EP2710163B1 - Aluminum magnesium lithium alloy having improved toughness - Google Patents

Aluminum magnesium lithium alloy having improved toughness Download PDF

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EP2710163B1
EP2710163B1 EP12728642.5A EP12728642A EP2710163B1 EP 2710163 B1 EP2710163 B1 EP 2710163B1 EP 12728642 A EP12728642 A EP 12728642A EP 2710163 B1 EP2710163 B1 EP 2710163B1
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mpa
wrought
thickness
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German (de)
French (fr)
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EP2710163A1 (en
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Frank Eberl
Bernard Bes
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Constellium Issoire SAS
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Constellium Issoire SAS
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Priority to PCT/FR2012/000198 priority patent/WO2012160272A1/en
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22FCHANGING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF NON-FERROUS METALS AND NON-FERROUS ALLOYS
    • C22F1/00Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working
    • C22F1/04Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working of aluminium or alloys based thereon
    • C22F1/047Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working of aluminium or alloys based thereon of alloys with magnesium as the next major constituent
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C21/00Alloys based on aluminium
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C21/00Alloys based on aluminium
    • C22C21/06Alloys based on aluminium with magnesium as the next major constituent

Description

    Field of the invention
  • The invention relates to aluminum-magnesium-lithium alloy products, more particularly, such products, their manufacturing and use processes, intended in particular for aeronautical and aerospace construction.
  • State of the art
  • Aluminum alloy rolled products are developed to produce high strength parts for the aerospace industry and the aerospace industry in particular.
  • Aluminum alloys containing lithium are very interesting in this respect, since lithium can reduce the density of aluminum by 3% and increase the modulus of elasticity by 6% for each weight percent of lithium added. In order for these alloys to be selected in the aircraft, their performance compared with the other properties of use must reach that of the alloys commonly used, in particular in terms of a compromise between the static mechanical strength properties (yield strength in tension and in compression, breaking strength) and the properties of damage tolerance (toughness, fatigue crack propagation resistance), these properties being in general antinomic.
    These alloys must also have sufficient corrosion resistance, be able to be shaped according to the usual methods and have low residual stresses so that they can be machined integrally.
    Aluminum alloys simultaneously containing magnesium and lithium make it possible to reach particularly low densities and have therefore been extensively studied.
  • The patent GB 1,172,736 teaches an alloy containing 4 to 7% by weight Mg, 1.5 - 2.6% Li, 0.2 - 1% Mn and / or 0.05 - 0.3% Zr, remaining aluminum useful for uses requiring high mechanical strength, good corrosion resistance, low density and high modulus of elasticity.
  • International demand WO 92/03583 discloses a useful alloy for aeronautical structures having low density of the general formula Mg a Li b Zn c Ag d Al bal wherein a is between 0.5 and 10%, b is between 0.5 and 3%, c is between 0.1 and 5%, d is between 0.1 and 2% and bal indicates that the rest is aluminum.
  • The patent US 5,431,876 teaches a group of ternary alloys of lithium aluminum and magnesium or copper, including at least one additive such as zirconium, chromium and / or manganese.
  • The patent US 6,551,424 discloses a method of manufacturing aluminum-magnesium-lithium alloy products of composition (in% by weight) Mg: 3.0 - 6.0, Li: 0.4 - 3.0, Zn up to 2.0, Mn to 1.0, Ag up to 0.5, Fe up to 0.3, Si up to 0.3, Cu up to 0.3, 0.02 - 0.5 from a member selected from the group consisting of Sc, Hf, Ti , V, Nd, Zr, Cr, Y, Be, including cold rolling in the lengthwise and in the widthwise directions.
    The patent US 6,461,566 discloses an alloy of composition (in% by weight) Li: 1.5 - 1.9, Mg: 4.1 - 6.0, Zn 0.1 - 1.5, Zr 0.05 - 0.3, Mn 0.01 - 0.8 H, 0.9 10 -5 - 4.5 10 -5 and at least one element selected from the group Be 0.001 - 0.2, Y 0.001 - 0.5 and Sc 0.01 - 0.3.
    The patent RU 2171308 discloses an alloy comprising (in% by weight) Li: 1.5 - 3.0, Mg: 4.5 - 7.0, Fe 0.01 - 0.15, Na: 0.001 - 0.0015, H, 1 , 7 10 -5 - 4.5 10 -5 and at least one element selected from the group Zr 0.05-0.15, Be 0.005-0.1, and Sc 0.05-0.4 and at least one element selected in the group Mn 0.005-0.3, Cr 0.005-0.2, and Ti 0.005-0.2, remain aluminum.
  • The patent RU2163938 discloses an alloy containing (in% by weight) Mg: 2.0 - 5.8, Li: 1.3-2.3, Cu: 0.01-0.3, Mn: 0.03-0.5, Be: 0.0001 - 0.3, at least one of Zr and Sc: 0.02 - 0.25 and at least one of Ca and Ba: 0.002 - 0.1, remains aluminum.
  • The patent application DE 1 558 491 describes in particular an alloy containing (in% by weight) Mg: 4 - 7, Li: 1.5 - 2.6, Mn: 0.2 - 1.0, Zr 0.05 - 0.3 and / or Ti 0 , 05 - 0,15 or Cr 0,05 - 0,3.
  • These alloys have not solved some problems and in particular their performance in terms of damage tolerance has not allowed their significant use in commercial aviation. It should also be noted that the manufacture of wrought products from these alloys has remained difficult and that the scrap rate is too high.
  • There is a need for wrought aluminum-magnesium-lithium alloy products having improved properties over known products, particularly in terms of the compromise between static strength properties and damage tolerance properties, in particular toughness, corrosion resistance while having a low density.
    In addition there is a need for a method of manufacturing these products reliable and economical.
  • Object of the invention
  • A first subject of the invention is a wrought product made of aluminum alloy of composition, in% by weight,
    • Mg: 4.0 - 5.0
    • Li: 1.0 - 1.6
    • Zr: 0.05 - 0.15
    • Ti: 0.01 - 0.15
    • Fe: 0.02 - 0.2
    • Si: 0.02 - 0.2
    • Mn: ≤ 0.5
    • Cr ≤ 0.5
    • Ag: ≤ 0.5
    • Cu ≤ 0.5
    • Zn ≤ 0.5
    • Sc <0.01
    • other elements <0.05
    • remains aluminum.
  • Another subject of the invention is a method of manufacturing a wrought product according to the invention comprising successively
    • developing a bath of liquid metal so as to obtain an aluminum alloy of composition according to the invention,
    • pouring said alloy in raw form,
    • optionally homogenization of the product thus cast,
    • the hot deformation and optionally cold,
    • optionally a heat treatment at a temperature between 300 and 420 ° C in one or more steps,
    • the dissolution of the product thus deformed, and quenching,
    • optionally cold deformation of the product thus dissolved and quenched,
    • the income at a temperature below 150 ° C.
  • Yet another object of the invention is the use of a product of the invention for producing aircraft structural elements.
  • Description of figures
    • Figure 1 : Curve R in direction LT (specimen CCT760).
    • Figure 2 : Curve R in the TL direction (specimen CCT760).
    • Figure 3 : Toughness K app (LT) as a function of yield strength R p0,2 (L) for alloys A, C and D.
    Description of the invention
  • Unless stated otherwise, all the information concerning the chemical composition of the alloys is expressed as a percentage by weight based on the total weight of the alloy. The expression 1.4 Cu means that the copper content expressed in% by weight is multiplied by 1.4. The designation of alloys is in accordance with the regulations of The Aluminum Association, known to those skilled in the art. The density depends on the composition and is determined by calculation rather than by a method of measuring weight. The values are calculated in accordance with the procedure of The Aluminum Association, which is described on pages 2-12 and 2-13 of "Aluminum Standards and Data". The definitions of the metallurgical states are given in the European standard EN 515.
    The static mechanical characteristics in tension, in other words the tensile strength R m , the conventional yield stress at 0.2% elongation R p0.2 , and the elongation at break A% are determined by a tensile test according to standard NF EN ISO 6892-1, the sampling and the direction of the test being defined by the EN 485-1 standard.
    A curve giving the effective stress intensity factor as a function of the effective crack extension, known as the R curve, is determined according to ASTM E 561. The critical stress intensity factor K C , in d other words the intensity factor which makes the crack unstable, is calculated from the curve R. The stress intensity factor K CO is also calculated by assigning the initial crack length at the beginning of the monotonous load, at the critical load. These two values are calculated for a specimen of the required form. App K represents the factor K CO corresponding to the test piece that was used to perform the test of A. K Ceff curve represents the K factor C corresponding to the test piece that was used to perform the test curve A. Δa eff (max) represents the crack extension of the last valid point of the curve R. The length of the curve R - namely the maximum crack extension of the curve - is a parameter that is in itself important, particularly for the fuselage design.
  • Unless otherwise specified, the definitions of EN 12258 apply.
  • Here, a "structural element" or "structural element" of a mechanical construction is called a mechanical part for which the static and / or dynamic mechanical properties are particularly important for the performance of the structure, and for which a structural calculation is usually prescribed or realized. These are typically elements whose failure is likely to endanger the safety of said construction, its users, its users or others. For an aircraft, these structural elements include the elements that make up the fuselage (such as fuselage skin, fuselage skin in English), stiffeners or stringers, bulkheads, fuselage (circumferential frames), wings (such the upper or lower wing skin, the stringers or stiffeners, the ribs and spars) and the stabilizer composed in particular of horizontal and vertical stabilizers (horizontal or vertical). stabilizers), as well as floor beams, seat tracks and doors.
  • According to the present invention, a selected class of aluminum alloys which contain specific and critical amounts of magnesium, lithium, zirconium, titanium, iron and silicon makes it possible to produce wrought products having an improved property compromise. in particular between mechanical strength and damage tolerance, while having a good corrosion performance. The magnesium content of the products according to the invention is between 4.0 and 4.7% by weight. In an advantageous embodiment of the invention, the magnesium content is at least 4.3% by weight or preferably 4.4% by weight. The maximum content of 4.7% by weight or preferably 4.6% by weight of magnesium is preferred. The lithium content of the products according to the invention is between 1.0 and 1.5% by weight. The present inventors have found that a limited lithium content, in the presence of certain addition elements, makes it possible to very significantly improve the fracture toughness and the speed of propagation of fatigue cracks, which largely compensates for the slight increase in density and the decrease in static mechanical properties. The maximum lithium content is 1.5% by weight and preferably 1.45% by weight or preferably 1.4% by weight. A minimum lithium content of 1.1% by weight and preferably 1.2% by weight is advantageous, in particular to improve the resistance to intergranular corrosion.
    The zirconium content of the products according to the invention is between 0.05 and 0.15% by weight and the titanium content is between 0.01 and 0.15% by weight. The presence of these elements associated with the transformation conditions used advantageously makes it possible to maintain a granular structure substantially not recrystallized. Contrary to certain teachings of the prior art, the present inventors have found that it is not necessary to add scandium in these alloys to obtain the desired substantially non-recrystallized granular structure and that the addition of scandium could even prove to be harmful by making the alloy particularly fragile and difficult to cold roll up to thicknesses less than 3 mm. The scandium content is therefore less than 0.01% by weight. In one embodiment of the invention the titanium content is between 0.01 and 0.05% by weight. Manganese and / or chromium can also be added to contribute in particular to the control of the granular structure, their content remaining at most 0.5% by weight. In an advantageous embodiment of the invention, having in particular improved hot ductility, the alloy contains at least one of Mn and Cr with a content, in% by weight Mn: 0.05 - 0.5 or 0 , 05 - 0.3 and Cr: 0.05 - 0.3, an element not selected from Mn and Cr having a content of less than 0.05% by weight. In particular, the improvement of the hot ductility facilitates hot deformation, which makes it possible to reduce the scrap rate during the processing.
  • Copper and / or silver may also be added to improve the performance of the wrought products according to the invention, their content remaining at most 0.5% by weight. In an advantageous embodiment of the invention, the alloy contains at least one of Ag and Cu with, if selected, in% by weight Cu: 0.05 - 0.3 and Ag: 0, 05 - 0.3, an element not selected from Ag and Cu having a content of less than 0.05% by weight. These elements can contribute in particular to the static mechanical properties. However, in one advantageous embodiment for improving the resistance to intergranular corrosion, the Ag content and / or the Cu content are less than 0.05% by weight.
  • The wrought products according to the invention contain a small amount of iron and silicon, the content of these elements being between 0.02 and 0.2% by weight. The present inventors believe that the presence of these elements can contribute, by forming intermetallic phases and / or by contributing to the formation of dispersoids especially in the presence of manganese, to improve the properties of damage tolerance by avoiding the localization of the deformation. In one embodiment of the invention the Fe content and / or the Si content are in% by weight Fe: 0.04 - 0.15; Si: 0.04 - 0.15 In one embodiment of the invention, the Fe content and / or the Si content is less than 0.15% by weight and preferably less than 0.1% by weight. weight.
  • The Zn content is at most 0.5% by weight. In an advantageous embodiment of the invention, the Zn content is less than 0.2% by weight and preferably less than 0.05% by weight. The deliberate addition of Zn is typically not desirable because this element can contribute to degrade the hot ductility while not providing any advantage for the resistance to intergranular corrosion. In addition the addition of Zn contributes to increase the density of the alloy which is most often not desirable. The other elements have a content of less than 0.05% by weight, each.
  • Certain elements may be detrimental to the alloys according to the invention, in particular for reasons of transformation of the alloy such as toxicity and / or breakage during deformation and it is preferable to limit them to a very low level, ie less than 0.05% by weight or even less. In an advantageous embodiment, the products according to the invention have a maximum content of 5 ppm of Be and preferably 2 ppm of Be and / or a maximum content of 10 ppm of Na and / or a maximum content of 20 ppm of It.
  • The wrought products according to the invention are preferably spun products such as profiles, rolled products such as sheets or thick plates and / or forged products.
  • The process for manufacturing the products according to the invention comprises the successive steps of producing a bath of liquid metal so as to obtain an aluminum alloy of composition according to the invention, casting said alloy in raw form, optionally homogenization of the product thus cast, hot deformation and optionally cold, the dissolution of the product thus deformed, and quenching, optionally the cold deformation of the product so dissolved and quenched and the tempering at a temperature below 150 ° C.
  • In a first step, a bath of liquid metal is produced so as to obtain an aluminum alloy of composition according to the invention.
  • The liquid metal bath is then cast in a raw form, typically a rolling plate, a spinning billet or a forging blank.
  • The raw form is then optionally homogenized so as to reach a temperature of between 450 ° C. and 550 ° C. and preferably between 480 ° C. and 520 ° C. for a period of between 5 and 60 hours. The homogenization treatment can be carried out in one or more stages. However, the present inventors have not found a significant advantage brought by the homogenization and in a preferred embodiment of the invention, the hot deformation is carried out directly after a simple reheating without performing homogenization.
  • The hot deformation, typically by spinning, rolling and / or forging, is preferably carried out with an inlet temperature above 400 ° C and advantageously above 430 ° C or even 450 ° C.
  • In the case of the manufacture of rolled sheets, it is necessary to perform a cold rolling step for products whose thickness is less than 3 mm. It may be useful to carry out one or more intermediate heat treatments before or during cold rolling. These intermediate heat treatments are typically carried out at a temperature between 300 and 420 ° C in one or more stages.
  • The present inventors have found that even in carrying out these intermediate heat treatments, it was not possible for them to cold-roll industrial sheets of reference alloys to a thickness of 2 mm, whereas this step proved achievable with alloy sheets according to the invention. The sheets according to the invention have a preferred thickness of at least 0.5 mm and preferably at least 0.8 mm or 1 mm.
  • After hot deformation and optionally cold, the product is dissolved and quenched. Before dissolution, it is advantageous to carry out a heat treatment at a temperature of between 300 and 420 ° C. in one or more stages, so as to improve the control of the substantially non-recrystallized granular structure. The dissolution is carried out, according to the composition of the product, at a temperature between 370 and 500 ° C. Quenching is carried out with water and / or air. It is advantageous to perform quenching in the air because the intergranular corrosion properties are improved.
  • The product thus dissolved and quenched can optionally be further deformed cold. Planing or straightening steps are typically performed at this stage, but it is also possible to carry out further deformation so as to further improve the mechanical properties.
  • The metallurgical state obtained for the rolled products is advantageously a T6 or T6X or T8 or T8X state and for the advantageously spun products a T5 or T5X state in the case of quenching on a press or a T6 or T6X or T8 or T8X state.
  • The product finally undergoes an income at a temperature below 150 ° C. Advantageously, the income is carried out in three stages, a first stage at a temperature of between 70 and 100.degree. C., a second stage at a temperature of between 100 and 140.degree. ° C and a third bearing at a temperature between 90 to 110 ° C, the duration of these bearings being typically 5 to 50 hours.
  • The combination of the chosen composition, in particular of the zirconium and titanium content, and of the transformation parameters, in particular the hot deformation temperature and, if appropriate, the heat treatment prior to dissolving, advantageously makes it possible to obtain wrought products having a substantially non-recrystallized granular structure. By substantially non-recrystallized granular structure means a non-recrystallized granular structure content at mid-thickness greater than 70% and preferably greater than 85%.
  • The rolled products according to the invention have particularly advantageous characteristics. The rolled products preferably have a thickness of between 0.5 mm and 15 mm, but products with a thickness greater than 15 mm, up to 50 mm or even 100 mm or more may have advantageous properties.
  • The laminates obtained by the process according to the invention have, for a thickness of between 0.5 and 15 mm, at least one property of static mechanical resistance among the properties (i) to (iii) and at least one property at mid-thickness. of damage tolerance among properties (iv) to (vi)
  1. (i) a tensile yield strength R p0.2 (L) ≥ 280 MPa and preferably R p0.2 (L) ≥ 310 MPa,
  2. (ii) a tensile yield strength R p0.2 (TL) ≥ 260 MPa and preferably R p0.2 (TL) ≥ 290 MPa,
  3. (iii) a tensile yield strength R p0.2 (45 °) ≥ 200 MPa and preferably R p0.2 (45 °) ≥ 240 MPa,
  4. (iv) a tenacity of width W = 760 mm specimens K app (LT) ≥ 90 MPa m for a thickness below 3 mm and K app (LT) ≥ 110 MPa m for a thickness of at least 3 mm
  5. (v) toughness for specimens of width W = 760 mm K app (TL) ≥ 100 MPa√m for a thickness of less than 3 mm and K app (TL) ≥ 120 MPa√m for a thickness of at least 3 mm
  6. (vi) a crack extension of the last valid point of the curve R for specimens of width W = 760 mm Δa eff (max) (TL) ≥ 80 mm for a thickness less than 3 mm and Δa eff (max) (TL) ) ≥ 110 mm for a thickness of at least 3 mm.
  • The rolled products according to the invention exhibit an improvement in the isotropy of the mechanical properties, in particular the toughness. Thus, the rolled products according to the invention advantageously have, for specimens with a width W = 760 mm, a difference between K app (LT) and K app (TL) of less than 20% and / or a difference between Δa eff (max). (TL) and Δa eff (max) (LT) less than 20% and preferably less than 15%.
  • In addition, the rolled products according to the invention which have been air quenched have a weight loss of less than 20 mg / cm 2 and preferably less than 15 mg / cm 2 after the intergranular corrosion test NAMLT ("Nitric Acid Mass"). Loss Test "ASTM-G67).
  • The wrought products according to the invention are advantageously used to produce aircraft structural elements, in particular aircraft. Preferred aircraft structural elements are in particular a fuselage skin advantageously obtained with sheets having a thickness of 0.5 to 12 mm according to the invention, a fuselage frame, a stiffener or a fuselage rail advantageously obtained with profiles according to the invention or a rib.
  • These and other aspects of the invention are explained in more detail with the aid of the following illustrative and nonlimiting examples.
  • Examples Example 1
  • In this example, several plates Al-Mg-Li alloy whose composition is given in Table 1 were cast. Alloy D has a composition according to the invention, alloys A to C are reference alloys. Table 1. Composition in% by weight and density of Al-Mg-Li alloys used Alloy Ag Li Yes Fe Cu Ti mn mg Zn Zr Na (ppm) sc AT 0.1 1.8 0.04 0.04 0.17 0.02 0.13 4.6 0.46 0.07 9 0.08 B 0.1 1.7 0.04 0.04 0.07 0.02 0.13 4.9 0.48 0.13 8 VS 0.1 1.7 0.04 0.04 0.17 0.02 0.15 4.8 0.44 0.12 11 D 0.1 1.4 0.05 0.04 0.18 0.02 0.15 4.5 0.12 4
  • The plates were heated and hot rolled to a thickness of about 4 mm. Cold rolling tests up to 2 mm thickness were carried out after a heat treatment consisting of two successive one-hour steps at 340 ° C. followed by 1 hour at 400 ° C. Only the alloy sheets according to the invention could be successfully cold-rolled to the final thickness, the reference alloy sheets being broken to a thickness of 2.6 mm. After hot rolling and possibly cold rolling, the sheets were dissolved at 480 ° C. for 20 minutes, this treatment being preceded by a heat treatment consisting of two successive steps of one hour at 340 ° C. followed by 1 hour at 400 ° C. After dissolution, the sheets were air-soaked and glued. The income was made for 10h at 85 ° C followed by 16h at 120 ° C followed by 10h at 100 ° C.
  • The granular structure of all the samples was substantially non-recrystallized, the recrystallization rate at mid-thickness being less than 10%.
  • Samples were tested for their static mechanical properties (yield strength R p0,2 , breaking strength R m , and elongation at break (A).
  • The results obtained are given in Table 2 below. Table 2. Mechanical properties of the sheets obtained. Alloy Ep. (Mm) Meaning L TL direction Sense 45 ° Rm (MPa) R0.2 (MPa) AT% Rm (MPa) R0.2 (MPa) AT% Rm (MPa) R0.2 (MPa) AT% AT 4.5 507 399 4.9 502 355 12.5 436 293 21.8 B 4.5 488 370 6.0 513 354 12.4 423 274 24.7 VS 4.2 487 374 5.6 506 349 11.7 444 286 21.0 D 4.2 436 328 8.5 443 304 16.1 394 256 23.1 D 2.1 439 344 5.4 455 327 15.2 379 256 25.8
  • The toughness of the sheets was characterized by the R-curve test according to ASTM E561. The tests were carried out with a CCT test specimen (W = 760 mm, 2a0 = 253 mm) full thickness. The result set is reported in Table 3 and Table 14 and illustrated by the graphs of the figure 1 and some figure 2 . Table 3 - R curve summary data Alloy Ep. (Mm) Meaning Kr (MPa√m) at Δa eff (mm) 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 AT 4.5 LT 63 79 91 101 105 107 111 VS 4.2 70 91 105 115 122 129 135 142 D 4.2 86 113 131 145 157 166 175 183 D 2.1 79 101 113 120 128 132 137 141 AT 4.5 TL 62 86 95 110 123 135 143 B 4.5 68 87 110 129 147 157 164 174 VS 4.2 70 94 110 122 131 134 D 4.2 86 110 128 141 153 164 175 183 D 2.1 84 106 122 133 142 150 157 161
    Alloy Ep. (Mm) Meaning K app MPa√m Kc eff MPa√m Δa eff max mm AT 4.5 LT 82 102 76 VS 4.2 96 132 116 D 4.2 125 177 121 D 2.1 99 122 113 AT 4.5 TL 102 142 72 B 4.5 119 179 102 VS 4.2 102 131 63 D 4.2 125 177 134 D 2.1 112 147 103
  • The figure 3 shows the improvement of the compromise between yield strength and toughness.
    In particular, the improvement of K app (LT) is greater than 25% whereas the reduction in elastic limit is less than 15% relative to the alloy sheet C. The length of the curve R is also significantly improved thus Δa eff (max) (TL) is improved by more than 30%.
  • The crack propagation rate was determined according to E647 standard on 160 mm wide CCT test pieces. Table 5 - Crack propagation velocity (σ <sub> max </ sub> = 80 MPa or σ <sub> max </ sub> = 120 MPa (**), R = 0.1 - full thickness) Alloy Ep. (Mm) Meaning da / dN (mm / cycles) to ΔK (MPa√m) 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 D 4.2 LT 1.24.10 -04 1,17.10 -04 2.27-10 -04 3,85.10 -04 0.63.10 -03 0.95.10 -03 1.48.10 -03 D 2.1 1.20.10 -04 1.59.10 -04 2,82.10 -04 4.95.10 -14 0.90.10 -03 AT 4.5 TL 1.30.10 -04 2,58.10 -04 7.81.10 -04 35.3.10 -04 14.4.10 -03 B 4.5 ** 1.37.10 -04 1.89.10 -04 2,73.10 -04 5.63.10 -04 0.98.10 -03 2.20.10 -03 5.30.10 -03 VS 4.2 ** 2,84.10 -04 5.10.10 -04 9.61.10 -04 1.99.10 -03 9.60.10 -03 D 4.2 1.35.10 -14 2.00.10 -04 3,52,10 -04 5.14.10 -04 0.92,10 -03 1.95.10 -03 D 2.1 1,01.10 -04 1.53.10 -04 2.96.10 -04 5.56.10 -04 0.90.10 -03
  • The results of the NAMLT ("Nitric Acid Mass Loss Test" ASTM-G67) intergranular corrosion test for the various sheets are summarized in Table 6. Some sheets were dissolved and quenched with water in the laboratory. Table 6 - Intergranular Corrosion in the NAMLT Test Weight loss (mg / cm 2 ) Alloy Ep. (Mm) Water quenching Air tempering Area t / 10th Area T / 10 AT 4.5 24 13 B 4.5 26 16 VS 4.2 26 18 D 4.2 26.5 24 16 17 D 2.1 12
  • The alloy sheets according to the invention quenched in air have a low sensitivity to intergranular corrosion for a thickness of 4 mm and are not sensitive to intergranular corrosion for a thickness of 2 mm.
  • Example 2
  • In this example, ingots were cast to evaluate the hot ductility and the intergranular corrosion properties of different alloys. The size of the ingots after scalping was in mm of 255 x 180 x 28.
    The composition of the alloys tested is given in Table 7. Table 7 - Composition in% by weight and density of Al-Mg-Li alloys used Alloy Ag Li Yes Fe Cu Ti mn mg Zn Zr Cr sc E - 1.4 0.03 0.03 - 0.02 0.40 4.5 - 0.11 0.18 - F - 1.4 0.03 0.03 - 0.02 0.16 4.4 - 0.12 0.19 - BOY WUT - 1.4 0.03 0.03 - 0.02 0.17 4.4 - 0.11 - - H - 1.1 0.03 0.03 - 0.02 0.16 4.5 - 0.12 - - I - 1.4 0.03 0.03 - 0.02 0.17 4.5 0.6 0.12 - -
  • The hot ductility was evaluated on test pieces machined in the ingots after a homogenization of 12 h at 505 ° C. The hot ductility test was carried out using a servo hydraulic machine supplied by Servotest Testing Systems Ltd on specific specimens with a thickness of 20 mm at a strain rate of 1 s -1 . The test consists in deforming a sample containing two holes in compression. Due to compression, the material between the holes expands at a controlled rate of deformation. The test conditions are described in the article of A. Deschamps et al. published in the journal Materials Science and Engineering A319-321 (2001) 583 - 586 . The standard measurement of surface area reduction (ΔA / A 0 ) by image analysis makes it possible to evaluate the ductility at the considered temperature. The results obtained at 450 ° C. and 475 ° C. are presented in Table 8. Table 8 - Hot Ductility (ΔA / A <sub> 0 </ sub>) (%) Hot Ductility (ΔA / A 0 ) (%) Deformation temperature (° C) Alloy 450 475 Average E 17 19 18 F 13 19 16 BOY WUT 12 13 12 H 11 20 15 I 8 12 10
  • The alloys E and F which contain Mn and Cr have advantageous heat ductility while the hot ductility of the reference alloy I containing 0.6% by weight of Zn is the weakest of the tested alloys.
  • The ingotins were hot-rolled to a thickness of 4 mm. The sheets thus obtained were dissolved at 480 ° C., this treatment being preceded by a heat treatment consisting of two successive steps of one hour at 345 ° C. followed by 1 hour at 400 ° C. After dissolution, the sheets were air quenched and glided by controlled traction with a permanent elongation of 2%. The income was made for 10h at 85 ° C followed by 16h at 120 ° C followed by 10h at 100 ° C.
  • The results of the NAMLT intercranular corrosion test ("ASTM-G67 Nitric Acid Mass Loss Test") are presented in Table 9. Table 9 - Intergranular Corrosion at NAMLT Surface Measured Alloy Weight loss (mg / cm 2 ) E 11 F 11 BOY WUT 8 H 16 I 8
  • Alloy G, which differs from alloy D in particular by a lower copper content, has a particularly low weight loss. The alloy I which contains Zn is not distinguishable from the G alloy in terms of resistance to intergranular corrosion. Alloy H, which has a lower lithium content than the other alloys tested, has a higher weight loss.
  • Claims (13)

    1. Wrought product made of an aluminium alloy having the composition, in wt %,
      Mg: 4.0 - 4.7
      Li: 1.0 - 1.5
      Zr: 0.05 - 0.15
      Ti: 0.01 - 0.15
      Fe: 0.02 - 0.2
      Si: 0.02 - 0.2
      Mn: ≤ 0.5
      Cr ≤ 0.5
      Ag: ≤ 0.5
      Cu ≤ 0.5
      Zn ≤ 0.5
      Sc < 0.01
      other elements < 0.05
      remainder aluminium.
    2. Wrought product according to claim 1, containing at least one element from the group consisting of Mn and Cr, wherein it contains, in wt %
      Mn: 0.05 - 0.5
      Cr: 0.05 - 0.3,
      an element not selected from the group consisting of Mn and Cr, the content of which is less than 0.05 wt %.
    3. Wrought product according to either claim 1 or claim 2, containing at least one element selected from the group consisting of Cu and Ag wherein it contains, if selected, in wt %
      Cu: 0.05 - 0.3
      Ag: 0.05 - 0.3
      an element not selected from the group consisting of Cu and Ag, the content of which is less than 0.05 wt %.
    4. Wrought product according to any of claims 1 to 3, wherein the Li content is, in wt %
      Li: 1.1 - 1.5 and preferably Li: 1.2 - 1.4.
    5. Wrought product according to any of claims 1 to 4, wherein the Mg content is, in wt %
      Mg: 4.4 - 4.7.
    6. Wrought product according to any of claims 1 to 5, having a maximum Be content of 5 ppm of Be and/or a maximum Na content of 10 ppm of Na and/or a maximum Ca content of 20 ppm.
    7. Wrought product according to any of claims 1 to 6 having a Zn content of less than 0.2 wt % and preferably less than 0.05 wt %.
    8. Wrought product according to any of claims 1 to 7, wherein the Fe content and/or the Si content are, in wt %
      Fe: 0.04 - 0.15
      Si: 0.04 - 0.15.
    9. Wrought product according to any of claims 1 to 8, that has been worked by rolling.
    10. Wrought product according to claim 9 having at mid-thickness, for a thickness that lies in the range 0.5 mm to 15 mm, at least one static mechanical strength property from the group consisting of the properties (i) to (iii) and at least one damage tolerance property from the group consisting of the properties (iv) to (vi)
      (i) a tensile yield strength Rp0,2(L) ≥ 280 MPa and preferably Rp0,2(L) ≥ 310 MPa,
      (ii) a tensile yield strength Rp0,2(TL) ≥ 260 MPa and preferably Rp0,2(TL) ≥ 290 MPa,
      (iii) a tensile yield strength Rp0,2(45°) ≥ 200 MPa and preferably Rp0,2(45°) ≥ 240 MPa,
      (iv) a toughness for test specimens having a width W = 760 mm Kapp (L-T) ≥ 90 MPa√m for a thickness of less than 3 mm and Kapp (L-T) ≥ 110 MPa√m for a thickness of no less than 3 mm,
      (v) a toughness for test specimens having a width W = 760 mm Kapp (T-L) ≥ 100 MPa√m for a thickness of less than 3 mm and Kapp (T-L) ≥ 120 MPa√m for a thickness of no less than 3 mm,
      (vi) a crack growth of the last valid point on the curve R for test specimens having a width W = 760 mm Δaeff(max) (T-L) ≥ 80 mm for a thickness of less than 3 mm and Δaeff(max) (T-L) ≥ 110 mm for a thickness of no less than 3 mm.
    11. Method for manufacturing a wrought product according to one of claims 1 to 10, successively comprising the steps of:
      - producing a molten metal bath so as to produce an aluminium alloy having the composition according to any of claims 1 to 8,
      - casting said alloy in raw form,
      - optionally homogenising the resulting cast product,
      - hot working and optionally cold working,
      - optionally heat treating at a temperature of between 300 and 420°C in one or more stages,
      - solution heat-treating the resulting worked product, and quenching,
      - optionally cold working the resulting solution heat-treated and quenched product,
      - aging at a temperature of less than 150°C.
    12. Method according to claim 11 wherein the quenching step is an air quenching.
    13. Use of a product according to any of claims 1 to 10 to produce a structural element of an aircraft, preferably a fuselage skin, a fuselage frame, a fuselage stringer or stiffener, or a rib.
    EP12728642.5A 2011-05-20 2012-05-16 Aluminum magnesium lithium alloy having improved toughness Active EP2710163B1 (en)

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    FR1101555A FR2975403B1 (en) 2011-05-20 2011-05-20 Magnesium lithium aluminum alloy with improved tenacity
    PCT/FR2012/000198 WO2012160272A1 (en) 2011-05-20 2012-05-16 Aluminum magnesium lithium alloy having improved toughness

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    NO3019636T3 (en) 2013-07-11 2018-02-24
    DE112014003205T5 (en) * 2013-07-11 2016-04-07 Aleris Rolled Products Germany Gmbh Process for producing lithium-containing aluminum alloys
    US9365917B1 (en) * 2014-03-24 2016-06-14 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronatics And Space Administration Method of heat treating aluminum—lithium alloy to improve formability
    CN104018044A (en) * 2014-06-19 2014-09-03 芜湖市泰美机械设备有限公司 Aviation casting heat-resistant aluminum alloy and thermal treatment method thereof
    CN106715735A (en) * 2014-09-29 2017-05-24 伊苏瓦尔肯联铝业 Wrought product made of a magnesium-lithium-aluminum alloy
    FR3026410B1 (en) * 2014-09-29 2019-07-26 Constellium Issoire CORROYE PRODUCT ALLOY ALUMINUM MAGNESIUM LITHIUM
    CN104453552B (en) * 2014-12-25 2016-06-08 常熟市古里镇鑫良铝合金门窗厂 A kind of safe anti-falling aluminum alloy doorframe
    CN104533228B (en) * 2014-12-25 2016-06-15 常熟市古里镇鑫良铝合金门窗厂 A kind of anticorrosion aluminium doorframe
    FR3042508B1 (en) * 2015-10-15 2017-10-27 Constellium Issoire Aluminum-magnesium-zirconium alloy thin sheets for aerospatial applications
    CN105483576A (en) * 2015-12-18 2016-04-13 西南铝业(集团)有限责任公司 Surface black and white spot control method in production of aluminum lithium alloy profile
    CN105369170A (en) * 2015-12-18 2016-03-02 西南铝业(集团)有限责任公司 Aluminum lithium alloy profile black and white spot controlling method
    FR3057476B1 (en) * 2016-10-17 2018-10-12 Constellium Issoire Aluminum-magnesium-scandium alloy thin sheet for aerospatial applications
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    BR112013029789B1 (en) 2019-10-22
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    BR112013029789A2 (en) 2017-01-17
    EP2710163A1 (en) 2014-03-26
    CN103687971B (en) 2018-01-05
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    US20120291925A1 (en) 2012-11-22
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