as a friction clutch in order to perform in electrical traction train circuits as load circuits can.
1 1. Hybrid drive according to at least one of claims 1 to 1 0, characterized in that the bridging switching element (Μ ') and the Arretierungsschaltelement (U) are designed as friction clutches in order to perform train circuits and push circuits in electric driving as load circuits can.
1 2. Hybrid drive according to at least one of claims 1 to 1 1, characterized in that the superposition gear (5.1) as a simple planetary gear (PG) with a sun gear (S), a planetary gears (P) carrying the planet carrier (T) and a Ring gear (R) is formed, the sun gear (S) rotatably connected to the hollow shaft (1 0) first input element (6) whose planet carrier (T) rotatably connected to the output shaft (GA GA2) of the gearbox (4.1 - 4.6) connected output element (8), and whose ring gear (R) with the the rotor (3) of the electric machine (EM) in drive connection standing second input element (7) of the superposition gearing (5.1).
1 3. Hybrid drive according to claim 12, characterized in that the bridging switching element (M, M ' ) and the Arretierungsschaltelement (L, U) are arranged axially one behind the other between the coupling switching element (K) and the superposition gear (5.1).
14. Hybrid drive according to claim 12 or 1 3, characterized in that the planet carrier (T) of the superposition gearing (5.1) for producing a drive-free drive connection between the drive shaft (2) of the internal combustion engine (VM) and the rotor (3) of the electric machine (EM ) is connected via a disengageable and engageable disconnecting switching element (U) with the output shaft (GA, GA2) of the gearbox (4.1 - 4.6).
1 5. Hybrid drive according to at least one of claims 1 to 1 1, characterized in that the superposition gear (5.2) as a simple planetary gear (PG) with a sun gear (S), a planetary gears (P) carrying the planet carrier (T) and a Ring gear (R) is formed, the sun gear (S) with the rotor (3) of the electric machine (EM) in driving connection second input element (7), the planet carrier (T) rotatably connected to the output shaft (GA, GA2) of the gearbox (4.1 - 4.6) connected output element (8), and the ring gear (R) rotatably connected to the hollow shaft (1 0) connected to the first input element (6) of the superposition gearing (5.2).
1 6. Hybrid drive according to claim 15, characterized in that the lock-up switching element (Μ ') and the Arretierungsschaltelement (U) radially staggered coaxial next to and / or above the superposition gear (5.2) are arranged.
1 7. Hybrid drive according to claim 15 or 1 6, characterized in that the rotor (3) of the electric machine (EM) or the output gear (24) of the reduction stage (K E M) for producing a power take-off drive connection between the drive shaft (2) of the internal combustion engine (VM) and the rotor (3) of the electric machine (EM) via a double switching element (S5) alternately with the ring gear (R) or with the sun gear (S) of the superposition gear (5.2) is connectable.
18. A method for controlling a hybrid drive (1 .1 - 1 .10) according to one of claims 1 to 17, characterized in that in the electric driving mode, the previously started internal combustion engine (VM) is coupled with the following steps: a) engagement of the gearshift clutch ( A) the spur gear stage (Z1) of the lowest gear (G1) of the gearbox (4.1 - 4.6),
b) load transfer by the internal combustion engine (VM) by partially closing the clutch (K1) and simultaneous load reduction of the electric machine (EM), c) load-free opening of the switching element (L, U; M, M ') in the superposition gear (5.1, 5.2) engaged gear (E1, E2),
d) synchronizing the coupling switching element (K) by a corresponding speed change of the electric machine (EM) and load-free closing of the coupling switching element (K),
e) load structure of the electric machine (EM) and simultaneous load reduction of the internal combustion engine (VM),
f) load-free disengagement of the gearshift clutch (A) of the spur gear (Z1) of the lowest gear (G1) of the gearbox (4.1 - 4.6),
g) synchronizing the separating clutch (K1) by a corresponding speed change of the electric machine (EM) and / or the internal combustion engine (VM), h) complete closing of the separating clutch (K1) and transition to the EDA driving mode.
EP14734462.6A 2013-08-01 2014-06-30 Hybrid drive of a motor vehicle and method for controlling same Pending EP3027450A1 (en)

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DE102013215114.4A DE102013215114A1 (en) 2013-08-01 2013-08-01 Hybrid drive of a motor vehicle
PCT/EP2014/063794 WO2015014555A1 (en) 2013-08-01 2014-06-30 Hybrid drive of a motor vehicle and method for controlling same

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EP (1) EP3027450A1 (en)
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US9764630B2 (en) 2017-09-19
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US20160176280A1 (en) 2016-06-23
CN105431317A (en) 2016-03-23
DE102013215114A1 (en) 2015-02-05

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