EP2814527A1 - Compositions and improved soft tissue replacement methods - Google Patents

Compositions and improved soft tissue replacement methods

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Publication number
EP2814527A1
EP2814527A1 EP20130707962 EP13707962A EP2814527A1 EP 2814527 A1 EP2814527 A1 EP 2814527A1 EP 20130707962 EP20130707962 EP 20130707962 EP 13707962 A EP13707962 A EP 13707962A EP 2814527 A1 EP2814527 A1 EP 2814527A1
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condition
pa
ml
mpa
compound
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EP20130707962
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German (de)
French (fr)
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Epps Dennis E. Van
Guang-Liang Jiang
Adam L. Collette
Rebecca L. Horan
Jing Song Chen
Gregory H. Altman
Wha-Bin Im
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Allergan Inc
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Allergan Inc
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L27/00Materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses
    • A61L27/14Macromolecular materials
    • A61L27/22Polypeptides or derivatives thereof, e.g. degradation products
    • A61L27/227Other specific proteins or polypeptides not covered by A61L27/222, A61L27/225 or A61L27/24
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L27/00Materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses
    • A61L27/36Materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses containing ingredients of undetermined constitution or reaction products thereof, e.g. transplant tissue, natural bone, extracellular matrix
    • A61L27/3604Materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses containing ingredients of undetermined constitution or reaction products thereof, e.g. transplant tissue, natural bone, extracellular matrix characterised by the human or animal origin of the biological material, e.g. hair, fascia, fish scales, silk, shellac, pericardium, pleura, renal tissue, amniotic membrane, parenchymal tissue, fetal tissue, muscle tissue, fat tissue, enamel
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L27/00Materials for grafts or prostheses or for coating grafts or prostheses
    • A61L27/50Materials characterised by their function or physical properties, e.g. injectable or lubricating compositions, shape-memory materials, surface modified materials
    • A61L27/54Biologically active materials, e.g. therapeutic substances
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
    • A61LMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR STERILISING MATERIALS OR OBJECTS IN GENERAL; DISINFECTION, STERILISATION, OR DEODORISATION OF AIR; CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES; MATERIALS FOR BANDAGES, DRESSINGS, ABSORBENT PADS, OR SURGICAL ARTICLES
    • A61L2300/00Biologically active materials used in bandages, wound dressings, absorbent pads or medical devices
    • A61L2300/40Biologically active materials used in bandages, wound dressings, absorbent pads or medical devices characterised by a specific therapeutic activity or mode of action
    • A61L2300/412Tissue-regenerating or healing or proliferative agents

Abstract

The specification discloses compositions and methods for treating a soft tissue defect of an individual.

Description

COMPOSITIONS AND IMPROVED SOFT TISSUE REPLACEMENT METHODS

CROSS REFERENCE

[001] This application claims priority pursuant to 35 U.S.C. § 1 19(e) to US Provisional Patent Application No. 61/445,928, filed February 23, 201 1 , and is a continuation-in-part pursuant to 35 U.S.C. § 120 to U.S. Non-Provisional Patent Application No. 13,193,744, filed on July 29, 201 1 , which claims priority to US Provisional Patent Application 61/375,144, filed on August 19, 2010, each of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

BACKGROUND

[002] Soft tissue replacement methods are commonly used for a wide variety of clinical and cosmetic purposes. One use involves reconstructive applications that rebuild and restore a body part or structure to correct deformities from congenital anomalies, trauma, cancer, infections, disease, or medication side effects. The replacement tissue serves to support surrounding tissue and to maintain the normal appearance of the body. The restoration of this normal appearance has an extremely beneficial psychological effect on post-operative patients, alleviating much of the shock and depression that often follows extensive surgical procedures. Another use involves augmentation applications that alter a body part or structure usually to improve its cosmetic or aesthetic appearance. Augmentation of the appearance also has beneficial psychological effects that improve self-esteem, well-being, and confidence of an individual. A third use involves structural applications that provide support to a body part or structure to improve its function, thereby alleviating a symptom associated with a disorder involving soft tissue loss. Examples of such disorders include, without limitation, stress urinary incontinence, fecal incontinence, vocal cord paralysis, vocal atrophy, vocal implantation, intubation trauma, post-hemilaryngectomy defects, irradiation damage, lumbar disc repair, and plantar footpad repair.

[003] Soft tissue replacement methods currently rely on two general approaches: 1 ) implantation of artificial or alloplastic fillers like soft tissue implants, and injectable polymers and hydrogels; and 2) transplantation of tissue like tissue flaps and autologous tissue transfers. A drawback to the use of artificial or alloplastic fillers it that these inorganic materials lack any metabolic activity, do not become physiologically incorporated into the body, and as such, surrounding tissue and blood supply does not develop within the implanted material. In addition, artificial or alloplastic fillers risk migration and/or extrusion from the implant site. Furthermore, many of these fillers produce only temporary effects because the body rapidly reabsorbs them. Fillers providing long-term effects frequently induce a foreign body response resulting in formation of an avascular, fibrous capsule around the filler, which limits performance, distorts the aesthetic appearance of the surrounding area, and can cause pain to the individual. Furthermore, long-term fillers, like soft tissue implants, do not remodel with the aging tissue resulting in a material that may not be aesthetically acceptable as the patient's tissues undergo the normal physiologic changes associated with aging.

[004] Although the use of transplanted tissue avoids the problems associated with artificial or alloplastic fillers, drawbacks are also associated with these procedures. In these procedures, loss of transplanted tissue volume over time as a result of its resorption by the body is a major problem. For example, transplantation of adipose tissue generally results in a loss of 20% to 90% of its volume within the first year. This tissue loss is unpredictable and is a result of poor survival and/or regeneration from progenitor cells in the transplanted tissue due to necrosis and a lack of vascular formation. With respect to adipose tissue, tissue breakdown is associated with traumatic rupture of the cells, avascular necrosis, apoptosis of the adipocytes, inflammation secondary to apoptosis, fibrosis and contraction of the graft, and/or delipidation of the adipocytes with subsequent volume loss. Failed tissue grafts sometime produce stellate and irregular nodules with calcifications. As such, transplanted tissue methods are usually performed two or three times to obtain the desired effect, resulting in massive time and cost.

[005] One of the major underlying causes for tissue breakdown seen in transplanted tissue methods is the lack of a blood supply sufficient to support the transplanted tissue. For example, alleviation of tissue ischemia is critically dependent upon formation of new blood vessels. The growth of new blood vessels and associated vasculature or repair or remodeling of existing blood vessels and associated vasculature provides collateral circulation in and around an ischemic area, improves blood flow, and alleviates the symptoms caused by the ischemia. Thus, compositions and methods that promote new blood vessel formation within a transplanted tissue are needed as this will improve the survival rate of such tissues, thereby achieving reliable long-term survival of grafted tissues.

[006] The present specification provides novel compositions and soft tissue replacement methods using compositions that reduce tissue volume loss by increasing the survival rate of the transplanted tissue. This improved survival rate is achieved by administering a compound that promotes new blood vessel formation, thereby ensuring that a blood supply adequate to support the transplanted tissue is established.

BRIEF SUMMARY

[007] Thus, aspects of the present specification disclose a composition comprising adipose tissue, a silk fibroin material, and a compound having the structure of formula I, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable amine salt thereof,

wherein each dashed line represents the presence or absence of a bond; R1 , R2 and R3 are each independently selected from H or Ci-6 alkyl; R6 is CO2H, CO2R7, CON(R7)2, CONHCH2CH2OH, CON(CH2CH2OH)2, CH2OR7, P(O)(OR7)2, or

; R7 is H or Ci-6 hydrocarbyl; X and Y are each independently selected from H, OH, =O, CI, Br, I, or CF3; Z1 and Z2 are each independently selected from CH or N; W1 and W2 are each independently selected from CH, CH2, optionally substituted aryl, or optionally substituted heteroaryl; m is 0, 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6; o is 0, 1 , 2, 3, 4; p is 0 or 1 ; and V is Ci-6 alkyl, optionally substituted aryl, or optionally substituted heteroaryl.

[008] Other aspects of the present specification disclose a composition comprising adipose tissue, a silk fibroin material, and a compound having the structure of formula VI, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable amine salt thereof

wherein each dashed line represents the presence or absence of a bond; Z2 and Z3 are independently CH or N; Z1, Z4, Z5, and Z6 are each independently CR9, CHR9, NH, O, or S; A is -(CH2)6-, or cis -CH2CH=CH-(CH2)3-, wherein 1 or 2 carbons may be substituted with S or O; or A is -(CH2)m-Ar-(CH2)0- wherein Ar is optionally substituted aryl or optionally substituted heteroaryl, the sum of m and o is from 1 , 2, 3, or 4, and wherein one CH2 may be substituted with S or O; R8 is H, hydrocarbyl, or hydrocarbyl- OH; R9 is independently H, Ci-6 alkyl, OH, F, CI, Br, I, or O; J is Ci-6 alkyl, Ci-6 -O-alkyl, C=O, or CHOH; E is CM2 alkyl, R10, or -Y- R10 wherein Y is CH2, S, or O, and R10 is optionally substituted aryl or optionally substituted heteroaryl; and n is 0 or 1 .

[009] Other aspects of the present specification disclose a composition comprising adipose tissue, a silk fibroin material, and a compound having the structure of formula IX

wherein X1 and X5 are independently CH or N; X7 is NH, O, or S; X8 and X9 are independently CH or N; R13 is optionally substituted aryl or optionally substituted heteroaryl; and R14 is Ci-6 alkyl, optionally substituted aryl, or optionally substituted heteroaryl.

[010] Other aspects of the present specification disclose a composition comprising adipose tissue, a silk fibroin material, and a compound having the structure of compound 24, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable amine salt thereof.

Compound 24

[011] Yet other aspects of the present specification disclose a method of treating a soft tissue condition of an individual, the method comprising the step of administering a composition disclosed herein to a site of the soft tissue condition, wherein administration of the composition promotes formation of a blood supply sufficient to support the transplanted tissue, thereby treating the soft tissue site. Non-limiting examples of a soft tissue condition include breast imperfection, defect, disease and/or disorder, such as, e.g., a breast augmentation, a breast reconstruction micromastia, thoracic hypoplasia, Poland's syndrome, defects due to implant complications like capsular contraction and/or rupture; a facial imperfection, defect, disease or disorder, such as, e.g., a facial augmentation, a facial reconstruction, Parry-Romberg syndrome, lupus erythematosus profundus, dermal divots, sunken cheeks, thin lips, nasal imperfections or defects, retro-orbital imperfections or defects, a facial fold, line and/or wrinkle like a glabellar line, a nasolabial line, a perioral line, and/or a marionette line, and/or other contour deformities or imperfections of the face; a neck imperfection, defect, disease or disorder; a skin imperfection, defect, disease and/or disorder; other soft tissue imperfections, defects, diseases and/or disorders, such as, e.g., an augmentation or a reconstruction of the upper arm, lower arm, hand, shoulder, back, torso including abdomen, buttocks, upper leg, lower leg including calves, foot including plantar fat pad, eye, genitals, or other body part, region or area, or a disease or disorder affecting these body parts, regions or areas; urinary incontinence, fecal incontinence, other forms of incontinence; and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

[012] Still other aspects of the present specification disclose a method of treating a soft tissue condition of an individual, the method comprising the steps of a) administering the adipose tissue to a site of the soft tissue condition; b) administering a composition comprising a compound as disclosed herein to the site of the soft tissue condition; and c) administering a composition comprising a silk fibroin material to the site of the soft tissue condition, wherein administration of the compound promotes formation of a blood supply sufficient to support the transplanted tissue, thereby treating the soft tissue site. In certain embodiments, the silk fibroin can aid in treating a soft tissue condition by serving one or more functions selected from the group consisting a filling a tissue space, providing a template for tissue reconstruction, providing a template for tissue regeneration, providing a scaffold for cell ingrowth, providing a scaffold for tissue engineering, providing a drug delivery platform, and a combination thereof. Non-limiting examples of a soft tissue condition include those described above.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[013] Figures 1 -7 illustrate possible ways to prepare compounds disclosed herein.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[014] Insufficient blood vessel formation in a repairing or otherwise metabolically active tissue results in inadequate delivery of oxygen, nutrients, and other substances necessary to establish essential physiological functions to the area and promote wound healing. The formation of blood vessels within a tissue may occur by angiogenesis and/or vasculogenesis. As used herein, the term "angiogenesis" refers to a physiological process involving the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels and includes sprouting angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessel by sprouting off existing ones, and splitting angiogenesis (intussusception), the formation of new blood vessel by splitting off existing ones. As used herein, the term "vasculogenesis" refers to a physiological process involving the de novo production of new blood-vessels by proliferating endothelial stem cells, and as such, the formation of new blood vessels when there were no pre-existing ones.

[015] Blood vessel formation, whether angiogenesis or vasculogenesis, requires signals from growth factors and other proteins that direct and control the process, such as, e.g., fibroblast growth factors (like FGF-1 and FGF-2), vascular endothelial growth factors (like VEGF-A and VEGF-C), angiopoietins (like Ang-1 and Ang-2), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 ) (also known as chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL-2)), transformation growth factor betas (TGF-βΙ , TGF- 2, TGF- 3, and TGF- 4), vascular cell adhesion molecules (like VCAM-1 ), matrix metalloproteinases (like MMP-2 and MPP-9), integrins, cadherins, plasminogen activators, plasminogen activator inhibitors, and ephrin.

[016] Of the factors listed above, two of the more critical factors for new blood vessel formation are FGF-2 and VEGF. One of the most important functions of FGF-2 (or bFGF) is the promotion of endothelial cell proliferation and the physical organization of endothelial cells into tube-like structures, thus promoting angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. FGF-2 is a more potent factor in new blood vessel formation than VEGF or PDGF. As well as stimulating blood vessel growth, FGF-2 is an important factor in wound healing. This factor stimulates proliferation of fibroblasts and endothelial cells that give rise to new vessel formation and developing granulation tissue; both increase blood supply and fill up a wound space/cavity early in the wound-healing process.

[017] VEGF is another major contributor to new blood vessel formation. VEGF causes a massive signaling cascade in endothelial cells resulting in the release of many other factors known to be responsible for new blood vessel formation. For example, binding to VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) starts a tyrosine kinase signaling cascade that stimulates the production of factors that variously stimulate vessel permeability (eNOS, producing NO), proliferation/survival (FGF-2), migration (ICAMsA/CAMs/MMPs) and finally differentiation into mature blood vessels. In addition, in vitro studies demonstrated that upon stimulation by VEGF and FGF-2, endothelial cells would proliferate, migrate, and eventually form tube structures resembling capillaries.

[018] The compounds disclosed herein, and compositions comprising such compounds, upregulate both FGF-2 and VEGF (see Example 2). In addition, both incisional and ulcer wound models demonstrate that the upregulation of FGF-2 and VEGF results in an improved wound healing response (see Example 2).

[019] Without wishing to be bound by any particular theory, the compounds, compositions and methods disclosed herein increase the survival rate of transplanted tissue by promoting new blood vessel formation within the transplanted tissue. Administration of a compound, either as a composition with the transplanted tissue or as a prior or subsequent administration to the transplantation procedure, upregulate factors essential to new blood vessel formation, like FGF-2 and VEGF. This upregulation initiates the signaling cascade in endothelial cells responsible for the formation of new blood vessel. This initiation results in the formation of new blood vessels that, in turn, provide oxygen, nutrients, and other substances necessary to establish essential physiological functions to the transplanted tissue. This adequate blood supply supports the establishment, growth and survival of the transplanted tissue. Thus, the compounds, compositions and methods disclosed herein ameliorate or prevent one of the major underlying causes for the tissue breakdown of transplanted tissue, namely the lack of a blood supply sufficient to support the transplanted tissue. In addition, the compounds and compositions disclosed herein are superior to the mere addition of factors critical to new blood vessel formation, like FGF-2 and VEGF, because these small molecules are more stable and less costly then these protein- based therapies. Furthermore, formation of new blood vessels can soften scar tissue, capsular contracture by facilitating the remolding of fibrous tissue into normal soft tissue typical of the affected region.

[020] Aspects of the present specification provide, in part, a composition comprising adipose tissue. As used herein, the term "adipose tissue" is synonymous with "fat" or "fatty tissue" and refers to a loose fibrous connective tissue comprising fat cells (adipocytes) and multiple types of regenerative cells. Adipose tissue may comprise brown and/or white adipose tissue taken from any body site, such as, e.g., subcutaneous, omental/visceral, interscapular, or mediastinal. It may be obtained from any organism having adipose tissue, or the adipose tissue used may be from a primary cell culture or an immortalized cell line.

[021] Adipose tissue may be collected from the same individual who is undergoing the soft tissue replacement procedure (autograft), from a donor individual who is not the same individual as the one undergoing the soft tissue replacement procedure (allograft), or from an animal source (xenograft). As used herein, the term "autotransplantation" refers to the transplantation of organs, tissues, or cells from one part of the body to another part in the same individual, i.e., the donor and recipient are the same individual. Tissue transplanted by such "autologous" procedures is referred to as an autograft or autotransplant. As used herein, the term "allotransplantation" refers to the transplantation of organs, tissues, or cells from a donor to a recipient, where the donor and recipient are different individuals, but of the same species. Tissue transplanted by such "allologous" procedures is referred to as an allograft or allotransplant. As used herein, the term "xenotransplantation" refers to the transplantation of organs, tissues, or cells from a donor to a recipient, where the donor is of a different species as the recipient. Tissue transplanted by such "xenologous" procedures is referred to as a xenograft or xenotransplant.

[022] Adipose tissue can be collected by any procedure that can harvest adipose tissue useful for the compositions and methods disclosed herein, including, without limitation a liposuction (lipoplasty) procedure or a lipectomy procedure. Procedures useful for collecting adipose tissue should minimize the trauma and manipulation associated with adipose tissue removed. Adipose tissue may be harvested from any suitable region, including, without limitation, a mammary region, an abdominal region, a thigh region, a flank region, a gluteal region, a trochanter region, or a gonadal region. Procedures useful for collecting adipose tissue are well known to a person of ordinary skill in the art. The selected procedures may be performed concomitantly with liposculpture.

[023] A liposuction procedure harvests adipose tissue by aspirating the tissue using a cannula. The cannula may be connected to a syringe for manual aspiration or to a power assisted suction device, like an aspirator, adapted to collect the adipose tissue into a vacuum bottle. A liposuction procedure does not maintain an intact blood supply of the harvested tissue. The syringe may be a 10, 20 or 60 ml_ syringe fitted with a 12 or 14 gauge cannula. Non-limiting examples of liposuction procedures include suction- assisted liposuction (SAL), ultrasound-assisted liposuction (UAL), power-assisted liposuction (PAL), twin-cannula (assisted) liposuction (TCAL or TCL), or external ultrasound-assisted liposuction (XUAL or EUAL), or water-assisted liposuction (WAL). In addition, the liposuction procedures listed above can be used with any of the following procedures that vary the amount of fluid injected during the procedure, such as, e.g., dry liposuction, wet liposuction, super-wet liposuction, tumescent liposuction, or laser-assisted liposuction. An autologous soft tissue transfer procedure typically uses adipose tissue collected from a liposuction procedure.

[024] Although the harvested tissue may be used directly to make the disclosed compositions, it is more typically processed to purify and/or enrich for healthy adipocytes and regenerative cells. For example, the harvested adipose tissue may be separated from any debris and/or contaminants such as, e.g., blood, serum, proteases, lipases, lipids and other oils, and/or other bodily fluids; tumescent fluid and/or other materials used in the liposuction procedure; and/or other impurities suctioned during the procedure. Methods useful in separating debris and/or contaminants from adipose tissue useful to make the disclosed compositions, including, without limitation, centrifugation, sedimentation, filtration, and/or absorption. In addition, or alternatively, the harvested adipose tissue may be processed by washing in a physiological buffer like saline to remove any debris and/or contaminants.

[025] A lipectomy procedure harvests adipose tissue by surgical excision from a donor site in a manner that minimizes damage to the blood supply of the tissue using standard surgical operative procedures. This harvested tissue is then implanted into the region needing the soft tissue replacement. A tissue flap or tissue graft procedure typically uses adipose tissue collected from a lipectomy procedure. A tissue flap is a section of living tissue that maintained its blood supply as the tissue is moved from one area of the body to another.

[026] A local flap uses a piece of skin and underlying tissue that lie adjacent to the wound, including adipose tissue. The flap remains attached at one end so that it continues to be nourished by its original blood supply, and is repositioned over the wounded area. A regional flap uses a section of tissue that is attached by a specific blood vessel. When the flap is lifted, it needs only a very narrow attachment to the original site to receive its nourishing blood supply from the tethered artery and vein. A musculocutaneous flap, also called a muscle and skin flap, is used when the area to be covered needs more bulk and a more robust blood supply. Musculocutaneous flaps are often used in breast reconstruction to rebuild a breast after mastectomy. As an example, the transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous flap (TRAM flap) is a tissue flap procedure that uses muscle, fat and skin from an abdomen to create a new breast mound after a mastectomy. This type of flap remains "tethered" to its original blood supply. In a bone/soft tissue flap, bone, along with the overlying skin, is transferred to the wounded area, carrying its own blood supply.

[027] Typically, a wound that is wide and difficult or impossible to close directly may be treated with a skin graft. A skin graft is a patch of healthy skin that is taken from one area of the body, called the "donor site," and used to cover another area where skin is missing or damaged. There are three basic types of skin grafts. A split-thickness skin graft, commonly used to treat burn wounds, uses only the layers of skin closest to the surface. A full-thickness skin graft might be used to treat a burn wound that is deep and large, or to cover jointed areas where maximum skin elasticity and movement are needed. As its name implies, a full-thickness (all layers) section of skin from the donor site are lifted. A composite graft is used when the wound to be covered needs more underlying support, as with skin cancer on the nose. A composite graft requires lifting all the layers of skin, adipose tissue, and sometimes the underlying cartilage from the donor site.

[028] The amount of adipose tissue collected will typically vary from individual to individual and can depend on a number of factors including, but not limited to, amount of adipose tissue required for the soft tissue replacement method, aesthetic expectations, age, body habitus, coagulation profile, hemodynamic stability, comorbidities, and physician preference. A liposuction procedure may harvest from about 1 ml_ to about 1500 ml_ of adipose tissue. A lipectomy procedure typically harvests about 1 g to about 5,000 g.

[029] Adipose tissue comprises multiple regenerative cells. As used herein, the term "regenerative cell" refers to any cells that cause or contribute to complete or partial regeneration, restoration, or substitution of structure or function of an organ, tissue, or physiologic unit or system to thereby provide a therapeutic, structural or cosmetic benefit. Examples of regenerative cells include stem cells, progenitor cells, and precursor cells. As used herein, the term "stem cell" refers to a multipotent regenerative cell with the potential to differentiate into a variety of other cell types that perform one or more specific functions and has the ability to self-renew. Some of the stem cells disclosed herein may be pluripotent. Exemplary examples of stem cells include, without limitation, adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs; adipose-derived stromal cells), endothelial-derived stem cells (ESCs), hemopoietic stem cells (HSCs), and mesenchyma stem cells (MSCs). As used herein, the term "progenitor cell" refers to an oligopotent regenerative cell with the potential to differentiate into more than one cell type, or a unipotent regenerative cell with the potential to differentiate into only a single cell type, that performs one or more specific functions and has limited or no ability to self-renew. Exemplary examples of progenitor cells include, without limitation, endothelial progenitor cells, keratinocytes, monoblasts, myoblasts, and pericytes. As used herein, the term "precursor cell" refers to a unipotent regenerative cell with the potential to differentiate into one cell type that performs one or more specific functions and may retain extensive proliferative capacity that enables the cells to proliferate under appropriate conditions. Exemplary examples of precursor cells include, without limitation, adipoblast (lipoblast or preadipocytes), de-differentiated adipocytes, angioblasts, endothelial precursor cells, fibroblasts, lymphoblasts, and macrophages.

[030] Harvested adipose tissue can be supplemented with regenerative cells such as, e.g., stem cells, progenitor cells, and precursor cells. Regenerative cells may promote new blood vessel formation, diminish necrosis, and/or promote a supportive microenvironment in the transplanted tissue, thereby improving survivability of the transplanted tissue. Regenerative cells can be obtained from a variety of sources. For example, adipose tissue is rich in regenerative cells that have the ability to restore and reconstruct various soft tissue defects in response to local differentiation clues from the recipient site. As such, a portion of the collected adipose tissue may be further processed in order to purify regenerative cells that can then be added back to the remainder of the harvested adipose tissue in order to enrich this material for these cells. Exemplary methods describing such cell enrichment procedures can be found in, e.g., U.S. Patent Publication 2005/0025755, Yoshimura, et al., Characterization of Freshly Isolated and Cultured Cells Derived from the Fatty and Fluid Portions of liposuction Aspirates, J. Cell. Physiol. 208: 101 1 -1041 (2006); Yoshimura, et al., Cell-Assisted Lipotransfer for Facial Lipoatrophy: Effects of Clinical Use of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells, Dermatol. Surg. 34: 1 178-1 185 (2008); Yoshimura, et al., Cell-Assisted Lipotransfer for Cosmetic Breast Augmentation: Supportive Use of Adipose-Derived Stem/Stromal Cells, Aesth. Plast. Surg. 32: 48-55 (2008); each of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[031] In addition, harvested adipose tissue can be supplemented with regenerative cells obtained from cell cultures, such as, e.g., primary cell cultures and established cell cultures. For example, a portion of harvested adipose tissue from an individual can be cultured in a manner to produce primary cell cultures enriched for regenerative cells. Alternatively, established cell lines derived from regenerative cells from adipose tissue, or another tissue source, can be cultured, harvested, and added to adipose tissue collected from an individual. Exemplary methods describing such cell culture compositions and procedures can be found in, e.g., U.S. Patent Publication 2009/0246182; U.S. Patent Publication 2009/0317367; U.S. Patent Publication 2008/0299213; Rehman, et al., Secretion of Angiogenic and Antiapoptotic Factors by Human Adipose Stromal Cells, Circulation, 109: r52-r58 (2004); Kilroy, et al., Cytokine Profile of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells: Expression of Angiogenic, Hematopoietic, and Pro-Inflammatory Factors, J. Cell. Physiol., 212: 702-709 (2007); each of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[032] Harvested adipose tissue may be immediately used to make the compositions disclosed herein. Alternatively, harvested adipose tissue, whether unprocessed or processed, may be stored for use at some future date. Harvested tissue is typically stored using a slow freezing method of the tissue to -20 °C, with or without cryopreservatives. Stored adipose tissue can typically be stored for at least 6 months.

[033] Aspects of the present specification provide, in part, a composition comprising a compound having the structure of formula I, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable amine salt thereof,

wherein each dashed line represents the presence or absence of a bond; R1 , R2 and R3 are each independently selected from H or Ci-6 alkyl; R6 is CO2H, CO2R7, CON(R7)2, CONHCH2CH2OH, CON(CH2CH2OH)2, CH2OR7, P(O)(OR7)2, or ; R7 is H or Ci-6 hydrocarbyl; X and Y are each independently selected from H, OH, =O, CI, Br, I, or CF3; Z1 and Z2 are each independently selected from CH or N; W1 and W2 are each independently selected from CH, CH2, optionally substituted aryl, or optionally substituted heteroaryl; m is 0, 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6; o is 0, 1 , 2, 3, 4; p is 0 or 1 ; and V is Ci-6 alkyl, optionally substituted aryl, or optionally substituted heteroaryl.

[034] The method of preparing the compounds represented by formula I can be found in, e.g., Donde, et el., 10,10-Dialkyl Prostanoic Acid Derivatives as Agents for Lowering Intraocular Pressure, U.S. Patent 6,875,787; Donde, et el., 10,10-Dialkyl Prostanoic Acid Derivatives as Agents for Lowering Intraocular Pressure, U.S. Patent Publication 2004/0235958; Donde, et al., Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, U.S. Patent Publication 2005/0164992, each of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. See also companion applications Jiang, et al., Compositions and Methods for Skin Repair, U.S. Provisional Patent Application 61/374,439; and Jiang, et al., Compositions and Methods for Treating Corneal Haze, U.S. Provisional Patent Application 61/369,232; each of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[035] Unless otherwise indicated, any reference to a compound herein by structure, name, or any other means, includes pharmaceutically acceptable salts, such as sodium, potassium, and ammonium salts; prodrugs, such as ester prodrugs; alternate solid forms, such as polymorphs, solvates, hydrates, etc.; tautomers; or any other chemical species that may rapidly convert to a compound described herein under conditions in which the compounds are used as described herein.

[036] Unless stereochemistry is unambiguously depicted, any structure or name for a compound used herein may refer to any stereoisomer or any mixture of stereoisomers.

[037] Unless otherwise indicated, when a compound or chemical structural feature such as aryl is referred to as being "optionally substituted," it includes a feature that has no substituents (i.e. "unsubstituted"), or a feature that is "substituted," meaning that the feature has one or more substituents. The term "substituent" has the ordinary meaning known to one of ordinary skill in the art, and includes a moiety that replaces one or more hydrogen atoms attached to a parent compound or structural feature. In some embodiments, the substituent may be an ordinary organic moiety known in the art, which may have a molecular weight (e.g. the sum of the atomic masses of the atoms of the substituent) of 15 g/mol to 50 g/mol, 15 g/mol to 100 g/mol, 15 g/mol to 150 g/mol,15 g/mol to 200 g/mol, 15 g/mol to 300 g/mol, or 15 g/mol to 500 g/mol. In some embodiments, the substituent comprises: 0-30, 0-20, 0-10, or 0-5 carbon atoms; and 0- 30, 0-20, 0-10, or 0-5 heteroatoms independently selected from: N, O, S, Si, F, CI, Br, or I; provided that the substituent comprises at least one atom selected from: C, N, O, S, Si, F, CI, Br, or I. In some embodiments, a substituent may consist of 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1 , or 12 non-hydrogen atoms and any necessary hydrogen atoms. Some non-hydrogen atoms may include C, N, O, S, Si, F, CI, Br, I, P, etc.

[038] Examples of substituents include, but are not limited to, alkyi, alkenyl, alkynyl, heteroalkyl, heteroalkenyl, heteroalkynyl, aryl, heteroaryl, hydroxy, alkoxy, aryloxy, acyl, acyloxy, alkylcarboxylate, carboxylate, thiol, alkylthio, cyano, halo, thiocarbonyl, O- carbamyl, N-carbamyl, O-thiocarbamyl, N-thiocarbamyl, C-amido, N-amido, S- sulfonamido, N-sulfonamido, isocyanato, thiocyanato, isothiocyanato, nitro, silyl, sulfenyl, sulfinyl, sulfonyl, haloalkyl, haloalkoxyl, trihalomethanesulfonyl, trihalomethanesulfonamido, amino, etc., or a combination thereof. The term "combination thereof in the previous list indicates that substituents may also be a combination of any of the above substituents, wherein a hydrogen atom of one substituent is replaced by another substituent. For example, substituents may be a combination of alkyi and aryl (e.g. CH2-phenyl, C2H -heteraryl, etc.), alkyi and alkoxy (e.g. CH2OCH2), alkyi and halo (e.g. C2H4CI, C3H6F, etc.), acyl and hydroxyl (e.g. - COCH2OH), etc.

[039] In some embodiments, a substituent may be RA, F, CI, CN, ORA, CF3, NO2, NRA B, CORA, CO2RA, OCORA, NRACORB, CONRARB, etc.

[040] Each RA may independently be H, or Ci-12 alkyl, including: linear or branched alkyl having a formula CaHa+i , or cycloalkyl having a formula CaHa-i , wherein a is 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1 , or 12, such as linear or branched alkyl of a formula: CH3, C2H5, C3H7, C4H9, C5H11 , C6Hi3, C7H15, C8Hi7, C9H19, C10H21 , etc., or cycloalkyl of a formula: C3H5, C4H7, C5H9, ΟβΗη , C7Hi 3, CsH-is, CgH i7, C10H19, etc.

[041] Each RB may independently be H, or Ci-12 alkyl, including: linear or branched alkyl having a formula CaHa+1 , or cycloalkyl having a formula CaHa, wherein a is 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1 , or 12, such as linear or branched alkyl of a formula: CH3, C2H5, C3H7, C4H9, C5H11 , C6Hi3, C8Hi7, C7Hi5, C9H19, CioH2i , etc., or cycloalkyl of a formula: C3H5, C4H7, C5H9, ΟβΗη , C7Hi 3, CsH-is, CgH i7, C10H19, etc.

[042] For convenience, the term "molecular weight" is used with respect to a moiety or part of a molecule to indicate the sum of the atomic masses of the atoms in the moiety or part of a molecule, even though it may not be a complete molecule.

[043] Structures associated with some of the chemical names referred to herein are depicted below. These structures may be unsubstituted, as shown below, or a substituent may independently be in any position normally occupied by a hydrogen atom when the structure is unsubstituted. Unless a point of attachment is indicated by

L attachment may occur at any position normally occupied by a hydrogen atom.

thienyl

[044] As used herein, the term "hydrocarbyl" has the broadest meaning generally understood in the art, and may include a moiety composed of carbon and hydrogen. Some examples may include alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, aryl, etc., and combinations thereof, and may be linear, branched, cyclic, or a combination thereof. Hydrocarbyl may be bonded to any other number of moieties (e.g. be bonded to 1 other group, such as - CH3, -CH=CH2, etc.; 2 other groups, such as -phenyl-, -C≡C-, etc.; or any number of other groups) that the structure may bear, and in some embodiments, may contain from one to thirty-five carbon atoms. Examples of hydrocarbyl groups include but are not limited to Ci alkyl, C2 alkyl, C2 alkenyl, C2 alkynyl, C3 alkyl, C3 alkenyl, C3 alkynyl, C4 alkyl, C4 alkenyl, C4 alkynyl, C5 alkyl, C5 alkenyl, C5 alkynyl, Ce alkyl, Ce alkenyl, Ce alkynyl, phenyl, etc.

[045] As used herein the term "alkyl" has the broadest meaning generally understood in the art, and may include a moiety composed of carbon and hydrogen containing no double or triple bonds. Alkyl may be linear alkyl, branched alkyl, cycloalkyi, or a combination thereof, and in some embodiments, may contain from one to thirty-five carbon atoms. In some embodiments, alkyl may include CMO linear alkyl, such as methyl (-CH3), ethyl (-CH2CH3), n-propyl (-CH2CH2CH3), n-butyl (- CH2CH2CH2CH3), n-pentyl (-CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3), n-hexyl (-CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3), etc.; C-3-10 branched alkyl, such as C3H7 (e.g. iso-propyl), C4H9 (e.g. branched butyl isomers), C5Hn (e.g. branched pentyl isomers), CeHi 3 (e.g. branched hexyl isomers), C7H i5 (e.g. heptyl isomers), etc.; C3-10 cycloalkyi, such as C3H5 (e.g. cyclopropyl), C4H7 (e.g. cyclobutyl isomers such as cyclobutyl, methylcyclopropyl, etc.), C5H9 (e.g. cyclopentyl isomers such as cyclopentyl, methylcyclobutyl, dimethylcyclopropyl, etc.) C6H11 (e.g. cyclohexyl isomers), C7Hi3 (e.g. cycloheptyl isomers), etc.; and the like.

[046] As used herein, the term "heterocyclyl" has the broadest meaning generally understood in the art, and may include a heterocyclic ring, or a ring containing one or more heteroatom as ring atoms.

[047] As used herein the term "aryl" has the broadest meaning generally understood in the art, and may include an aromatic ring or aromatic ring system such as phenyl, naphthyl, etc. Any aryl identified herein may be C6-io aryl- The term "heteroaryl" also has the meaning understood by a person of ordinary skill in the art, and may refer to an "aryl" which has one or more heteroatoms in the ring or ring system. Examples of "heteroaryl" may include, but are not limited to, pyridinyl, furyl, thienyl, oxazolyl, thiazolyl, imidazolyl, indolyl, quinolinyl, benzofuranyl, benzothienyl, benzooxazolyl, benzothiazolyl, benzoimidazolyl, etc. Any heteroaryl identified herein may be C3-9 heteroaryl.

[048] As used herein, the term "haloalkyl" refers to alkyl having one or more halo substituents.

[049] In another embodiment, the compound has the structure of formula II,

wherein each dashed line represents the presence or absence of a bond; R1 , R2 and R3 are each independently selected from H or Ci-6 alkyl; R4 is H or Ci-6 hydrocarbyl; X and Y are each independently selected from H, OH, =O, CI, Br, I, or CF3; Z1 and Z2 are each independently selected from CH or N; W1 and W2 are each independently selected from CH, CH2, optionally substituted aryl, or optionally substituted heteroaryl; m is 0, 1 , 2, 3, or 4; o is 0, 1 , 2, 3, or 4; p is 0 or 1 ; and V is CH3, aryl, optionally substituted aryl, or optionally substituted heteroaryl.

[050] In an aspect of this embodiment, V is

wherein U is N, O, or S; R5 is F, CI, Br, I, Ci-6 hydrocarbyl; and n is 0, 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7; and. In another aspect of this embodiment, U is S; R5 is F, CI, Br, or I; and n is 1 , 2, or 3. In yet another aspect of this embodiment W2 is thienyl.

[051] In another embodiment the compound has the structure of formula III

III wherein each dashed line represents the presence or absence of a bond; R1 , R2 and R3 are each independently selected from H or Ci-6 alkyl; R4 is H or C1-C6 hydrocarbyl; W1 and W2 are each independently selected from CH, CH2, optionally substituted aryl, or optionally substituted heteroaryl; m is 0, 1 , 2, 3, or 4; o is 0, 1 , 2, 3, or 4; p is 0 or 1 ; and V is CH3, optionally substituted aryl or optionally substituted heteroaryl.

[052] In yet another embodiment, the compound has the structure of formula IV:

wherein each dashed line represents the presence or absence of a bond; R1 , R2 and R3 are each independently selected from H or d-6 linear alkyl; R4 is H, Ci-6 hydrocarbyl; m is 0, 1 , 2, 3, or 4; o is 0, 1 , 2, 3, or 4; p is 0 or 1 ; and V is CH3, optionally substituted aryl or optionally substituted heteroaryl.

[053] In still another embodiment, the compound has the structure of formula V:

wherein each dashed line represents the presence or absence of a bond; R4 is H, Ci-6 hydrocarbyl; o is 0, 1 , 2, 3, or 4; and V is CH3, optionally substituted aryl or optionally substituted heteroaryl.

[054] In a further embodiment, the compound has a structure of one of the following compounds listed in Table 1 .

20

21

22

 Table 1

Low Rf High Rf

Structure

eomer

In a further embodiment, the compound has a structure of compound 1 , 2, 3,

Compound 2

Compound 4

Compound 5 [056] In a yet further embodiment, the compound has a structure of compound 6.

Compound 6

[057] Other aspects of the present specification provide, in part, a composition comprising a compound having the structure of formula VI

wherein each dashed line represents the presence or absence of a bond; Z2 and Z3 are independently CH or N; Z1, Z4, Z5, and Z6 are each independently CR9, CHR9, NH, O, or S; A is -(CH2)6-, or cis -CH2CH=CH-(CH2)3-, wherein 1 or 2 carbons may be substituted with S or O; or A is -(CH2)m-Ar-(CH2)0- wherein Ar is optionally substituted aryl or optionally substituted heteroaryl, the sum of m and o is from 1 , 2, 3, or 4, and wherein one CH2 may be substituted with S or O; R8 is H, hydrocarbyl, or hydrocarbyl- OH; R9 is independently H, Ci-6 alkyl, OH, F, CI, Br, I, or O; J is Ci-6 alkyl, Ci-6 -O-alkyl, C=O, or CHOH; E is CM2 alkyl, R10, or -Y- R10 wherein Y is CH2, S, or O, and R10 is optionally substituted aryl or optionally substituted heteroaryl; and n is 0 or 1 .

[058] Methods of preparing the compounds represented by formula VI can be found in, e.g., Maruyama and Ohuchida, 5-Thia-u)-Substituted Phenyl-Prostaglandin E Derivatives, Process for Producing the Same and Drugs Containing the Same as the Active Ingredient, US Patent 6,462,081 ; Cameron and Lefker, EP4 Receptor Selective Agonists in the Treatment of Osteoporosis, U.S. Patent 6,552,067; Maruyama, et al., Pharmaceutical Composition for Treatment of Diseases Associated with Decrease in Bone Mass Comprising EP4 Agonist as the Active Ingredient, US 7,608,637; Ogidigben, et al., Method for Treating Ocular Hypertension, U.S. Patent Publication 2004/0254230; Kuwahara, et al., Preventive and/or Remedy for Hyperkalemia Containing EP4 Agonist, U.S. Patent Publication 2008/0234337; Takigawa, et al., Cytotoxic T Cell Activator Comprising EP4 Agonist, U.S. Patent Publication 2010/0216689; and Ono, et al., Prostaglandin Derivative, WO 2006/137472; each of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[059] In another embodiment, the compound has the structure of formula VII,

wherein each dashed line represents the presence or absence of a bond; Z2 is CH or N; Z5 is CH2, NH, O, or S; Z7 is CH2, O, or S; R8 is H, d-6 hydrocarbyl, or Ci-6 hydrocarbyl- OH; R9 and R11 are independently Ci-6 alkyl, OH, F, CI, Br, I, or O; and R12 is H, OH, O, F, CI, Br, I , Ci-4 -O-alkyl, Ci-4 haloalkyl, or aryl.

[060] In another embodiment, the compound has the structure of formula VIII,

wherein each dashed line represents the presence or absence of a bond; Z2 is CH or N; and Z5 is CH2, NH, O, or S; Z7 and Z8 are independently CH2, O, or S; R8 is H, Ci-6 hydrocarbyl, or Ci-6 alkyl-OH; R9 and R11 are independently Ci-6 alkyl, OH, F, CI, Br, I, or O; and R12 is H, OH, O, F, CI, Br, I, Ci-4 -O-alkyl, Ci-4 haloalkyl, or aryl.

[061] In an aspect of this embodiment, the compound has a structure of compound 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1 , 12, or 13.

Compound 6 Compound 7

Compound 8 Compound 9

Compound 10 Compound 1 1

Compound 12 Compound 13

[062] Other aspects of the present specification provide, in part, a composition comprising a compound having the structure of formula IX

wherein X1 and X5 are independently CH or N; X7 is NH, O, or S; X8 and X9 are independently CH or N; R13 is optionally substituted aryl or optionally substituted heteroaryl; and R14 is Ci-6 alkyl, optionally substituted aryl, or optionally substituted heteroaryl.

[063] Methods of preparing the compounds represented by formula IX can be found in, e.g., Linders, et al., Bicyclic Derivatives as EP4 Agonists, WO 2008/092860; Linders, et al., Bicyclic Derivatives as EP4 Agonists, WO 2008/092861 ; and Linders, et al., Bicyclic Derivatives as EP4 Agonists, WO 2008/092862; each of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[064] In another embodiment, the compound has the structure of formula X,

wherein X10, X12, X13, X14, and X15 are each independently CR19 or N; R16 is independently H , OH, O, F, CI, Br, I, d-6 alkyl, Ci-6 -O-alkyl, CN, or Ci-6 alkyl-CN; and R19 is independently H, OH, O, F, CI, Br, I, CMO alkyl, CMO -O-alkyl, or C4-i0 -O-alkyl- heterocyclyl. In an aspect of this embodiment, the C4-io O-alkyl-heterocyclyl is

[065] In another embodiment, the compound has the structure of formula XI,

wherein X14 is CR19 or N; R16, R17, and R18 are each independently H, OH, O, F, CI,

I, C1- -O-al -CN; R is H, OH, O, or F, CI, Br, I, d.10

alkyl, ; and

R^u is H , F, CI, Br, or I.

[066] In another embodiment, the compound has a structure of compound 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 , 22, or 23, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable amine salt thereof.

Compound 15

Compound 16 Compound 17

Compound 19

Compound 21

Compound 22 Compound 23

[067] Other aspects of the present specification provide, in part, a composition comprising a compound having the structure of compound 24, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable amine salt thereof. In aspects of this embodiment, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt is a sodium salt and a potassium salt. In other aspects of this embodiment, a pharmaceutically acceptable amine salt is an amino lycoside salt and a triethanolamine salt.

Compound 24 [068] Methods of preparing the compounds represented by compound 24 can be found in, e.g., Keel and Vallance, Novel Salts of (4-{[(5-{[(3-Chlorophenyl)Methyl]Oxy}- 2-Methylphenyl)Carbonyl]Amino}-3-Methylphenyl)Acetic Acid, U.S. Patent Application 12/997,062 filed December 9, 2010 is a national phase application of WO 2009/1501 18 (PCT/EP09/57007) filed on June 8, 2009; which is incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[069] The compositions disclosed herein may optionally comprise any number and combination of compounds disclosed herein. For instance, a composition can comprise, e.g., two or more compounds, three or more compounds, four or more compounds or five or more compounds.

[070] Aspects of the present specification provide compositions comprising silk fibroin. Silk fibroin can serve as, e.g., a filler for tissue space, a template for tissue reconstruction and/or regeneration, a scaffold for cell ingrowth and/or tissue engineering, and/or a drug delivery platform for extended or sustained drug release.

[071] As used herein, the term "depolymerized silk fibroin" is synonymous with "dissolved silk" and "dissolved silk fibroin" and refers to silk fibroin existing primarily as monomers or other lower oligomeric units. Treatment of naturally-occurring fibrous silk with a dissolution agent, such as, e.g., a chaotropic agent results in depolymerized silk fibroin. The depolymerized silk fibroin is an intermediate in the production process and a direct precursor to the silk fibroin material disclosed herein. The depolymerized silk fibroin can be made from raw cocoons, previously degummed silk or any other partially cleaned silk. This may also include material commonly termed as "waste" from the reeling process, i.e. short fragments of raw or degummed silk, the sole precaution being that the silk must be substantially cleaned of sericin prior to making fibroin solution and inducing gel formation. A particular source of raw silk is from common domesticated silkworm B. mori, though several other sources of silk may be appropriate. This includes other strains of Bombycidae including Antheraea pernyi, Antheraea yamamai, Antheraea mylitta, Antheraea assama, and Philosamia cynthia ricini, as well as silk producing members of the families Saturnidae, Thaumetopoeidae, and silk-producing members of the order Araneae. The material may also be obtained from other spider, caterpillar, or recombinant sources. Methods for performing sericin extraction have been described in, e.g., Altman, et al., Sericin Extracted Fabrics, U.S. Patent Publication 2010/0256756, Altman, et al., Sericin Extracted Silkworm Fibroin Fibers, U.S. Patent Publication 2010/0209405; and Altman, et al., Matrix for the production of tissue engineered ligaments, tendons and other tissue, U.S. Patent Publication 2003/0100108; each of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[072] In certain cases, the silk utilized for generation of a silk fibroin material such as, e.g., a hydrogel, a foam, a film, a fiber, a scaffold, a platform, or other silk fibroin material disclosed herein is entirely free of its native sericin content. As used herein, the term "entirely free (i.e. "consisting of terminology) means that within the detection range of the instrument or process being used, the substance cannot be detected or its presence cannot be confirmed.

[073] In certain cases, the silk utilized for generation of a silk fibroin material such as, e.g., a hydrogel, a foam, a film, a fiber, a scaffold, a platform, or other silk fibroin material disclosed herein is essentially free of its native sericin content. As used herein, the term "essentially free" (or "consisting essentially of") means that only trace amounts of the substance can be detected.

[074] Additionally, the possibility exists for deliberately modifying silk fibroin material properties through controlled partial removal of silk sericin or deliberate enrichment of source silk with sericin. This may function to improve, e.g., hydrophilicity and eventual host acceptance in particular biological settings despite sericin antigenicity.

[075] In aspects of this embodiment, the depolymerized silk fibroin (dissolved silk fibroin) has a concentration of, e.g., about 1 %(w/v), about 2%(w/v), about 3%(w/v), about 4%(w/v), about 5%(w/v), about 6%(w/v), about 7%(w/v), about 8%(w/v), about 9%(w/v), about 10%(w/v), about 12%(w/v), about 15%(w/v), about 18%(w/v), about 20%(w/v), about 25%(w/v), or about 30%(w/v). In other aspects of this embodiment, the depolymerized silk fibroin (dissolved silk fibroin) has a concentration of, e.g., at least 1 %(w/v), at least 2%(w/v), at least 3%(w/v), at least 4%(w/v), at least 5%(w/v), at least 6%(w/v), at least 7%(w/v), at least 8%(w/v), at least 9%(w/v), at least 10%(w/v), at least 12%(w/v), at least 15%(w/v), at least 18%(w/v), at least 20%(w/v), at least 25%(w/v), or at least 30%(w/v). In yet other aspects of this embodiment, the depolymerized silk fibroin (dissolved silk fibroin) has a concentration of, e.g., about 1 %(w/v) to about 5% (w/v), about 1 %(w/v) to about 10% (w/v), about 1 %(w/v) to about 15% (w/v), about 1 %(w/v) to about 20% (w/v), about 1 %(w/v) to about 25% (w/v), about 1 %(w/v) to about 30% (w/v), about 5%(w/v) to about 10% (w/v), about 5%(w/v) to about 15% (w/v), about 5%(w/v) to about 20% (w/v), about 5%(w/v) to about 25% (w/v), about 5%(w/v) to about 30% (w/v), about 10%(w/v) to about 15% (w/v), about 10%(w/v) to about 20% (w/v), about 10%(w/v) to about 25% (w/v), or about 10%(w/v) to about 30% (w/v).

[076] In certain aspects of the disclosure, the depolymerized silk fibroin is utilized to form a silk fibroin material such as, e.g., a hydrogel, a foam, a film, a fiber, a scaffold, a platform, or other silk fibroin material disclosed herein. To form such a silk fibroin material the depolymerized silk fibroin is processed to form polymerized silk fibroin. As used herein, the term "polymerized silk fibroin" is synonymous with "silk fibroin" and refers to silk fibroin existing primarily as a polymer that can be either uncrosslinked or crossl inked.

[077] Silk fibroin hydrogels can be produced by a gelation process using a solution comprising depolymerized silk fibroin. Typically, a gelation enhancer is added to the solution to accelerate polymerization of the silk fibroin and the formation of the hydrogel. Examples of an agent that serves as a gelation enhancer is an alcohol, such as, e.g., ethanol, methanol, and isopropanol; glycerol; and acetone. Additionally, various chemical, polypeptide, or peptide additives may be added to influence hydrogel properties and characteristics. Such hydrogel compositions and methods of making are described in, e.g., Altman, et al., Silk Fibroin Hydrogels and Uses Thereof, U.S. Patent Application 12/764,038; and Altman, et al., Silk Fibroin Hydrogels and Uses Thereof, U.S. Patent Application 12/764,043; each of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[078] In certain aspects, a silk fibroin hydrogel may be further processed by pulverizing the hydrogel into particles and optionally mixed with a carrier phase such as, e.g., water or a saline solution to form an injectable or topical substance like a solution, oil, lotion, gel, ointment, cream, slurry, salve, or paste. A hydrogel may be milled to a particle size from about 10 μιτι to about 1000 μιτι in diameter. In aspects of this embodiment, a particle size may be about 15 μιτι to about 30 μιτι, about 25 μιτι to about 50 μιτι, about 45 μιτι to about 75 μιτι, about 70 μιτι to about 100 μιτι, about 50 μιτι to about 200 μιτι, about 150 μιτι to about 300 μιτι, about 250 μιτι to about 400 μιτι, about 350 μηη to about 500 μητι, about 450 μηη to about 600 μητι, about 550 μηη to about 700 μητι, about 650 μηη to about 800 μητι, about 750 μηη to about 900 μητι, or about 850 μηη to about 1000 μηη. Saline is then added as a carrier phase by first determining the bulk volume of a hydrogel, then vigorously pulverizing the hydrogel into particles while incorporating an appropriate volume of saline to achieve a desired carrier to hydrogel particle ratio. For example, hydrogel milling may be accomplished by means of a forced sieving of bulk hydrogel through a series of stainless steel cloth sieves of decreasing pore sizes.

[079] Silk fibroin sheets or films can be produced by preparing a solution comprising depolymerized silk fibroin and casting the solution. The sheet or film can be contacted with water or water vapor, in the absence of alcohol. The film can then be drawn or stretched mono-axially or biaxially. The stretching of a silk blend film induces molecular alignment of the film and thereby improves the mechanical properties of the film. Such methods are described in, e.g., Kaplin, et al., Silk Biomaterials and Methods of Use Thereof, U.S. Patent 7,674,882; Kaplin, et al., Concentrated Aqueous Silk Fibroin Solution and Use Thereof, U.S. Patent 7,635,755; Kaplin, et al., Silk Fibroin Materials and Use Thereof, US Patent Publication 2006/0273279; and Kaplin, et al., Silk Biomaterials and Methods of Use Thereof, International Patent Publication WO 2004/001 103;, each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[080] Silk fibroin porous materials (like a sponge) may be made from methods known in the art, including, e.g., freeze-drying, and/or gas foaming in which water is the solvent or nitrogen or other gas is the blowing agent. Silk porous material may also be made by negative templating or porogen coating. The pore size of a porous material can be controlled, e.g., by adjusting the concentration of silk fibroin and the particle size of the porogen. Contacting the concentrated silk fibroin solution with the porogens is sufficient to induce a conformational change of the amorphous silk to a β-sheet structure that is insoluble in the solution. After formation of the porous material, the excess porogen is then extracted, for example, by immersing in water or other suitable solvent. The resultant porous material can then be dried and used. Such methods are described in, e.g., Kaplin, et al., Concentrated Aqueous Silk Fibroin Solution and Use Thereof, U.S. Patent 7,635,755; Ratner and Marshall, Novel Porous Materials, U.S. Patent Publication 2008/0075752; Ma and Chen, Porous Materials having Multi-Sized Geometries, U.S. Patent Publication 2007/0036844; Ma, Reverse Fabrication of Porous Materials, U.S. Patent Publication 2002/0005600; Liu, et al., Porous Materials, Methods of Making and Uses, U.S. Patent Application 61/333,613; and Liu, et al., Porous Materials, Methods of Making and Uses, U.S. Patent Application 61/333,120, LeBreton et al., Dermal Fillers Comprising Silk Fibroin Hydrogels Uses Thereof, U.S. Patent Application 12/883,139; and, Guang-Liang et al., Drug Delivery Platforms Comprising Silk Fibroin Hydrogels and Uses Thereof, U.S. Patent Application 12/873,563, each of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[081] Alternatively, silk fibroin porous material may be made using micropatterning techniques. The method comprises contacting a solution comprising depolymerized silk fibroin with a surface of a mold, the mold comprising on at least one surface thereof a three-dimensional negative configuration of a predetermined micropattern to be disposed on and integral with at least one surface of the foam, lyophilizing the solution while in contact with the micropatterned surface of the mold, thereby providing a lyophilized, micropatterned foam, and removing the lyophilized, micropatterned foam from the mold. Foams prepared according to this method comprise a predetermined and designed micropattern on at least one surface, which pattern is effective to facilitate tissue repair, ingrowth or regeneration. Such methods are described in, e.g., Chun, et al., Methods of Making Micropatterned Foams, U.S. Patent 6,423,252, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[082] Silk fibroin fibers may be produced using, for example, wet spinning or electrospinning. Alternatively, as a concentrated solution of silk fibroin has a gel-like consistency, a fiber can be pulled directly from the solution. Electrospinning can be performed by any means known in the art. See, e.g., Zarkoob, et al., Synthetically Spun Silk Nanofibers and a Process for Making the Same, U.S. Patent. 6,1 10,590, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. Preferably, a steel capillary tube with a 1 .0 mm internal diameter tip is mounted on an adjustable, electrically insulated stand. Preferably, the capillary tube is maintained at a high electric potential and mounted in the parallel plate geometry. The capillary tube is preferably connected to a syringe filled with silk solution. Preferably, a constant volume flow rate is maintained using a syringe pump, set to keep the solution at the tip of the tube without dripping. The electric potential, solution flow rate, and the distance between the capillary tip and the collection screen are adjusted so that a stable jet is obtained. Dry or wet fibers are collected by varying the distance between the capillary tip and the collection screen.

[083] The silk fibroin materials described herein can be further modified after fabrication. For example, the scaffolds can be coated with additives, such as bioactive substances that function as receptors or chemoattractors for a desired population of cells. The coating can be applied through absorption or chemical bonding. See, e.g. Kaplin, et al., Silk Biomaterials and Methods of Use Thereof, U.S. Patent 7,674,882; Kaplin, et al., Concentrated Aqueous Silk Fibroin Solution and Use Thereof, U.S. Patent 7,635,755; Kaplin, et al., Silk Fibroin Materials and Use Thereof, U.S. Patent Publication 2006/0273279; and Kaplin, et al., Silk Biomaterials and Methods of Use Thereof, International Patent Publication WO 2004/001 103;, each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[084] In certain cases, the silk fibroin utilized for generation of a silk fibroin material disclosed herein has been substantially depleted of its native sericin content (i.e., < 4% (w/w) residual sericin in the final extracted silk). Alternatively, higher concentrations of residual sericin may be left on the silk following extraction or the extraction step may be omitted. In aspects of this embodiment, the sericin-depleted silk fibroin has, e.g., about 1 % (w/w) residual sericin, about 2% (w/w) residual sericin, about 3% (w/w) residual sericin, or about 4% (w/w) residual sericin. In other aspects of this embodiment, the sericin-depleted silk fibroin has, e.g., at most 1 % (w/w) residual sericin, at most 2% (w/w) residual sericin, at most 3% (w/w) residual sericin, or at most 4% (w/w) residual sericin. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, the sericin-depleted silk fibroin has, e.g., about 1 % (w/w) to about 2% (w/w) residual sericin, about 1 % (w/w) to about 3% (w/w) residual sericin, or about 1 % (w/w) to about 4% (w/w) residual sericin.

[085] Aspects of the present specification provide, in part, a silk fibroin material disclosed herein that exhibits a complex modulus, an elastic modulus, a viscous modulus and/or a tan δ. The compositions as disclosed herein are viscoelastic in that the composition has an elastic component (solid-like such as, e.g., crosslinked silk fibroin material polymers) and a viscous component (liquid-like such as, e.g., uncrosslinked silk fibroin material polymers or a carrier phase) when a force is applied (stress, deformation). The rheological attribute that described this property is the complex modulus (G*), which defines a composition's total resistance to deformation. The complex modulus is a complex number with a real and imaginary part: G*=G'+iG". The absolute value of G* is Abs(G*) = Sqrt(G'2+G"2). The complex modulus can be defined as the sum of the elastic modulus (G') and the viscous modulus (G"). Falcone, et al., Temporary Polysaccharide Dermal Fillers: A Model for Persistence Based on Physical Properties, Dermatol Surg. 35(8): 1238-1243 (2009); Tezel, supra, 2008; Kablik, supra, 2009; Beasley, supra, 2009; each of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[086] Elastic modulus, or modulus of elasticity, refers to the ability of a silk fibroin material to resists deformation, or, conversely, an object's tendency to be non- permanently deformed when a force is applied to it. Elastic modulus characterizes the firmness of a composition and is also known as the storage modulus because it describes the storage of energy from the motion of the composition. The elastic modulus describes the interaction between elasticity and strength (G' = stress/strain) and, as such, provides a quantitative measurement of a composition's hardness or softness. The elastic modulus of an object is defined as the slope of its stress-strain curve in the elastic deformation region: λ = stress/strain, where λ is the elastic modulus in Pascal's; stress is the force causing the deformation divided by the area to which the force is applied; and strain is the ratio of the change caused by the stress to the original state of the object. Although depending on the speed at which the force is applied, a stiffer composition will have a higher elastic modulus and it will take a greater force to deform the material a given distance, such as, e.g., an injection. Specifying how stresses are to be measured, including directions, allows for many types of elastic moduli to be defined. The three primary elastic moduli are tensile modulus, shear modulus, and bulk modulus.

[087] Viscous modulus is also known as the loss modulus because it describes the energy that is lost as viscous dissipation. Tan δ is the ratio of the viscous modulus and the elastic modulus, tan δ = G7G'. Falcone, supra, 2009. For tan δ values disclosed in the present specification, a tan δ is obtained from the dynamic modulus at a frequency of 0.628 rad/s. A lower tan δ corresponds to a stiffer, harder, or more elastic composition.

[088] Thus, in an embodiment, a silk fibroin material disclosed herein exhibits a complex modulus. In aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits a complex modulus of, e.g., about 25 Pa, about 50 Pa, about 75 Pa, about 100 Pa, about 125 Pa, about 150 Pa, about 175 Pa, about 200 Pa, about 250 Pa, about 300 Pa, about 350 Pa, about 400 Pa, about 450 Pa, about 500 Pa, about 550 Pa, about 600 Pa, about 650 Pa, about 700 Pa, about 750 Pa, or about 800 Pa. In other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits a complex modulus of, e.g., at most 25 Pa, at most 50 Pa, at most 75 Pa, at most 100 Pa, at most 125 Pa, at most 150 Pa, at most 175 Pa, at most 200 Pa, at most 250 Pa, at most 300 Pa, at most 350 Pa, at most 400 Pa, at most 450 Pa, at most 500 Pa, at most 550 Pa, at most 600 Pa, at most 650 Pa, at most 700 Pa, at most 750 Pa, or at most 800 Pa. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits a complex modulus of, e.g., about 25 Pa to about 150 Pa, about 25 Pa to about 300 Pa, about 25 Pa to about 500 Pa, about 25 Pa to about 800 Pa, about 125 Pa to about 300 Pa, about 125 Pa to about 500 Pa, or about 125 Pa to about 800 Pa.

[089] In another embodiment, a silk fibroin material disclosed herein exhibits an elastic modulus. In aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits an elastic modulus of, e.g., about 25 Pa, about 50 Pa, about 75 Pa, about 100 Pa, about 125 Pa, about 150 Pa, about 175 Pa, about 200 Pa, about 250 Pa, about 300 Pa, about 350 Pa, about 400 Pa, about 450 Pa, about 500 Pa, about 550 Pa, about 600 Pa, about 650 Pa, about 700 Pa, about 750 Pa, about 800 Pa, about 850 Pa, about 900 Pa, about 950 Pa, about 1 ,000 Pa, about 1 ,200 Pa, about 1 ,300 Pa, about 1 ,400 Pa, about 1 ,500 Pa, about 1 ,600 Pa, about 1700 Pa, about 1800 Pa, about 1900 Pa, about 2,000 Pa, about 2,100 Pa, about 2,200 Pa, about 2,300 Pa, about 2,400 Pa, or about 2,500 Pa. In other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits an elastic modulus of, e.g., at least 25 Pa, at least 50 Pa, at least 75 Pa, at least 100 Pa, at least 125 Pa, at least 150 Pa, at least 175 Pa, at least 200 Pa, at least 250 Pa, at least 300 Pa, at least 350 Pa, at least 400 Pa, at least 450 Pa, at least 500 Pa, at least 550 Pa, at least 600 Pa, at least 650 Pa, at least 700 Pa, at least 750 Pa, at least 800 Pa, at least 850 Pa, at least 900 Pa, at least 950 Pa, at least 1 ,000 Pa, at least 1 ,200 Pa, at least 1 ,300 Pa, at least 1 ,400 Pa, at least 1 ,500 Pa, at least 1 ,600 Pa, at least 1700 Pa, at least 1800 Pa, at least 1900 Pa, at least 2,000 Pa, at least 2,100 Pa, at least 2,200 Pa, at least 2,300 Pa, at least 2,400 Pa, or at least 2,500 Pa. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits an elastic modulus of, e.g., at most 25 Pa, at most 50 Pa, at most 75 Pa, at most 100 Pa, at most 125 Pa, at most 150 Pa, at most 175 Pa, at most 200 Pa, at most 250 Pa, at most 300 Pa, at most 350 Pa, at most 400 Pa, at most 450 Pa, at most 500 Pa, at most 550 Pa, at most 600 Pa, at most 650 Pa, at most 700 Pa, at most 750 Pa, at most 800 Pa, at most 850 Pa, at most 900 Pa, at most 950 Pa, at most 1 ,000 Pa, at most 1 ,200 Pa, at most 1 ,300 Pa, at most 1 ,400 Pa, at most 1 ,500 Pa, or at most 1 ,600 Pa. In still other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits an elastic modulus of, e.g., about 25 Pa to about 150 Pa, about 25 Pa to about 300 Pa, about 25 Pa to about 500 Pa, about 25 Pa to about 800 Pa, about 125 Pa to about 300 Pa, about 125 Pa to about 500 Pa, about 125 Pa to about 800 Pa, about 500 Pa to about 1 ,600 Pa, about 600 Pa to about 1 ,600 Pa, about 700 Pa to about 1 ,600 Pa, about 800 Pa to about 1 ,600 Pa, about 900 Pa to about 1 ,600 Pa, about 1 ,000 Pa to about 1 ,600 Pa, about 1 ,100 Pa to about 1 ,600 Pa, about 1 ,200 Pa to about 1 ,600 Pa, about 500 Pa to about 2,500 Pa, about 1 ,000 Pa to about 2,500 Pa, about 1 ,500 Pa to about 2,500 Pa, about 2,000 Pa to about 2,500 Pa, about 1 ,300 Pa to about 1 ,600 Pa, about 1 ,400 Pa to about 1 ,700 Pa, about 1 ,500 Pa to about 1 ,800 Pa, about 1 ,600 Pa to about 1 ,900 Pa, about 1 ,700 Pa to about 2,000 Pa, about 1 ,800 Pa to about 2,100 Pa, about 1 ,900 Pa to about 2,200 Pa, about 2,000 Pa to about 2,300 Pa, about 2,100 Pa to about 2,400 Pa, or about 2,200 Pa to about 2,500 Pa.

[090] In another embodiment, a silk fibroin material disclosed herein exhibits a tensile modulus. In aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits a tensile modulus of, e.g., about 1 MPa, about 10 MPa, about 20 MPa, about 30 MPa, about 40 MPa, about 50 MPa, about 60 MPa, about 70 MPa, about 80 MPa, about 90 MPa, about 100 MPa, about 200 MPa, about 300 MPa, about 400 MPa, about 500 MPa, about 750 MPa, about 1 GPa, about 5 GPa, about 10 GPa, about 15 GPa, about 20 GPa, about 25 GPa, or about 30 GPa. In other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits a tensile modulus of, e.g., at least 1 MPa, at least 10 MPa, at least 20 MPa, at least 30 MPa, at least 40 MPa, at least 50 MPa, at least 60 MPa, at least 70 MPa, at least 80 MPa, at least 90 MPa, at least 100 MPa, at least 200 MPa, at least 300 MPa, at least 400 MPa, at least 500 MPa, at least 750 MPa, at least 1 GPa, at least 5 GPa, at least 10 GPa, at least 15 GPa, at least 20 GPa, at least 25 GPa, or at least 30 GPa In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits a tensile modulus of, e.g., about 1 MPa to about 30 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 50 MPa, about 25 MPa to about 75 MPa, about 50 MPa to about 100 MPa, about 100 MPa to about 300 MPa, about 200 MPa to about 400 MPa, about 300 MPa to about 500 MPa, about 100 MPa to about 500 MPa, about 250 MPa to about 750 MPa, about 500 MPa to about 1 GPa, about 1 GPa to about 30 GPa, about 10 GPa to about 30 GPa.

[091] In another embodiment, a silk fibroin material disclosed herein exhibits shear modulus. In aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits a shear modulus of, e.g., about 1 MPa, about 10 MPa, about 20 MPa, about 30 MPa, about 40 MPa, about 50 MPa, about 60 MPa, about 70 MPa, about 80 MPa, about 90 MPa, about 100 MPa, about 200 MPa, about 300 MPa, about 400 MPa, about 500 MPa, about 750 MPa, about 1 GPa, about 5 GPa, about 10 GPa, about 15 GPa, about 20 GPa, about 25 GPa, or about 30 GPa. In other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits a shear modulus of, e.g., at least 1 MPa, at least 10 MPa, at least 20 MPa, at least 30 MPa, at least 40 MPa, at least 50 MPa, at least 60 MPa, at least 70 MPa, at least 80 MPa, at least 90 MPa, at least 100 MPa, at least 200 MPa, at least 300 MPa, at least 400 MPa, at least 500 MPa, at least 750 MPa, at least 1 GPa, at least 5 GPa, at least 10 GPa, at least 15 GPa, at least 20 GPa, at least 25 GPa, or at least 30 GPa In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits a shear modulus of, e.g., about 1 MPa to about 30 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 50 MPa, about 25 MPa to about 75 MPa, about 50 MPa to about 100 MPa, about 100 MPa to about 300 MPa, about 200 MPa to about 400 MPa, about 300 MPa to about 500 MPa, about 100 MPa to about 500 MPa, about 250 MPa to about 750 MPa, about 500 MPa to about 1 GPa, about 1 GPa to about 30 GPa, about 10 GPa to about 30 GPa.

[092] In another embodiment, a silk fibroin material disclosed herein exhibits a bulk modulus. In aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits a bulk modulus of, e.g., about 5 GPa, about 6 GPa, about 7 GPa, about 8 GPa, about 9 GPa, about 10 GPa, about 15 GPa, about 20 GPa, about 25 GPa, about 30 GPa, about 35 GPa, about 40 GPa, about 45 GPa, about 50 GPa, about 60 GPa, about 70 GPa, about 80 GPa, about 90 GPa, about 100 GPa. In other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits a bulk modulus of, e.g., at least 5 GPa, at least 6 GPa, at least 7 GPa, at least 8 GPa, at least 9 GPa, at least 10 GPa, at least 15 GPa, at least 20 GPa, at least 25 GPa, at least 30 GPa, at least 35 GPa, at least 40 GPa, at least 45 GPa, at least 50 GPa, at least 60 GPa, at least 70 GPa, at least 80 GPa, at least 90 GPa, at least 100 GPa. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits a bulk modulus of, e.g., about 5 GPa to about 50 GPa, about 5 GPa to about 100 GPa, about 10 GPa to about 50 GPa, about 10 GPa to about 100 GPa, or about 50 GPa to about 100 GPa.

[093] In another embodiment, a silk fibroin material disclosed herein exhibits a viscous modulus. In aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits a viscous modulus of, e.g., about 10 Pa, about 20 Pa, about 30 Pa, about 40 Pa, about 50 Pa, about 60 Pa, about 70 Pa, about 80 Pa, about 90 Pa, about 100 Pa, about 150 Pa, about 200 Pa, about 250 Pa, about 300 Pa, about 350 Pa, about 400 Pa, about 450 Pa, about 500 Pa, about 550 Pa, about 600 Pa, about 650 Pa, or about 700 Pa. In other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits a viscous modulus of, e.g., at most 10 Pa, at most 20 Pa, at most 30 Pa, at most 40 Pa, at most 50 Pa, at most 60 Pa, at most 70 Pa, at most 80 Pa, at most 90 Pa, at most 100 Pa, at most 150 Pa, at most 200 Pa, at most 250 Pa, at most 300 Pa, at most 350 Pa, at most 400 Pa, at most 450 Pa, at most 500 Pa, at most 550 Pa, at most 600 Pa, at most 650 Pa, or at most 700 Pa.. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits a viscous modulus of, e.g., about 10 Pa to about 30 Pa, about 10 Pa to about 50 Pa, about 10 Pa to about 100 Pa, about 10 Pa to about 150 Pa, about 70 Pa to about 100 Pa, about 50 Pa to about 350 Pa, about 150 Pa to about 450 Pa, about 250 Pa to about 550 Pa, about 350 Pa to about 700 Pa, about 50 Pa to about 150 Pa, about 100 Pa to about 200 Pa, about 150 Pa to about 250 Pa, about 200 Pa to about 300 Pa, about 250 Pa to about 350 Pa, about 300 Pa to about 400 Pa, about 350 Pa to about 450 Pa, about 400 Pa to about 500 Pa, about 450 Pa to about 550 Pa, about 500 Pa to about 600 Pa, about 550 Pa to about 650 Pa, or about 600 Pa to about 700 Pa.

[094] In another embodiment, a silk fibroin material disclosed herein exhibits a tan δ. In aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits a tan δ of, e.g., about 0.1 , about 0.2, about 0.3, about 0.4, about 0.5, about 0.6, about 0.7, about 0.8, about 0.9, about 1 .0, about 1 .1 , about 1 .2, about 1 .3, about 1 .4, about 1 .5, about 1 .6, about 1 .7, about 1 .8, about 1 .9, about 2.0, about 2.1 , about 2.2, about 2.3, about 2.4, or about 2.5. In other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits a tan δ of, e.g., at most 0.1 , at most 0.2, at most 0.3, at most 0.4, at most 0.5, at most 0.6, at most 0.7, at most 0.8, at most 0.9, at most 1 .0, at most 1 .1 , at most 1 .2, at most 1 .3, at most 1 .4, at most 1 .5, at most 1 .6, at most 1 .7, at most 1 .8, at most 1 .9, at most 2.0, at most 2.1 , at most 2.2, at most 2.3, at most 2.4, or at most 2.5. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits a tan δ of, e.g., about 0.1 to about 0.3, about

0.3 to about 0.5, about 0.5 to about 0.8, about 1 .1 to about 1 .4, about 1 .4 to about 1 .7, about 0.3 to about 0.6, about 0.1 to about 0.5, about 0.5 to about 0.9, about 0.1 to about 0.6, about 0.1 to about 1 .0, about 0.5 to about 1 .5, about 1 .0 to about 2.0, or about 1 .5 to about 2.5.

[095] Aspects of the present specification provide, in part, a silk fibroin material disclosed herein having hardness. Hardness refers to various properties of an object in the solid phase that gives it high resistance to various kinds of shape change when force is applied. Hardness is measured using a durometer and is a unitless value that ranges from zero to 100. The ability or inability of a silk fibroin material to be easily compressed will affect its suitability for application in different tissue replacement roles,

1. e., mechanical compliance as bone, fat, connective tissue. Hardness will also affect the ability of a silk fibroin material to be effectively comminuted, the reason being that a hard material may be more easily and consistently comminuted. Hardness will also affect extrudability, as a soft material may be more readily able to be slightly compressed during injection to pack with other particles or change shape to pass through a syringe barrel or needle.

[096] In an embodiment, a silk fibroin material disclosed herein exhibits low hardness. In aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits a hardness of, e.g., about 5, about 10, about 15, about 20, about 25, about 30, or about 35. In other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits a hardness of, e.g., at most 5, at most 10, at most 15, at most 20, at most 25, at most 30, or at most 35. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits a hardness of, e.g., about 5 to about 35, about 10 to about 35, about 15 to about 35, about 20 to about 35, or about 25 to about 35, about 5 to about 40, about 10 to about 40, about 15 to about 40, about 20 to about 40, about 25 to about 40, or about 30 to about 40.

[097] In an embodiment, a silk fibroin material disclosed herein exhibits medium hardness. In aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits a hardness of, e.g., about 40, about 45, about 50, about 55, or about 60. In other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits a hardness of, e.g., at least 40, at least 45, at least 50, at least 55, or at least 60. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits a hardness of, e.g., at most 40, at most 45, at most 50, at most 55, or at most 60. In still other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits a hardness of, e.g., about 35 to about 60, about 35 to about 55, about 35 to about 50, about 35 to about 45, about 40 to about 60, about 45 to about 60, about 50 to about 60, about 55 to about 60, about 40 to about 65, about 45 to about 65, about 50 to about 65, about 55 to about 65.

[098] In another embodiment, a silk fibroin material disclosed herein exhibits high hardness. In aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits a hardness of, e.g., about 65, about 70, about 75, about 80, about 85, about 90, about 95, or about 100. In other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits a hardness of, e.g., at least 65, at least 70, at least 75, at least 80, at least 85, at least 90, at least 95, or at least 100. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits a hardness of, e.g., about 65 to about 100, about 70 to about 100, about 75 to about 100,about 80 to about 100, about 85 to about 100, about 90 to about 100, about 65 to about 75, about 65 to about 80, about 65 to about 85, about 65 to about 90, about 65 to about 95, about 60 to about 75, about 60 to about 80, about 60 to about 85, about 60 to about 90, or about 60 to about 95.

[099] In an embodiment, a silk fibroin material disclosed herein exhibits high resistant to deformation. In aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits resistant to deformation of, e.g., about 100%, about 99%, about 98%, about 97%, about 96%, about 95%, about 94%, about 93%, about 92%, about 91 %, about 90%, about 89%, about 88%, about 87%, about 86%, or about 85%. In other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits resistant to deformation of, e.g., at least 99%, at least 98%, at least 97%, at least 96%, at least 95%, at least 94%, at least 93%, at least 92%, at least 91 %, at least 90%, at least 89%, at least 88%, at least 87%, at least 86%, or at least 85%. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits resistant to deformation of, e.g., at most 99%, at most 98%, at most 97%, at most 96%, at most 95%, at most 94%, at most 93%, at most 92%, at most 91 %, at most 90%, at most 89%, at most 88%, at most 87%, at most 86%, or at most 85%. In still aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits resistant to deformation of, e.g., about 85% to about 100%, about 87% to about 100%, about 90% to about 100%, about 93% to about 100%, about 95% to about 100%, or about 97% to about 100%.

[0100] A silk fibroin silk material disclosed herein exhibits high tensile strength. Tensile strength has three different definitional points of stress maxima. Yield strength refers to the stress at which material strain changes from elastic deformation to plastic deformation, causing it to deform permanently. Ultimate strength refers to the maximum stress a material can withstand when subjected to tension, compression or shearing. It is the maximum stress on the stress-strain curve. Breaking strength refers to the stress coordinate on the stress-strain curve at the point of rupture, or when the material pulls apart.

[0101] In another embodiment, a silk fibroin silk material disclosed herein exhibits high yield strength relative to other polymer classes. In aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits a yield strength of, e.g., about 0.1 MPa, about 0.5 MPa, about 1 MPa, about 5 MPa, about 10 MPa, about 20 MPa, about 30 MPa, about 40 MPa, about 50 MPa, about 60 MPa, about 70 MPa, about 80 MPa, about 90 MPa, about 100 MPa, about 200 MPa, about 300 MPa, about 400 MPa, about 500 MPa. In other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits a yield strength of, e.g., at least 0.1 MPa, at least 0.5 MPa, at least 1 MPa, at least 5 MPa, at least 10 MPa, at least 20 MPa, at least 30 MPa, at least 40 MPa, at least 50 MPa, at least 60 MPa, at least 70 MPa, at least 80 MPa, at least 90 MPa, at least 100 MPa, at least 200 MPa, at least 300 MPa, at least 400 MPa, at least 500 MPa. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits a yield strength of, e.g., at most 1 MPa, at most 5 MPa, at most 10 MPa, at most 20 MPa, at most 30 MPa, at most 40 MPa, at most 50 MPa, at most 60 MPa, at most 70 MPa, at most 80 MPa, at most 90 MPa, at most 100 MPa, at most 200 MPa, at most 300 MPa, at most 400 MPa, at most 500 MPa, at most 600 MPa, at most 700 MPa, at most 800 MPa, at most 900 MPa, at most 1000 MPa, at most 1500 MPa, or at most 2000 MPa. In still other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits a yield strength of, e.g., about 1 MPa to about 50 MPa, about 1 MPa to about 60 MPa, about 1 MPa to about 70 MPa, about 1 MPa to about 80 MPa, about 1 MPa to about 90 MPa, about 1 MPa to about 100 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 50 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 60 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 70 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 80 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 90 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 100 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 200 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 300 MPa, or about 100 MPa to about 300 MPa.

[0102] In another embodiment, a silk fibroin silk material disclosed herein exhibits high ultimate strength. In aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits an ultimate strength of, e.g., about 0.1 MPa, about 0.5 MPa, about 1 MPa, about 5 MPa, about 10 MPa, about 20 MPa, about 30 MPa, about 40 MPa, about 50 MPa, about 60 MPa, about 70 MPa, about 80 MPa, about 90 MPa, about 100 MPa, about 200 MPa, about 300 MPa, about 400 MPa, about 500 MPa. In other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits an ultimate strength of, e.g., at least 0.1 MPa, at least 0.5 MPa, at least 1 MPa, at least 5 MPa, at least 10 MPa, at least 20 MPa, at least 30 MPa, at least 40 MPa, at least 50 MPa, at least 60 MPa, at least 70 MPa, at least 80 MPa, at least 90 MPa, at least 100 MPa, at least 200 MPa, at least 300 MPa, at least 400 MPa, at least 500 MPa. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits an ultimate strength of, e.g., at most 1 MPa, at most 5 MPa, at most 10 MPa, at most 20 MPa, at most 30 MPa, at most 40 MPa, at most 50 MPa, at most 60 MPa, at most 70 MPa, at most 80 MPa, at most 90 MPa, at most 100 MPa, at most 200 MPa, at most 300 MPa, at most 400 MPa, at most 500 MPa, at most 600 MPa, at most 700 MPa, at most 800 MPa, at most 900 MPa, at most 1000 MPa, at most 1500 MPa, or at most 2000 MPa. In still other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits an ultimate strength of, e.g., about 1 MPa to about 50 MPa, about 1 MPa to about 60 MPa, about 1 MPa to about 70 MPa, about 1 MPa to about 80 MPa, about 1 MPa to about 90 MPa, about 1 MPa to about 100 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 50 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 60 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 70 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 80 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 90 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 100 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 200 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 300 MPa, or about 100 MPa to about 300 MPa.

[0103] In another embodiment, a silk fibroin silk material disclosed herein exhibits high breaking strength. In aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits a breaking strength of, e.g., about 0.1 MPa, about 0.5 MPa, about 1 MPa, about 5 MPa, about 10 MPa, about 20 MPa, about 30 MPa, about 40 MPa, about 50 MPa, about 60 MPa, about 70 MPa, about 80 MPa, about 90 MPa, about 100 MPa, about 200 MPa, about 300 MPa, about 400 MPa, about 500 MPa. In other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits a breaking strength of, e.g., at least 0.1 MPa, at least 0.5 MPa, at least 1 MPa, at least 5 MPa, at least 10 MPa, at least 20 MPa, at least 30 MPa, at least 40 MPa, at least 50 MPa, at least 60 MPa, at least 70 MPa, at least 80 MPa, at least 90 MPa, at least 100 MPa, at least 200 MPa, at least 300 MPa, at least 400 MPa, at least 500 MPa. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits a breaking strength of, e.g., at most 1 MPa, at most 5 MPa, at most 10 MPa, at most 20 MPa, at most 30 MPa, at most 40 MPa, at most 50 MPa, at most 60 MPa, at most 70 MPa, at most 80 MPa, at most 90 MPa, at most 100 MPa, at most 200 MPa, at most 300 MPa, at most 400 MPa, at most 500 MPa, at most 600 MPa, at most 700 MPa, at most 800 MPa, at most 900 MPa, at most 1000 MPa, at most 1500 MPa, or at most 2000 MPa. In still other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits a breaking strength of, e.g., about 1 MPa to about 50 MPa, about 1 MPa to about 60 MPa, about 1 MPa to about 70 MPa, about 1 MPa to about 80 MPa, about 1 MPa to about 90 MPa, about 1 MPa to about 100 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 50 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 60 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 70 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 80 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 90 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 100 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 200 MPa, about 10 MPa to about 300 MPa, or about 100 MPa to about 300 MPa.

[0104] Aspects of the present specification provide, in part, a silk fibroin material disclosed herein having a transparency and/or translucency. Transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through a material, whereas translucency (also called translucence or translucidity) only allows light to pass through diffusely. The opposite property is opacity. Transparent materials are clear, while translucent ones cannot be seen through clearly. The silk fibroin material disclosed herein may optionally exhibit optical properties such as transparency and translucency. In certain cases, e.g., superficial line filling, it would be an advantage to have an opaque silk fibroin material. In other cases such as development of a lens or a "humor" for filling the eye, it would be an advantage to have a translucent silk fibroin material. These properties could be modified by affecting the structural distribution of the silk fibroin material. Factors used to control a silk fibroin material's optical properties include, without limitation, polymer concentration, gel crystallinity, and material homogeneity.

[0105] When light encounters a material, it can interact with it in several different ways. These interactions depend on the nature of the light (its wavelength, frequency, energy, etc.) and the nature of the material. Light waves interact with an object by some combination of reflection, and transmittance with refraction. As such, an optically transparent material allows much of the light that falls on it to be transmitted, with little light being reflected. Materials which do not allow the transmission of light are called optically opaque or simply opaque.

[0106] In an embodiment, a silk fibroin material disclosed herein is optically transparent. In aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material transmits, e.g., about 75% of the light, about 80% of the light, about 85% of the light, about 90% of the light, about 95% of the light, or about 100% of the light. In other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material transmits, e.g., at least 75% of the light, at least 80% of the light, at least 85% of the light, at least 90% of the light, or at least 95% of the light. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material transmits, e.g., about 75% to about 100% of the light, about 80% to about 100% of the light, about 85% to about 100% of the light, about 90% to about 100% of the light, or about 95% to about 100% of the light.

[0107] In another embodiment, a silk fibroin material disclosed herein is optically opaque. In aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material transmits, e.g., about 5% of the light, about 10% of the light, about 15% of the light, about 20% of the light, about 25% of the light, about 30% of the light, about 35% of the light, about 40% of the light, about 45% of the light, about 50% of the light, about 55% of the light, about 60% of the light, about 65% of the light, or about 70% of the light. In other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material transmits, e.g., at most 5% of the light, at most 10% of the light, at most 15% of the light, at most 20% of the light, at most 25% of the light, at most 30% of the light, at most 35% of the light, at most 40% of the light, at most 45% of the light, at most 50% of the light, at most 55% of the light, at most 60% of the light, at most 65% of the light, at most 70% of the light, or at most 75% of the light. In other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material transmits, e.g., about 5% to about 15%, about 5% to about 20%, about 5% to about 25%, about 5% to about 30%, about 5% to about 35%, about 5% to about 40%, about 5% to about 45%, about 5% to about 50%, about 5% to about 55%, about 5% to about 60%, about 5% to about 65%, about 5% to about 70%, about 5% to about 75%, about 15% to about 20%, about 15% to about 25%, about 15% to about 30%, about 15% to about 35%, about 15% to about 40%, about 15% to about 45%, about 15% to about 50%, about 15% to about 55%, about 15% to about 60%, about 15% to about 65%, about 15% to about 70%, about 15% to about 75%, about 25% to about 35%, about 25% to about 40%, about 25% to about 45%, about 25% to about 50%, about 25% to about 55%, about 25% to about 60%, about 25% to about 65%, about 25% to about 70%, or about 25% to about 75%, of the light.

[0108] In an embodiment, a silk fibroin material disclosed herein is optically translucent. In aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material diffusely transmits, e.g., about 75% of the light, about 80% of the light, about 85% of the light, about 90% of the light, about 95% of the light, or about 100% of the light. In other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material diffusely transmits, e.g., at least 75% of the light, at least 80% of the light, at least 85% of the light, at least 90% of the light, or at least 95% of the light. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material diffusely transmits, e.g., about 75% to about 100% of the light, about 80% to about 100% of the light, about 85% to about 100% of the light, about 90% to about 100% of the light, or about 95% to about 100% of the light.

[0109] A silk fibroin material disclosed herein may be further processed by pulverizing the silk fibroin material into particles and optionally mixed with a carrier phase such as, e.g., water or a saline solution to form an injectable or topical substance like a solution, oil, lotion, gel, ointment, cream, slurry, salve, or paste. As such, the disclosed silk fibroin materials may be monophasic or multiphasic compositions. A silk fibroin material may be milled to a particle size from about 10 m to about 1000 μιτι in diameter. In aspects of this embodiment, a particle size may be about 15 m to about 30 μιτι, about 25 μιτι to about 50 μιτι, about 45 μιτι to about 75 μιτι, about 70 μιτι to about 100 μιτι, about 50 μιτι to about 200 μιτι, about 150 μιτι to about 300 μιτι, about 250 μιτι to about 400 μιτι, about 350 μιτι to about 500 μιτι, about 450 μιτι to about 600 μιτι, about 550 μιτι to about 700 μιτι, about 650 μιτι to about 800 μιτι, about 750 μιτι to about 900 μιτι, or about 850 μιτι to about 1000 μιτι. Saline is then added as a carrier phase by first determining the bulk volume of a silk fibroin material, then vigorously pulverizing the silk fibroin material into particles while incorporating an appropriate volume of saline to achieve a desired carrier to particle ratio. For example, silk fibroin material milling may be accomplished by means of a forced sieving of bulk silk fibroin material through a series of stainless steel cloth sieves of decreasing pore sizes.

[0110] Aspects of the present specification provide, in part, a silk fibroin material disclosed herein that exhibits a dynamic viscosity. Viscosity is resistance of a fluid to shear or flow caused by either shear stress or tensile stress. Viscosity describes a fluid's internal resistance to flow caused by intermolecular friction exerted when layers of fluids attempt to slide by one another and may be thought of as a measure of fluid friction. The less viscous the fluid, the greater its ease of movement (fluidity).

[0111] Viscosity can be defined in two ways; dynamic viscosity (μ, although η is sometimes used) or kinematic viscosity (v). Dynamic viscosity, also known as absolute or complex viscosity, is the tangential force per unit area required to move one horizontal plane with respect to the other at unit velocity when maintained a unit distance apart by the fluid. The SI physical unit of dynamic viscosity is the Pascal- second (Pa s), which is identical to N m-2-s. Dynamic viscosity can be expressed as τ = μ dvx/dz, where τ = shearing stress, μ = dynamic viscosity, and dvx/dz is the velocity gradient over time. For example, if a fluid with a viscosity of one Pa-s is placed between two plates, and one plate is pushed sideways with a shear stress of one Pascal, it moves a distance equal to the thickness of the layer between the plates in one second. Dynamic viscosity symbolize by is also used, is measured with various types of rheometers, devices used to measure the way in which a liquid, suspension or slurry flows in response to applied forces.

[0112] Kinematic viscosity (v) is the ratio of dynamic viscosity to density, a quantity in which no force is involved and is defined as follows: v = μ/ρ, where μ is the dynamic viscosity p is density with the SI unit of kg/m3. Kinematic viscosity is usually measured by a glass capillary viscometer as has an SI unit of m2/s.

[0113] The viscosity of a material is highly temperature dependent and for either dynamic or kinematic viscosity to be meaningful, the reference temperature must be quoted. For the viscosity values disclosed herein, a dynamic viscosity is measured at 1 Pa with a cone/plane geometry 2 40cm and a temperature of 20 °C. Examples of the dynamic viscosity of various fluids at 20 °C is as follows: water is about 1 .0 x 10"3 Pa-s, blood is about 3-4 x 10"3 Pa s, vegetable oil is about 60-85 x 10"3 Pa s, motor oil SE 30 is about 0.2 Pa-s, glycerin is about 1 .4 Pa-s, maple syrup is about 2-3 Pa-s, honey is about 10 Pa-s, chocolate syrup is about 10-25 Pa-s, peanut butter is about 150-250 Pa-s, lard is about 1 ,000 Pa-s, vegetable shortening is about 1 ,200 Pa-s, and tar is about 30,000 Pa s.

[0114] In aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material disclosed herein exhibits a dynamic viscosity of, e.g., about 10 Pa s, about 20 Pa s, about 30 Pa s, about 40 Pa s, about 50 Pa s, about 60 Pa s, about 70 Pa s, about 80 Pa s, about 90 Pa s, about 100 Pa s, about 125 Pa s, about 150 Pa s, about 175 Pa s, about 200 Pa s, about 225 Pa s, about 250 Pa s, about 275 Pa s, about 300 Pa s, about 400 Pa s, about 500 Pa s, about 600 Pa s, about 700 Pa s, about 750 Pa s, about 800 Pa s, about 900 Pa s, about 1 ,000 Pa s, about 1 ,100 Pa s, or about 1 ,200 Pa s. In other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material disclosed herein exhibits a dynamic viscosity of, e.g., at most 10 Pa s, at most 20 Pa s, at most 30 Pa s, at most 40 Pa s, at most 50 Pa s, at most 60 Pa s, at most 70 Pa s, at most 80 Pa s, at most 90 Pa s, at most 100 Pa s, at most 125 Pa s, at most 150 Pa s, at most 175 Pa s, at most 200 Pa s, at most 225 Pa s, at most 250 Pa s, at most 275 Pa s, at most 300 Pa s, at most 400 Pa s, at most 500 Pa s, at most 600 Pa s, at most 700 Pa s, at most 750 Pa s, at most 800 Pa s, at most 900 Pa-s, or at most 1000 Pa-s. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material disclosed herein exhibits a dynamic viscosity of, e.g., about 10 Pa-s to about 100 Pa s, about 10 Pa s to about 150 Pa s, about 10 Pa s to about 250 Pa s, about 50 Pa s to about 100 Pa s, about 50 Pa s to about 150 Pa s, about 50 Pa s to about 250 Pa s, about 100 Pa s to about 500 Pa s, about 100 Pa s to about 750 Pa s, about 100 Pa s to about 1 ,000 Pa s, about 100 Pa s to about 1 ,200 Pa s, about 300 Pa s to about 500 Pa s, about 300 Pa s to about 750 Pa s, about 300 Pa s to about 1 ,000 Pa s, or about 300 Pa s to about 1 ,200 Pa s.

[0115] Aspects of the present specification provide, in part, a silk fibroin material disclosed herein that exhibits cohesivity. Cohesivity, also referred to as cohesion cohesive attraction, cohesive force, or compression force is a physical property of a material, caused by the intermolecular attraction between like-molecules within the material that acts to unite the molecules. Cohesivity is expressed in terms of grams- force (gmf). Cohesiveness is affected by, among other factors, the molecular weight ratio of the initial free silk fibroin material polymer, the degree of crosslinking of silk fibroin material polymers, the amount of residual free silk fibroin material polymers following crosslinking, and the pH of the silk fibroin material. A composition should be sufficiently cohesive as to remain localized to a site of administration. Additionally, in certain applications, a sufficient cohesiveness is important for a composition to retain its shape, and thus functionality, in the event of mechanical load cycling. As such, in one embodiment, a silk fibroin material disclosed herein exhibits cohesivity, on par with water. In yet another embodiment, a silk fibroin material disclosed herein exhibits sufficient cohesivity to remain localized to a site of administration. In still another embodiment, a silk fibroin material disclosed herein exhibits sufficient cohesivity to retain its shape. In a further embodiment, a silk fibroin material disclosed herein exhibits sufficient cohesivity to retain its shape and functionality.

[0116] In aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material disclosed herein has a cohesivity of, e.g., about 10 gmf, about 20 gmf, about 30 gmf, about 40 gmf, about 50 gmf, about 60 gmf, about 70 gmf, about 80 gmf, about 90 gmf, about 100 gmf, about 150 gmf, or about 200 gmf. In other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material disclosed herein has a cohesivity of, e.g., at least 10 gmf, at least 20 gmf, at least 30 gmf, at least 40 gmf, at least 50 gmf, at least 60 gmf, at least 70 gmf, at least 80 gmf, at least 90 gmf, at least 100 gmf, at least 150 gmf, or at least 200 gmf. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material disclosed herein has a cohesivity of, e.g., at most 10 gmf, at most 20 gmf, at most 30 gmf, at most 40 gmf, at most 50 gmf, at most 60 gmf, at most 70 gmf, at most 80 gmf, at most 90 gmf, at most 100 gmf, at most 150 gmf, or at most 200 gmf. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material disclosed herein has a cohesivity of, e.g., about 50 gmf to about 150 gmf, about 60 gmf to about 140 gmf, about 70 gmf to about 130 gmf, about 80 gmf to about 120 gmf, or about 90 gmf to about 1 10 gmf.

[0117] In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material disclosed herein has a cohesivity of, e.g., about 10 gmf to about 50 gmf, about 25 gmf to about 75 gmf, about 50 gmf to about 150 gmf, about 100 gmf to about 200 gmf, about 100 gmf to about 300 gmf, about 100 gmf to about 400 gmf, about 100 gmf to about 500 gmf, about 200 gmf to about 300 gmf, about 200 gmf to about 400 gmf, about 200 gmf to about 500 gmf, about 200 gmf to about 600 gmf, about 200 gmf to about 700 gmf, about 300 gmf to about 400 gmf, about 300 gmf to about 500 gmf, about 300 gmf to about 600 gmf, about 300 gmf to about 700 gmf, about 300 gmf to about 800 gmf, about 400 gmf to about 500, about 400 gmf to about 600, about 400 gmf to about 700, about 400 gmf to about 800, about 500 gmf to about 600 gmf, about 500 gmf to about 700 gmf, about 500 gmf to about 800 gmf, about 600 gmf to about 700 gmf, about 600 gmf to about 800 gmf, about 700 gmf to about 800 gmf, about 1000 gmf to about 2000 gmf, about 1000 gmf to about 3000 gmf, or about 2000 gmf to about 3000 gmf.

[0118] Aspects of the present specification provide, in part, a silk fibroin material disclosed herein that exhibits a physiologically-acceptable osmolarity. As used herein, the term "osmolarity" refers to the concentration of osmotically active solutes in solution. As used herein, the term "a physiologically-acceptable osmolarity" refers to an osmolarity in accord with, or characteristic of, the normal functioning of a living organism. As such, administration of a silk fibroin material as disclosed herein exhibits an osmolarity that has substantially no long term or permanent detrimental effect when administered to a mammal. Osmolarity is expressed in terms of osmoles of osmotically active solute per liter of solvent (Osmol/L or Osm/L). Osmolarity is distinct from molarity because it measures moles of osmotically active solute particles rather than moles of solute. The distinction arises because some compounds can dissociate in solution, whereas others cannot. The osmolarity of a solution can be calculated from the following expression: Osmol/L =∑ φ, η, , where φ is the osmotic coefficient, which accounts for the degree of non-ideality of the solution; η is the number of particles (e.g. ions) into which a molecule dissociates; and C is the molar concentration of the solute; and i is the index representing the identity of a particular solute. The osmolarity of a silk fibroin material disclosed herein can be measured using a conventional method that measures solutions.

[0119] In an embodiment, a silk fibroin material disclosed herein exhibits a physiologically-acceptable osmolarity. In aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits an osmolarity of, e.g., about 100 mOsm/L, about 150 mOsm/L, about 200 mOsm/L, about 250 mOsm/L, about 300 mOsm/L, about 350 mOsm/L, about 400 mOsm/L, about 450 mOsm/L, or about 500 mOsm/L. In other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits an osmolarity of, e.g., at least 100 mOsm/L, at least 150 mOsm/L, at least 200 mOsm/L, at least 250 mOsm/L, at least 300 mOsm/L, at least 350 mOsm/L, at least 400 mOsm/L, at least 450 mOsm/L, or at least 500 mOsm/L. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits an osmolarity of, e.g., at most 100 mOsm/L, at most 150 mOsm/L, at most 200 mOsm/L, at most 250 mOsm/L, at most 300 mOsm/L, at most 350 mOsm/L, at most 400 mOsm/L, at most 450 mOsm/L, or at most 500 mOsm/L. In still other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits an osmolarity of, e.g., about 100 mOsm/L to about 500 mOsm/L, about 200 mOsm/L to about 500 mOsm/L, about 200 mOsm/L to about 400 mOsm/L, about 300 mOsm/L to about 400 mOsm/L, about 270 mOsm/L to about 390 mOsm/L, about 225 mOsm/L to about 350 mOsm/L, about 250 mOsm/L to about 325 mOsm/L, about 275 mOsm/L to about 300 mOsm/L, or about 285 mOsm/L to about 290 mOsm/L.

[0120] Aspects of the present specification provide, in part, a silk fibroin material disclosed herein that exhibits a physiologically-acceptable osmolality. As used herein, the term "osmolality" refers to the concentration of osmotically active solutes per kilo of solvent in the body. As used herein, the term "a physiologically-acceptable osmolality" refers to an osmolality in accord with, or characteristic of, the normal functioning of a living organism. As such, administration of a silk fibroin material disclosed herein exhibits an osmolality that has substantially no long term or permanent detrimental effect when administered to a mammal. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of osmotically active solute per kilogram of solvent (osmol/kg or Osm/kg) and is equal to the sum of the molalities of all the solutes present in that solution. The osmolality of a solution can be measured using an osmometer. The most commonly used instrument in modern laboratories is a freezing point depression osmometer. This instruments measure the change in freezing point that occurs in a solution with increasing osmolality (freezing point depression osmometer) or the change in vapor pressure that occurs in a solution with increasing osmolality (vapor pressure depression osmometer).

[0121] In an embodiment, a silk fibroin material disclosed herein exhibits a physiologically-acceptable osmolality. In aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits an osmolality of, e.g., about 100 mOsm/kg, about 150 mOsm/kg, about 200 mOsm/kg, about 250 mOsm/kg, about 300 mOsm/kg, about 350 mOsm/kg, about 400 mOsm/kg, about 450 mOsm/kg, or about 500 mOsm/kg. In other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits an osmolality of, e.g., at least 100 mOsm/kg, at least 150 mOsm/kg, at least 200 mOsm/kg, at least 250 mOsm/kg, at least 300 mOsm/kg, at least 350 mOsm/kg, at least 400 mOsm/kg, at least 450 mOsm/kg, or at least 500 mOsm/kg. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits an osmolality of, e.g., at most 100 mOsm/kg, at most 150 mOsm/kg, at most 200 mOsm/kg, at most 250 mOsm/kg, at most 300 mOsm/kg, at most 350 mOsm/kg, at most 400 mOsm/kg, at most 450 mOsm/kg, or at most 500 mOsm/kg. In still other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material exhibits an osmolality of, e.g., about 100 mOsm/kg to about 500 mOsm/kg, about 200 mOsm/kg to about 500 mOsm/kg, about 200 mOsm/kg to about 400 mOsm/kg, about 300 mOsm/kg to about 400 mOsm/kg, about 270 mOsm/kg to about 390 mOsm/kg, about 225 mOsm/kg to about 350 mOsm/kg, about 250 mOsm/kg to about 325 mOsm/kg, about 275 mOsm/kg to about 300 mOsm/kg, or about 285 mOsm/kg to about 290 mOsm/kg.

[0122] A silk fibroin material disclosed herein is typically resistant to biodegradation upon administration to an individual. As used herein, the term "resistant to biodegradation" is synonymous with "resistant to bioerosion", "resistant to bioresorption", "non-biodegradable", "non-bioerodable" and "non-bioresorbable" and refers to a silk fibroin material disclosed herein that is not prone to degrading, eroding, resorbing, decomposing, or breaking down to any substantial or significant degree while implanted in an individual. This resistance to biodegradation enables the silk fibroin to retain and maintain the tissue space in order to promote new tissue growth into the space. Non-limiting examples of substantial non-degradation or resistance to biodegradation include less than 10% degradation of a silk fibroin material over a time period measured, less than 5% degradation of a silk fibroin material over a time period measured, less than 3% degradation of a silk fibroin material over a time period measured, less than 1 % degradation of a silk fibroin material over a time period measured. In an embodiment, a silk fibroin material disclosed herein is substantially non-biodegradable or resistant to biodegradation upon administration to an individual.

[0123] However, it is anticipated that as the space becomes filled with regenerated tissue which will replace the space being occupied by the silk fibroin material. As such, the silk fibroin material should be degradable or time. The rate of degradation imparted on the silk fibroin material will be determined by the speed of replacement with fat and maintenance of volume. In one example, silk fibroin material will be resistant to degradation early on with degradation occurring over several months. [0124] In aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material is substantially nonbiodegradable or resistance to biodegradation for, e.g., about 10 days, about 20 days, about 30 days, about 40 days, about 50 days, about 60 days, about 70 days, about 80 days, or about 90 days, before biodegradation occurs. In other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material is substantially non-biodegradable or resistant to biodegradation for, e.g., at least 10 days, at least 20 days, at least 30 days, at least 40 days, at least 50 days, at least 60 days, at least 70 days, at least 80 days, or at least 90 days, before biodegradation occurs. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material is substantially non-biodegradable or resistant to biodegradation for, e.g., at most 10 days, at most 20 days, at most 30 days, at most 40 days, at most 50 days, at most 60 days, at most 70 days, at most 80 days, or at most 90 days, before biodegradation occurs. In still other aspects of this embodiment, a silk fibroin material is substantially non-biodegradable or resistant to biodegradation for, e.g., about 10 days to about 30 days, about 20 days to about 50 days, about 40 days to about 60 days, about 50 days to about 80 days, or about 60 days to about 90 days, before biodegradation occurs.

[0125] In aspects of this embodiment, biodegradation of a silk fibroin material disclosed herein occurs with substantially first order release kinetics over a period of, e.g., about 7 days after, about 15 days, about 30 days, about 45 days, about 60 days, about 75 days, or about 90 days after degradation begins. In other aspects of this embodiment, biodegradation of a silk fibroin material disclosed herein occurs with substantially first order release kinetics over a period of e.g., at least 7 days, at least 15 days, at least 30 days, at least 45 days, at least 60 days, at least 75 days, or at least 90 days after degradation begins. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, biodegradation of a silk fibroin material disclosed herein occurs with substantially first order release kinetics over a period of, e.g., about 10 days to about 30 days, about 20 days to about 50 days, about 40 days to about 60 days, about 50 days to about 80 days, or about 60 days to about 90 days, after degradation begins.

[0126] The silk fibroin material described herein can be further modified after fabrication. For example, a silk scaffold can be coated with additive(s), such as bioactive substances that function as receptors or chemoattractors for a desired population of cells. The coating can be applied through absorption or chemical bonding. See, e.g. Kaplin, et al., Silk Biomaterials and Methods of Use Thereof, U.S. Patent 7,674,882; Kaplin, et al., Concentrated Aqueous Silk Fibroin Solution and Use Thereof, U.S. Patent 7,635,755; Kaplin, et al., Silk Fibroin Materials and Use Thereof, U.S. Patent Publication 2006/0273279; and Kaplin, et al., Silk Biomaterials and Methods of Use Thereof, International Patent Publication WO 2004/001 103, each of which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0127] Aspects of the disclosure provide one or more compositions. For instance, a first composition comprising a compound and adipose tissue and a second composition comprising silk fibroin material are contemplated. Alternately, a single composition comprising a compound, adipose tissue and silk fibroin material is contemplated. In yet another aspect, a first composition comprising a compound and a second composition comprising adipose tissue and silk fibroin material are contemplated. In certain aspects, a first composition comprising a compound, a second composition comprising adipose tissue, and a third composition comprising silk fibroin material, are contemplated. The addition of a compound to an adipose tissue, for instance, may be accomplished by any method that ensures sufficient distribution of the compound throughout the adipose tissue so as to promote formation of a blood supply sufficient to support the transplanted tissue. For example, mixing may occur through automated means, such as, e.g., device-controlled agitation or centrifugation, or through manual methods, such as, e.g., luer-locked syringes or vortexing.

[0128] The compositions disclosed herein may optionally comprise one or more additional materials useful as a filler for tissue space. Exemplary filler materials suitable with the compositions and methods disclosed herein include, without limitation, fillers comprising a polypeptide such as, e.g., a resilin, a resilin-like polypeptide, an elastin, an elastin-like polypeptide, a silk protein-elastin-like polypeptide, an abductin, a byssus, a gliadin, a glutenin, abductin, keratin, gelatin, or collagen; fillers comprising a polysaccharide such as, e.g., cellulose, agarose, chitosan, chitin, or a glycosaminoglycan like chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, keratan sulfate, or hyaluronic acid; and fillers comprising a polyester such as, e.g., D-lactic acid, L-lactic acid, racemic lactic acid, glycolic acid, caprolactone. These additional tissue space fillers may be administered as a separate component, or may be complexed with a silk fibroin material disclosed herein. [0129] The compositions disclosed herein may optionally comprise one or more immunosuppressive agents that reduce, and preferably prevent, rejection of the transplanted tissue. As used herein, the term "immunosuppressive agent" is synonymous with "immunosuppressive drug" and refers to a compound that inhibits or interferes with normal immune function. Exemplary immunosuppressive agents suitable with the compositions and methods disclosed herein include, without limitation, agents that inhibit T-cell/B-cell costimulation pathways like agents that interfere with the coupling of T-cells and B-cells via the CTLA4 and B7 pathways, including cyclosporine A, myophenylate mofetil, rapamicin, and anti-thymocyte globulin. An immunosuppressive drug is administered in a formulation that is compatible with the route of administration and is administered to an individual at a dosage sufficient to achieve the desired therapeutic effect.

[0130] In aspects of this embodiment, a composition disclosed herein comprises an immunosuppressive agent in an amount of, e.g., about 0.1 %, about 0.2%, about 0.3%, about 0.4%, about 0.5%, about 0.6%, about 0.7%, about 0.8% about 0.9%, about 1 .0%, about 2.0%, about 3.0%, about 4.0%, about 5.0%, about 6.0%, about 7.0%, about 8.0%, about 9.0%, or about 10% by weight of the total composition. In other aspects, a composition disclosed herein comprises an immunosuppressive agent in an amount of, e.g., at least 0.1 %, at least 0.2%, at least 0.3%, at least 0.4%, at least 0.5%, at least 0.6%, at least 0.7%, at least 0.8% at least 0.9%, at least 1 .0%, at least 2.0%, at least 3.0%, at least 4.0%, at least 5.0%, at least 6.0%, at least 7.0%, at least 8.0%, at least 9.0%, or at least 10% by weight of the total composition. In yet other aspects, a composition disclosed herein comprises an immunosuppressive agent in an amount of, e.g., at most 0.1 %, at most 0.2%, at most 0.3%, at most 0.4%, at most 0.5%, at most 0.6%, at most 0.7%, at most 0.8% at most 0.9%, at most 1 .0%, at most 2.0%, at most 3.0%, at most 4.0%, at most 5.0%, at most 6.0%, at most 7.0%, at most 8.0%, at most 9.0%, or at most 10% by weight of the total composition. In further aspects, a composition disclosed herein comprises an anti-inflammatory agent in an amount of, e.g., about 0.1 % to about 0.5%, about 0.1 % to about 1 .0%, about 0.1 % to about 2.0%, about 0.1 % to about 3.0%, about 0.1 % to about 4.0%, about 0.1 % to about 5.0%, about 0.2% to about 0.9%, about 0.2% to about 1 .0%, about 0.2% to about 2.0%, about 0.5% to about 1 .0%, or about 0.5% to about 2.0% by weight of the total composition. [0131] In other aspects of this embodiment, a composition disclosed herein comprises an immunosuppressive agent at a concentration of, e.g., about 0.01 mg/mL, about 0.02 mg/mL, about 0.03 mg/mL, about 0.04 mg/mL, about 0.05 mg/mL, about 0.06 mg/mL, about 0.07 mg/mL, about 0.08 mg/mL, about 0.09 mg/mL, about 0.1 mg/mL, about 0.2 mg/mL, about 0.3 mg/mL, about 0.4 mg/mL, about 0.5 mg/mL, about 0.6 mg/mL, about 0.7 mg/mL, about 0.8 mg/mL, about 0.9 mg/mL, about 1 .0 mg/mL, about 2.0 mg/mL, about 3.0 mg/mL, about 4.0 mg/mL, about 5.0 mg/mL, about 6.0 mg/mL, about 7.0 mg/mL, about 8.0 mg/mL, about 9.0 mg/mL, or about 10 mg/mL. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a composition disclosed herein comprises an immunosuppressive agent at a concentration of, e.g., at least 0.01 mg/mL, at least 0.02 mg/mL, at least 0.03 mg/mL, at least 0.04 mg/mL, at least 0.05 mg/mL, at least 0.06 mg/mL, at least 0.07 mg/mL, at least 0.08 mg/mL, at least 0.09 mg/mL, at least 0.1 mg/mL, at least 0.2 mg/mL, at least 0.3 mg/mL, at least 0.4 mg/mL, at least 0.5 mg/mL, at least 0.6 mg/mL, at least 0.7 mg/mL, at least 0.8 mg/mL, at least 0.9 mg/mL, at least 1 .0 mg/mL, at least 2.0 mg/mL, at least 3.0 mg/mL, at least 4.0 mg/mL, at least 5.0 mg/mL, at least 6.0 mg/mL, at least 7.0 mg/mL, at least 8.0 mg/mL, at least 9.0 mg/mL, or at least 10 mg/mL. In still other aspects of this embodiment, a composition disclosed herein comprises an immunosuppressive agent at a concentration of, e.g., at most 0.01 mg/mL, at most 0.02 mg/mL, at most 0.03 mg/mL, at most 0.04 mg/mL, at most 0.05 mg/mL, at most 0.06 mg/mL, at most 0.07 mg/mL, at most 0.08 mg/mL, at most 0.09 mg/mL, at most 0.1 mg/mL, at most 0.2 mg/mL, at most 0.3 mg/mL, at most 0.4 mg/mL, at most 0.5 mg/mL, at most 0.6 mg/mL, at most 0.7 mg/mL, at most 0.8 mg/mL, at most 0.9 mg/mL, at most 1 .0 mg/mL, at most 2.0 mg/mL, at most 3.0 mg/mL, at most 4.0 mg/mL, at most 5.0 mg/mL, at most 6.0 mg/mL, at most 7.0 mg/mL, at most 8.0 mg/mL, at most 9.0 mg/mL, or at most 10 mg/mL. In further aspects, a composition disclosed herein comprises an anti-inflammatory agent at a concentration of, e.g., about 0.01 mg/mL to about 0.7 mg/mL, about 0.06 mg/mL to about 0.7 mg/mL, about 0.01 mg/mL to about 1 .0 mg/mL, about 0.05 mg/mL to about 1 .0 mg/mL, about 0.06 mg/mL to about 1 .0 mg/mL, about 0.1 mg/mL to about 1 .0 mg/mL, about 0.1 mg/mL to about 2.0 mg/mL, about 0.1 mg/mL to about 3.0 mg/mL, about 0.1 mg/mL to about 4.0 mg/mL, about 0.1 mg/mL to about 5.0 mg/mL, about 0.2 mg/mL to about 0.9 mg/mL, about 0.2 mg/mL to about 1 .0 mg/mL, about 0.2 mg/mL to about 2.0 mg/mL, about 0.5 mg/mL to about 1 .0 mg/mL, or about 0.5 mg/mL to about 2.0 mg/mL. [0132] In another embodiment, a composition disclosed herein does not comprise an immunosuppressive agent.

[0133] A compound disclosed herein, or a composition comprising such a compound is generally administered to an individual as a pharmaceutical composition. Pharmaceutical compositions may be prepared by combining a therapeutically effective amount of at least one compound according to the present specification, or a pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salt thereof, as an active ingredient, with conventional acceptable pharmaceutical excipients, and by preparation of unit dosage forms. The therapeutically efficient amount typically is between about 0.0001 % (w/v) and about 5% (w/v), preferably about 0.001 % (w/v) to about 1 .0% (w/v) in liquid formulations. As used herein, the term "pharmaceutical composition" refers to a therapeutically effective concentration of an active compound, such as, e.g., any of the compounds disclosed herein. Preferably, the pharmaceutical composition does not produce an adverse, allergic, or other untoward or unwanted reaction when administered to an individual. A pharmaceutical composition disclosed herein is useful for medical and veterinary applications. A pharmaceutical composition may be administered to an individual alone, or in combination with other supplementary active compounds, agents, drugs or hormones. The pharmaceutical compositions may be manufactured using any of a variety of processes, including, without limitation, conventional mixing, dissolving, granulating, dragee-making, levigating, emulsifying, encapsulating, entrapping, and lyophilizing. The pharmaceutical composition can take any of a variety of forms including, without limitation, a sterile solution, suspension, emulsion, lyophilizate, tablet, pill, pellet, capsule, powder, syrup, elixir, or any other dosage form suitable for administration.

[0134] The compounds disclosed herein may also be incorporated into a drug delivery platform in order to achieve a controlled compound release profile over time. Such a drug delivery platform comprises a compound disclosed herein dispersed within a polymer matrix, typically a biodegradable, bioerodible, and/or bioresorbable polymer matrix. As used herein, the term "polymer" refers to synthetic homo- or copolymers, naturally occurring homo- or copolymers, as well as synthetic modifications or derivatives thereof having a linear, branched or star structure. Copolymers can be arranged in any form, such as, e.g., random, block, segmented, tapered blocks, graft, or triblock. Polymers are generally condensation polymers. Polymers can be further modified to enhance their mechanical or degradation properties by introducing cross- linking agents or changing the hydrophobicity of the side residues. If crosslinked, polymers are usually less than 5% crosslinked, usually less than 1 % crosslinked.

[0135] Suitable polymers for use in a drug delivery platform include, without limitation, alginates, aliphatic polyesters, polyalkylene oxalates, polyamides, polyamidoesters, polyanhydrides, polycarbonates, polyesters, polyethylene glycol, polyhydroxyaliphatic carboxylic acids, polyorthoesters, polyoxaesters, polypeptides, polyphosphazenes, polysaccharides, and polyurethanes. The polymer usually comprises at least about 10% (w/w), at least about 20% (w/w), at least about 30% (w/w), at least about 40% (w/w), at least about 50% (w/w), at least about 60% (w/w), at least about 70% (w/w), at least about 80% (w/w), or at least about 90% (w/w) of the drug delivery platform. Examples of biodegradable, bioerodible, and/or bioresorbable polymers and methods useful to make a drug delivery platform are described in, e.g., Drost, et. al., Controlled Release Formulation, U.S. Patent 4,756,91 1 ; Smith, et. al., Sustained Release Drug Delivery Devices, U.S. Patent 5,378,475; Wong and Kochinke, Formulation for Controlled Release of Drugs by Combining Hyrophilic and Hydrophobic Agents, U.S. Patent 7,048,946; Hughes, et. Al., Compositions and Methods for Localized Therapy of the Eye, U.S. Patent Publication 2005/0181017; Hughes, Hypotensive Lipid-Containing Biodegradable Intraocular Implants and Related Methods, U.S. Patent Publication 2005/0244464; Altman, et al., Silk Fibroin Hydrogels and Uses Thereof, U.S. Patent Application 12/764,039, filed on April 20, 2010; each of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety.

[0136] In aspects of this embodiment, a polymer composing the matrix is a polypeptide such as, e.g., silk fibroin (discussed supra), keratin, or collagen. In other aspects of this embodiment, a polymer composing the matrix is a polysaccharide such as, e.g., cellulose, agarose, elastin, chitosan, chitin, or a glycosaminoglycan like chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, keratan sulfate, or hyaluronic acid. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, a polymer composing the matrix is a polyester such as, e.g., D-lactic acid, L-lactic acid, racemic lactic acid, glycolic acid, caprolactone, and combinations thereof.

[0137] One of ordinary skill in the art appreciates that the selection of a suitable polymer for forming a suitable disclosed drug delivery platform depends on several factors. The more relevant factors in the selection of the appropriate polymer(s), include, without limitation, compatibility of polymer with drug, desired release kinetics of drug, desired biodegradation kinetics of platform at implantation site, desired bioerodible kinetics of platform at implantation site, desired bioresorbable kinetics of platform at implantation site, in vivo mechanical performance of platform, processing temperatures, biocompatibility of platform, and patient tolerance. Other relevant factors that, to some extent, dictate the in vitro and in vivo behavior of the polymer include the chemical composition, spatial distribution of the constituents, the molecular weight of the polymer and the degree of crystal I in ity.

[0138] A drug delivery platform includes both a sustained release drug delivery platform and an extended release drug delivery platform. As used herein, the term "sustained release" refers to the release of a compound disclosed herein over a period of about seven days or more. As used herein, the term "extended release" refers to the release of a compound disclosed herein over a period of time of less than about seven days.

[0139] In aspects of this embodiment, a sustained release drug delivery platform releases a compound disclosed herein with substantially first order release kinetics over a period of, e.g., about 7 days after administration, about 15 days after administration, about 30 days after administration, about 45 days after administration, about 60 days after administration, about 75 days after administration, or about 90 days after administration. In other aspects of this embodiment, a sustained release drug delivery platform releases a compound disclosed herein with substantially first order release kinetics over a period of, e.g., at least 7 days after administration, at least 15 days after administration, at least 30 days after administration, at least 45 days after administration, at least 60 days after administration, at least 75 days after administration, or at least 90 days after administration.

[0140] In aspects of this embodiment, a drug delivery platform releases a compound disclosed herein with substantially first order release kinetics over a period of, e.g., about 1 day after administration, about 2 days after administration, about 3 days after administration, about 4 days after administration, about 5 days after administration, or about 6 days after administration. In other aspects of this embodiment, a drug delivery platform releases a compound disclosed herein with substantially first order release kinetics over a period of, e.g., at most 1 day after administration, at most 2 days after administration, at most 3 days after administration, at most 4 days after administration, at most 5 days after administration, or at most 6 days after administration.

[0141] A pharmaceutical composition disclosed herein can optionally include a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier that facilitates processing of an active compound into pharmaceutically acceptable compositions. As used herein, the term "pharmacologically acceptable carrier" is synonymous with "pharmacological carrier" and refers to any carrier that has substantially no long term or permanent detrimental effect when administered and encompasses terms such as "pharmacologically acceptable vehicle, stabilizer, diluent, additive, auxiliary, or excipient." Such a carrier generally is mixed with an active compound or permitted to dilute or enclose the active compound and can be a solid, semi-solid, or liquid agent. It is understood that the active compounds can be soluble or can be delivered as a suspension in the desired carrier or diluent. Any of a variety of pharmaceutically acceptable carriers can be used including, without limitation, aqueous media such as, e.g., water, saline, glycine, hyaluronic acid and the like; solid carriers such as, e.g., starch, magnesium stearate, mannitol, sodium saccharin, talcum, cellulose, glucose, sucrose, lactose, trehalose, magnesium carbonate, and the like; solvents; dispersion media; coatings; antibacterial and antifungal agents; isotonic and absorption delaying agents; or any other inactive ingredient. Selection of a pharmacologically acceptable carrier can depend on the mode of administration. Except insofar as any pharmacologically acceptable carrier is incompatible with the active compound, its use in pharmaceutically acceptable compositions is contemplated. Non-limiting examples of specific uses of such pharmaceutical carriers can be found in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems (Howard C. Ansel et al., eds., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publishers, 7th ed. 1999); Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy (Alfonso R. Gennaro ed., Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 20th ed. 2000); Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (Joel G. Hardman et al., eds., McGraw-Hill Professional, 10th ed. 2001 ); and Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients (Raymond C. Rowe et al., APhA Publications, 4th edition 2003). These protocols are routine and any modifications are well within the scope of one skilled in the art and from the teaching herein.

[0142] A pharmaceutical composition disclosed herein may optionally include, without limitation, other pharmaceutically acceptable components (or pharmaceutical components), including, without limitation, buffers, preservatives, tonicity adjusters, salts, antioxidants, osmolality adjusting agents, physiological substances, pharmacological substances, bulking agents, emulsifying agents, wetting agents, sweetening or flavoring agents, and the like. Various buffers and means for adjusting pH can be used to prepare a pharmaceutical composition disclosed herein, provided that the resulting preparation is pharmaceutically acceptable. Such buffers include, without limitation, acetate buffers, borate buffers, citrate buffers, phosphate buffers, neutral buffered saline, and phosphate buffered saline. It is understood that acids or bases can be used to adjust the pH of a composition as needed. Pharmaceutically acceptable antioxidants include, without limitation, sodium metabisulfite, sodium thiosulfate, acetylcysteine, butylated hydroxyanisole, and butylated hydroxytoluene. Useful preservatives include, without limitation, benzalkonium chloride, chlorobutanol, thimerosal, phenylmercunc acetate, phenylmercunc nitrate, a stabilized oxy chloro composition, such as, e.g., sodium chlorite and chelants, such as, e.g., DTPA or DTPA- bisamide, calcium DTPA, and CaNaDTPA-bisamide. Tonicity adjustors useful in a pharmaceutical composition include, without limitation, salts such as, e.g., sodium chloride, potassium chloride, mannitol or glycerin and other pharmaceutically acceptable tonicity adjustor. The pharmaceutical composition may be provided as a salt and can be formed with many acids, including but not limited to, hydrochloric, sulfuric, acetic, lactic, tartaric, malic, succinic, etc. Salts tend to be more soluble in aqueous or other protonic solvents than are the corresponding free base forms. It is understood that these and other substances known in the art of pharmacology can be included in a pharmaceutical composition useful in the invention.

[0143] Aspects of the present specification provide, in part, a method of treating a soft tissue condition of an individual by administering a composition disclosed herein. As used herein, the term "treating," refers to reducing or eliminating in an individual a cosmetic or clinical symptom of a soft tissue condition characterized by a soft tissue imperfection, defect, disease, and/or disorder; or delaying or preventing in an individual the onset of a cosmetic or clinical symptom of a condition characterized by a soft tissue imperfection, defect, disease, and/or disorder. For example, the term "treating" can mean reducing a symptom of a condition characterized by a soft tissue defect, disease, and/or disorder by, e.g., at least 20%, at least 30%, at least 40%, at least 50%, at least 60%, at least 70%, at least 80%, at least 90% or at least 100%. The effectiveness of a compound disclosed herein in treating a condition characterized by a soft tissue defect, disease, and/or disorder can be determined by observing one or more cosmetic, clinical symptoms, and/or physiological indicators associated with the condition. An improvement in a soft tissue defect, disease, and/or disorder also can be indicated by a reduced need for a concurrent therapy. Those of skill in the art will know the appropriate symptoms or indicators associated with specific soft tissue defect, disease, and/or disorder and will know how to determine if an individual is a candidate for treatment with a compound or composition disclosed herein.

[0144] A composition or compound is administered to an individual. An individual is typically a human being. Typically, any individual who is a candidate for a conventional soft tissue replacement procedure is a candidate for a soft tissue replacement procedure disclosed herein. In addition, the presently disclosed compositions and methods may apply to individuals seeking a small/moderate enlargement, shape change or contour alteration of a body part or region, which may not be technically possible or aesthetically acceptable with existing soft tissue implant technology. Preoperative evaluation typically includes routine history and physical examination in addition to thorough informed consent disclosing all relevant risks and benefits of the procedure.

[0145] The composition and methods disclosed herein are useful in treating a soft tissue condition. A soft tissue condition includes, without limitation, a soft tissue imperfection, defect, disease, and/or disorder. Non-limiting examples of a soft tissue condition include breast imperfection, defect, disease and/or disorder, such as, e.g., a breast augmentation, a breast reconstruction mastopexy, micromastia, thoracic hypoplasia, Poland's syndrome, defects due to implant complications like capsular contraction and/or rupture; a facial imperfection, defect, disease or disorder, such as, e.g., a facial augmentation, a facial reconstruction, Parry-Romberg syndrome, lupus erythematosus profundus, dermal divots, sunken cheeks, thin lips, nasal imperfections or defects, retro-orbital imperfections or defects, a facial fold, line and/or wrinkle like a glabellar line, a nasolabial line, a perioral line, and/or a marionette line, and/or other contour deformities or imperfections of the face; a neck imperfection, defect, disease or disorder; a skin imperfection, defect, disease and/or disorder; other soft tissue imperfections, defects, diseases and/or disorders, such as, e.g., an augmentation or a reconstruction of the upper arm, lower arm, hand, shoulder, back, torso including abdomen, buttocks, upper leg, lower leg including calves, foot including plantar fat pad, eye, genitals, or other body part, region or area, or a disease or disorder affecting these body parts, regions or areas; urinary incontinence, fecal incontinence, other forms of incontinence; and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

[0146] The amount of adipose tissue and/or silk fibroin material used with any of the methods as disclosed herein will typically be determined based on the alteration and/or improvement desired, the reduction and/or elimination of a soft tissue condition symptom desired, the clinical and/or cosmetic effect desired by the individual and/or physician, and the body part or region being treated. The effectiveness of adipose tissue and/or silk fibroin material administration may be manifested by one or more of the following clinical and/or cosmetic measures: altered and/or improved soft tissue shape, altered and/or improved soft tissue size, altered and/or improved soft tissue contour, altered and/or improved tissue function, improved transplant tissue survival, improved patient satisfaction and/or quality of life, and decreased use of implantable foreign material.

[0147] For example, for breast augmentation procedures, effectiveness of adipose tissue and/or silk fibroin material administration may be manifested by one or more of the following clinical and/or cosmetic measures: increased breast size, altered breast shape, altered breast contour, sustained engraftment, decreased rate of liponecrotic cyst formation, improved patient satisfaction and/or quality of life, and decreased use of breast implant.

[0148] As another example, effectiveness of adipose tissue and/or silk fibroin material administration in treating a facial soft tissue may be manifested by one or more of the following clinical and/or cosmetic measures: increased size, shape, and/or contour of facial feature like increased size, shape, and/or contour of lip, cheek or eye region; altered size, shape, and/or contour of facial feature like altered size, shape, and/or contour of lip, cheek or eye region shape; reduction or elimination of a wrinkle, fold or line in the skin; resistance to a wrinkle, fold or line in the skin; rehydration of the skin; increased elasticity to the skin; reduction or elimination of skin roughness; increased and/or improved skin tautness; reduction or elimination of stretch lines or marks; increased and/or improved skin tone, shine, brightness and/or radiance; increased and/or improved skin color, reduction or elimination of skin paleness; sustained engraftment of composition; decreased side effects; improved patient satisfaction and/or quality of life.

[0149] As yet another example, for urinary incontinence procedures, effectiveness of adipose tissue and/or silk fibroin material administration for sphincter support may be manifested by one or more of the following clinical measures: decreased frequency of incontinence, sustained engraftment, improved patient satisfaction and/or quality of life, and decreased use of implantable foreign filler.

[0150] The amount of a compound used with any of the methods disclosed herein will typically be a therapeutically effective amount. As used herein, the term "therapeutically effective amount" is synonymous with "effective amount", "therapeutically effective dose", and/or " effective dose" and refers to the amount of compound that will elicit the biological, cosmetic or clinical response being sought by the practitioner in an individual in need thereof. As a non-limiting example, an effective amount is an amount sufficient to promote formation of a blood supply sufficient to support the transplanted tissue. As another non-limiting example, an effective amount is an amount sufficient to promote formation of new blood vessels and associated vasculature (angiogenesis) and/or an amount sufficient to promote repair or remodeling of existing blood vessels and associated vasculature. The appropriate effective amount to be administered for a particular application of the disclosed methods can be determined by those skilled in the art, using the guidance provided herein. For example, an effective amount can be extrapolated from in vitro and in vivo assays as described in the present specification. One skilled in the art will recognize that the condition of the individual can be monitored throughout the course of therapy and that the effective amount of a compound or composition disclosed herein that is administered can be adjusted accordingly.

[0151] In aspects of this embodiment, the amount of a compound added is, e.g., 0.01 mg, 0.05 mg, 0.1 mg, 0.5 mg, 1 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg, 40 mg, 50 mg, 60 mg, 70 mg, 80 mg, 90 mg, 100 mg, 150 mg, 200 mg, 250 mg, 500 mg, 750 mg, or 1000 mg. In other aspects of this embodiment, the amount of a compound added is, e.g., 0.01 mg/mL, 0.05 mg/mL, 0.1 mg/mL, 0.5 mg/mL, 1 mg/mL, 5 mg/mL, 10 mg/mL, 20 mg/mL, 30 mg/mL, 40 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL, 60 mg/mL, 70 mg/mL, 80 mg/mL, 90 mg/mL, 100 mg/mL, 150 mg/mL, 200 mg/mL, 250 mg/mL, 500 mg/mL, 750 mg/mL, or 1000 mg/mL. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, the amount of a compound added is, e.g., 0.01 mg/10 mL of tissue, 0.05 mg/10 mL of tissue, 0.1 mg/10 mL of tissue, 0.5 mg/10 mL of tissue, 1 mg/10 mL of tissue, 5 mg/10 mL of tissue, 10 mg/10 mL of tissue, 20 mg/10 mL of tissue, 30 mg/10 mL of tissue, 40 mg/10 mL of tissue, 50 mg/10 mL of tissue, 60 mg/10 mL of tissue, 70 mg/10 mL of tissue, 80 mg/10 mL of tissue, 90 mg/10 mL of tissue, 100 mg/10 mL of tissue, 150 mg/10 mL of tissue, 200 mg/10 mL of tissue, 250 mg/10 mL of tissue, 500 mg/10 mL of tissue, 750 mg/10 mL of tissue, or 1000 mg/10 mL of tissue.

[0152] In aspects of this embodiment, the amount of a compound added is, e.g., about 0.01 mg to about 0.1 mg, about 0.1 mg to about 1 mg, about 1 mg to about 10 mg, about 10 mg to about 100 mg, or about 100 mg to about 1000 mg. In other aspects of this embodiment, the amount of a compound added is, e.g., about 0.01 mg/mL to about 0.1 mg/mL, about 0.1 mg/mL to about 1 mg/mL, about 1 mg/mL to about 10 mg/mL, about 10 mg/mL to about 100 mg/mL, or about 100 mg/mL to about 1000 mg/mL. In yet other aspects of this embodiment, the amount of a compound added is, e.g., about 0.01 mg/10 mL of tissue to about 0.1 mg/10 mL of tissue, about 0.1 mg/10 mL of tissue to about 1 mg/10 mL of tissue, about 1 mg/10 mL of tissue to about 10 mg/10 mL of tissue, about 10 mg/10 mL of tissue to about 100 mg/10 mL of tissue, or about 100 mg/10 mL of tissue to about 1000 mg/10 mL of tissue.

[0153] In aspects of this embodiment, the amount of a compound added is, e.g., about 0.0001 % (w/v) to about 5% (w/v), about 0.001 % (w/v) to about 5% (w/v), about 0.01 % (w/v) to about 5% (w/v), about 0.1 % (w/v) to about 5% (w/v), or about 1 % (w/v) to about 5% (w/v). In other aspects of this embodiment, the amount of a compound added is, e.g., about 0.001 % (w/v) to about 1 .0% (w/v), about 0.01 % (w/v) to about 1 .0% (w/v), or about 0.1 % (w/v) to about 1 .0% (w/v).

[0154] A composition disclosed herein, comprising a compound and/or silk fibroin, can be mixed with the harvested adipose tissue and, as such, be administered simultaneously with the adipose tissue. Additionally, or alternatively, a composition comprising a compound and/or silk fibroin, as disclosed herein, can be administered after administration of the adipose tissue. In aspects of this embodiment, a composition disclosed herein is administered to the individual additionally, or alternatively, e.g., about 1 day after adipose tissue implantation, about 2 days after adipose tissue implantation, about 3 days after adipose tissue implantation, or about 4 days after adipose tissue implantation. In other aspects, a composition disclosed herein is administered to the individual additionally, or alternatively, e.g., about once a day for about 3 to about 10 consecutive days, about once a day for about 7 to about 14 consecutive days, about once a day for about 10 to about 21 consecutive days, or about once a day for about 14 to about 28 consecutive days. In other aspects, the daily dose can be, e.g., twice a day, three times a day, or four times a day.

[0155] The route of administration of composition administered to an individual patient will typically be determined based on the cosmetic and/or clinical effect desired by the individual and/or physician and the body part or region being treated. Compositions or adipose tissue may be administered by any means known to persons of ordinary skill in the art including, without limitation, syringe with needle, catheter, or by direct surgical implantation. In addition, the disclosed composition or adipose tissue can be administered once, or over a plurality of times. Ultimately, the timing used will follow quality care standards.

[0156] For a breast soft tissue replacement procedure, the route of administration may include axillary, periareolar, and/or inframammary routes. For a facial soft tissue replacement procedure, the route of administration can be frontal, temporal, zygomatic, periocular, amdibula, perioral or chin routes. In urinary incontinence procedures, the route of administration may include transurethral or periurethral routes. Alternatively or in addition, the transplant may be delivered via an antegrade route. The routes discussed herein do not exclude the use of multiple routes to achieve the desired clinical effect, or umbilical incision. Alternatively or in addition, cell-enhanced tissue may be delivered through a transaxillary endoscopic subpectoral approach.

[0157] A composition or compound administered to an individual to treat a soft tissue condition promotes formation of a blood supply sufficient to support the transplanted tissue. Blood supply formation includes, without limitation, formation of new blood vessels and associated vasculature (angiogenesis) and repair or remodel of existing blood vessels and associated vasculature.

[0158] Aspects of the present specification disclose, in part, a method of treating a soft tissue condition of an individual, the method comprising the steps of a) administering adipose tissue to a site of the soft tissue condition; and b) administering a composition comprising a compound as disclosed herein to the site of the soft tissue condition. In certain aspects, a composition comprising silk fibroin is administered in step (a) or, alternately, in step (b). The adipose tissue, compound(s), and silk fibroin administered include the adipose tissue disclosed herein. In these methods, the adipose tissue is administered separately from a composition comprising the compound and/or silk fibroin. Thus, in one aspect of this embodiment, adipose tissue is administered first, followed by administration of a composition comprising the compound and silk fibroin. In another aspect of this embodiment, one or more compositions comprising a compound and silk fibroin (i.e., in the same composition or a separate composition) are administered first, followed by administration of adipose tissue. In certain aspects, compositions comprising one or more compounds further comprise silk fibroin. In other embodiments, a second composition comprising silk fibroin is administered at the same time, before, or after the administration of the first composition that comprises one or more of the compounds disclosed herein.

EXAMPLES

[0159] The following non-limiting examples are provided for illustrative purposes only in order to facilitate a more complete understanding of representative embodiments now contemplated. These examples should not be construed to limit any of the embodiments described in the present specification, including those pertaining to the compositions and methods of soft tissue replacement disclosed herein.

Example 1

Synthesis of Compounds of Formula I

[0160] This example illustrates the synthesis scheme for the compounds of formula I.

[0161] The methods of preparing the compounds disclosed herein are further illustrated by the following non-limiting examples, which are summarized in the reaction schemes of Figures 1 -9 wherein the compounds are identified by the same designator in both the Examples and the Figures.

[0162] 2-Alkyl-cyclopentane-1,3-dione (1a, FIG. 1). A mixture of 1 ,3- cyclopentanedione (89.4 mmol, Aldrich), l-R2 (96.4 mmol, Aldrich), and KOH (5.097 g, 90.8 mmol) in water (25 ml_)/dioxane (75 ml_) was heated at reflux. After 5 hours, a solution of KOH (2 g) and l-R2 (2 mmol) in water (5 ml_)/dioxane (15 ml_) was added and after another 3 hours at reflux, the solution was stirred at room temperature overnight. A solution of KOH (2 g) and l-R2 (2.4 mmol) in water (5 ml_)/dioxane (15 ml_) was added to the overnight reaction and heating at reflux. After 4 hours, the mixture was cooled to room temperature and extracted with ether (1 x 100 ml_, 3 x 75 ml_). The combined ether extracts were evaporated, the residue combined with 10% HCI (50 ml_), and the resulting mixture placed in a 120 °C oil bath until boiling was observed (ca. 15 minutes). The mixture was cooled to room temperature, neutralized by addition of NaHCO3 solution (150 ml_, saturated) and the resulting mixture extracted with CH2CI2 (4 x 75 ml_). The combined CH2CI2 solution was dried (MgSO ), filtered and evaporated to leave a brown oil which was used directly in the next step.

[0163] 2-Alkyl-2-methyl-cyclopentane-1,3-dione (2a, FIG. 1). A mixture of 2- methyl-1 ,3-cyclopentanedione (10.025 g, 89.4 mmol, Aldrich), l-R2 (96.4 mmol, Aldrich), and KOH (5.097 g, 90.8 mmol) in water (25 ml_)/dioxane (75 ml_) was heated at reflux. After 5 hours, a solution of KOH (2 g) and l-R2 (2 mmol) in water (5 ml_)/dioxane (15 ml_) was added and after another 3 hours at reflux, the solution was stirred overnight at room temperature. A solution of KOH (2 g) and l-R2 (2.4 mmol) in water (5 ml_)/dioxane (15 ml_) was added to the overnight reaction and heating at reflux. After 4 hours, the mixture was cooled to room temperature and extracted with ether (1 x 100ml_, 3 x 75 ml_). The combined ether extracts were evaporated, the residue combined with 10% HCI (50 ml_), and the resulting mixture placed in a 120 °C oil bath until it began boiling (ca. 15 minutes). The mixture was cooled to room temperature, neutralized by addition of NaHCO3 solution (150 ml_, saturated) and the resulting mixture extracted with CH2CI2 (4 x 75 ml_). The combined CH2CI2 solution was dried (MgSO4), filtered and evaporated to leave a brown oil which was used directly in the next step.

[0164] 2,2-Dialkyl-methyl-cyclopentane-1,3-dione (2b, FIG. 1). A mixture of 2- alkyl-1 ,3-cyclopentanedione 1 a (89.4 mmol, Aldrich), l-R3 (96.4 mmol, Aldrich), and KOH (5.097 g, 90.8 mmol) in water (25 ml_)/dioxane (75 mL) was heated at reflux. After 5 hours, a solution of KOH (2 g) and l-R3 (2 mmol) in water (5 ml_)/dioxane (15 mL) was added and after another 3 hours at reflux, the solution was stirred at room temperature overnight. A solution of KOH (2 g) and l-R3 (2.4 mmol) in water (5 mL)/dioxane (15 mL) was added to the overnight reaction and heating at reflux. After 4 hours, the mixture was cooled to room temperature and extracted with ether (1 x 100 mL, 3 x 75 mL). The combined ether extracts were evaporated, the residue combined with 10% HCI (50 mL), and the resulting mixture placed in a 120 °C oil bath until it began boiling (ca. 15 minutes). The mixture was then cooled to room temperature, neutralized by addition of NaHCO3 solution (150 mL, saturated) and the resulting mixture extracted with CH2CI2 (4 x 75 mL). The combined CH2CI2 solution was dried (MgSO ), filtered and evaporated to leave a brown oil which was used directly in the next step.

[0165] Spiro[2.4]heptane-4,7-dione (2c, FIG. 1). A mixture of 2-alkyl-1 ,3- cyclopentanedione 1 a (89.4 mmol, Aldrich), 1 ,2-dibromoethane (120 mmol, Aldrich), and KOH (5.097 g, 90.8 mmol) in water (25 mL)/dioxane (75 mL) was heated at reflux for 24 hours. The mixture was cooled, and the product extracted with ether (1 x 100mL, 3 x 75 mL). The combined ether extracts were evaporated, the residue combined with 10% HCI (50 mL), and the resulting mixture placed in a 120 °C oil bath until boiling was observed (ca. 15 minutes). The mixture was then cooled to room temperature, neutralized by addition of NaHCO3 solution (150 mL, saturated) and the resulting mixture extracted with CH2CI2 (4 x 75 mL). The combined CH2CI2 solution was dried (MgSO4), filtered and evaporated to leave a brown oil which was used directly in the next step.

[0166] 2,2-Dimethyl-cyclopentane-1,3-dione (2, FIG. 1). Synthesized according to Agosta and Smith, J. Org. Chem. 35: 3856 (1970) A mixture of 2-methyl-1 ,3- cyclopentanedione (10.025 g, 89.4 mmol, Aldrich), methyl iodide (6.0 mL, 96.4 mmol, Aldrich), and KOH (5.097 g, 90.8 mmol) in water (25 mL)/dioxane (75 mL) was heated at reflux. After 5 hours, a solution of KOH (2 g) and Mel (2.4 mL) in water (5 mL)/dioxane (15 mL) was added and after another 3 hours at reflux, the solution was stirred at room temperature overnight. A solution of KOH (2 g) and Mel (2.4 mL) in water (5 mL)/dioxane (15 mL) was added to the overnight reaction and heating at reflux. After 4 hours, the mixture was cooled to room temperature and extracted with ether (1 x 100mL, 3 x 75 ml_). The combined ether extracts were evaporated, the residue combined with 10% HCI (50 ml_), and the resulting mixture placed in a 120 °C oil bath until it began boiling (ca. 15 minutes). The mixture was cooled to room temperature, neutralized by addition of saturated NaHCO3 solution (150 ml_) and the resulting mixture extracted with CH2CI2 (4 x 75 ml_). The combined CH2CI2 solution was dried (MgSO4), filtered and evaporated to leave a brown oil (10.474 g, 83 mmol, 93%) which was used directly in the next step.

[0167] (S)-3-Hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-cyclopentanone (3, FIG. 2). Synthesized according to Brooks, et al., J. Org. Chem. 52: 3223 (1987). A 35 °C (internal temperature) solution of D-glucose (106.73 g, 592 mmol, Aldrich) in water (690 ml_) in a 4 L Erienmeyer was treated with baker's yeast (71 .065 g, Fleischmann's). The mixture was fermented for 2 hours, and 2,2-dimethyl-cyclopentane-1 ,3-dione (2) (7.316 g, 58 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred for 48 hours and filtered through celite, washing with about 1 L CH2CI2. About 100 ml_ of brine was added to the filtrate and the layers separated using a separatory funnel. Brine (400 ml_) was added to the aqueous layer and the resulting solution extracted further with CH2CI2 (3 x 500 ml_). The combined CH2CI2 solution was dried (MgSO4), filtered and evaporated to leave a yellow oil. Flash chromatography (1 1 x 5 cm, 20% EtOAc/hexs→25%→30%→40%→50%) gave alcohol 3 (2.435 g, 19 mmol, 33%).

[0168] The enantiomeric excess of 3 was assayed by 1 H NMR of the corresponding Mosher's ester which was prepared by treatment of alcohol 3 (1 1 mg, 0.09 mmol) in dichloroethane (0.3 ml_, Aldrich) with pyridine (27 μΙ_, 0.33 mmol, Aldrich) and (R)-a- methoxy-a-trifluoromethyphenylacetic acid chloride (58 μΙ_, 0.31 mmol, Fluka). The mixture was stirred overnight and then partitioned between water (10 ml_) and ether (10 ml_). The ether layer was washed with 1 M HCI (10 ml_) and saturated NaHCO3 solution and then dried (MgSO4), filtered and evaporated. 1H NMR analysis was done on the crude ester.

[0169] (S)-3-(tert)-Butyl-dimethyl-sUanyloxy-2,2-dimethyl-cyclopentanone (4, FIG. 2). A solution of alcohol (3) (520 mg, 4.1 mmol) and 2,6-lutidine (0.56 ml_, 4.8 mmol, Aldrich) in CH2CI2 (8.0 ml_, Aldrich) was treated with TBSOTf (1 .0 ml_, 4.3 mmol, Aldrich). After 5.5 hours, saturated NaHCO3 solution (20 ml_) was added and the mixture extracted with CH2CI2 (20 mL). The CH2CI2 solution was washed with 20 mL each of 1 M HCI, saturated NaHCO3 solution, and brine and then dried (MgSO4), filtered and evaporated. Flash chromatography (5 x 5 cm, 10% Et2O/pentane) gave TBS ether (4) (698 mg, 2.9 mmol, 70%).

[0170] (S)-3-(tert)-Butyl-dimethyl-silanyloxy-2,2-dimethyl-5-phenylselanyl- cyclopentanone (5, FIG. 2). A solution of TBS ether (4) (1 .496 g, 6.2 mmol) in THF (2 mL, Aldrich) was added dropwise to a -78 °C solution of LDA (4.9 mL, 7.3 mmol, 1 .5 M/cyclohexane, Aldrich) in THF (22 mL, Aldrich), rinsing with 2 mL THF. After 15 minutes, a solution of PhSeCI (1 .424 g, 7.4 mmol, Aldrich) in THF (2 mL) was quickly added by cannula, rinsing with 2 mL THF. The solution was stirred for 10 minutes and then partitioned between 50 mL 0.5 M HCI and 75 mL ether. The ether layer was washed with 30 mL each of water, saturated NaHCO3 solution, and brine and then dried (MgSO4), filtered and evaporated. Flash chromatography (2% EtOAc/hexs→4%) gave phenylselenide (5) (1 .641 g, 4.1 mmol, 67%) along with 476 mg of mixed fractions containing a lower Rf impurity.

[0171] (S)-4-(tert)-Butyl-dimethyl-sUanyloxy-5,5-dimethyl-cyclopent-2-enone(6, FIG. 2). A solution of selenide (5) (1 .641 g, 4.1 mmol) and pyridine (0.62 mL, 7.7 mmol, Aldrich) in CH2CI2 (13 mL, Aldrich) was treated with water (1 mL) and 30% H2O2 (1 .1 mL, Aldrich). The mixture was stirred for 30 minutes and then partitioned between 25 mL CH2CI2 and 25 mL saturated NaHCO3 solution. The aqueous layer was extracted with 25 mL CH2CI2 and the combined CH2CI2 solution washed with 1 M HCI (2 x 25 mL) and brine (50 mL). The solution was dried (MgSO4), filtered and evaporated to leave an orange oil. Flash chromatography (6 x 4 cm, 10% ether/pentane) gave enone (6) (572 mg, 2.4 mmol, 59%).

[0172] (3-Chloro-benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-methanol (12, FIG. 3). To an ice cold solution of 10.0 g (47.0 mmol) of 3-chloro-benzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxylic acid (11 ) in 200 mL of THF was added 47 mL of LiAIH4 (47 mmol, 1 M/THF). After 3 hours, the reaction was quenched by adding methanol (ca. 40 mL). The volatiles were evaporated and the residue treated with 50 mL 1 M HCI. After stirring for 10 minutes, the mixture was extracted with CH2CI2 (3 x 150 mL). The combined CH2CI2 solution was dried (MgSO4), filtered and evaporated. Purification by flash chromatography on silica gel (10-20% ethyl acetate/hexane) gave 4.32 g (21 .6 mmol, 46 %) of the alcohol (12).

[0173] 3-Chloro-benzo[b]thiophene-2-carbaldehyde (13, FIG. 3). A solution of alcohol 12 (4.32 g, 21 .6 mmol) in 40 mL of CH2CI2 was treated with 4A molecular sieves, NMO (3.81 g, 32.5 mmol), and TPAP (381 mg, 1 .08 mmol). The reaction was stirred for 10 minutes and then dried by evaporated. Purification by flash chromatography on silica gel (2% ethyl acetate/hexane) gave 3.52 g (18.3 mmol, 84%) of the aldehyde (13).

[0174] (E)-3-(3-Chloro-benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-acrylic acid methyl ester (14, FIG.

3). A solution of 3.52 g (18.3 mmol) of (13) in 50 mL toluene was treated with methyl(triphenylphosphoranylidene)acetate (7.48 g, 21 .9 mmol). After 4 hours, saturated NaHCO3 solution (50 mL) was added and the mixture extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 75 mL). The combined ethyl acetate solution was washed with brine (50 mL), dried (Na2SO4), filtered and evaporated. Purification by flash chromatography on silica gel (5% ethyl acetate/hexane) provided 3.60 g (14.6 mmol, 80%) of the enoate (14).

[0175] 3-(3-Chloro-benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-propionic acid methyl ester (15, FIG.

3). A solution of 3.60 g (14.6 mmol) of (14) in 50 mL THF was treated with Wilkinson's catalyst (3.35 g, 3.62 mmol). The mixture was stirred under 1 atm H2 for 18 hours and then was filtered through celite. The solvent was evaporated and the residue purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (0-2% ethyl acetate/hexane) to give 3.63 g (14.3 mmol, 99%) of the saturated ester (15).

[0176] 3-(3-Chloro-benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-propan-1-ol (16, FIG. 3). An ice cold solution of 3.63 g (14.3 mmol) of (15) in 60 mL of ether was treated with LiBH4 (621 mg, 28.5 mmol) and methanol (2 mL). After 30 minutes, 30 mL of 0.5 M NaOH solution was added. The mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 25 mL) and the combined ethyl acetate solution was washed with brine (50 mL), dried (MgSO4), filtered and evaporated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (5-20% ethyl acetate/hexane) to give 2.57 g (1 1 .3 mmol, 79%) of the alcohol (16).

[0177] 3-(3-Chloro-benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-propionaldehyde (17, FIG. 3). A -78

°C solution of oxalyl chloride (1 .73 g, 13.6 mmol) in dichloromethane (20 mL) was treated with DMSO (20 mL). After 5 minutes, a solution of alcohol (16) (2.57g, 1 1 .3 mmol) in dichloromethane (20 mL) was added. After another 15 minutes, triethylamine (7.1 mL, 50.6 mmol) was added. The reaction was stirred at -78 °C for 5 minutes, and warmed to room temperature. After 30 minutes, 100 mL water was added and the mixture extracted with dichloromethane (3 x 60 mL). The combined dichloromethane solution was dried (Na2SO4), filtered and evaporated. Purification by flash chromatography on silica gel (10% ethyl acetate/hexane) gave 2.1 1 g (9.4 mmol, 83%) of the aldehyde (17).

[0178] 5-(3-Chloro-benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-pent-1-yn-3-ol (18, FIG. 3). A solution of aldehyde (17) (2.1 1 g, 9.4 mmol) in 15 mL THF was added to a solution of ethynylmagnesium bromide (28.2 mL, 14.1 mmol, 0.5 M THF) at 0 °C. After 1 .5 hours, saturated NH CI solution (75 mL) was added and the mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 50 mL). The combined ethyl acetate solution was washed with brine (50 mL) and then dried (Na2SO4), filtered and evaporated. Purification by flash chromatography (5-20% ethyl acetate/hexane) gave 2.20 g (8.78 mmol, 93%) of the alcohol (18).

[0179] tert-Butyl-{1-[2-(3-chloro-benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-ethyl]-prop-2-yny dimethyl-silane (19, FIG. 3). A solution of alcohol (18) (2.20 g, 8.78 mmol) in dichloromethane (15 mL) was treated with DMAP (215 mg, 1 .8 mmol), TBSCI (1 .59 g, 10.5 mmol), and triethylamine (1 .8 mL, 13.2 mmol). The reaction was stirred for 24 hours and then saturated sodium bicarbonate solution (50 mL) was added. The mixture was extracted with dichloromethane (2 x 50 mL) and the combined dichloromethane solution dried (Na2SO4), filtered and evaporated. Purification by flash chromatography (4% ethyl acetate/hexane) gave 3.06 g (6.4 mmol, 73%) of the protected alcohol (19).

[0180] tert-Butyl-hex-5-ynyloxy-dimethyl-silane (26); 7-(tert-Butyl-dimethyl- silanyloxy)-hept-2-yn-1-ol (27); and Acetic acid 7-(tert-butyl-dimethyl-silanyloxy)- hept-2-ynyl ester (28, FIG. 4). A solution of 7-(tert-Butyl-dimethyl-silanyloxy)-hept-2- yn-1 -ol (27) (4.507 g, 21 mmol) in pyridine (20 mL) was treated with acetic anhydride (3.0 mL, 31 .8 mmol). After 18 hours, the solvent was evaporated and the residue co- evaporated with toluene. The residue was used directly in the next step.

[0181] 7-Acetoxy-hept-5-ynoic acid (29, FIG. 4). A solution of crude (28) in acetone (100 mL) was treated with Jones Reagent (18.0 mL, 41 .4 mmol, 2.3 M) and cooled with an ice bath. After 1 hour at room temperature, 10 mL isopropyl alcohol was added and the mixture stirred for 15 minutes. The mixture still had a brown color so another 10 mL isopropyl alcohol was added. After another 15 minutes, the color had not changed so the mixture was filtered through celite and the filtrate evaporated in vacuo. The residue was partitioned between 100 mL ether and 100 mL saturated ammonium chloride solution. The aqueous layer was extracted with 100 mL ether and the combined ether solution washed with brine and then dried (MgSO4), filtered and evaporated to leave a yellow oil (6.333 g) that was used directly in the next step.

[0182] 7-Hydroxy-hept-5-ynoic acid methyl ester (30, FIG. 4). The crude acid (29) (6.333 g) was treated with a 1 % solution of acetyl chloride in methanol (60 mL). After 16 hours, sodium bicarbonate (1 .966 g, 23.4 mmol) was added. The mixture was dried (MgSO ), filtered through celite and evaporated in vacuo. Purification by flash chromatography on silica gel (30-40% ethyl acetate/hexanes) gave 7-Hydroxy-hept-5- ynoic acid methyl ester (30) (3.022 g, 19.3 mmol, 92% from 7-(tert-Butyl-dimethyl- silanyloxy)-hept-2-yn-1 -ol (27).

[0183] 7-lodo-hept-5-ynoic acid methyl ester (31, FIG. 4). A solution of (30) (1 .347 g, 8.6 mmol) in 5 mL dichloromethane was added to a mixture of triphenylphosphine (2.725 g, 10.4 mmol), imidazole (726 mg, 10.7 mmol), and iodine (2.602 g, 10.3 mmol) in 34 mL dichloromethane, rinsing with 5 mL dichloromethane. After 40 minutes, the dichloromethane was evaporated in vacuo to about 2 mL and the resulting mixture filtered through basic alumina, washing with 10% ethyl acetate/hexanes. Purification by flash chromatography on silica gel (10% ethyl acetate/hexanes) gave 1 .878 g (7.1 mmol, 83%) of the propargyl iodide.

[0184] fer βϋf /-^£ ί- ^2-(,3-cΛ/oro-benzo ^b7fΛ o Λen-2- / efΛ /7-3- odo- allyloxy}-dimethyl-silane (32, FIG. 5). A solution of alkyne (19) (5.547 g, 15.2 mmol) in dichloromethane (50 mL) was treated with Cp2ZrHCI (5.794 g, 22.5 mmol). The reaction was stirred for 45 minutes and then N-iodosuccinimide (4.966 g, 22.1 mmol) was added. After 15 minutes, saturated sodium bicarbonate solution (200 mL) was added and the mixture extracted with dichloromethane (2 x 100 mL). The combined dichloromethane solution was dried (MgSO4), filtered and evaporated. Purification by flash chromatography on silica gel (0-5% ethyl acetate/hexanes) gave 6.608 g (13.1 mmol, 86%) of the vinyl iodide (32).

[0185] 7-{(1R,4S,5R)-4-(tert-Butyl-dimethyl-silanyloxy)-5-[(E)-3^

dimethyl-silanyloxy)-5-(3-chloro-benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-pent-1-enyl]-3,3-dimethyl- 2-oxo-cyclopentyl}-hept-5-ynoic acid methyl ester (33, FIG. 5). A -78 °C solution of iodide (32) (675 mg, 1 .34 mmol) in THF (2.0 ml_) was treated with tert-butyllithium (1 .73 ml_, 2.94 ml_, 1 .7 M/pentane). The dark red mixture was stirred for 25 minutes and then dimethylzinc (0.80 ml_, 1 .6 mmol, 2 M/toluene) was added. The solution was stirred at 0 °C for 15 minutes and then recooled to -78 °C. A solution of enone (6) (208 mg, 0.87 mmol) in THF (1 .0 ml_) was added over 2 hours by syringe pump, rinsing with 0.5 ml_ THF. After 30 minutes, HMPA (1 .34 ml_, distilled from CaH2) was added followed by a solution of propargyl iodide (31 ) (1 .286 g, 4.83 mmol) in THF (1 .0 ml_). The solution was stirred in a -40 °C bath overnight and then 20 ml_ saturated ammonium chloride solution and 10 ml_ water were added. The mixture was extracted with dichloromethane (20 ml_) and ethyl acetate (2 x 20 ml_). The combined organic extracts were dried (MgSO4), filtered and evaporated. Purification by flash chromatography on silica gel (5-10% ethyl acetate/hexanes) gave 198 mg (0.27 mmol, 31 %) of (33).

[0186] ΓΖ 7-^ί ?,45, ? -^£ -Γ3-οΛ/θΓθ-ύθηζο^7ίΛ ο ΛθΑ7θ-2- / 3-Λ ί/Γθ - pent-1-enyl]-4-hydroxy-,3-dimethyl-2-oxo-cyclopentyl}-hept-5-ynoic acid methyl ester (34, 35, FIG. 5). A solution of (33) (198 mg, 0.27 mmol) in CH3CN (6.5 ml_) was treated with HF-pyridine (1 .2 ml_). The solution was stirred for 3 hours and saturated sodium bicarbonate solution (120 ml_) was added. The mixture was extracted with dichloromethane (3 x 50 ml_) and the combined dichloromethane solution dried (Na2SO4), filtered and evaporated. Purification by flash chromatography (50% ethyl acetate/hexane) followed by preparative TLC (55% ethyl acetate/hexane) gave 55 mg (0.1 1 mmol, 41 %) of the less polar diastereomer (34) and 51 mg (0.10 mmol, 37%) of the more polar diastereomer (35).

[0187] ^Ζ 7-^ί ?,45, ? -^£ -Γ3-οΛ/θΓθ-ύθηζο^7ίΛ ο ΛθΑ7θ-2- / 3-Λ ί/Γθ - pent-1-enyl]-4-hydroxy-3,3-dimethyl-2-oxo-cyclopentyl}-hept-5-ynoic acid (low Rf diastereomer, 36, FIG. 5). A solution of (34) (9 mg, 0.017 mmol) and rabbit liver esterase (1 mg) in pH 7.2 phosphate buffer (2 mL)/CH3CN (0.1 ml_) was stirred for 17 hours. The mixture was then coevaporated with CH3CN to remove water and the residue purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (3-7% MeOH/CH2Cl2) to give 8 mg (0.016 mmol, 93%) of the acid (36).

[0188] (Z)-7-{(1R,4S,5R)-5-[(E)-5-(3-chloro-benzo[b]thiophene-2-yl)-3-hydroxy- pent-1-enyl]-4-hydroxy-3,3-dimethyl-2-oxo-cyclopentyl}-hept-5-ynoic acid (high Rf diastereomer, 37, FIG. 5). A solution of (35) (12 mg, 0.023 mmol) and rabbit liver esterase (1 mg) in pH 7.2 phosphate buffer (2 mL)/CH3CN (0.1 ml_) was stirred for 17 hours. TLC showed the presence of starting material, so another 2 mg of the esterase was added. After stirring for another 24 hours, the reaction was complete. Work up and purification as above for (36) gave 8 mg (0.016 mmol, 69%) of the acid (37).

[0189] ΓΖ 7-^ί ?,45, ? -^£ -Γ3-οΛ/θΓθ-ύθηζο^7ίΛ ο ΛθΑ7θ-2- / 3-Λ ί/Γθ - pent-1-enyl]-4-hydroxy-3,3-dimethyl-2-oxo-cyclopentyl}-hept-5-enoic acid methyl ester (low Rf diastereomer, 38, FIG. 5). Ethanol (95%, 2.5 ml_) was added to NiCI2 (50 mg, 0.39 mmol) and NaBH4 (7 mg, 0.19 mmol). The resulting black mixture was stirred for 5 minutes and then ethylenediamine (41 μΙ_, 0.61 mmol) was added. After 15 minutes, a solution of alkyne (34) (40 mg, 0.077 mmol) in 0.5 ml_ 95% ethanol was added, rinsing with 0.5 ml_ ethanol. The flask was purged with H2 and allowed to stir under 1 atm H2 for 22 hours. The mixture was then filtered through celite and purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (55% ethyl acetate/hexanes) to give 17 mg (0.032 mmol, 43%) of the alkene (38).

[0190] ΓΖ 7-^ί ?,45, ? -^£ -^3-οΛ/θΓθ-ύθηζο^7ίΛ ο Λθηθ-2- / 3-Λ ί/Γθ - pent-1-enyl]-4-hydroxy-3,3-dimethyl-2-oxo-cyclopentyl}-hept-5-enoic acid methyl ester (high Rf diastereomer 39, FIG. 5). The same procedure as for (36) was followed to give 17 mg (0.032 mmol, 41 %) of (39).

[0191] (Z)-7-{(1 R,4S,5R)-5-[(E)-5-(3-chloro-benzo[b]thiophene-2-yl)-3-hydroxy- pent-1-enyl]-4-hydroxy-3,3-dimethyl-2-oxo-cyclopentyl}-hept-5-enoic acid (low Rf diastereomer, 40, FIG. 5). The same procedure as above for (36) was used to give 9 mg (0.018 mmol, 85%) of acid (40). 300 MHz 1 H NMR (CDCI3, ppm) δ 7.73 (2 H, d, J = 8.4 Hz) 7.45-7.30 (2 H, m) 5.8-5.6 (2 H, m) 5.4-5.3 (2 H, m) 4.3-4.1 (1 H, m) 3.57 (1 H, d, J = 9.7 Hz) 3.1 -2.9 (2 H, m) 2.5-1 .9 (10 H, m) 1 .7-1 .6 (2 H, m) 1 .09 (3 H, s) 0.89 (3 H, s).

[0192] ^Ζ 7-^ί ?,45, ? -^£ -^3-οΛ/θΓθ-ύθηζο^7ίΛ ο Λθηθ-2- / 3-Λ ί/Γθ - pent-1-enyl]-4-hydroxy-3,3-dimethyl-2-oxo-cyclopentyl}-hept-5-enoic acid (high Rf diastereomer, 41, FIG. 5). The same procedure as above for the (36) was used to give 9mg (0.018 mmol, 85%) of acid (41 ). 300 MHz 1H NMR (CDCI3, ppm) δ 7.73 (2 H, d, J = 8.8 Hz) 7.45-7.30 (2 H, m) 5.8-5.6 (2 H, m) 5.45-5.30 (2 H, m) 4.3-4.2 (1 H, m) 3.61 (1

H, d, J = 9.7 Hz) 3.1 -3.0 (2 H, m) 2.5-1 .9 (10 H, m) 1 .7-1 .6 (2 H, m) 1 .10 (3 H, s) 0.90 (3 H, s).

[0193] 2-Benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl-ethanol (54b, FIG. 6). n-BuLi (100 mL, 160 mmol,

I .6M/hexanes) was added to a -78 °C mixture of thianaphthene (54a) (17.31 g, 129 mmol) in THF (70 mL)/ether (30 mL). The mixture was stirred at -78 °C for 2 hours and then a solution of ethylene oxide (42.86 g, 1 ,071 mmol) in THF (70 mL)/ether (30 mL) was added by cannula over 15 minutes. The resulting mixture was stirred for 2 hours at -78 °C and then at room temperature for 15 hours. The mixture was evaporated, 200 mL water was added, and the resulting mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 150 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with brine and then dried (Na2SO4), filtered, and evaporated. Purification by flash chromatography on silica gel (20% ethyl acetate/hexanes) gave (54b) (13.61 g, 78 mmol, 60%).

[0194] Benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl-acetaldehyde (54c, FIG. 6). A 0 °C mixture of (54b) (8.019 g, 44.9 mmol) in 100 mL dichloromethane was treated with Dess-Martin reagent (20g, 47.2 mmol). The mixture was stirred at 0 °C for 10 minutes and at room temperature for 40 minutes. Saturated NaHCO3 solution (200 mL) and 0.1 M NaHSO3 solution were added and the resulting mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 300 mL). The combined organic solution was dried (Na2SO4), filtered and evaporated to give (54c) (8.77 g). The aldehyde was taken on crude for the next reaction.

[0195] 1-Benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl-but-3-yn-2-ol (54d, FIG. 6). A solution of crude (54c) (8.77 g) in THF (100 mL) was added to a solution of ethynylmagnesium bromide (450 mL, 225 mmol, 0.5 M/THF) at 0 °C by cannula. The mixture was stirred for 1 hour at 0 °C and for 1 hour at room temperature. The reaction was then quenched by addition of 200 mL saturated NH CI solution. The layers were separated and the aqueous layer extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 200 mL). The combined organic solution was washed with brine and then dried (Na2SO ), filtered and evaporated. Purification by flash chromatography on silica gel (10% 20% ethyl acetate/hexanes) gave (54d) (7.67 g, 37.9 mmol, 84% from 5-2). [0196] ( 1-Benzo[b]thiophen-2-ylmethyl-prop-2-ynyloxy)-tert-butyl-dimethyl- silane (54e, FIG. 6). DMAP (2.306 g, 18.9 mmol), TBSCI (1 1 .502 g, 76.3 mmol) and triethylamine (5.25 mL, 37.7 mmol) were added to a solution of (54d) (7.67 g, 37.9 mmol) in dichloromethane (120 mL). After 17 hours, 150 mL of saturated NH4CI solution was added and the layers were separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with dichloromethane (3 x 100 mL) and the combined organic solution was dried (Na2SO4), filtered and evaporated. Purification by flash chromatography on silica gel (4% ethyl acetate/hexanes) gave (54e) (8.38 g, 26.5 mmol, 70%).

[0197] ((E)-1-Benzo[b]thiophen-2-ylmethyl-3-iodo-allyloxy)-tert-butyl-^

silane (54f, FIG. 6). Cp2ZrHCI (1 .719 g, 6.67 mmol) was added to a solution of (54e) (1 .372 g, 4.34 mmol) in dichloromethane (30 mL). The reaction was stirred for 30 minutes at room temperature and N-iodosuccinimide (1 .997 g, 8.88 mmol) was added. After 1 hour, the reaction was poured into 100 mL of saturated NaHCO3 solution. The resulting mixture was extracted with dichloromethane (3 x 75 mL) and the combined organic extracts dried (Na2SO4), filtered and evaporated. Purification by flash chromatography on silica gel (2% ethyl acetate/hexanes) gave (54f) (1 .7484 g, 91 %).

[0198] fZ 7-^R,4S, R -^£ 4-βenzo ^b7fΛ o Λen-2- /-3-Λ dro -bϋ ί-en / 4- hydroxy-3,3-dimethyl-2-oxo-cyclopentyl]-hept-5-enoic acid (54, 55, FIG. 6). A solution of (54f) was treated in a manner similar to the scheme outlined in FIG. 5 to produce (54) and (55).

[0199] fZ 7-^R,4S, R -^£ 4-βenzo ^b7fΛ o Λen-2-y/-3-Λydro y-bϋ ί-eny/ 4- hydroxy-3,3-dimethyl-2-oxo-cyclopentyl]-hept-5-enoic acid (2-hydroxy-ethyl)- amide (60-63, 65, FIG. 7). A solution of acid (55) (7 mg, 0.015 mmol) in DMF (0.5 mL) was treated with N-hydroxysuccinimide (6.9 mg, 0.056 mmol). The mixture was stirred for 5 minutes and 1 -[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDCI, 20.7 mg, 0.1 1 mmol) was added. After stirring for 7 hours, 2-aminoethanol (5 μί, 0.083 mmol) was added and the mixture stirred further for 16 hours. Ethyl acetate (50 mL) was added and the mixture washed with water (3 x 50 mL) and brine (50 mL). The organic layer was dried (Na2SO ), filtered and evaporated. Purification by flash chromatography on silica gel (5% methanol/dichloromethane) followed by preparative thin layer chromatography (10% methanol/dichloromethane) gave amide (65) (5 mg, 0.010 mmol, 65%). Amides (60-63) were prepared in a similar manner.

[0200] fZ 7-^R,4S, R -^£ 4-βenzo ^b7fΛ o Λen-2- /-3-Λ dro -bϋ ί-en / 4- hydroxy-3,3-dimethyl-2-oxo-cyclopentyl]-hept-5-enoic acid amide (69, FIG. 7). A solution of acid (55) (9 mg, 0.02 mmol) in dichloromethane (0.2 ml_) was treated with triethylamine (15 μΙ_, 0.1 1 mmol). The solution was cooled to 0 °C and after 10 minutes, ethyl chloroformate (7 μΙ_, 0.073 mmol) was added. The solution was stirred further for 1 hour at 0 °C and then concentrated aqueous ammonium hydroxide solution was added (10 μΙ_, 0.26 mmol). The reaction was stirred at room temperature overnight and then quenched by addition of 0.5 M HCI (7 ml_). The mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 30 ml_), the combined ethyl acetate solution washed with saturated NaHCO3 solution (20 ml_) and brine (20 ml_), and then dried (Na2SO4), filtered and evaporated. Purification by flash chromatography on silica gel (2%-6% methanol/dichloromethane) gave the title amide (2.6 mg, 28%).

Example 2

Compounds of Formula I Promote Synthesis of TGF-β and VEGF

[0201] This example illustrates that compounds of formula I promote formation of blood vessels.

[0202] To test whether the compounds of Formula I promote the formation of blood vessels, and incisional wound model was employed over a 14-day period. Sprague- Dawley rats (180-200 g) were anesthetized, the backs shaved, and a 2-cm long incision was made on the back skin of rats under sterile conditions, reaching the deep fascia. The wound was immediately closed with 4-0 sutures. The animals were topically treated with vehicle or Compound 1 at 0.004% twice daily. The vehicle contains ethanol 30%, propylene glycol 12%, dipropylene glycol 5%, benzyl alcohol 5%, glycerol 3% and normal saline 45%. Biopsy samples of skin wound tissues were analyzed with Western blots day-7 and day-14 post-surgery. Tissue samples about 1 mm thick were taken from both sides of the wound. Protein was extracted, and FGF-2A/EGF expression was monitored, with Western blot analysis.

[0203] Compound 1 treatment significantly enhanced the expression of FGF-2 by 60%, as normalized with β-actin (a house-keeping gene) by day-7 of the experiment (P = 0.004). This significantly different increase in FGF-2 synthesis persisted for the whole study period (P = 0.04). VEGF expression increased 25% as normalized with β-actin, by Compound 1 treatment on day-7 (P = 0.039). This significantly different increase in synthesis returned to the baseline by day-14. Such an increase in FGF-2 and VEGF is consistent with their role in new blood vessel formation. The up-regulation of FGF-2 and VEGF by Compound 1 treatment was also observed in studies using an oral ulcer wound model.

Example 3

Adipose Tissue Transplant for Breast Defect Correction

[0204] This example illustrates the use of compositions and methods disclosed herein for a breast defect correction.

[0205] A 32-year-old woman presented with complaints that the medial portions of her breast implants were visible, which accentuated the "bony" appearance of her sternum. In addition she felt her breast were too far apart. Pre-operative evaluation of the person includes routine history and physical examination in addition to thorough informed consent disclosing all relevant risks and benefits of the procedure. The physician evaluating the individual determines that she is a candidate for a soft tissue replacement method using the compositions and methods disclosed herein.

[0206] To begin the procedure, adipose tissue is harvested from the woman. The procedure is performed at the individual's bedside. The physician examines the individual's habitus for a suitable site or sites to harvest adipose tissue and selects the lateral and medial thigh regions. The harvested area is injected subcutaneously with a standard tumescent fluid solution containing a saline solution, 0.5% lidocaine, and about 0.001 % epinephrine. Using an 1 1 -blade scalpel, a small puncture wound is made in order to transverse the dermis. The blade is turned 360 degrees to complete the wound. A two-holed blunt harvesting cannula (3 mm inner diameter) connected to a vacuum pump at low negative pressure (0.5 atm) is then inserted into the subcutaneous adipose tissue plane. The cannula is then moved throughout the plane to disrupt the connective tissue architecture. The volume of aspirate obtained is about 300 ml_. The harvest adipose tissue is processed by centrifugation at 3,000 g for 3 minutes to separate healthy adipocytes and regenerative cells from blood, infiltration fluid and cell debris.

[0207] A compound of formula I, such as, e.g., Compound 1 , Compound 2, Compound 3, Compound 4, and/or Compound 5, is mixed with an effective amount of silk fibroin and the processed adipose tissue. The amount of compound added is an amount sufficient to promote formation of a blood supply sufficient to support the transplanted tissue. This composition is then transferred to 3 mL syringes. One-holed blunt infiltration cannulas (3 mm inner diameter) are used to place the adipose tissue subcutaneously over the lateral sternum and medial breast bilaterally, 70 mL on the right and 50 mL on the left. The adipose tissue is administered in a tear like fashion to increase the surface area to volume ratio.

[0208] Alternatively, the adipose tissue is first administered into the individual, and a compound of formula I, such as, e.g., Compound 1 , Compound 2, Compound 3, Compound 4, and/or Compound 5, and silk fibroin are subsequently administered into the same, or in the vicinity of, the region where the adipose tissue was implanted.

[0209] The individual is monitored for approximately 7 days. The physician evaluates the engrafted tissue and determines that the engraftment was successful. Both the woman and her physician are satisfied with the results of the procedure. Approximately one month after the procedure, the woman indicates that her quality of life has improved.

Example 4

Adipose Tissue Transplant for Breast Augmentation

[0210] This example illustrates the use of compositions and methods disclosed herein for a breast augmentation.

[0211] A 28-year-old woman presented micromastia or breast hypoplasia. Preoperative evaluation of the person includes routine history and physical examination in addition to thorough informed consent disclosing all relevant risks and benefits of the procedure. The physician evaluating the individual determines that she is a candidate for a soft tissue replacement method using the compositions and methods disclosed herein. [0212] To begin the procedure, adipose tissue is harvested from the woman. The procedure is performed at the individual's bedside. The physician examines the individual's habitus for a suitable site or sites to harvest adipose tissue and selects the lateral and medial thigh regions. Using a 10-blade scalpel, a small puncture wound is made in order to transverse the dermis. The blade is turned 360 degrees to complete the wound. A two-holed blunt harvesting cannula (3 mm inner diameter) connected to a syringe is then inserted into the subcutaneous adipose tissue plane. The cannula is then moved throughout the plane to disrupt the connective tissue architecture. The volume of aspirate obtained is about 600 ml_. The harvest adipose tissue is processed by centrifugation at 2,700 g for 5 minutes to separate healthy adipocytes and regenerative cells from blood, infiltration fluid and cell debris. The centrifuged adipose tissue is then washed once is a Ringer's saline solution with lactone.

[0213] A compound of formula I, such as, e.g., Compound 1 , Compound 2, Compound 3, Compound 4, and/or Compound 5, is mixed with an effective amount of silk fibroin and the processed adipose tissue. The amount of compound added is an amount sufficient to promote formation of a blood supply sufficient to support the transplanted tissue. This composition is then transferred to 10 mL syringes. One-holed blunt infiltration cannulas (3 mm inner diameter) are used to place the adipose tissue subcutaneously using axillary, periareolar, and inframammary routes bilaterally, 190 mL on the right and 245 mL on the left. The adipose tissue is administered in a tear like fashion to increase the surface area to volume ratio.

[0214] Alternatively, the adipose tissue is first administered into the individual, and then a compound of formula I, such as, e.g., Compound 1 , Compound 2, Compound 3, Compound 4, and/or Compound 5 and a composition comprising silk fibroin material are subsequently administered (either at the same time, or sequentially i.e., compound of formula I first and then silk fibroin material or silk fibroin material first and then compound of formula I) into the same, or in the vicinity of, the region where the adipose tissue was implanted. As another alternative, a compound of formula I, such as, e.g., Compound 1 , Compound 2, Compound 3, Compound 4, and/or Compound 5 is first administered into the individual, and then adiposes tissue and a composition comprising silk fibroin material are subsequently administered (either at the same time, or sequentially i.e., adipose tissue first and then silk fibroin material or silk fibroin material first and then adipose tissue) into the same, or in the vicinity of, the region where the compound was administered. As yet another alternative, composition comprising silk fibroin material is first administered into the individual, and then adiposes tissue and a compound of formula I, such as, e.g., Compound 1 , Compound 2, Compound 3, Compound 4, and/or Compound 5 are subsequently administered (either at the same time, or sequentially i.e., adipose tissue first and then compound or compound first and then adipose tissue) into the same, or in the vicinity of, the region where the silk fibroin material was administered.

[0215] The individual is monitored for approximately 7 days. The physician evaluates the engrafted tissue and determines that the engraftment was successful. Both the woman and her physician are satisfied with the results of the procedure. Approximately one month after the procedure, the woman indicates that her quality of life has improved.

Example 5

Adipose Tissue Transplant for Breast Disorder

[0216] This example illustrates the use of compositions and methods disclosed herein for a breast disorder.

[0217] A 29-year-old woman presented with bilaterial tiberous breast deformity. Preoperative evaluation of the person includes routine history and physical examination in addition to thorough informed consent disclosing all relevant risks and benefits of the procedure. The physician evaluating the individual determines that she is a candidate for a soft tissue replacement method using the compositions and methods disclosed herein.

[0218] To begin the procedure, adipose tissue is harvested from the woman. The procedure is performed at the individual's bedside. The physician examines the individual's habitus for a suitable site or sites to harvest adipose tissue and selects the abdomen, buttock, lateral and medial thigh, and trochanter regions. Using a 12-blade scalpel, a small puncture wound is made in order to transverse the dermis. The blade is turned 360 degrees to complete the wound. A two-holed blunt harvesting cannula (3 mm inner diameter) connected to a syringe is then inserted into the subcutaneous adipose tissue plane. The cannula is then moved throughout the plane to disrupt the connective tissue architecture. The volume of aspirate obtained is about 1 ,400 ml_.

[0219] The harvested adipose tissue is divided into two, approximately equal portions. One portion is processed by gravity sedimentation to separate healthy adipocytes and regenerative cells from blood, infiltration fluid and cell debris. The other portion is used to isolate regenerative cells. This portion is digested with 0.075% collagenase in buffered saline for 30 minutes on a shaker at 37 °C. Regenerative cells are then separated from mature adipocytes and connective tissue by centrifuging at 800 g for 10 minutes. The pellet containing the regenerative cells is then washed three times with buffered saline. The washed regenerative cells are then added back to the sediment purified adipose tissue.

[0220] A compound of formula I, such as, e.g., Compound 1 , Compound 2, Compound 3, Compound 4, and/or Compound 5, is mixed with an effective amount of silk fibroin and the processed adipose tissue. The amount of compound added is an amount sufficient to promote formation of a blood supply sufficient to support the transplanted tissue. This composition is then transferred to 10 mL syringes. One-holed blunt infiltration cannulas (3 mm inner diameter) are used to place the adipose tissue subcutaneously in multiple planes axillary, periareolar, and inframammary routes bilaterally, 380 mL on the right and 370 mL on the left. The adipose tissue is administered in a tear like fashion to increase the surface area to volume ratio.

[0221] Alternatively, the adipose tissue is first administered into the individual, and a compound of formula I, such as, e.g., Compound 1 , Compound 2, Compound 3, Compound 4, and/or Compound 5, and a silk fibroin composition are subsequently administered into the same, or in the vicinity of, the region where the adipose tissue was implanted.

[0222] The individual is monitored for approximately 7 days. The physician evaluates the engrafted tissue and determines that the engraftment was successful. Both the woman and her physician are satisfied with the results of the procedure. Approximately one month after the procedure, the woman indicates that her quality of life has improved.

Example 6 Adipose Tissue Transplant for Facial Defects of Cheek

[0223] This example illustrates the use of compositions and methods disclosed herein for a facial disorder.

[0224] A 28-year-old woman presented with a lean face. She felt her face looked old, sad and bitter because of the less fullness of her cheek contour. Pre-operative evaluation of the person includes routine history and physical examination in addition to thorough informed consent disclosing all relevant risks and benefits of the procedure. The physician evaluating the individual determines that she is a candidate for a soft tissue replacement method using the compositions and methods disclosed herein.

[0225] To begin the procedure, adipose tissue is harvested from the woman. The procedure is performed at the individual's bedside. The physician examines the individual's habitus for a suitable site or sites to harvest adipose tissue and selects the abdominal region. The harvested area is injected subcutaneously with a standard tumescent fluid solution containing a saline solution, 0.08% lidocaine, and about 0.001 % epinephrine. Using an 1 1 -blade scalpel, a small puncture wound is made in order to transverse the dermis. The blade is turned 360 degrees to complete the wound. A two-holed blunt harvesting cannula (2.5 mm inner diameter) connected to a 60 mL syringe is then inserted into the subcutaneous adipose tissue plane. The cannula is then moved throughout the plane to disrupt the connective tissue architecture. The volume of aspirate obtained is about 50 mL. The harvest adipose tissue is processed by washing the harvested tissue with saline to remove lidocaine, oil and residual blood. The washed tissue is then centrifugation at 100 g for 2 minutes to separate healthy adipocytes and regenerative cells from any remaining blood, infiltration fluid and cell debris.

[0226] A compound of formula I, such as, e.g., Compound 1 , Compound 2, Compound 3, Compound 4, and/or Compound 5, is mixed with an effective amount of silk fibroin and the processed adipose tissue. The amount of compound added is an amount sufficient to promote formation of a blood supply sufficient to support the transplanted tissue. This composition is then transferred to 20 mL syringes. One-holed blunt infiltration cannulas (3 mm inner diameter) are used to place about 15 mL of adipose tissue subcutaneously and under superficial musculoaponeurotix system into the left and right cheeks.

[0227] Alternatively, the adipose tissue is first administered into the individual, and a compound of formula I, such as, e.g., Compound 1 , Compound 2, Compound 3, Compound 4, and/or Compound 5, and a silk fibroin composition are subsequently administered into the same, or in the vicinity of, the region where the adipose tissue was implanted.

[0228] The individual is monitored for approximately 7 days. The physician evaluates the engrafted tissue and determines that the engraftment was successful. Both the woman and her physician are satisfied with the results of the procedure because she looked younger. Approximately one month after the procedure, the woman indicates that her quality of life has improved.

Example 7

Adipose Tissue Transplant for Facial Defects of Eyelids

[0229] This example illustrates the use of compositions and methods disclosed herein for a facial disorder.

[0230] A 37-year-old woman presented with sunken eyes and this appearance made her look old and fierce. Pre-operative evaluation of the person includes routine history and physical examination in addition to thorough informed consent disclosing all relevant risks and benefits of the procedure. The physician evaluating the individual determines that she is a candidate for a soft tissue replacement method using the compositions and methods disclosed herein.

[0231] To adipose tissue is harvested from the woman as described in Example 6.

[0232] A compound of formula I, such as, e.g., Compound 1 , Compound 2, Compound 3, Compound 4, and/or Compound 5, is mixed with an effective amount of silk fibroin and the processed adipose tissue. The amount of compound added is an amount sufficient to promote formation of a blood supply sufficient to support the transplanted tissue. This composition is then transferred to 20 mL syringes. One-holed blunt infiltration cannulas (3 mm inner diameter) are used to place about 2.5 mL of adipose tissue subcutaneously and under superficial musculoaponeurotix system into the upper eyelid regions.

[0233] Alternatively, the adipose tissue is first administered into the individual, and a compound of formula I, such as, e.g., Compound 1 , Compound 2, Compound 3, Compound 4, and/or Compound 5, a silk fibroin composition subsequently administered into the same, or in the vicinity of, the region where the adipose tissue was implanted.

[0234] The individual is monitored for approximately 7 days. The physician evaluates the engrafted tissue and determines that the engraftment was successful. Both the woman and her physician are satisfied with the results of the procedure because she looked younger. Approximately one month after the procedure, the woman indicates that her quality of life has improved.

Example 8

Adipose Tissue Transplant for Facial Defects

[0235] This example illustrates the use of compositions and methods disclosed herein for a breast disorder.

[0236] A 33-year-old woman presented with depressed bilaterial temporal and cheek areas. Pre-operative evaluation of the person includes routine history and physical examination in addition to thorough informed consent disclosing all relevant risks and benefits of the procedure. The physician evaluating the individual determines that she is a candidate for a soft tissue replacement method using the compositions and methods disclosed herein.

[0237] To adipose tissue is harvested from the woman as described in Example 6, except that 200 ml_ of adipose tissue is collected.

[0238] The harvested adipose tissue is divided into two, approximately equal portions. One portion is processed by saline washing and centrifugation as described in Example 6. The other portion is used to isolate regenerative cells. This portion is digested with 0.075% collagenase in buffered saline for 30 minutes on a shaker at 37 °C. Regenerative cells are then separated from mature adipocytes and connective tissue by centrifuging at 800 g for 10 minutes. The pellet containing the regenerative cells is then washed three times with buffered saline. The washed regenerative cells are then added back to the purified adipose tissue.

[0239] A connpound of formula I, such as, e.g., Compound 1 , Compound 2, Compound 3, Compound 4, and/or Compound 5, is mixed with an effective amount of silk fibroin and the processed adipose tissue. The amount of compound added is an amount sufficient to promote formation of a blood supply sufficient to support the transplanted tissue. This composition is then transferred to 10 mL syringes. One-holed blunt infiltration cannulas (3 mm inner diameter) are used to place about 16 mL of adipose tissue subcutaneously and under superficial musculoaponeurotix system into the left and right temporal and cheeks regions.

[0240] Alternatively, the adipose tissue is first administered into the individual, and a compound of formula I, such as, e.g., Compound 1 , Compound 2, Compound 3, Compound 4, and/or Compound 5, and a silk fibroin composition are subsequently administered into the same, or in the vicinity of, the region where the adipose tissue was implanted.

[0241] The individual is monitored for approximately 7 days. The physician evaluates the engrafted tissue and determines that the engraftment was successful. Both the woman and her physician are satisfied with the results of the procedure because she looked younger. Approximately one month after the procedure, the woman indicates that her quality of life has improved.

Example 9

Adipose Tissue Transplant to Treat Stress Urinary Incontinence

[0242] This example illustrates the use of compositions and methods disclosed herein for treating stress urinary incontinence.

[0243] A 55 year old man presents with urinary incontinence. Pre-operative evaluation of the patient includes routine history and physical examination in addition to thorough informed consent disclosing all relevant risks and benefits of the procedure. The physician evaluating the individual determines that he is a candidate for a soft tissue replacement method using the compositions and methods disclosed herein.

[0244] To begin the procedure, adipose tissue is harvested from the man. The procedure is performed at the individual's bedside. The physician examines the individual's habitus for a suitable site or sites to harvest adipose tissue and selects the abdomen, and lateral and medial thigh regions. Using a 12-blade scalpel, a small puncture wound is made in order to transverse the dermis. The blade is turned 360 degrees to complete the wound. A two-holed blunt harvesting cannula (3 mm inner diameter) connected to a syringe is then inserted into the subcutaneous adipose tissue plane. The cannula is then moved throughout the plane to disrupt the connective tissue architecture. The volume of aspirate obtained is about 900 ml_.

[0245] A compound of formula I, such as, e.g., Compound 1 , Compound 2, Compound 3, Compound 4, and/or Compound 5, is mixed with an effective amount of silk fibroin and the processed adipose tissue. The amount of compound added is an amount sufficient to promote formation of a blood supply sufficient to support the transplanted tissue. This composition is then transferred to 20 ml_ syringes. One-holed blunt infiltration cannulas (14-gauge) are used to place about 800 ml_ of adipose tissue transdermal^ into the bladder neck and proximal urethra regions.

[0246] Alternatively, the adipose tissue is first administered into the individual, and a compound of formula I, such as, e.g., Compound 1 , Compound 2, Compound 3, Compound 4, and/or Compound 5, and a silk fibroin composition are subsequently administered into the same, or in the vicinity of, the region where the adipose tissue was implanted.

[0247] The individual is monitored after the procedure. Approximately three days after the transplant, the he experiences a decreased frequency of incontinence. Approximately one month after the procedure, the individual indicates that his quality of life has improved. The physician evaluates the engrafted tissue and determines that the long-term engraftment was successful.

Example 10

Adipose Tissue Transplant for Breast Defect Correction

[0248] This example illustrates the use of compositions and methods disclosed herein for a breast defect correction.

[0249] A 56-year-old woman presents with a surgically removed breast sue to cancer. Pre-operative evaluation of the person includes routine history and physical examination in addition to thorough informed consent disclosing all relevant risks and benefits of the procedure. The physician evaluating the individual determines that she is a candidate for a soft tissue replacement method using the compositions and methods disclosed herein.

[0250] To begin the procedure, a breast mound is formed using a TRAM-flap procedure. In this procedure, a portion of abdomen tissue, including skin, adipose tissue, minor muscles and connective tissues, is taken from the patient's abdomen and transplanted onto the breast site. This tissue is then used to create a breast mound.

[0251] A compound of formula I, such as, e.g., Compound 1 , Compound 2, Compound 3, Compound 4, and/or Compound 5, and a composition comprising an effective amount of silk fibroin are then administered into the breast mound region. The amount of compound administered is an amount sufficient to promote formation of a blood supply sufficient to support the transplanted tissue. Alternately, the composition comprising silk fibroin can be administered when the tissue is used to create the breast mound.

[0252] The individual is monitored for approximately 7 days. The physician evaluates the engrafted tissue and determines that the engraftment was successful. Both the woman and her physician are satisfied with the results of the procedure. Approximately one month after the procedure, the woman indicates that her quality of life has improved. Subsequent surgery is performed to create a nipple and areola.

[0253] In closing, it is to be understood that although aspects of the present specification are highlighted by referring to specific embodiments, one skilled in the art will readily appreciate that these disclosed embodiments are only illustrative of the principles of the subject matter disclosed herein. Therefore, it should be understood that the disclosed subject matter is in no way limited to a particular methodology, protocol, and/or reagent, etc., described herein. As such, various modifications or changes to or alternative configurations of the disclosed subject matter can be made in accordance with the teachings herein without departing from the spirit of the present specification. Lastly, the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only, and is not intended to limit the scope of the present invention, which is defined solely by the claims. Accordingly, the present invention is not limited to that precisely as shown and described.

[0254] Certain embodiments of the present invention are described herein, including the best mode known to the inventors for carrying out the invention. Of course, variations on these described embodiments will become apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art upon reading the foregoing description. The inventor expects skilled artisans to employ such variations as appropriate, and the inventors intend for the present invention to be practiced otherwise than specifically described herein. Accordingly, this invention includes all modifications and equivalents of the subject matter recited in the claims appended hereto as permitted by applicable law. Moreover, any combination of the above-described embodiments in all possible variations thereof is encompassed by the invention unless otherwise indicated herein or otherwise clearly contradicted by context.

[0255] Groupings of alternative embodiments, elements, or steps of the present invention are not to be construed as limitations. Each group member may be referred to and claimed individually or in any combination with other group members disclosed herein. It is anticipated that one or more members of a group may be included in, or deleted from, a group for reasons of convenience and/or patentability. When any such inclusion or deletion occurs, the specification is deemed to contain the group as modified thus fulfilling the written description of all Markush groups used in the appended claims.

[0256] Unless otherwise indicated, all numbers expressing a characteristic, item, quantity, parameter, property, term, and so forth used in the present specification and claims are to be understood as being modified in all instances by the term "about." As used herein, the term "about" means that the characteristic, item, quantity, parameter, property, or term so qualified encompasses a range of plus or minus ten percent above and below the value of the stated characteristic, item, quantity, parameter, property, or term. Accordingly, unless indicated to the contrary, the numerical parameters set forth in the specification and attached claims are approximations that may vary. At the very least, and not as an attempt to limit the application of the doctrine of equivalents to the scope of the claims, each numerical indication should at least be construed in light of the number of reported significant digits and by applying ordinary rounding techniques. Notwithstanding that the numerical ranges and values setting forth the broad scope of the invention are approximations, the numerical ranges and values set forth in the specific examples are reported as precisely as possible. Any numerical range or value, however, inherently contains certain errors necessarily resulting from the standard deviation found in their respective testing measurements. Recitation of numerical ranges of values herein is merely intended to serve as a shorthand method of referring individually to each separate numerical value falling within the range. Unless otherwise indicated herein, each individual value of a numerical range is incorporated into the present specification as if it were individually recited herein.

[0257] The terms "a," "an," "the" and similar referents used in the context of describing the present invention (especially in the context of the following claims) are to be construed to cover both the singular and the plural, unless otherwise indicated herein or clearly contradicted by context. All methods described herein can be performed in any suitable order unless otherwise indicated herein or otherwise clearly contradicted by context. The use of any and all examples, or exemplary language {e.g., "such as") provided herein is intended merely to better illuminate the present invention and does not pose a limitation on the scope of the invention otherwise claimed. No language in the present specification should be construed as indicating any non- claimed element essential to the practice of the invention.

[0258] Specific embodiments disclosed herein may be further limited in the claims using consisting of or consisting essentially of language. When used in the claims, whether as filed or added per amendment, the transition term "consisting of excludes any element, step, or ingredient not specified in the claims. The transition term "consisting essentially of limits the scope of a claim to the specified materials or steps and those that do not materially affect the basic and novel characteristic(s). Embodiments of the present invention so claimed are inherently or expressly described and enabled herein.

[0259] All patents, patent publications, and other publications referenced and identified in the present specification are individually and expressly incorporated herein by reference in their entirety for the purpose of describing and disclosing, for example, the compositions and methodologies described in such publications that might be used in connection with the present invention. These publications are provided solely for their disclosure prior to the filing date of the present application. Nothing in this regard should be construed as an admission that the inventors are not entitled to antedate such disclosure by virtue of prior invention or for any other reason. All statements as to the date or representation as to the contents of these documents is based on the information available to the applicants and does not constitute any admission as to the correctness of the dates or contents of these documents.

Claims

1 . A composition comprising:
a) an adipose tissue;
b) a silk fibroin material;
c) a compound having the structure of compound 24,
Compound 24
a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable amine salt thereof.
2. The composition of Claim 1 , wherein the compound is incorporated into a drug delivery platform comprising a biodegradable polymer matrix.
3. The composition of Claim 1 , wherein the silk fibroin material is in the form of a silk hydrogel, a silk film, a silk scaffold, a silk sheet, a silk porous material, a silk fiber, or any combination thereof.
4. The composition of Claim 1 , wherein the silk fibroin material is substantially sericin free.
5. A method of treating a soft tissue condition of an individual, the method comprising the step of administering to a site of the soft tissue condition a composition comprising adipose tissue, a silk fibroin material, and a compound, the compound having the structure of compound 24,
Compound 24
a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable amine salt thereof; wherein administration of the composition promotes formation of a blood supply sufficient to support the transplanted tissue, thereby treating the soft tissue site.
6. The method of Claim 5, wherein the soft tissue condition is a breast tissue condition, a facial tissue condition, a neck condition, a skin condition, an upper arm condition, a lower arm condition, a hand condition, a shoulder condition, a back condition, a torso including abdominal condition, a buttock condition, an upper leg condition, a lower leg condition including calf condition, a foot condition including plantar fat pad condition, an eye condition, a genital condition, or a condition effecting another body part, region or area.
7. The method of Claim 6, wherein the breast tissue condition is a breast imperfection, a breast defect, a breast augmentation, or a breast reconstruction.
8. The method of Claim 6, wherein the facial tissue condition is a facial imperfection, a facial defect, a facial augmentation, or a facial reconstruction.
9. The method of Claim 6, wherein the facial soft tissue condition is a dermal divot, a sunken cheek, a thin lip, a nasal imperfection or defect, a retro-orbital imperfection or defect, a facial fold, a facial line, a facial wrinkle, or other size, shape or contour imperfection or defect of the face.
10. The method of Claim 5, wherein the soft tissue condition is urinary incontinence, fecal incontinence, or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
1 1 . A method of treating a soft tissue condition of an individual, the method comprising the steps of
a) administering adipose tissue to a site of the soft tissue condition;
b) administering a silk fibroin material to the site of the soft tissue condition; and c) administering a compound to the site of the soft tissue condition, the compound having the structure of compound 24, Compound 24
a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or a pharmaceutically acceptable amine salt thereof;
wherein administration of the compound promotes formation of a blood supply sufficient to support the transplanted tissue, thereby treating the soft tissue site.
The method of claim 1 1 , wherein the silk fibroin material is substantially sericin
13. The method of claim 1 1 , wherein the silk fibroin material is administered at the same time as, before, or after the compound is administered.
14. The method of Claim 1 1 , wherein the soft tissue condition is a breast tissue condition, a facial tissue condition, a neck condition, a skin condition, an upper arm condition, a lower arm condition, a hand condition, a shoulder condition, a back condition, a torso including abdominal condition, a buttock condition, an upper leg condition, a lower leg condition including calf condition, a foot condition including plantar fat pad condition, an eye condition, a genital condition, or a condition effecting another body part, region or area.
15. The method of Claim 14, wherein the breast tissue condition is a breast imperfection, a breast defect, a breast augmentation, or a breast reconstruction.
16. The method of Claim 14, wherein the facial tissue condition is a facial imperfection, a facial defect, a facial augmentation, or a facial reconstruction.
17. The method of Claim 14, wherein the facial soft tissue condition is a dermal divot, a sunken cheek, a thin lip, a nasal imperfection or defect, a retro-orbital imperfection or defect, a facial fold, a facial line, a facial wrinkle, or other size, shape or contour imperfection or defect of the face.
18. The method of Claim 1 1 , wherein the soft tissue condition is urinary incontinence, fecal incontinence, or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
EP20130707962 2010-08-19 2013-02-15 Compositions and improved soft tissue replacement methods Withdrawn EP2814527A1 (en)

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