EP2775062B1 - Device for thermally insulating a building wall from the outside and method for using such a device - Google Patents

Device for thermally insulating a building wall from the outside and method for using such a device Download PDF

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Publication number
EP2775062B1
EP2775062B1 EP14155071.5A EP14155071A EP2775062B1 EP 2775062 B1 EP2775062 B1 EP 2775062B1 EP 14155071 A EP14155071 A EP 14155071A EP 2775062 B1 EP2775062 B1 EP 2775062B1
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Prior art keywords
layer
rigid
spacers
insulant
insulating
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EP14155071.5A
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German (de)
French (fr)
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EP2775062A1 (en
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Jacques Pigerre
Albert Vandebroeck
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Jacques Pigerre
Albert Vandebroeck
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Priority to EP13001058.0A priority Critical patent/EP2775061A1/en
Application filed by Jacques Pigerre, Albert Vandebroeck filed Critical Jacques Pigerre
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04FFINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
    • E04F13/00Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings
    • E04F13/07Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor
    • E04F13/08Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor composed of a plurality of similar covering or lining elements
    • E04F13/0801Separate fastening elements
    • E04F13/0803Separate fastening elements with load-supporting elongated furring elements between wall and covering elements
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/62Insulation or other protection; Elements or use of specified material therefor
    • E04B1/74Heat, sound or noise insulation, absorption, or reflection . Other building methods affording favourable thermal or acoustical conditions, e.g. accumulating of heat within walls
    • E04B1/76Heat, sound or noise insulation, absorption, or reflection . Other building methods affording favourable thermal or acoustical conditions, e.g. accumulating of heat within walls specifically with respect to heat only
    • E04B1/7608Heat, sound or noise insulation, absorption, or reflection . Other building methods affording favourable thermal or acoustical conditions, e.g. accumulating of heat within walls specifically with respect to heat only comprising a prefabricated insulating layer, disposed between two other layers or panels
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/62Insulation or other protection; Elements or use of specified material therefor
    • E04B1/74Heat, sound or noise insulation, absorption, or reflection . Other building methods affording favourable thermal or acoustical conditions, e.g. accumulating of heat within walls
    • E04B1/76Heat, sound or noise insulation, absorption, or reflection . Other building methods affording favourable thermal or acoustical conditions, e.g. accumulating of heat within walls specifically with respect to heat only
    • E04B1/762Exterior insulation of exterior walls
    • E04B1/7645Exterior insulation of exterior walls with ventilation means for the insulation
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/62Insulation or other protection; Elements or use of specified material therefor
    • E04B1/74Heat, sound or noise insulation, absorption, or reflection . Other building methods affording favourable thermal or acoustical conditions, e.g. accumulating of heat within walls
    • E04B1/76Heat, sound or noise insulation, absorption, or reflection . Other building methods affording favourable thermal or acoustical conditions, e.g. accumulating of heat within walls specifically with respect to heat only
    • E04B1/78Heat insulating elements
    • E04B1/80Heat insulating elements slab-shaped
    • E04B1/806Heat insulating elements slab-shaped with air or gas pockets included in the slab
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04DROOF COVERINGS; SKY-LIGHTS; GUTTERS; ROOF-WORKING TOOLS
    • E04D13/00Special arrangements or devices in connection with roof coverings; Protection against birds; Roof drainage; Sky-lights
    • E04D13/16Insulating devices or arrangements in so far as the roof covering is concerned, e.g. characterised by the material or composition of the roof insulating material or its integration in the roof structure
    • E04D13/1606Insulation of the roof covering characterised by its integration in the roof structure
    • E04D13/1643Insulation of the roof covering characterised by its integration in the roof structure the roof structure being formed by load bearing corrugated sheets, e.g. profiled sheet metal roofs
    • E04D13/165Double skin roofs
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04DROOF COVERINGS; SKY-LIGHTS; GUTTERS; ROOF-WORKING TOOLS
    • E04D13/00Special arrangements or devices in connection with roof coverings; Protection against birds; Roof drainage; Sky-lights
    • E04D13/16Insulating devices or arrangements in so far as the roof covering is concerned, e.g. characterised by the material or composition of the roof insulating material or its integration in the roof structure
    • E04D13/1606Insulation of the roof covering characterised by its integration in the roof structure
    • E04D13/1662Inverted roofs or exteriorly insulated roofs
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04DROOF COVERINGS; SKY-LIGHTS; GUTTERS; ROOF-WORKING TOOLS
    • E04D13/00Special arrangements or devices in connection with roof coverings; Protection against birds; Roof drainage; Sky-lights
    • E04D13/17Ventilation of roof coverings not otherwise provided for
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04DROOF COVERINGS; SKY-LIGHTS; GUTTERS; ROOF-WORKING TOOLS
    • E04D3/00Roof covering by making use of flat or curved slabs or stiff sheets
    • E04D3/36Connecting; Fastening
    • E04D3/3608Connecting; Fastening for double roof covering or overroofing
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04FFINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
    • E04F13/00Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings
    • E04F13/07Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor
    • E04F13/08Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor composed of a plurality of similar covering or lining elements
    • E04F13/0862Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor composed of a plurality of similar covering or lining elements composed of a number of elements which are identical or not, e.g. carried by a common web, support plate or grid
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04FFINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
    • E04F13/00Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings
    • E04F13/07Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor
    • E04F13/08Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor composed of a plurality of similar covering or lining elements
    • E04F13/0875Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor composed of a plurality of similar covering or lining elements having a basic insulating layer and at least one covering layer
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04FFINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
    • E04F13/00Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings
    • E04F13/07Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor
    • E04F13/08Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor composed of a plurality of similar covering or lining elements
    • E04F13/12Coverings or linings, e.g. for walls or ceilings composed of covering or lining elements; Sub-structures therefor; Fastening means therefor composed of a plurality of similar covering or lining elements of metal or with an outer layer of metal or enameled metal
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/62Insulation or other protection; Elements or use of specified material therefor
    • E04B1/74Heat, sound or noise insulation, absorption, or reflection . Other building methods affording favourable thermal or acoustical conditions, e.g. accumulating of heat within walls
    • E04B2001/742Use of special materials; Materials having special structures or shape
    • E04B2001/748Honeycomb materials

Description

  • L'invention concerne un dispositif d'isolation thermique par l'extérieur d'une paroi de bâtiment, notamment applicable aux murs et aux toitures, et plus particulièrement un tel dispositif permettant en outre de protéger la paroi et l'isolant contre une détérioration par les agressions climatiques telles que le soleil, le vent, la neige, la pluie, etc. L'invention porte également sur un procédé de réalisation et de mise en oeuvre d'un tel dispositif d'isolation thermique.The invention relates to a thermal insulation device from the outside of a building wall, in particular applicable to walls and roofs, and more particularly to such a device that also makes it possible to protect the wall and the insulation against deterioration by climatic aggressions such as sun, wind, snow, rain, etc. The invention also relates to a method for producing and implementing such a thermal insulation device.
  • Il existe deux techniques principales pour assurer l'isolation thermique d'un bâtiment. La première consiste à prévoir sur la face interne des murs ou de la toiture du bâtiment la pose de matériaux isolants tels que la laine de verre, en épaisseur plus ou moins importante en vue du coefficient d'isolation thermique désiré. Il convient cependant de laisser une lame d'air entre la face interne du mur ou de la toiture et la couche d'isolant, et de recouvrir cette couche d'isolant, sur sa face orientée vers l'intérieur de la pièce à isoler, par un revêtement tel que des plaques de plâtre pour maintenir l'isolant et assurer une finition correcte de la paroi. Dans ce cas, l'épaisseur du dispositif d'isolation empiète sur la surface habitable des pièces à isoler.There are two main techniques for insulating a building. The first is to provide on the inner face of the walls or roof of the building the laying of insulating materials such as glass wool, in greater or lesser thickness for the desired coefficient of thermal insulation. However, it is advisable to leave an air gap between the inner face of the wall or roof and the layer of insulation, and to cover this layer of insulation, on its inward side of the room to be insulated, by a coating such as plasterboard to maintain the insulation and ensure a proper finish of the wall. In this case, the thickness of the insulation device encroaches on the living space of the parts to be insulated.
  • La deuxième technique consiste à isoler les parois du bâtiment par l'extérieur, c'est-à-dire à appliquer et fixer sur l'extérieur des murs et des toitures une couche de matériau isolant. Cependant, dans ce cas, l'isolant est soumis aux agressions climatiques qui peuvent le détériorer rapidement.The second technique is to isolate the walls of the building from the outside, that is to say to apply and fix on the outside walls and roofs a layer of insulating material. However, in this case, the insulation is subjected to climatic aggressions which can deteriorate it quickly.
  • EP 2 390 436 décrit encore un autre dispositif d'isolation par l'extérieur comprenant une plaque de parement rigide et perforée, des entretoises ménageant une lame d'air entre la plaque de parement et la paroi du bâtiment, et une couche d'un isolant granulaire entre la plaque de parement et la paroi du bâtiment. Z EP 2 390 436 discloses yet another external insulation device comprising a rigid and perforated facing plate, spacers forming an air gap between the facing plate and the building wall, and a layer of granular insulation between the facing plate and the wall of the building. Z
  • La présente invention a donc pour objet de proposer un dispositif d'isolation par l'extérieur des parois d'un bâtiment qui présente une résistance améliorée aux agressions climatiques.The present invention therefore aims to provide an insulation device from the outside of the walls of a building that has improved resistance to climatic aggressions.
  • L'invention a encore pour but de fournir un tel dispositif d'isolation thermique qui soit adapté pour isoler des murs ou des toitures sans modification majeure du dispositif.The invention also aims to provide such a thermal insulation device which is adapted to isolate walls or roofs without major modification of the device.
  • L'invention a encore pour but de fournir un tel dispositif d'isolation thermique qui puisse être installé par-dessus ou à la place d'une toiture existante.The invention also aims to provide such a thermal insulation device that can be installed over or instead of an existing roof.
  • L'invention a en outre pour but de fournir un tel dispositif d'isolation thermique qui présente une inertie thermique élevée.The invention further aims to provide such a thermal insulation device which has a high thermal inertia.
  • L'invention a également pour but de fournir un tel dispositif d'isolation thermique qui présente un impact écologique amélioré.The invention also aims to provide such a thermal insulation device which has an improved ecological impact.
  • Pour ce faire, l'invention concerne un dispositif d'isolation thermique par l'extérieur d'une paroi de bâtiment avec les caractéristiques de la revendication 1.To do this, the invention relates to a thermal insulation device from the outside of a building wall with the features of claim 1.
  • Le dispositif d'isolation selon l'invention utilise une couche d'isolant rigide et imperméable formée par exemple de plaques de polystyrène ou de polyuréthane expansé, d'épaisseur calculée en fonction de la résistance thermique désirée, elle-même dépendant de la localisation de l'ouvrage. Cette couche d'isolant peut être réalisée en une ou plusieurs épaisseurs rendues solidaires par collage, par exemple, lorsque la paroi à recouvrir comporte des aspérités où la première épaisseur d'isolant permet d'égaliser la surface et la seconde de réaliser une couverture continue. La couche d'isolant est fixée par sa face de contact sur la paroi à isoler, directement ou après interposition d'un écran pare-vapeur en fonction de la nature de la paroi à isoler, le cas échéant fixé sur des liteaux cloués, collés ou vissés sur cette paroi. L'installation d'une plaque de parement rigide et perforée, par exemple une ou plusieurs plaques de tôle métallique perforée à distance de la face externe de la couche d'isolant permet de protéger celle-ci des principales agressions climatiques. Une plaque de tôle perforée permet une circulation de l'air qui l'environne de part et d'autre de la plaque et conserve une température de surface bien inférieure à celle d'une plaque pleine lorsqu'elle est exposée en plein soleil. En outre, en choisissant une tôle présentant un taux et des dimensions de perforation appropriées, la couche d'isolant est ombragée et soustraite à l'influence de l'exposition directe aux rayons solaires. Par exemple un taux de perforation de l'ordre de 20 % permet une circulation d'air suffisante tout en conservant 80 % de la surface de l'isolant à l'ombre. En outre, en fonction de la latitude de la localisation de l'ouvrage et de l'exposition de la paroi à isoler, il est possible de calculer la distance optimale entre la plaque de parement perforée et l'isolant de manière à limiter le temps d'exposition continue de chaque point de la surface de la couche d'isolant. À titre d'exemple, une plaque de parement comportant des perforations de 5 mm et placée à 150 mm de la face externe de la couche d'isolant permet de limiter à 7 minutes l'exposition continue de l'isolant pour une paroi horizontale au niveau de l'équateur.The insulation device according to the invention uses a rigid and impermeable insulating layer formed for example of polystyrene or expanded polyurethane plates, of thickness calculated as a function of the desired thermal resistance, itself dependent on the location of the the work. This insulating layer may be made in one or more thicknesses made integral by gluing, for example, when the wall to be covered has asperities where the first thickness of insulation allows to equalize the surface and the second to achieve a continuous coverage . The insulating layer is fixed by its contact face on the wall to be insulated, directly or after interposition of a vapor barrier according to the nature of the wall to be insulated, if necessary fixed on nailed, glued battens or screwed on this wall. The installation of a rigid and perforated facing plate, for example one or more sheets of perforated metal sheet at a distance from the outer face of the insulating layer, protects the latter from the main attacks. climate. A perforated sheet metal plate allows the surrounding air to circulate on either side of the plate and maintains a much lower surface temperature than that of a solid plate when exposed to direct sunlight. In addition, by choosing a sheet having a rate and appropriate perforation dimensions, the insulating layer is shaded and subtracted from the influence of direct sunlight. For example a perforation rate of the order of 20% allows sufficient air circulation while retaining 80% of the surface of the insulator in the shade. In addition, depending on the latitude of the location of the structure and the exposure of the wall to be insulated, it is possible to calculate the optimum distance between the perforated wall plate and the insulation so as to limit the time continuous exposure of each point of the surface of the insulation layer. For example, a face plate with perforations of 5 mm and placed at 150 mm from the outer face of the insulating layer limits the continuous exposure of the insulator for a horizontal wall to 7 minutes. level of the equator.
  • Ainsi, une plaque de parement rigide et perforée permet de limiter la dégradation de la couche d'isolant sous l'effet de l'exposition au soleil. Elle permet en outre, grâce à sa rigidité, de protéger la couche d'isolant contre l'énergie du vent et l'impact direct de la pluie ou de la grêle. La plaque de parement perforée constitue une couche protectrice en cas de neige en permettant de soutenir le poids de la couche de neige, de minimiser les risques de glissement de celle-ci tout en permettant l'évacuation des eaux de fonte.Thus, a rigid and perforated facing plate makes it possible to limit the degradation of the insulating layer under the effect of exposure to the sun. It also allows, thanks to its rigidity, to protect the layer of insulation against wind energy and the direct impact of rain or hail. The perforated siding plate is a protective layer in the event of snow by supporting the weight of the layer of snow, minimize the risk of slipping it while allowing the evacuation of meltwater.
  • Selon l'invention, le dispositif d'isolation thermique comporte en outre une couche d'un isolant granulaire entre la couche d'isolant et la plaque de parement. De préférence, l'isolant granulaire est un isolant granulaire poreux, par exemple constitué de billes d'argile expansée ou de gravier de pierre ponce. En rajoutant une couche d'isolant granulaire entre la couche d'isolant et la plaque de parement perforée, le cheminement de l'eau pénétrant par les perforations de la plaque de parement est modifié. Le ruissellement direct sur la couche d'isolant est minimisé et le temps mis par l'eau pour rejoindre le circuit d'évacuation pluvial est augmenté, permettant de minimiser les risques d'engorgement de celui-ci et les risques de débordement et d'inondation qui pourraient en résulter. Grâce à cette couche d'isolant granulaire, et particulièrement lorsqu'il s'agit d'un isolant granulaire poreux, le dispositif d'isolation thermique selon l'invention permet une régulation des débits hydriques en favorisant une rétention d'eau dans la couche d'isolant granulaire sans avoir d'impact défavorable sur la performance de la couche d'isolant rigide et imperméable qui la supporte. De plus, le relargage différé de la quantité d'eau retenue dans la couche d'isolant granulaire, que ce soit par ruissellement ou évaporation, contribue à maintenir une température modérée sur les parois extérieures d'une construction ainsi équipée et, particulièrement sous les climats tropicaux présentant des alternances rapides de précipitations et d'ensoleillement fort, permet une climatisation naturelle de l'environnement de l'ouvrage. La couche d'isolant granulaire contribue en outre, en fonction de sa nature, à fixer certains polluants contenus dans les eaux de précipitation et permet d'améliorer la qualité des eaux rejetées. Même en utilisation sous des climats secs, la couche d'isolant granulaire permet d'augmenter l'inertie thermique globale du dispositif d'isolation selon l'invention et donc d'en améliorer la performance. Préférentiellement, l'isolant granulaire utilisé comporte des billes d'argile expansée qui peuvent présenter en fonction de leur finition soit une bonne porosité soit une surface imperméable. En outre la masse volumique des billes d'argile expansée est relativement faible, de l'ordre de 500 kg / m3 ce qui permet de les utiliser en toiture sans alourdir excessivement la couverture et dispense, sous certaines réserves, de consolider ou de modifier la structure porteuse existante. Alternativement, des matériaux volcaniques comme la pierre ponce ou la pouzzolane peuvent être utilisés.According to the invention, the thermal insulation device further comprises a layer of granular insulation between the insulating layer and the facing plate. Preferably, the granular insulator is a porous granular insulator, for example consisting of expanded clay beads or pumice gravel. By adding a layer of granular insulation between the insulation layer and the perforated facing plate, the path of penetrating water through the perforations of the facing plate is changed. The direct runoff on the insulation layer is minimized and the time taken by the water to reach the Rainwater evacuation system is increased, minimizing the risk of waterlogging and the risk of overflowing and flooding that may result. Thanks to this layer of granular insulation, and particularly when it is a porous granular insulator, the thermal insulation device according to the invention allows a regulation of the water flow rates by promoting a retention of water in the layer of granular insulation without having an adverse impact on the performance of the rigid and impermeable insulating layer that supports it. In addition, the delayed release of the amount of water retained in the granular insulating layer, whether by runoff or evaporation, contributes to maintain a moderate temperature on the outer walls of a construction thus equipped and, particularly under Tropical climates with fast alternations of precipitation and strong sunshine, allows a natural air conditioning of the environment of the structure. The layer of granular insulation also contributes, depending on its nature, to fix certain pollutants contained in the precipitation water and improves the quality of the discharged water. Even when used in dry climates, the granular insulating layer makes it possible to increase the overall thermal inertia of the insulation device according to the invention and therefore to improve its performance. Preferably, the granular insulator used comprises expanded clay beads which may have, depending on their finish, either a good porosity or an impermeable surface. In addition, the density of the expanded clay balls is relatively low, of the order of 500 kg / m 3 , which makes it possible to use them on the roof without excessively increasing the coverage, and exempts, subject to certain reservations, consolidation or modification. the existing support structure. Alternatively, volcanic materials such as pumice or pozzolan can be used.
  • Selon l'invention, l'isolant granulaire est contenu dans au moins un sac en textile synthétique non tissé, notamment en géotextile aiguilleté. Afin de pouvoir maintenir en position la couche d'isolant granulaire, en particulier sur des parois verticales comme des murs ou présentant une pente non nulle comme des pans de toiture, le dispositif d'isolation prévoit de préférence d'utiliser des sacs en textile synthétique imputrescible, par exemple en feutre géotextile aiguilleté en polypropylène, qui présentent l'avantage d'être naturellement poreux et de pouvoir être réalisés aisément dans de nombreuses dimensions par pliage et thermo-soudage des bords entre eux.According to the invention, the granular insulation is contained in at least one nonwoven synthetic textile bag, in particular needle-punched geotextile. In order to maintain in position the granular insulating layer, in particular on vertical walls such as walls or having a non-zero slope such as roof panels, the insulation device Preferably, it is possible to use rotable synthetic textile bags, for example polypropylene needled geotextile felt, which have the advantage of being naturally porous and of being able to be easily made in many dimensions by folding and thermo-welding the edges. between them.
  • De préférence, chaque sac présente une forme sensiblement cylindrique, d'axe définissant une orientation d'installation et d'un diamètre inférieur ou égal à la distance entre la face externe de la couche d'isolant et la plaque de parement. La forme la plus simple pour les sacs contenant la couche d'isolant granulaire est en forme de boudins sensiblement cylindriques obtenus en repliant un rectangle de textile selon sa longueur et en soudant ses bords longs entre eux. L'un des bords courts est ensuite fermé par thermo-soudure et le sac est ensuite rempli par l'isolant granulaire. Préférentiellement, le sac n'est rempli qu'à 80 % pour permettre son écrasement contre la couche d'isolant rigide lors de la mise en place. De préférence,Preferably, each bag has a substantially cylindrical shape, with an axis defining an installation orientation and a diameter less than or equal to the distance between the outer face of the insulation layer and the facing plate. The simplest form for bags containing the granular insulating layer is in the form of substantially cylindrical strands obtained by folding a textile rectangle along its length and welding its long edges between them. One of the short edges is then closed by thermo-welding and the bag is then filled with granular insulation. Preferably, the bag is only 80% filled to allow it to be crushed against the rigid insulating layer during placement. Preferably,
  • De préférence, chaque sac présente une forme sensiblement parallélépipédique et comporte des cloisons, dites cloisons de séparation, rectangulaires, parallèles et régulièrement espacées dont les bords longs définissent une orientation d'installation et sont fixés aux faces principales de chaque sac afin de maintenir entre lesdites faces principales une distance inférieure ou égale à la distance entre la face externe de la couche d'isolant et la plaque de parement. Dans ce mode de réalisation, les sacs se présentent sous la forme de coussins rectangulaires dont l'épaisseur est maintenue sensiblement constante par des cloisons intercalaires. Les sacs sont réalisés à partir de deux rectangles entre lesquels on soude les cloisons de séparation formant des alvéoles parallèles et dont on soude entre eux les bords parallèles aux cloisons et l'un des bords perpendiculaire. Les sacs sont ensuite remplis par le bord perpendiculaire aux cloisons non encore soudé de manière à répartir sensiblement également l'isolant granulaire dans les alvéoles puis le sac est fermé par thermo-soudure du dernier bord.Preferably, each bag has a substantially parallelepipedal shape and comprises partitions, said partition walls, rectangular, parallel and regularly spaced whose long edges define an installation orientation and are attached to the main faces of each bag to maintain between said main faces a distance less than or equal to the distance between the outer face of the insulation layer and the facing plate. In this embodiment, the bags are in the form of rectangular cushions whose thickness is maintained substantially constant by interlayers. The bags are made from two rectangles between which are welded partition walls forming parallel cells and which is welded to the edges parallel to the partitions and one of the perpendicular edges. The bags are then filled with the edge perpendicular to the partitions not yet welded so as to distribute substantially equally the granular insulation in the cells and the bag is closed by thermo-welding of the last edge.
  • De préférence, l'une au moins des faces principales de chaque sac est perforée. Même si le feutre géotextile utilisé pour réaliser les sacs est naturellement poreux, il est préférable de ménager des perforations supplémentaires afin de favoriser l'entrée des eaux de précipitation dans la couche d'isolant granulaire. Préférentiellement, c'est la face du sac en regard de la plaque de parement qui est perforée dans le cas d'un sac parallélépipédique.Preferably, at least one of the main faces of each bag is perforated. Although the geotextile felt used to make the bags is naturally porous, it is preferable to provide additional perforations to promote the entry of precipitation waters in the granular insulating layer. Preferably, it is the face of the bag facing the facing plate which is perforated in the case of a parallelepiped bag.
  • De préférence, chaque sac est fixé sur la couche d'isolant rigide de telle sorte que son orientation d'installation soit orthogonale à une ligne de plus grande pente de la couche d'isolant. Afin d'éviter un tassement excessif des granules de l'isolant sous l'effet de la gravité, les sacs sont fixés sur la couche d'isolant rigide de telle sorte que leur plus grande dimension soit orthogonale à la ligne de pente de la paroi. Ainsi pour un mur ou une toiture, l'axe des sacs cylindriques ou la direction des cloisons de séparation des sacs parallélépipédiques est en général horizontal pour éviter le tassement de l'isolant granulaire à une extrémité du sac.Preferably, each bag is attached to the rigid insulation layer such that its installation orientation is orthogonal to a line of greater slope of the insulation layer. In order to avoid excessive settlement of the granules of the insulator under the effect of gravity, the bags are fixed on the rigid insulation layer so that their largest dimension is orthogonal to the slope line of the wall . Thus, for a wall or a roof, the axis of the cylindrical bags or the direction of the partition walls of the parallelepiped bags is generally horizontal to avoid settling of the granular insulation at one end of the bag.
  • De préférence, la couche d'isolant rigide comporte sur sa face externe un revêtement anti-enfoncement sur lequel sont fixées les entretoises. Afin d'éviter un poinçonnement de la couche d'isolant rigide, soit par le poids transmis par les entretoises, soit par les manipulations et déplacements des ouvriers lors de l'installation du dispositif d'isolation selon l'invention, il est préférable de prévoir un revêtement anti-enfoncement à la surface de l'isolant de la couche d'isolant rigide. Un tel revêtement est souvent intégré dès la fabrication de l'isolant qui est livré collé sur une face à une plaque rigide assurant la rigidité et la protection anti-enfoncement de l'isolant. Dans le cas où le revêtement anti-enfoncement ne fait pas dès l'origine partie de la couche d'isolant rigide, il peut être ajouté sous la forme d'une plaque de tôle, de préférence pleine, ou de contreplaqué collée sur l'isolant pour former la couche d'isolant rigide.Preferably, the rigid insulating layer has on its outer face an anti-depression coating on which the spacers are fixed. In order to avoid punching of the rigid insulation layer, either by the weight transmitted by the spacers or by the manipulations and movements of the workers during the installation of the insulation device according to the invention, it is preferable to provide an anti-sinking coating on the surface of the insulation of the rigid insulation layer. Such a coating is often integrated from the manufacture of the insulation that is delivered glued on one side to a rigid plate ensuring the rigidity and protection against depressing insulation. In the case where the anti-sinking coating is not originally part of the rigid insulation layer, it may be added in the form of a plate of sheet metal, preferably solid, or plywood bonded to it. insulation to form the rigid insulation layer.
  • De préférence, les entretoises sont fixées le long de lignes orthogonales à une ligne de plus grande pente de la couche d'isolant selon une disposition en quinconce. Les entretoises sont préférentiellement réalisées sous forme de parallélépipèdes rectangles en tôle perforée pliée, comportant le cas échéant une face principale en partie ouverte. Les entretoises sont placées de manière régulièrement espacée, en lignes parallèles, orthogonales à la ligne de plus grande pente de la paroi sur laquelle la couche d'isolant rigide est fixée. En général, pour des murs verticaux ou des pans de toiture, les entretoises sont alignées horizontalement. Sur chaque ligne, les entretoises sont décalées d'un demi pas par rapport aux entretoises des lignes adjacentes. Elles sont fixées par leur face latérale la plus longue sur le revêtement anti-enfoncement de la couche d'isolant rigide par tout moyen approprié, par exemple par collage, vissage, rivetage ou toute combinaison de ces moyens.Preferably, the spacers are secured along orthogonal lines to a line of greater slope of the insulating layer in a staggered arrangement. The spacers are preferentially made in the form of parallelepipeds rectangles bent perforated sheet, having optionally a main face partly open. The spacers are placed evenly spaced, in parallel lines, orthogonal to the line of greatest slope of the wall on which the rigid insulation layer is fixed. In general, for vertical walls or roof panels, the spacers are aligned horizontally. On each line, the spacers are offset by half a step from the spacers of the adjacent lines. They are fixed by their longest side face on the anti-sinking coating of the rigid insulation layer by any appropriate means, for example by gluing, screwing, riveting or any combination of these means.
  • De préférence, les entretoises d'une même ligne sont reliées entre elles par des poutrelles en forme de U venant coiffer lesdites entretoises. Selon une caractéristique avantageuse, la plaque de parement est fixée sur les poutrelles en forme de U. Afin de maintenir la plaque de parement à distance de la couche d'isolant rigide et pour renforcer la résistance du dispositif d'isolation selon l'invention, les entretoises sont rendues solidaires entre elles par des poutrelles en U, réalisées préférentiellement en tôle perforée pliée et comportant deux ailes séparées par une âme d'une largeur intérieure adaptée pour permettre aux deux ailes du U de coiffer chaque entretoise. La longueur minimale des poutrelles est adaptée pour que chaque poutrelle puisse couvrir au moins partiellement une entretoise à chaque extrémité de la poutrelle. Le montage des poutrelles est réalisé de préférence sans chevauchement de manière à ce que la face extérieure de l'âme de chaque poutrelle soit dans un plan commun pour chaque paroi. Il est ainsi possible de poser les plaques de parement perforées sur les poutrelles et de les fixer de manière simple, par exemple au moyen de rivets aveugles traversant les perforations de la plaque de parement et de la poutrelle.Preferably, the spacers of the same line are interconnected by U-shaped beams to cap said spacers. According to an advantageous characteristic, the facing plate is fixed on the U-shaped beams. In order to keep the facing plate away from the rigid insulation layer and to reinforce the resistance of the insulation device according to the invention, the spacers are made integral with each other by U-shaped beams, preferably made of folded perforated sheet and having two wings separated by a core of an inner width adapted to allow the two wings of the U to cap each spacer. The minimum length of the beams is adapted so that each beam can at least partially cover a spacer at each end of the beam. The mounting of the beams is preferably without overlapping so that the outer face of the core of each beam is in a common plane for each wall. It is thus possible to put the perforated facing plates on the beams and fix them in a simple manner, for example by means of blind rivets passing through the perforations of the facing plate and the beam.
  • De préférence, la plaque de parement est adaptée pour recevoir des accessoires de couverture adaptés pour être fixés sur ladite plaque de parement. Les plaques de parement rigides et perforées permettent de fixer directement sur les pans de toiture et/ou sur les murs des dispositifs tels que des panneaux solaires photovoltaïques ou à circulation de fluide et de guider leurs câbles ou conduites de raccordement. De même, des serpentins de circulation de fluide peuvent être accrochés simplement sur les plaques de parement perforées, par exemple au moyen de colliers, de manière à constituer un réseau de réchauffage en vue d'accélérer la fonte d'une couche de neige déposée sur le parement. D'autres accessoires, par exemple des réseaux de points lumineux peuvent ainsi être disposés sur les murs verticaux pour former des éléments d'affichage et/ou d'éclairage.Preferably, the facing plate is adapted to receive roofing accessories adapted to be fixed on said facing plate. The rigid and perforated facing plates make it possible to fix directly on the roof panels and / or on the walls devices such as Photovoltaic or fluid circulation solar panels and to guide their cables or connecting lines. Similarly, fluid circulation coils can be simply hung on the perforated facing plates, for example by means of collars, so as to constitute a heating network to accelerate the melting of a layer of snow deposited on the siding. Other accessories, for example networks of light spots can thus be arranged on the vertical walls to form display elements and / or lighting.
  • L'invention vise également un procédé d'isolation thermique d'une paroi mettant en oeuvre le dispositif. Selon ce procédé :
    • on fixe sur ladite paroi une première face, dite face de contact, d'une couche d'isolant rigide et imperméable,
    • on fixe des entretoises sur une deuxième face, dite face externe, de la couche d'isolant rigide opposée à la face de contact, avec un pas prédéterminé selon des lignes parallèles et orthogonales à une ligne de plus grande pente de la paroi, les entretoises étant décalées d'un demi pas entre deux lignes adjacentes,
    • on relie entre elles les entretoises d'une même ligne par des poutrelles en forme de U, de telle sorte que lesdites poutrelles viennent coiffer les entretoises,
      et
    • on fixe sur lesdites poutrelles une plaque de parement rigide et perforée de manière à ménager une lame d'air entre ladite plaque de parement et la face externe de la couche d'isolant rigide.
    The invention also relates to a method of thermal insulation of a wall implementing the device. According to this method:
    • fixed on said wall a first face, said contact face, of a rigid and impermeable insulating layer,
    • spacers are fixed on a second face, said external face, of the rigid insulating layer opposite to the contact face, with a predetermined pitch along lines parallel and orthogonal to a line of greater slope of the wall, the spacers being offset by half a step between two adjacent lines,
    • the spacers of one and the same line are connected together by U-shaped beams, so that said beams come to cover the spacers,
      and
    • fixed on said beams a rigid and perforated facing plate so as to provide a blade of air between said facing plate and the outer face of the rigid insulation layer.
  • De préférence, avant de fixer la plaque de parement, on fixe entre chaque ligne d'entretoises, sur la face externe de la couche d'isolant rigide, des sacs d'isolant granulaire.Preferably, before fixing the facing plate, is fixed between each line of spacers, on the outer face of the rigid insulation layer, bags of granular insulation.
  • De préférence, chaque sac est disposé de telle sorte que sa plus grande dimension est parallèle aux lignes d'entretoises.Preferably, each bag is arranged so that its largest dimension is parallel to the spacer lines.
  • D'autres buts, caractéristiques et avantages de l'invention apparaîtront au vu de la description qui va suivre et des dessins annexés dans lesquels :
    • la figure 1 est une vue en coupe du dispositif d'isolation selon l'invention ;
    • la figure 2 est une vue en perspective montrant le placement des entretoises et des poutrelles d'un dispositif d'isolation selon l'invention ;
    • la figure 3 est une vue en perspective montrant le placement des sacs d'isolant granulaire selon l'invention ;
    • la figure 4 est une vue en coupe en perspective d'un sac d'isolant granulaire selon l'une des variantes de l'invention.
    Other objects, features and advantages of the invention will become apparent from the following description and the appended drawings in which:
    • the figure 1 is a sectional view of the isolation device according to the invention;
    • the figure 2 is a perspective view showing the placement of the spacers and beams of an isolation device according to the invention;
    • the figure 3 is a perspective view showing the placement of granular insulating bags according to the invention;
    • the figure 4 is a perspective sectional view of a granular insulating bag according to one of the variants of the invention.
  • Le dispositif 2 d'isolation thermique représenté à la figure 1 est destiné à isoler une paroi 1 d'un bâtiment, (mur, toiture en pente ou en terrasse, etc.) par une fixation en applique sur la face de cette paroi tournée vers l'extérieur du bâtiment. Le dispositif 2 comprend une couche 3 d'isolant rigide et imperméable fixée sur la paroi 1 par une face de contact 31. La couche 3 d'isolant rigide et imperméable est par exemple constituée, dans son épaisseur, d'au moins une strate 33 de matériau isolant tel que le polystyrène expansé ou le polyuréthane expansé. Ces matériaux sont en général sous forme de mousse à alvéoles fermées les rendant imperméables à l'eau. Ils présentent également une bonne rigidité intrinsèque, même si ils sont parfois fragiles. En fonction de la résistance thermique recherchée et/ou, comme on le décrit par la suite, de la nature de la paroi 1, l'épaisseur du matériau isolant est variable et peut être formée de plusieurs strates de matériau isolant collées entre elles.The thermal insulation device 2 shown in FIG. figure 1 is intended to isolate a wall 1 of a building, (wall, sloped roof or terrace, etc.) by an applied fixture on the face of this wall facing the outside of the building. The device 2 comprises a layer 3 of rigid and impermeable insulation fixed on the wall 1 by a contact face 31. The layer 3 of rigid and impermeable insulation is for example constituted, in its thickness, at least one stratum 33 of insulating material such as expanded polystyrene or expanded polyurethane. These materials are generally in the form of closed cell foam making them impermeable to water. They also have good intrinsic rigidity, even if they are sometimes fragile. Depending on the desired thermal resistance and / or, as described below, the nature of the wall 1, the thickness of the insulating material is variable and may be formed of several layers of insulating material bonded together.
  • La couche 3 d'isolant rigide comporte également un revêtement 34 anti-enfoncement sous la forme d'une plaque de contreplaqué ou de tôle métallique, de préférence pleine. Ce revêtement 34 est généralement collé en usine sur une face de l'épaisseur du matériau isolant pour lui permettre d'avoir une résistance supplémentaire à la flexion et éviter que le matériau isolant ne soit détérioré lors des manipulations de chantier. Dans le cas contraire, le revêtement 34 peut être collé sur les strates de matériau isolant sur le chantier. On peut utiliser pour cela une tôle d'acier prélaqué d'une épaisseur de 0,75 à 1mm ou une feuille de contreplaqué de 8 à 12 mm d'épaisseur. La couche 3 d'isolant rigide peut être constituée d'une pluralité de plaques rectangulaires juxtaposées pour couvrir la surface de la paroi 1. Ces plaques peuvent comporter sur leur chant des moyens d'assemblage tels qu'un bouvetage.The rigid insulation layer 3 also has an anti-sinking coating 34 in the form of a plywood plate or sheet metal, preferably solid. This coating 34 is generally bonded in the factory on one side of the thickness of the insulating material to allow it to have additional resistance to bending and to prevent the insulating material from being damaged during site manipulation. Otherwise, the coating 34 can be glued to layers of insulation material on site. It can be used for this a prepainted steel sheet with a thickness of 0.75 to 1 mm or a sheet of plywood 8 to 12 mm thick. The layer 3 of rigid insulation may consist of a plurality of rectangular plates juxtaposed to cover the surface of the wall 1. These plates may comprise on their edge assembly means such as a bouvetage.
  • En fonction de la paroi à isoler, trois cas principaux peuvent être envisagés : le dispositif 2 d'isolation thermique est fixé sur une paroi verticale telle qu'un mur extérieur, ou sur une paroi en pente telle qu'un pan de toiture. Dans ce dernier cas, il est possible d'utiliser le dispositif d'isolation selon l'invention directement sur la charpente ou sur une toiture déjà réalisée lorsque celle-ci est en tôle, par exemple formée de bacs acier.Depending on the wall to be insulated, three main cases can be envisaged: the thermal insulation device 2 is fixed on a vertical wall such as an outer wall, or on a sloping wall such as a roof pan. In the latter case, it is possible to use the isolation device according to the invention directly on the frame or on a roof already made when it is sheet metal, for example formed of steel tanks.
  • Dans le cas d'une fixation sur un mur vertical, la couche 3 d'isolant rigide est préférentiellement collée sur le mur par des cordons de colle, par exemple de mousse expansive le cas échéant assistés de chevilles de fixation. D'autres procédés de fixation, connus de l'homme du métier pour l'isolation par l'extérieur peuvent aussi être employés pour autant qu'ils permettent une tenue suffisante de l'isolant sur le mur. Lorsque le dispositif d'isolation selon l'invention est posé en toiture, il convient d'enlever la couverture si celle-ci ne permet pas une pose à plat (tuiles, tôle ondulée, etc.). Dans ce cas, il est préférable de placer un écran pare-vapeur directement sur la charpente existante et par exemple de le maintenir par des liteaux cloués. La couche 3 d'isolant est ensuite collée sur les liteaux. Dans certains cas, il est possible de conserver la toiture existante, par exemple lorsque celle-ci est constituée de tôles plates comportant à intervalles régulier des raidisseurs de section trapézoïdale (bacs acier). Dans ce cas, il est possible de coller entre les raidisseurs une première strate de matériau isolant, d'une épaisseur sensiblement égale à la hauteur de ceux-ci pour former une surface plate. La pose de la couche 3 d'isolant rigide est ensuite complétée par collage sur cette strate d'une deuxième strate de matériau isolant comportant le revêtement 34 anti-poinçonnement.In the case of attachment to a vertical wall, the layer 3 of rigid insulation is preferably adhered to the wall by adhesive beads, for example expansive foam if necessary assisted by anchors. Other attachment methods known to those skilled in the art for external insulation may also be employed as long as they allow sufficient insulation to be held on the wall. When the insulation device according to the invention is placed on the roof, it is necessary to remove the cover if it does not allow laying flat (tiles, corrugated sheet, etc.). In this case, it is preferable to place a vapor barrier directly on the existing framework and for example to maintain it by nailed battens. The layer 3 of insulation is then glued on the battens. In some cases, it is possible to keep the existing roof, for example when it consists of flat sheets having at regular intervals stiffeners trapezoidal section (steel tanks). In this case, it is possible to bond between the stiffeners a first layer of insulating material, a thickness substantially equal to the height thereof to form a flat surface. The laying of the layer 3 of rigid insulation is then completed by bonding on this layer of a second layer of insulating material comprising the coating 34 anti-punching.
  • Une fois la couche 3 d'isolant rigide fixée à la paroi 1, on fixe sur sa face externe 32 (qui est également la face externe du revêtement 34 anti-poinçonnement) des entretoises 4 de forme généralement parallélépipédique (parallélépipède rectangle). Ces entretoises 4 sont réalisées par exemple en tôle perforée laquée et formées par pliage et rivetage. Ces entretoises 4 sont fixées par exemple par collage et/ou rivetage et/ou vissage sur le revêtement 34 anti-poinçonnement, en interposant le cas échéant une plaque de renfort 13 (figure2).Once the layer 3 of rigid insulation fixed to the wall 1 is fixed on its outer face 32 (which is also the outer face of the coating 34 anti-punching) spacers 4 of generally parallelepiped shape (rectangular parallelepiped). These spacers 4 are made for example of lacquered perforated sheet and formed by folding and riveting. These spacers 4 are fixed for example by gluing and / or riveting and / or screwing on the anti-punching coating 34, interposing a reinforcing plate 13 if necessary ( figure2 ).
  • Les entretoises 4 sont fixées sur leur face correspondant à l'épaisseur et à la longueur du parallélépipède, de manière régulièrement espacée selon un pas P, en alignement selon la longueur de l'entretoise le long de lignes orthogonales à la pente de la paroi 1. Ainsi, pour des murs droits ou des pans de toiture réguliers, les entretoises 4 sont alignées selon des lignes horizontales elles-mêmes régulièrement espacées entre elles.The spacers 4 are fixed on their face corresponding to the thickness and the length of the parallelepiped, regularly spaced along a pitch P, aligned along the length of the spacer along lines orthogonal to the slope of the wall 1 Thus, for straight walls or regular roof sections, the spacers 4 are aligned in horizontal lines themselves regularly spaced from each other.
  • À titre d'exemple, les entretoises 4 mesurent 250 mm de long, 150 mm de large et 70 mm d'épaisseur. Elles sont disposées selon un pas de 600 mm sur une ligne horizontale et décalées d'un demi-pas sur les lignes adjacentes. L'écartement entre lignes d'entretoises est également de l'ordre de 600 mm sans que cela constitue une nécessité, ces dimensions pouvant varier en fonction des calculs de résistance et la réglementation Neige et Vent applicable au bâtiment.For example, the spacers 4 are 250 mm long, 150 mm wide and 70 mm thick. They are arranged in a 600 mm pitch on a horizontal line and offset by half a step on the adjacent lines. The spacing between strut lines is also of the order of 600 mm without this being a necessity, these dimensions being able to vary according to the calculations of resistance and the regulation Snow and Wind applicable to the building.
  • Les entretoises 4 sont rendues solidaires le long des lignes d'entretoises par des poutrelles 5 comportant une âme 5a et deux ailes 5b rabattues orthogonalement à l'âme pour former un profil en U. La largeur de l'âme 5a de chaque poutrelle est adaptée pour que celle-ci puisse venir coiffer la face des entretoises opposée à la face de fixation de celles-ci et que les ailes 5b de la poutrelle s'étendent vers la face de fixation en encadrant l'entretoise. La longueur des poutrelles 5 est préférentiellement égale à un nombre entier de pas P, en général deux ou trois, avec une tolérance par valeur inférieure de manière à éviter tout chevauchement d'une poutrelle sur la poutrelle adjacente. La longueur des poutrelles doit également être suffisante pour que chaque extrémité recouvre l'entretoise qu'elle coiffe sur au moins 50 mm. Les poutrelles sont fixées sur les entretoises par des rivets aveugles posés au travers des ailes des poutrelles et des faces principales des entretoises qu'elles recouvrent de manière à ne pas créer d'aspérités sur la surface des âmes des poutrelles afin de pouvoir y fixer une plaque 6 de parement rigide et perforée à une distance prédéterminée de la couche 3 d'isolant rigide correspondant à la largeur des entretoises 4.The spacers 4 are made integral along the lines of spacers by beams 5 having a core 5a and two wings 5b folded orthogonally to the core to form a U-shaped profile. The width of the core 5a of each beam is adapted so that it can come to cap the face of the spacers opposite to the attachment face thereof and that the flanges 5b of the beam extend towards the fixing face flanking the spacer. The length of the beams 5 is preferably equal to an integer number of pitch P, generally two or three, with a tolerance by a lower value so as to avoid any overlap of a beam on the adjacent beam. The length of the beams must also be sufficient so that each end covers the spacer which it caps on at least 50 mm. The beams are fixed on the spacers by blind rivets placed through the flanges of the beams and the main faces of the spacers they cover so as not to create roughness on the surface of the webs of the beams so as to fix a plate 6 of rigid facing and perforated at a predetermined distance from the layer 3 of rigid insulation corresponding to the width of the spacers 4.
  • La plaque 6 de parement est préférentiellement réalisée au moyen de plaques de tôle perforée laquées disposées en appui sur les poutrelles 5 et fixées sur celles-ci au moyen de rivets aveugles. Préférentiellement, il y a un rivet sur chaque entretoise et un rivet sur l'âme de la poutrelle entre chaque paire d'entretoise. La plaque 6 de parement est suffisamment rigide pour supporter des efforts exercés par une éventuelle couche de neige (essentiellement en toiture) ou par le vent (particulièrement sur les murs). La plaque 6 de parement est également perforée de manière à permettre le passage de l'air au travers des perforations afin d'éviter un échauffement tel qu'on peut le rencontrer sur des tôles pleines.The facing plate 6 is preferably made by means of lacquered perforated sheet metal plates placed in abutment on the beams 5 and fixed on them by means of blind rivets. Preferably, there is a rivet on each spacer and a rivet on the web of the beam between each pair of spacer. The facing plate 6 is rigid enough to withstand forces exerted by a possible layer of snow (mainly on the roof) or by the wind (particularly on the walls). The facing plate 6 is also perforated so as to allow the passage of air through the perforations to prevent heating such as can be encountered on solid sheets.
  • En outre, l'utilisation d'une plaque 6 de parement rigide et perforée permet l'écoulement des eaux de précipitation au moins en partie au travers de la plaque et permet également d'utiliser les perforations pour fixer simplement des accessoires 17 sur cette plaque. À titre d'exemple d'accessoires pouvant être ainsi aisément fixés, on peut citer des panneaux solaires, photovoltaïques ou à eau chaude (chauffe-eau solaire) ainsi que leurs câbles ou canalisations de raccordement. Sous les climats froids où les plaques 6 sont susceptibles d'être couvertes de neige, il est possible de fixer des garde-neige pour éviter les chutes de pans de neige autour des toitures ou encore des serpentins de circulation d'un fluide caloporteur pour accélérer le déneigement. D'autres accessoires peuvent également être facilement mis en place, comme par exemple des guirlandes lumineuses ou des diodes électroluminescentes formant un écran d'affichage publicitaire.In addition, the use of a rigid perforated facing plate 6 allows the precipitation water to flow at least partly through the plate and also allows the perforations to be used to simply attach accessories 17 to this plate. . Examples of accessories that can be easily fixed include solar panels, photovoltaic or hot water (solar water heater) and their cables or connecting pipes. In cold climates where the plates 6 are likely to be covered with snow, it is possible to attach snow guards to prevent falling snow flakes around the roofs or coils circulating a heat transfer fluid to accelerate snow removal. Other accessories can also be easily put in place, such as for example light strings or light emitting diodes forming an advertising display screen.
  • Selon l'invention, une couche 8 de matériau isolant granulaire 9 est interposée entre la face externe 32 de la couche 3 d'isolant rigide et la plaque 6 de parement. De préférence, l'épaisseur de cette couche 8 d'isolant granulaire est limitée aux deux tiers de l'écartement existant entre la face externe 32 de l'isolant rigide et la plaque 6 de parement afin de laisser un espace libre permettant de conserver une lame d'air 7 sous la plaque 6 de parement.According to the invention, a layer 8 of granular insulating material 9 is interposed between the outer face 32 of the rigid insulation layer 3 and the facing plate 6. Preferably, the thickness of this layer 8 of granular insulation is limited to two thirds of the gap between the outer face 32 of the rigid insulation and the facing plate 6 to leave a free space to maintain an air gap 7 under the plate 6 facing.
  • L'isolant granulaire 9 peut être composé préférentiellement de billes d'argile expansée, poreuses ou non ou bien de granules de pierre ponce ou de pouzzolane. Afin de maintenir en place cet isolant granulaire, il est placé dans des sacs 10 de préférence parallélépipédiques en textile synthétique non tissé, par exemple en feutre aiguilleté géotextile de polypropylène. Un tel textile présente l'avantage d'être naturellement poreux et de pouvoir être assemblé par thermo soudage.The granular insulator 9 may preferably be composed of expanded clay beads, porous or not, or pumice granules or pozzolan granules. In order to maintain this granular insulator in place, it is placed in preferably parallelepipedic bags 10 made of synthetic nonwoven fabric, for example made of polypropylene geotextile needle felt. Such a textile has the advantage of being naturally porous and can be assembled by thermo welding.
  • Un tel sac 10 est illustré en perspective coupée par un plan médian à la figure 4 et comporte deux faces principales rectangulaires 14a et 14b placées en regard l'une de l'autre et dont les bords respectifs sont thermo soudés entre eux pour former un sac fermé. La face principale 14a est en outre perforée de façon à permettre une entrée directe des eaux de précipitation. Entre les faces principales 14a et 14b, des cloisons de séparation 11 rectangulaires sont placées parallèlement les unes aux autres et soudées aux deux faces principales par un rabat 15 formé sur leur bord long afin de définir des alvéoles 16. La largeur des cloisons de séparation 11 est prévue pour maintenir sensiblement constante l'épaisseur de la couche 8 d'isolant granulaire 9. Le remplissage des alvéoles 16 du sac 10 s'effectue par l'un des bords orthogonaux aux cloisons de séparation puis le bord est fermé par thermo soudage des bords en regard des faces principales.Such a bag 10 is illustrated in perspective cut by a median plane to the figure 4 and has two rectangular main faces 14a and 14b placed facing one another and whose respective edges are heat sealed together to form a closed bag. The main face 14a is further perforated so as to allow direct entry of the precipitation water. Between the main faces 14a and 14b, rectangular partition walls 11 are placed parallel to each other and welded to the two main faces by a flap 15 formed on their long edge to define cells 16. The width of the partition walls 11 is provided to maintain substantially constant the thickness of the layer 8 of granular insulator 9. The filling of the cells 16 of the bag 10 is effected by one of the orthogonal edges to the partition walls and the edge is closed by thermo welding of edges facing the main faces.
  • Les dimensions des sacs 10 sont prévues pour être des multiples du pas P pour la longueur afin de les poser parallèlement aux lignes d'entretoises 4 en appui sur au moins deux entretoises et pour correspondre à l'écartement entre deux lignes d'entretoises pour la largeur. Les sacs 10 sont fixés sur la face externe de la couche 3 d'isolant rigide par des cordons de colle 12, parallèles aux lignes d'entretoises. Les sacs 10 sont agencés de telle sorte que la direction des cloisons de séparation 11, qui définit également la plus grande dimension des alvéoles 16, soit parallèle aux lignes d'entretoises 4 (et donc perpendiculaires à la ligne de plus grande pente de la paroi sur laquelle le dispositif d'isolation est placé) de façon à ce que la longueur des alvéoles 16 soit également orthogonale à cette ligne de plus grande pente (voir figure3).The dimensions of the bags 10 are provided to be multiples of the pitch P for the length so as to lay them parallel to the lines of spacers 4 resting on at least two spacers and to correspond to the spacing between two lines of spacers for the width. The bags 10 are fixed on the outer face of the layer 3 of rigid insulation by adhesive beads 12, parallel to the lines of spacers. The bags 10 are arranged in such a way that the direction of the partition walls 11, which also defines the largest dimension of the cells 16, is parallel to the spacer lines 4 (and therefore perpendicular to the line of greatest slope of the wall on which the isolation device is placed) so that the length of the cells 16 is also orthogonal to this line of greatest slope (see Figure 3 ).
  • À titre d'exemple, les dimensions d'un sac 10 adapté au dispositif d'isolation thermique dont les dimensions ont été données plus avant sont de l'ordre de 600, 1200 ou 1800 mm de long, 600 mm de large et l'épaisseur constante maintenue par les cloisons de séparation 11 est de l'ordre de 100 mm.For example, the dimensions of a bag 10 adapted to the thermal insulation device whose dimensions have been given further are of the order of 600, 1200 or 1800 mm long, 600 mm wide and the constant thickness maintained by the partition walls 11 is of the order of 100 mm.
  • En variante, les sacs 10 peuvent être réalisés en une seule alvéole formée d'une enveloppe cylindrique obtenue par pliage sur elle-même d'une feuille de feutre géotextile et soudage de ses bords de manière à former un cylindre d'une longueur de un, deux ou trois pas P et d'un diamètre sensiblement égal à la distance existant entre la face extérieure 32 de la couche 3 d'isolant rigide et la plaque 6 de parement. Afin de ménager la lame d'air 7 au-dessous de celle-ci, le sac cylindrique n'est rempli qu'à 80 % de sa capacité, permettant son écrasement sur au moins deux cordons de colle 12 pour obtenir une section oblongue dont le petit diamètre correspond à l'épaisseur désirée de la couche 8 d'isolant granulaire. Dans cette variante d'exécution, les sacs cylindriques sont agencés de manière à ce que l'axe du cylindre (qui correspond à la plus grande dimension de l'alvéole unique) soit parallèle aux lignes d'entretoises 4, plusieurs sacs étant utilisés pour remplir l'écartement entre deux lignes d'entretoises. Bien entendu, les sacs 10 peuvent être disposés en rangées parallèles ou en quinconce, chaque sac reposant sur deux autres sacs.Alternatively, the bags 10 may be made in a single cell formed of a cylindrical envelope obtained by folding on itself a sheet of geotextile felt and welding of its edges so as to form a cylinder with a length of one , two or three steps P and a diameter substantially equal to the distance between the outer face 32 of the layer 3 of rigid insulation and the facing plate 6. In order to protect the air space 7 beneath it, the cylindrical bag is only filled to 80% of its capacity, allowing it to be crushed on at least two strips of adhesive 12 to obtain an oblong section of which the small diameter corresponds to the desired thickness of the layer 8 of granular insulation. In this variant embodiment, the cylindrical bags are arranged in such a way that the axis of the cylinder (which corresponds to the largest dimension of the single cell) is parallel to the lines of spacers 4, several bags being used to fill the gap between two lines of spacers. Of course, the bags 10 may be arranged in parallel or staggered rows, each bag resting on two other bags.
  • Grâce à la présence de cette couche d'isolant granulaire, l'inertie thermique du dispositif d'isolation et donc du bâtiment isolé avec ce dispositif d'isolation thermique est améliorée. En outre, les eaux de précipitation atteignant la plaque 6 de parement la traversent au moins en partie grâce à ses perforations et atteint la couche 8 d'isolant granulaire dans laquelle elle est temporairement emprisonnée. Le ruissellement des eaux de précipitation est ainsi ralenti, minimisant les risques d'engorgement des évacuations pluviales. En outre, en cas d'alternance rapide de précipitation et d'ensoleillement, l'évaporation de l'eau emprisonnée crée un phénomène de climatisation locale.Due to the presence of this layer of granular insulation, the thermal inertia of the insulation device and therefore of the insulated building with this thermal insulation device is improved. In addition, the precipitation waters reaching the facing plate 6 through at least in part through its perforations and reaches the layer 8 of granular insulation in which it is temporarily trapped. Precipitation runoff is thus slowed down, minimizing the risk of clogging rainwater evacuation. In addition, in the event of rapid alternation of precipitation and sunshine, the evaporation of the trapped water creates a local air conditioning phenomenon.
  • Bien entendu, cette description est donnée à titre d'exemple illustratif uniquement et l'homme du métier pourra y apporter de nombreuses modifications sans sortir de la portée de l'invention, comme par exemple modifier les dimensions et l'agencement des entretoises et des sacs d'isolant granulaire pour s'adapter à la géométrie du bâtiment à isoler. De même, les accessoires pouvant être fixés sur la plaque 6 de parement ne sont pas limités aux dispositifs décrits précédemment, les perforations de la plaque de parement pouvant également permettre de fixer un revêtement de toiture en chaume par exemple.Of course, this description is given by way of illustrative example only and the person skilled in the art will be able to make numerous modifications without departing from the scope of the invention, such as for example modifying the dimensions and the arrangement of the spacers and the bags of granular insulation to fit the geometry of the building to be insulated. Similarly, the accessories that can be attached to the facing plate 6 are not limited to the devices described above, the perforations of the facing plate may also allow to fix a thatch roofing for example.

Claims (13)

  1. Device (2) for thermally insulating a building element (1) from the outside, in particular applicable to the walls and to the roofs, comprising:
    - a layer (3) of rigid and impermeable insulant having a first face, named a contact face (31), adapted to be fixed on said element, and a second face, named an external face (32), opposite the contact face,
    - a rigid and perforated facing plate (6), and
    - spacers (4) fixed on said external face and adapted to maintain said facing plate at a distance from the external face and to provide an air gap (7) between said facing plate (6) and the external face (32) of the layer (3) of rigid insulant,
    the device further having a layer (8) of a granular insulant (9) contained in at least one bag (10) made of nonwoven synthetic textile, in particular of needled geotextile, between the layer (3) of rigid insulant and the facing plate (6).
  2. Insulating device according to Claim 1, characterised in that the granular insulant (9) is a porous granular insulant.
  3. Insulating device according to one of Claims 1 or 2, characterised in that each bag (10) has a substantially cylindrical shape, with a diameter less than or equal to the distance between the external face (32) of the layer (3) of rigid insulant and the facing plate (6).
  4. Insulating device according to one of Claim 1 or 2, characterised in that each bag (10) has a substantially parallelepidedal shape and has partitions, named separating partitions (11), which are rectangular, parallel and regularly spaced and the long edges of which are fixed to the main faces (14a, 14b) of each bag in order to maintain between said main faces a distance less than or equal to the distance between the external face (32) of the layer (3) of rigid insulant and the facing plate (6).
  5. Insulating device according to one of Claims 3 or 4, characterised in that at least one (14a) of the main faces (14a, 14b) of each bag (10) is perforated.
  6. Insulating device according to any one of Claims 1 to 5, characterised in that the layer (3) of rigid insulant has on its external face (32) an anti-penetration coating (34) on which are fixed the spacers (4).
  7. Insulating device according to any one of Claims 1 to 6, characterised in that the spacers (4) are fixed on the layer (3) of rigid insulant with a predetermined pitch (P) along parallel lines, the spacers being offset by half a pitch between two adjacent lines.
  8. Insulating device according to Claim 7, characterised in that the spacers (4) of a same line are connected to one another by U-shaped beams (5) capping said spacers.
  9. Insulating device according to Claim 8, characterised in that the facing plate (6) is fixed on the U-shaped beams (5).
  10. Insulating device according to any one of Claims 1 to 9, characterised in that the facing plate (6) is adapted to receive covering accessories (17) adapted to be fixed on said facing plate.
  11. Method for thermally insulating a building element (1) from the outside using the device of Claim 1, according to which:
    - a first face, named a contact face (31), of a layer (3) of rigid and impermeable insulant is fixed on said element (1),
    - spacers (4) are fixed on a second face, named an external face (32), of the layer (3) of rigid insulant opposite the contact face, with a predetermined pitch (P) along lines parallel and orthogonal to a line of greatest slope of the element, the spacers being offset by half a pitch between two adjacent lines,
    - the spacers (4) of a same line are connected to one another by U-shaped beams (5), such that said beams cap the spacers, and
    - a rigid and perforated facing plate (6) is fixed on said beams (5) so as to provide an air gap (7) between said facing plate (6) and the external face (32) of the layer (3) of rigid insulant.
  12. Insulating method according to Claim 11, characterised in that, before fixing the facing plate (6), bags (10) of granular insulant (9) are fixed on the external face (32) of the layer (3) of rigid insulant, between each line of spacers (4).
  13. Insulating method according to Claim 12, characterised in that each bag (10) is arranged such that the largest dimension of the cell or cells which form it is parallel to the lines of spacers.
EP14155071.5A 2013-03-03 2014-02-13 Device for thermally insulating a building wall from the outside and method for using such a device Active EP2775062B1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

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EP13001058.0A EP2775061A1 (en) 2013-03-03 2013-03-03 Eco roof smile
EP14155071.5A EP2775062B1 (en) 2013-03-03 2014-02-13 Device for thermally insulating a building wall from the outside and method for using such a device

Applications Claiming Priority (4)

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EP14155071.5A EP2775062B1 (en) 2013-03-03 2014-02-13 Device for thermally insulating a building wall from the outside and method for using such a device
PL14155071T PL2775062T3 (en) 2013-03-03 2014-02-13 Device for thermally insulating a building wall from the outside and method for using such a device
US15/118,131 US20170247889A1 (en) 2013-03-03 2015-01-30 Device for thermally insulating a building wall from the outside, and method for implementing such a device
PCT/EP2015/051983 WO2015121090A1 (en) 2013-03-03 2015-01-30 Device for thermally insulating a building wall from the outside, and method for implementing such a device

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EP2775062B1 true EP2775062B1 (en) 2015-10-28

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EP14155071.5A Active EP2775062B1 (en) 2013-03-03 2014-02-13 Device for thermally insulating a building wall from the outside and method for using such a device

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US10689851B2 (en) * 2018-10-01 2020-06-23 Durabond Products Limited Insulation board assembly
CN111576665A (en) * 2020-06-10 2020-08-25 朱来英 Building thermal insulation wall

Citations (1)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP2390436A1 (en) * 2010-05-25 2011-11-30 TRiooo Building Systems GmbH Curtain wall with insulation

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR2287557A1 (en) * 1974-10-08 1976-05-07 Romney Emile Sun protection partition for walls - gives either complete or partial protection horizontally or vertically
FR2589504A1 (en) * 1985-10-30 1987-05-07 Elf Isolation Facing element which can be used to form a waterproof skin for supports of the building façade or gable type and waterproof skin consisting of such elements mounted on the support by means of a rail
CA2720454C (en) * 2008-04-01 2014-06-17 Opaly, Societe Par Actions Simplifiee Method and device for trimming for facade or roof of a building
JP5298306B2 (en) * 2008-08-29 2013-09-25 海水化学工業株式会社 Outside insulation panel
FR2965827A1 (en) * 2010-10-06 2012-04-13 Isol Ouate France I O F Method for thermally insulating wall of building, involves realizing opening in rain screen at level of upper part of wooden structure, insufflating loose fill insulation through opening, closing opening, and covering cladding assembly

Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP2390436A1 (en) * 2010-05-25 2011-11-30 TRiooo Building Systems GmbH Curtain wall with insulation

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EP2775062A1 (en) 2014-09-10
WO2015121090A1 (en) 2015-08-20
US20170247889A1 (en) 2017-08-31
PL2775062T3 (en) 2016-04-29

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