EP2646252B1 - Piezoelectric actuator for ink jet printing heads - Google Patents

Piezoelectric actuator for ink jet printing heads Download PDF

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Publication number
EP2646252B1
EP2646252B1 EP10784536.4A EP10784536A EP2646252B1 EP 2646252 B1 EP2646252 B1 EP 2646252B1 EP 10784536 A EP10784536 A EP 10784536A EP 2646252 B1 EP2646252 B1 EP 2646252B1
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EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
contact
ceramic
actuator
piezoelectric
base plate
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Not-in-force
Application number
EP10784536.4A
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
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EP2646252A1 (en
Inventor
Andrew Barnett
Gian Rudolf Tratschin
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Reinhardt Microtech AG
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Reinhardt Microtech AG
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Publication date
Application filed by Reinhardt Microtech AG filed Critical Reinhardt Microtech AG
Priority to PCT/EP2010/068533 priority Critical patent/WO2012072114A1/en
Publication of EP2646252A1 publication Critical patent/EP2646252A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP2646252B1 publication Critical patent/EP2646252B1/en
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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B41PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
    • B41JTYPEWRITERS; SELECTIVE PRINTING MECHANISMS, e.g. INK-JET PRINTERS, THERMAL PRINTERS, i.e. MECHANISMS PRINTING OTHERWISE THAN FROM A FORME; CORRECTION OF TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS
    • B41J2/00Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed
    • B41J2/005Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed characterised by bringing liquid or particles selectively into contact with a printing material
    • B41J2/01Ink jet
    • B41J2/135Nozzles
    • B41J2/14Structure thereof only for on-demand ink jet heads
    • B41J2/14201Structure of print heads with piezoelectric elements
    • B41J2/14274Structure of print heads with piezoelectric elements of stacked structure type, deformed by compression/extension and disposed on a diaphragm
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B41PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
    • B41JTYPEWRITERS; SELECTIVE PRINTING MECHANISMS, e.g. INK-JET PRINTERS, THERMAL PRINTERS, i.e. MECHANISMS PRINTING OTHERWISE THAN FROM A FORME; CORRECTION OF TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS
    • B41J2/00Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed
    • B41J2/005Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed characterised by bringing liquid or particles selectively into contact with a printing material
    • B41J2/01Ink jet
    • B41J2/135Nozzles
    • B41J2/16Production of nozzles
    • B41J2/1607Production of print heads with piezoelectric elements
    • B41J2/1612Production of print heads with piezoelectric elements of stacked structure type, deformed by compression/extension and disposed on a diaphragm
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B41PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
    • B41JTYPEWRITERS; SELECTIVE PRINTING MECHANISMS, e.g. INK-JET PRINTERS, THERMAL PRINTERS, i.e. MECHANISMS PRINTING OTHERWISE THAN FROM A FORME; CORRECTION OF TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS
    • B41J2/00Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed
    • B41J2/005Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed characterised by bringing liquid or particles selectively into contact with a printing material
    • B41J2/01Ink jet
    • B41J2/135Nozzles
    • B41J2/16Production of nozzles
    • B41J2/1621Production of nozzles manufacturing processes
    • B41J2/1623Production of nozzles manufacturing processes bonding and adhesion
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B41PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
    • B41JTYPEWRITERS; SELECTIVE PRINTING MECHANISMS, e.g. INK-JET PRINTERS, THERMAL PRINTERS, i.e. MECHANISMS PRINTING OTHERWISE THAN FROM A FORME; CORRECTION OF TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS
    • B41J2/00Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed
    • B41J2/005Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed characterised by bringing liquid or particles selectively into contact with a printing material
    • B41J2/01Ink jet
    • B41J2/135Nozzles
    • B41J2/16Production of nozzles
    • B41J2/1621Production of nozzles manufacturing processes
    • B41J2/1632Production of nozzles manufacturing processes machining
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B41PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
    • B41JTYPEWRITERS; SELECTIVE PRINTING MECHANISMS, e.g. INK-JET PRINTERS, THERMAL PRINTERS, i.e. MECHANISMS PRINTING OTHERWISE THAN FROM A FORME; CORRECTION OF TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS
    • B41J2/00Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed
    • B41J2/005Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed characterised by bringing liquid or particles selectively into contact with a printing material
    • B41J2/01Ink jet
    • B41J2/135Nozzles
    • B41J2/16Production of nozzles
    • B41J2/1621Production of nozzles manufacturing processes
    • B41J2/1635Production of nozzles manufacturing processes dividing the wafer into individual chips
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B41PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
    • B41JTYPEWRITERS; SELECTIVE PRINTING MECHANISMS, e.g. INK-JET PRINTERS, THERMAL PRINTERS, i.e. MECHANISMS PRINTING OTHERWISE THAN FROM A FORME; CORRECTION OF TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS
    • B41J2/00Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed
    • B41J2/005Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed characterised by bringing liquid or particles selectively into contact with a printing material
    • B41J2/01Ink jet
    • B41J2/135Nozzles
    • B41J2/16Production of nozzles
    • B41J2/1621Production of nozzles manufacturing processes
    • B41J2/164Production of nozzles manufacturing processes thin film formation
    • B41J2/1646Production of nozzles manufacturing processes thin film formation thin film formation by sputtering
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B41PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS
    • B41JTYPEWRITERS; SELECTIVE PRINTING MECHANISMS, e.g. INK-JET PRINTERS, THERMAL PRINTERS, i.e. MECHANISMS PRINTING OTHERWISE THAN FROM A FORME; CORRECTION OF TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS
    • B41J2/00Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed
    • B41J2/005Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed characterised by bringing liquid or particles selectively into contact with a printing material
    • B41J2/01Ink jet
    • B41J2/135Nozzles
    • B41J2/14Structure thereof only for on-demand ink jet heads
    • B41J2002/14491Electrical connection

Description

    Field of Technology
  • The present invention relates to a method for producing a piezoelectric actuator for ink jet printing heads. In particular, this invention relates to the improvement of the fabrication process of a ceramic component as a multi element panel to increase the manufacturing yield and the efficiency of the production of piezoelectric actuators.
  • Technical background
  • Conventional piezoelectric actuators for ink jet printing heads comprise a ceramic base plate and a series of oblong, parallel orientated piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids bonded to a contact face of the ceramic base plate. The piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids comprise metallization layers at their cuboid base corners that are located on front and rear ends of each actuator cuboid. The ceramic base plate comprises on its contact face at least two contact areas that are located in approximately the distance of the actuator cuboid base corners and that are coated with a contact metallization layer. The piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids are contacted with the metallization layers of their base corners to the contact metallization layers of the contact face of the ceramic base plate.
  • Some ceramic composites are composed of two different ceramic materials, one being a piezoelectric ceramic, the other a conventional ceramic material as a supporting element, for example Thomit 600, and include a direct electrical connection along the edge of the supporting element. Such components are predominantly printing head assemblies. However, they can be used in other applications too.
  • In a first fabrication step the metallization on the surface and the edge of the supporting element is applied. Secondly the metalized surface is patterned with resist in the image of the desired layout, followed by protecting the metalized edges with resist. Then the metallization is etched away, the resist removed, there remains the desired layout on the surface of the ceramic supporting element with a patterned metallization and metalized edges. Then, one supporting element of any particular layout type with a metalized edge is assembled into a circuitry by combining one supporting element with a piezoelectric ceramic to form a composite. The composite is glued together by pressure with an adhesive to achieve bonding.
  • Related prior art
  • A typical ink jet array and method of producing the same is known from the European patent EP 0 706 887 B1 . Such an ink jet array is provided with a piezoelectric member in the form of a plate 20* opposite a duct plate 3* (see Fig. 1 that corresponds with Fig. 9 taken from EP 0 706 887 B1 and revised). The surface of the duct plate 3* that faces the piezoelectric member 20* is provided with a number of parallel elongated ink ducts 4*. The ink ducts 4* are covered with an elastic cover layer 2*. The piezoelectric member 20* is provided with a number of elongated parallel piezoelectric elements 23* that are substantially rectangular in cross section. Each piezoelectric element 23* is situated opposite an ink duct 4* such that the elastic cover layer 2* is situated between the ink ducts 4* and the piezoelectric elements 23*. When triggered by the supply of a control current, the associated piezoelectric element 23* (the middle element shown in Fig. 1) expands such that the part of the cover layer 2* that extends over this particular piezoelectric element 23* is forced into the associated ink duct 4* and a portion of the ink in this ink duct 4* is ejected in the form of a drop via a jet opening 31* at the front of the ink duct 4*. Separating strips 24* provided between the piezoelectric element 23* prevent the piezoelectric element 23* from adhering to each other.
  • According to EP 0 706 887 B1 (see there: column 3, lines 25-33 and 41-49), the piezoelectric actuator 18* is constructed from of a preferably ceramic support layer 19* and a plate 20* of piezoelectric material stuck to the top surface thereof, the plate 19* projecting from the plate 20* at one end. This top surface, which faces the plate 20*, is covered with a thin metal layer. The piezoelectric actuator 18* is fixed into a recess of a baseplate; then, the baseplate is fixed in a suitable processing machine for the formation of a number of slots extending parallel to one another in the longitudinal direction of the piezoelectric member. The slots extend through the plate 20* and over a short distance in the plate 19* in such a manner that the plate 20* is divided into a large number of piezoelectric elements 23* separated from one another by slots or incisions 22*.
  • Figure 2 shows diagrammatic views of a piezoelectric actuator produced according to a conventional method in the production of ink jet printing heads. In order to directly compare this prior art with the actual invention as claimed, the reference numbers assigned to the features of this prior art piezoelectric actuator are the same as for the inventive piezoelectric actuator.
  • In more detail, Fig. 2A shows a first cross section through a piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboid 3 of a piezoelectric actuator 1 with a number of piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids 3 located on a contact face 4 of a ceramic base plate 2 as known from prior art. The series of oblong, parallel orientated piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids 3 comprises metallization layers 5 at its front and rear ends 7,7', the metallization layers 5 reaching around the cuboid base corners 6,6'. The piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboid 3 is bonded to the contact face 4 of the ceramic base plate 2 with an adhesive 18. The contact face 4 of the ceramic base plate 2 comprises contact areas 8,8', which are covered with contact metallization layers 9,9'. These at least two contact areas 8,8' are located in approximately the distance of the actuator cuboid base corners 6,6'. In consequence, the piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids 3 are contacted with the metallization layers 5 of their base corners 6,6' to the contact metallization layers 9,9' of the contact face 4 of the ceramic base plate 2; thus, electrical contacts are provided for each individual piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboid 3.
  • The method of fabricating such a composite comprises providing one supporting element (a ceramic base plate 2) with a patterned surface and a metalized edge. Also provided is one piezoelectric ceramic plate 11 with metalized edges. The composite is built by bonding the supporting element and the piezoelectric ceramic using an adhesive. When this composite is bonded and cut, the front and rear base corners 12,12' of the piezoelectric ceramic plate 11 become the cuboid base corners 6,6'.
  • Fig. 2B shows a second cross section through a separation cut 13 between two piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids 3 located on a contact face 4 of a ceramic base plate 2 as known from prior art. As it can be clearly seen here, the separation cut 13 reaches through the piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids 3, the adhesive 18, and the ceramic base plate contact face 4 with their contact metallization layers 9,9'. At the front edge of the ceramic base plate 2, a non-cut metallization layer portion 15 is visible. This non-cut metallization layer portion 15 provides a common electrical connection for the piezoelectric ceramic cuboids 3 that are individually activatable over residual strip conductors 16 of the rear end contact metallization layer 9' on the ceramic base plate contact face 4.
  • Fig. 2C shows a front view of the piezoelectric actuator 1 shown in the Figs. 2A and 2B. The cross-sections according to Fig. 2A and Fig. 2B are indicated by the double arrows I and II respectively. Here, the separation cuts 13 are depicted as voids between the oblong, parallel orientated piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids 3. These voids correspond with the slots or incisions 22* as disclosed in the prior art document EP 0 706 887 B1 . Here, separating strips 24*, which can be provided between the piezoelectric elements 23* to prevent the piezoelectric elements 23* (or piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids 3) from adhering to each other, are not shown.
  • By applying a corresponding manufacturing strategy, individual fingers of such a composite are achieved by sawing completely through the piezoelectric ceramic and partially into the supporting ceramic. All individual fingers of the composite will have a common connection along the edge of the supporting ceramic but are electrically isolated otherwise. However, in a single element process as just described, several problems arise:
  1. 1. Every single element must be fabricated individually. Such a process is time consuming and generates high manufacturing costs.
  2. 2. In the course of cutting supporting elements to the desired size (due to sawing or other means) sharp edges can arise. This greatly reduces the electrical conductivity over the edge or in the worst case the required common connection over the edge may not be achieved.
  3. 3. In response to this problem, edges can be smoothed away. As stated previously, in a single element process this technique must also be applied to every single element and thus produces additional manufacturing costs.
  4. 4. When a liquid photo resist is used as a mask to pattern the metalized element, due to the roughness and the high differences of the ceramic surface, the applied metallization may not be properly masked and therefore etched away by the etchant.
  5. 5. Polishing the surfaces of the elements is not possible, because a certain roughness is necessary for a good electrical and mechanical contact between the two elements bonded together.
  • EP 1275504 A1 discloses a method for producing piezo-electric printheads, where a piezo-electric printhead is formed from a first piezo-electric actuator disposed parallel to a second piezo-electric actuator. The first and second piezo-electric actuators have a shared inner electrode disposed between them, a first control electrode disposed on an outside surface of the first piezo-electric actuator and a second control electrode disposed on an outside surface of the second piezo-electric actuator. The actuators are formed from a block having a piezo-electric layer disposed on a ceramic base, in which the piezo-electric layer has two parallel, distinct electrode patterns embedded therein in the form of a metal paste. A first dice is formed in the piezo-electric layer to a first predetermined depth. A second dice is formed in the piezo-electric layer parallel to the first dice, to a second predetermined depth different from the first predetermined depth. The first and second dice define a column of piezo-electric actuators, the actuator column having an internal face and an outer face, with a shared electrode on the internal face and an oppositely charged electrode on the outer face. An outer surface of the piezo-electric layer is plated with conductive material. The ceramic block is cut transverse to the dicing to a third predetermined depth different from the first and second predetermined depths, forming an array of piezo-electric actuators.
  • Objects and summary of the present invention
  • It is an object of the present invention to provide a manufacturing method of producing a piezoelectric actuator for ink jet printing heads that reduces the drawbacks known from prior art and allows for an improvement of the fabrication process of a ceramic component as a multi element panel with increased manufacturing yield and efficiency.
  • This object is achieved in that a method of producing piezoelectric actuators for ink jet printing heads according to claim 1 is proposed.
  • The piezoelectric actuator according to the present invention is characterized:
    • in that the ceramic base plate comprises in its contact face a groove with a bottom; the groove, which extends below the piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids and over the entire length of the piezoelectric actuator, and at least one adjacent base plate contact face being coated with that one of the contact metallization layers to which the front actuator cuboid base corners are contacted;
    • and in that each separation cut reaches through the piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids and the ceramic base plate contact face with their contact metallization layers, but without reaching the bottom of the groove, leaving therefore in the groove a non-cut contact metallization layer portion that provides a common electrical connection for the piezoelectric ceramic cuboids, which are individually activatable over residual strip conductors of the rear end contact metallization layer on the ceramic base plate contact face.
  • This object is achieved according to a second aspect in that a method of producing piezoelectric actuators for ink jet printing heads is proposed. The piezoelectric actuator comprises a ceramic base plate and a series of oblong, parallel orientated piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids that are located on a contact face of the ceramic base plate. The piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids comprise metallization layers at their cuboid base corners that are located on font and rear ends of each actuator cuboid. The ceramic base plate comprises on its contact face at least two contact areas that are located in approximately the distance of the actuator cuboid base corners and that are coated with a contact metallization layer. The piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids are contacted with the metallization layers of their base corners to the contact metallization layers of the contact face of the ceramic base plate.
  • Additional and inventive elements are defined in and result from the dependent claims.
  • Advantages of the present invention include:
    • The provision of a groove or "blind channel" for establishing a common electrical connection for the piezoelectric ceramic cuboids allows for the multi component production of piezoelectric actuators, because all contact metallization layers on the ceramic base plate are located on or in its contact face.
    • Using a multi element process, a fabrication method with better yield and improved efficiency is provided; the average yield has been increased from 65% to 95%.
    • Using the multi element process, dry film resists can be used for masking the applied metallization of the panel by hot roll lamination. Dry films generally have increased film thickness and mask the peaks in the ceramic material much better than liquid resists.
    Brief description of the drawings
  • The present invention is described in more details with the help of the attached schematic drawings, which show preferred exemplary embodiments of the present invention without limiting its scope. It is shown in:
  • Fig.1
    a revised Fig. 9 of the prior art document EP 0 706 887 B1 , explaining the construction and function principle of a piezoelectric actuator for ink jet printing heads;
    Fig. 2
    diagrammatic views of a piezoelectric actuator produced according a conventional method, wherein:
    Fig. 2A shows a first cross section through a piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboid located on a contact face of a ceramic base plate as known from prior art;
    Fig. 2B shows a second cross section through a separation cut between two piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids located on a contact face of a ceramic base plate as known from prior art; and
    Fig. 2C shows a front view of the piezoelectric actuator shown in the Figs. 2A and 2B;
    Fig. 3
    diagrammatic views of a piezoelectric actuator produced according to the method of the present invention, wherein:
    Fig. 3A shows a first cross section through a piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboid located on a contact face of a ceramic base plate;
    Fig. 3B shows a second cross section through a separation cut between two piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids located on a contact face of a ceramic base plate;
    Fig. 3C shows a third cross section through a common contact line at one extreme of a confectioned piezoelectric actuator; and
    Fig. 3D shows a front view of the confectioned piezoelectric actuator shown in the Figs. 3A to 3C;
    Fig. 4
    overviews over a larger ceramic supporting substrate (panel) comprising several single supporting elements for the multi component production of piezoelectric actuators according to the present invention, wherein:
    Fig. 4A shows intended unit cuts for selecting a certain intermediate assembly size, intended confection cuts for the piezoelectric actuators, and intended grooves in the contact face of the panel;
    Fig. 4B shows an intermediate assembly with grooves, contact metallization layers, common contact layer portions, and portions of epoxy resin glue deposited on the contact face of the panel;
    Fig. 4C shows the intermediate assembly of Fig. 4B with piezoelectric ceramic plates bonded to the contact face of the panel; and
    Fig. 4D shows a number of applied separation cuts for separating piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids and their arrangement on the confectioned piezoelectric actuators.
    Detailed description of the present invention
  • Figure 3 shows diagrammatic views of a piezoelectric actuator produced according to the method of the present invention. As already pointed out, the reference numbers assigned to the features of the actual invention as claimed are the same as for the prior art piezoelectric actuator according to Fig. 2, in order to directly compare this invention with the existing prior art.
  • Fig. 3A shows a first cross section through a piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboid of a piezoelectric actuator, the piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboid being located on a contact face of a ceramic base plate. This piezoelectric actuator 1 for ink jet printing heads comprises a ceramic base plate 2 and a series of oblong, parallel orientated piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids 3 that are located on a contact face 4 of the ceramic base plate 2. The piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids 3 comprise metallization layers 5 around their cuboid base corners 6,6', which cuboid base corners 6,6' are located on front and rear ends 7,7' of each actuator cuboid 3. The ceramic base plate 2 comprises on its contact face 4 at least two contact areas 8,8' that are located in approximately the distance of the actuator cuboid base corners 6,6' and that are coated with a contact metallization layer 9,9'. The piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids 3 are bonded to the ceramic base plate contact face 4. Such bonding preferably is carried out by the application of an adhesive and by heating and pressing the piezoelectric ceramic plate 11 (see Figs. 4B and 4C) against the ceramic base plate 2. The piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids 3 are contacted at least at their front and rear base corners 6,6' with the metallization layers 5 of their base corners 6,6' to the contact metallization layers 9,9' of the contact face 4 of the ceramic base plate 2. The piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids 3 are separates, which are cut from a piezoelectric ceramic plate 11 that is bonded to the ceramic base plate 2.
  • The ceramic base plate 2 comprises in its contact face 4 a groove 10 with a bottom 14. This groove 10 preferably extends at an essentially perpendicular direction to the piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids 3. This is groove 10 preferably is located close to the actuator cuboid front ends 7. In any case, the groove 10 extends below the piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids 3 and over the entire length of the piezoelectric actuator 1. The groove 10 and at least one of the adjacent base plate contact face 4 are coated with that one of the contact metallization layers 9 to which the front actuator cuboid base corners 6 are contacted later. Here, both adjacent base plate contact faces 4 are coated with the contact metallization layer 9.
  • Departing from the Fig. 3A, but still within the gist of the present invention and for contacting the piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids 3 with their metallization layers 5 to the contact metallization layers 9,9' of the contract face 4 of the ceramic base plate 2, alternative metallization layers (not shown) are only applied to the surface at the base corners 6,6' of the piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids 3 which faces the contact face 4 of the ceramic base plate 2. Such one-sided application of metallization layers 5 to the underside allows for a multi component production of piezoelectric ceramic plates 11, because all metallization layers 5 on the piezoelectric ceramic plates 11 are located on its surface that later faces the contact face 4 of the ceramic base plate 2.
  • As indicated in Figs. 3A to 3D, each separation cut 13 reaches through the piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids 3, the adhesive 18, and the ceramic base plate contact face 4 with their contact metallization layers 9,9. However and according to the method of the present invention, the separation cuts 13 do not reach the bottom 14 of the groove 10 (see Fig. 3B). Thus, a non-cut contact metallization layer portion 15 is left in the groove 10. This non-cut contact metallization layer portion 15 provides a common electrical connection for the piezoelectric ceramic cuboids 3 that are individually activatable over residual strip conductors 16 of the rear end contact metallization layer 9' on the ceramic base plate contact face 4.
  • This groove 10 in the contact face 4 of the ceramic base plate 2 preferably is performed up to half of the thickness of the ceramic base plate 2. On the one hand, this layout results in a good electrical contact between the piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids 3. On the other hand, this layout guarantees a high mechanical stability of the ceramic base plate 2. The minimum depth of the groove 10 is variable according to the requirements of the subsequent production processes. A larger groove depth is also possible, but dictated by the requirement of the mechanical stability of the elements. The preferred shape of the groove cross-section as shown is half-lentoid or half-circular; it can also be chosen as a three-center arch or any other depression in the contact face 4 of the ceramic base plate 2. In the case of a half-lentoid or three-center arch cross-section of the groove 10, the non-cut contact metallization layer portion 15 is wider; thus providing better electrical connection. It is preferred that the borders of the groove 10 are beveled such that no sharp edges occur between the groove surface and the adjacent contact face 4. Optionally, one or more additional metallization portions can be deposited on the contact face 4 of the ceramic base plate 2 (not shown).
  • Figure 3C shows a third cross section through a common contact line 22 that is located at at least one extreme of a confectioned piezoelectric actuator 1. In addition to the contact metallization layers 9,9' that extend in the direction of the dashed arrow "m" in Fig. 4A, a coating for the common contact lines 22 is applied (compare with Fig. 4B). This coating for the common contact lines 22 includes a portion 23 which extends in the direction of the dashed arrow "n" in Fig. 4A. This portion 23 connects both contact metallization layers 9,9' to each other. For each one of the future piezoelectric actuators 1, preferably two such portions 23 are provided on both extremes of the piezoelectric actuators 1 (see Fig. 4D). Thus, all piezoelectric ceramic cuboids 3 can individually be energized by applying electrical tension to a residual strip conductor 16 and to one or both common contact lines 22 of a piezoelectric actuator 1.
  • Figure 3D shows a front view of the confectioned piezoelectric actuator shown in the Figs. 3A to 3C. The cross-sections according to the Figs. 3A, 3B, and 3C are indicated by the double arrows I, II, and III respectively.
  • Figure 4 shows overviews over a larger ceramic supporting substrate (panel) 17 comprising several single supporting elements or ceramic base plates 2 for the multi component production of m x n (3 x 2 = 6) piezoelectric actuators 1 according to selected steps of the inventive method. The exemplary layout for the production of six piezoelectric actuators 1 for ink jet printing heads is shown. In the contact face 4 of the ceramic panel 17 that comprises the size of six ceramic base plates 2, two grooves 10, each with a bottom 14, are formed. These grooves 10 (additionally indicated by arrows) preferably extend at an essentially perpendicular direction to the piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids 3, and these grooves 10 preferably are located close to the actuator cuboid front ends 7 of the respective piezoelectric actuators 1. In any case, these grooves 10 extend below the piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids 3 and over the entire length of the piezoelectric actuator 1.
  • Figure 4A shows intended unit cuts 19,19' for selecting a certain size of one ore more intermediate assemblies 24. Such intermediate assemblies 24 can e.g. be selected to comprise m = 1 column of n =2 ceramic base plates 2 (see left portion) or m =2 columns of n =2 ceramic base plates 2 (see right portion). In this case, one unit cut 19 will be carried out. If the panel 17 is to be divided into m =3 columns of n ceramic base plates 2, the eventual unit cut 19' is also carried out. The intended confection cuts 20,21 for the piezoelectric actuators are also shown here. With the first confection cuts 20 a column of piezoelectric actuators 1 is cut out of the panel 17. With the second confection cuts 21, the individual piezoelectric actuators 1 are separated from the column. The intended grooves 10 in the contact face 4 of the panel 17 are also visualized. Prior to depositing the metallization layers or portions 9,9',23 on the contact face 4 of the panel 17, these grooves 10 are produced, e.g. by milling.
  • Figure 4B shows an intermediate assembly 24 with grooves 10, contact metallization layers 9,9', common contact layer portions 23, and portions of an adhesive 18 deposited on the contact face 4 of the panel 17. Preferred adhesives are selected for a group that comprises adhesive tapes, polycarbonates, acrylic adhesives and epoxy resins; most preferred are epoxy resins. These portions of adhesives 18 preferably are exactly chosen so that no adhesive 18 covers the contact metallization layers 9,9' during bonding; alternatively, other precautions can be taken (such as leading away superfluous glue form the sensitive areas). This is of particular importance because the preferred glue, an epoxy resin, is electrically nonconductive and would impair the electrical contact between the metallization layers 5 of the piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids 3 and the contact metallization layers 9,9' of the ceramic base plate 2. In fact, this electrical contact is merely based on physical touch between the surfaces of the layers 9,9',5.Contacting the metallization layers 5 at the base corners 6,6' of the piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids 3 to the contact metallization layers 9,9' of the contact face 4 of the ceramic base plate 2 is established by physical contact of at least peaks on the surfaces of the metallization layers 5,9,9'.
  • On the contact face 4 of the ceramic panel 17, two series of contact metallization layers 9,9' are deposited on contact areas 8,8' that are located in approximately the distance of the actuator cuboid base corners 6,6'. Each contact area 8 comprises a groove 10 and at least one (preferably both) adjacent base plate contact face 4 portions. Coating of the grooves 10 is made with that ones of the contact metallization layers 9 to which the front actuator cuboid base corners 6 are to be bonded.
  • In addition to the contact metallization layers 9,9' that extend in the direction of the arrow "m" in Fig. 4A, a coating for the common contact lines 22 is applied. This coating for the common contact lines 22 (see Fig. 4D) includes a portion 23, which extends in the direction of the "n" arrow in Fig. 4A, and which connects both contact metallization layers 9,9' to each other. For each one of the future piezoelectric actuators, preferably two such portions 23 are provided on both extremes of the piezoelectric actuators 1. Thus, all piezoelectric ceramic cuboids 3 can individually be energized by applying electrical tension to a residual strip conductor 16 and to one or both common contact lines 22 of a piezoelectric actuator 1.
  • Figure 4C shows the intermediate assembly of Fig. 4B with six piezoelectric ceramic plates 11 bonded to the contact face 4 of the panel 17. All piezoelectric ceramic plates 11 are bonded to the contact face 4 of the ceramic panel 17, preferably by heat adhesive bonding (i.e. using an electrically non-conducting epoxy resin). Preferably (as shown), the individual piezoelectric ceramic plates 11 are bonded separately to the ceramic base plate 2; thus, more precise bonding is possible. These piezoelectric ceramic plates 11 comprise metallization layers 5 at or around their front and rear base corners 12,12' that are located on font and rear ends 7,7' of each future actuator cuboid 3.
  • Preferably before separating the oblong, parallel orientated piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids 3 from the piezoelectric ceramic plates 11, a series of unit cuts 19 is applied in the "n" direction according to Fig. 4A. In consequence, intermediate assemblies 24 are cut out. These intermediate assemblies 24 all comprise a ceramic base plate 2 with e.g. n = 2 contact metallization layers 9,9', and n = 2 piezoelectric ceramic plates 11 bonded to the contact face 4 of the ceramic base plate 2.
  • It is a preferred embodiment to create intermediate assemblies 24 with the parameters m = 1 and n = 7; in this case, there is located a common contact line portion 23 on both sides of the preferred intermediate assembly 24, these common contact line portions 23 running in the "n" direction according to Fig. 4A (see Fig. 4D).
  • Figure 4D shows a number of applied separation cuts 13 for separating piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids 3 and the arrangement of these piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids 3 on the confectioned piezoelectric actuators 1. For producing the series or arrays of oblong, parallel orientated piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids 3, each separation cut 13 reaches through the piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids 3, the adhesive 18, and the ceramic base plate contact face 4 with their contact metallization layers 9,9', but not the bottom 14 of the groove 10. Despite these separation cuts 13, the piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids 3 remain bonded to the contact face 4 of the ceramic base plate 2 and remain in electrical contact with the metallization layers 5 of their base corners 6,6' to the contact metallization layers 9,9' of the contact face 4 of the ceramic base plates 2. A common electrical connection for the piezoelectric ceramic cuboids 3 is provided by leaving a non-cut contact metallization layer portion 15 in the groove 10. Therefore, all piezoelectric ceramic cuboids 3 are individually activatable over residual strip conductors 16 of the rear end contact metallization layer 9' on the ceramic base plate contact face 4 and to one or both common contact lines 22 of a piezoelectric actuator 1.
  • In Fig. 4D, only the first and last four separation cuts 13 are drawn for each piezoelectric actuator 1. At both extremes of these piezoelectric actuators 1, a portion will be cut away by first confection cuts 20; thus, these portions do not show separation cuts 13. Preferably at both extremes of these piezoelectric actuators 1, another portion does not show separation cuts 13 as well; these other portions constitute common contact lines 22 with common contact line portions 23.
  • Following to applying the separation cuts 13 to an intermediate assembly, first confection cuts 20 (in the "n" direction) and second confection cuts 21 (in the "m" direction") are applied to this intermediate assembly 24. In consequence, m x n (e.g. 7) piezoelectric actuators 1 for ink jet printing heads can be cut out from one intermediate assembly.
  • The inventive method relates to the production of piezoelectric actuators 1 for ink jet printing heads, which piezoelectric actuator 1 comprises a ceramic base plate 2 and a series of oblong, parallel orientated piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids 3 located on a contact face 4 of the ceramic base plate 2. The piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids 3 comprise metallization layers 5 at or around their front cuboid base corner 6 and rear actuator base corner 6' that are located on a front end 7 and on a rear end 7' of each actuator cuboid 3. The ceramic base plate 2 comprises on its contact face 4 at least two contact areas 8,8' that are located in approximately the distance of the actuator cuboid base corners 6,6' and that are coated with a front end contact metallization layer 9 and a rear end contact metallization layer 9'. The piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids 3 are contacted with the metallization layers 5 of their base corners 6,6' to the front end contact metallization layer 9 and rear end contact metallization layer 9' on the contact face 4 of the ceramic base plate 2.
  • The inventive method comprises the steps of:
    1. (a) forming in the contact face 4 of the ceramic base plate 2 at last one groove 10 with a bottom 14, the groove 10 extending below the piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids 3 and over the entire length of the piezoelectric actuator 1;
    2. (b) coating the groove 10 and at least one adjacent base plate contact face 4 with the front end contact metallization layer 9;
    3. (c) bonding with an adhesive 18 individual piezoelectric ceramic plates 11 to the ceramic base plate contact face 4;
    4. (d) contacting the piezoelectric ceramic plate 11, from which the future piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids 3 will be cut, with the metallization layers 5 at or around its front and rear base corners 12,12' to the front end contact metallization layer 9 and rear end contact metallization layer 9' on the contact face 4 of the ceramic base plate 2;
    5. (e) dividing by separation cuts 13 the piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids 3 from the piezoelectric ceramic plate 11; each separation cut 13 reaching through the piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids 3 and the ceramic base plate contact face 4 with their contact metallization layers 9,9', but without reaching the bottom 14 of the groove 10; and
    6. (f) providing a common electrical connection for the piezoelectric ceramic cuboids 3 by leaving a non-cut contact metallization layer portion 15 in the groove 10.
  • The inventive method is characterized in that the piezoelectric actuator 1 is confectioned as a cut-out of a multi element ceramic panel 17 and built as a single row actuator with one series of actuator cuboids 3 that are individually activatable over strip conductors 16 of the rear end contact metallization layer 9' on the ceramic base plate contact face 4 of the piezoelectric actuator 1 and at least one common contact line 22, which is connected to the front end contact metallization layer 9 via the non-cut contact metallization layer portion 15 in the groove 10.
  • The inventive method is further characterized in that the strip conductors 16 and the at least one common contact line 22 are located on the contact face 4 of the ceramic base plate 2 of the piezoelectric actuator 1 and built to extend from the rear ends 7' of the single row actuator cuboids 3; and in that the strip conductors 16 are separated from the front end contact metallization layer 9 by an adhesive 18 that is utilized for bonding the piezoelectric ceramic plate 11 to the ceramic base plate contact face 4 of the piezoelectric actuator 1.
  • This method may include the step of using a larger ceramic supporting substrate (panel 17) comprising several (m x n) single supporting elements (ceramic base plates 2). Various methods may be used to fabricate the electrical structure. The best metallization scheme is sputtering at high pressure (e.g. at a pressure of 5 x 103 mbar Ar), thus producing good adhesion and good wetting inside the grooves with sputtered materials (see table 1).
  • Optionally, manual repairing defects in the dry resist may be applied giving an even higher throughput rate. The process is particularly suited for metallization systems which are very sensitive to any kind of chemicals used during the fabrication process.
  • The new fabrication process is particularly suited, but not limited to ceramic substrates with a high peak roughness (i.e. see rms roughness in table 1).
  • The same reference numbers refer to similar elements in the Figures, even if they are not described in detail in each case.
  • Actuating of the piezoelectric actuator 1 produced according to the present invention may be carried out with an actuating device as known from EP 1 291 181 B1 , for example. The method of the present invention is illustrated by the following example of a piezoelectric actuator 1 produced according to the present invention: Table 1: Method step Material Panel: Thomit 600 (trademark of CeramTec GmbH, D-73207 Plochingen, Germany) size: 4.5" x 3.75" x 1 mm (ca. 11.42 mm x 9.53 mm x 1 mm) rms roughness: 0.2 - 0.6 µm Dicing: Blade HyTeK D100T 30 µm, thickness 0.4 mm, depth 0.4 mm (HyTeK Europe, Cirencester, Glos. GL7 1YS, Great Britain) distance of the groove to the edge greater than 2mm Metallization: Ti(60 nm)+Cu(1.5 µm)+Au(200 nm) Hot roll lamination: SPG202 (trademark of Asahi Kasei Corp., Tokyo 101-8101 Japan) exposure, development with 1 wt% sodium carbonate Repairing: Protective coating AZ PC 546D Etchinq: Gold (Au) with KI / I2, titanium (Ti) with 4vol% hydrofluoric acid. Stripping: 2 wt% sodium hydroxide, acetone
  • Reference numbers
  • 1
    Piezoelectric actuator
    2
    ceramic base plate
    3
    piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids
    4
    contact face
    5
    metallization layer
    6,6'
    cuboid base corners
    7
    front end of 3
    7'
    rear end of 3
    8,8'
    contact areas
    9,9'
    contact metallization layers
    10
    groove
    11
    piezoelectric ceramic plate
    12
    front base corner of 11
    12'
    rear base corner of 11
    13
    separation cut
    14
    bottom of 10
    15
    non-cut contact metallization layer portion
    16
    residual strip conductor
    17
    panel
    18
    adhesive
    19
    unit cut
    19'
    eventual unit cut
    20
    first confection cuts
    21
    second confection cuts
    22
    common contact line
    23
    common contact line portion
    24
    intermediate assembly

    Claims (15)

    1. Method of producing a piezoelectric actuator (1) for ink jet printing heads, the piezoelectric actuator (1) comprising a ceramic base plate (2) and a series of oblong, parallel orientated piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids (3) located on a contact face (4) of the ceramic base plate (2); the piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids (3) comprising metallization layers (5) at or around their front cuboid base corner (6) and rear actuator base corner (6') that are located on a front end (7) and on a rear end (7') of each actuator cuboid (3); the ceramic base plate (2) comprising on its contact face (4) at least two contact areas (8,8') that are located in approximately the distance of the actuator cuboid base corners (6,6') and that are coated with a front end contact metallization layer (9) and a rear end contact metallization layer (9'); the piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids (3) being contacted with the metallization layers (5) of their base corners (6,6') to the front end contact metallization layer (9) and rear end contact metallization layer (9') on the contact face (4) of the ceramic base plate (2),
      wherein the method comprises the steps of:
      (a) forming in the contact face (4) of the ceramic base plate (2) at least one groove (10) with a bottom (14), which groove (10) extends below the piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids (3) and over the entire length of the piezoelectric actuator (1);
      (b) coating the groove (10) and at least one adjacent base plate contact face (4) with the front end contact metallization layer (9);
      (c) bonding with an adhesive (18) individual piezoelectric ceramic plates (11) to the ceramic base plate contact face (4);
      (d) contacting the piezoelectric ceramic plate (11), from which the future piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids (3) will be cut, with the metallization layers (5) at or around its front and rear base corners (12,12') to the front end contact metallization layer (9) and rear end contact metallization layer (9') on the contact face (4) of the ceramic base plate (2);
      (e) dividing by separation cuts (13) the piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids (3) from the piezoelectric ceramic plate (11); each separation cut (13) reaching through the piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids (3) and the ceramic base plate contact face (4) with their contact metallization layers (9,9'), but without reaching the bottom (14) of the groove (10); and
      (f) providing a common electrical connection for the piezoelectric ceramic cuboids (3) by leaving a non-cut contact metallization layer portion (15) in the groove (10),
      wherein the piezoelectric actuator (1) is confectioned as a cut-out of a multi element ceramic panel (17) and built as a single row actuator with one series of actuator cuboids (3) that are individually activatable over strip conductors (16) of the rear end contact metallization layer (9') on the ceramic base plate contact face (4) of the piezoelectric actuator (1) and at least one common contact line (22), which is connected to the front end contact metallization layer (9) via the non-cut contact metallization layer portion (15) in the groove (10); and
      the strip conductors (16) and the at least one common contact line (22) are located on the contact face (4) of the ceramic base plate (2) of the piezoelectric actuator (1) and built to extend from the rear ends (7') of the single row actuator cuboids (3); and
      the strip conductors (16) are separated from the front end contact metallization layer (9) by an adhesive (18) that is utilized for bonding the piezoelectric ceramic plate (11) to the ceramic base plate contact face (4) of the piezoelectric actuator (1).
    2. The method of claim 1,
      wherein the groove (10) in the contact face (4) of the ceramic base plate (2) is formed to be located directly below the piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids (3) and is thus covered by these actuator cuboids (3).
    3. The method of claim 1 or 2,
      wherein the groove (10) is formed at an essentially perpendicular direction to the piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids (3).
    4. The method of one of the claims 1 to 3,
      wherein the groove (10) is formed close to the actuator cuboid front ends (7).
    5. The method of one of the preceding claims,
      wherein the piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids (3) are coated with contact metallization layers (9,9') around their front and rear base corners (6,6').
    6. The method of one of the preceding claims,
      wherein the groove (10) has a cross-section with a half-lentoid, half-circular, or a three-center arch shape.
    7. The method of one of the preceding claims,
      wherein the groove (10) has borders that are beveled.
    8. The method of one of the preceding claims,
      wherein the groove (10) in the contact face (4) of the ceramic base plate (2) measures up to half of the thickness of the ceramic base plate (2).
    9. The method of one of the preceding claims,
      wherein bonding of the piezoelectric ceramic plate (11) to the ceramic base plate contact face (4) is carried out by gluing with an electrically nonconductive epoxy resin glue.
    10. The method of one of the preceding claims,
      wherein contacting the metallization layers (5) at the base corners (6,6') of the piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids (3) to the contact metallization layers (9,9') of the contact face (4) of the ceramic base plate (2) is established by physical contact of at least peaks on the surfaces of the metallization layers (5,9,9').
    11. The method of one of the preceding claims,
      wherein coating the piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids (3) with a contact metallization layer (9,9') includes the application of a dry film resist.
    12. Method of manufacturing a plurality of piezoelectric actuators (1) for ink jet printing heads as manufactured using the method according to claim 1,
      wherein for the production of m x n piezoelectric actuators (1) for ink jet printing heads, the method comprises the following steps:
      (a) forming in the contact face (4) of a ceramic panel (17) that comprises the size of m x n ceramic base plates (2), n grooves (10), each groove (10) having a bottom (14); these grooves (10) extending at an essentially perpendicular direction to the piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids (3), and these grooves (10) being located close to the actuator cuboid front ends (7) of the respective piezoelectric actuators (1);
      (b) depositing on the contact face (4) of the ceramic panel (17), n series of front end contact metallization layers (9) and rear end contact metallization layers (9') on contact areas 8,8' that are located in approximately the distance of the actuator cuboid base corners (6,6'); each contact area (8) comprising a groove (10) and at least one adjacent base plate contact face (4) portion; coating of the grooves (10) being performed with the front end contact metallization layers (9);
      (c) bonding m x n piezoelectric ceramic plates (11), comprising metallization layers (5) at or around their front base corners (12) and rear base corners (12') that are located on font and rear ends (7,7') of each future actuator cuboid (3) to the contact face (4) of the ceramic panel (17); and
      (d) separating m x n series of oblong, parallel orientated piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids (3) from the piezoelectric ceramic plates (11) by the application of separation cuts (13); each separation cut (13) reaching through the piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids (3) and the ceramic base plate contact face (4) with their contact metallization layers (9,9'), but not the bottoms (14) of the grooves (10);
      wherein a series of unit cuts (19) and confection cuts (20,21) is applied, thus dividing the ceramic panel (17) and the m x n arrays of piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids (3) bonded to the multielement ceramic panel (17) into m x n single row piezoelectric actuators (1), each having one series of actuator cuboids (3) for ink jet printing heads, and
      bonding the piezoelectric ceramic plates (11) to the contact face (4) of the ceramic panel (17) is carried out by gluing with an adhesive; the strip conductors (16) being separated from the front end contact metallization layer (9) by the adhesive (18), and
      the strip conductors (16) and the at least one common contact line (22) are located on the contact face (4) of the ceramic base plate (2) and built to extend from the rear ends (7') of the single row actuator cuboids (3).
    13. The method of claim 12,
      wherein the groove (10) is located directly below the piezoelectric ceramic actuator cuboids (3) and is thus covered by these actuator cuboids (3) [Fig. 3].
    14. The method of claim 12 or 13,
      wherein m and n are larger than 1, preferably m is 2 and n is 3, and most preferably m is 6 and n is 4.
    15. The method of claim 12 or 13,
      wherein m is 1 and n is 7.
    EP10784536.4A 2010-11-30 2010-11-30 Piezoelectric actuator for ink jet printing heads Not-in-force EP2646252B1 (en)

    Priority Applications (1)

    Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
    PCT/EP2010/068533 WO2012072114A1 (en) 2010-11-30 2010-11-30 Piezoelectric actuator for ink jet printing heads

    Publications (2)

    Publication Number Publication Date
    EP2646252A1 EP2646252A1 (en) 2013-10-09
    EP2646252B1 true EP2646252B1 (en) 2015-06-17

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    WO (1) WO2012072114A1 (en)

    Families Citing this family (3)

    * Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
    Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
    US9842982B2 (en) 2013-11-19 2017-12-12 Océ-Technologies B.V. Piezoelectric actuator array
    US9427969B2 (en) * 2013-12-06 2016-08-30 Xerox Corporation Printhead having two adhesives
    CN104808486B (en) * 2015-02-13 2017-09-12 中国科学院自动化研究所 The forecast Control Algorithm and device of piezoelectric ceramic actuator based on fuzzy T-S model

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    * Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
    Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
    NL9401698A (en) 1994-10-14 1996-05-01 Oce Nederland Bv Inkjet printhead and method of manufacturing an inkjet printhead.
    DE10039255B4 (en) * 2000-08-11 2004-02-12 Tally Computerdrucker Gmbh Drop generator for microdroplets, in particular for the nozzle head of an ink printer
    US6505917B1 (en) * 2001-07-13 2003-01-14 Illinois Tool Works Inc. Electrode patterns for piezo-electric ink jet printer
    EP1291181B1 (en) 2001-09-07 2007-07-25 Océ-Technologies B.V. Actuating device for a multi-nozzle ink jet printhead
    JP4770413B2 (en) * 2005-03-04 2011-09-14 リコープリンティングシステムズ株式会社 Inkjet recording head

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    WO2012072114A1 (en) 2012-06-07

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