EP2605917B1 - Method for producing a security paper, and circular screen for this purpose - Google Patents

Method for producing a security paper, and circular screen for this purpose Download PDF

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Publication number
EP2605917B1
EP2605917B1 EP20110738621 EP11738621A EP2605917B1 EP 2605917 B1 EP2605917 B1 EP 2605917B1 EP 20110738621 EP20110738621 EP 20110738621 EP 11738621 A EP11738621 A EP 11738621A EP 2605917 B1 EP2605917 B1 EP 2605917B1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
elevation
cylinder
strip
paper
shaped
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Active
Application number
EP20110738621
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
EP2605917A1 (en
Inventor
Bernhard Wiedner
Andreas Aigner
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Giesecke and Devrient GmbH
Original Assignee
Giesecke and Devrient GmbH
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE201010034693 priority Critical patent/DE102010034693A1/en
Application filed by Giesecke and Devrient GmbH filed Critical Giesecke and Devrient GmbH
Priority to PCT/EP2011/003548 priority patent/WO2012022402A1/en
Publication of EP2605917A1 publication Critical patent/EP2605917A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP2605917B1 publication Critical patent/EP2605917B1/en
Application status is Active legal-status Critical
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D21PAPER-MAKING; PRODUCTION OF CELLULOSE
    • D21HPULP COMPOSITIONS; PREPARATION THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES D21C OR D21D; IMPREGNATING OR COATING OF PAPER; TREATMENT OF FINISHED PAPER NOT COVERED BY CLASS B31 OR SUBCLASS D21G; PAPER NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D21H21/00Non-fibrous material added to the pulp, characterised by its function, form or properties; Paper-impregnating or coating material, characterised by its function, form or properties
    • D21H21/14Non-fibrous material added to the pulp, characterised by its function, form or properties; Paper-impregnating or coating material, characterised by its function, form or properties characterised by function or properties in or on the paper
    • D21H21/40Agents facilitating proof of genuineness or preventing fraudulent alteration, e.g. for security paper
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D21PAPER-MAKING; PRODUCTION OF CELLULOSE
    • D21FPAPER-MAKING MACHINES; METHODS OF PRODUCING PAPER THEREON
    • D21F1/00Wet end of machines for making continuous webs of paper
    • D21F1/44Watermarking devices
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D21PAPER-MAKING; PRODUCTION OF CELLULOSE
    • D21FPAPER-MAKING MACHINES; METHODS OF PRODUCING PAPER THEREON
    • D21F11/00Processes for making continuous lengths of paper, or of cardboard, or of wet web for fibre board production, on paper-making machines
    • D21F11/008Making apertured paper
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D21PAPER-MAKING; PRODUCTION OF CELLULOSE
    • D21FPAPER-MAKING MACHINES; METHODS OF PRODUCING PAPER THEREON
    • D21F11/00Processes for making continuous lengths of paper, or of cardboard, or of wet web for fibre board production, on paper-making machines
    • D21F11/06Processes for making continuous lengths of paper, or of cardboard, or of wet web for fibre board production, on paper-making machines of the cylinder type
    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D21PAPER-MAKING; PRODUCTION OF CELLULOSE
    • D21HPULP COMPOSITIONS; PREPARATION THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES D21C OR D21D; IMPREGNATING OR COATING OF PAPER; TREATMENT OF FINISHED PAPER NOT COVERED BY CLASS B31 OR SUBCLASS D21G; PAPER NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • D21H21/00Non-fibrous material added to the pulp, characterised by its function, form or properties; Paper-impregnating or coating material, characterised by its function, form or properties
    • D21H21/14Non-fibrous material added to the pulp, characterised by its function, form or properties; Paper-impregnating or coating material, characterised by its function, form or properties characterised by function or properties in or on the paper
    • D21H21/40Agents facilitating proof of genuineness or preventing fraudulent alteration, e.g. for security paper
    • D21H21/42Ribbons or strips
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B42BOOKBINDING; ALBUMS; FILES; SPECIAL PRINTED MATTER
    • B42DBOOKS; BOOK COVERS; LOOSE LEAVES; PRINTED MATTER CHARACTERISED BY IDENTIFICATION OR SECURITY FEATURES; PRINTED MATTER OF SPECIAL FORMAT OR STYLE NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; DEVICES FOR USE THEREWITH AND NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; MOVABLE-STRIP WRITING OR READING APPARATUS
    • B42D25/00Information-bearing cards or sheet-like structures characterised by identification or security features; Manufacture thereof
    • B42D25/30Identification or security features, e.g. for preventing forgery
    • B42D25/355Security threads
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B42BOOKBINDING; ALBUMS; FILES; SPECIAL PRINTED MATTER
    • B42FSHEETS TEMPORARILY ATTACHED TOGETHER; FILING APPLIANCES; FILE CARDS; INDEXING
    • B42F7/00Filing appliances without fastening means
    • B42F7/04Covers with retention means

Description

  • The invention relates to a method for producing a security paper for the production of security documents, such as banknotes, identity cards or the like, with a strip-shaped security element, which is embedded in the security paper and is guided at least one opening in the security paper to one of the surfaces of the security paper, wherein a round screen of a rotary screen paper machine draws a paper mass in the form of a fiber-water suspension from a Bütte. The invention further relates to a round screen of a rotary screen paper machine for producing a security paper for the production of security documents, such as banknotes, ID cards or the like, wherein the security paper has a strip-shaped security element, which is embedded in the security paper and at least one opening in the security paper to a the surfaces of the security paper is guided, wherein the round screen draws a pulp in the form of a fiber-water suspension from a Bütte.
  • This is for example off WO 2003/054297 A2 a method for producing a security paper for the production of security documents, such as banknotes, ID cards or the like, known. The paper mesh round screen is hereby provided with at least one elastic or movably mounted closure element. A paper web is formed on the paper wire round screen, which has a continuous opening in the region of the closure element, which can be round, oval, rectangular, trapezoidal or star-shaped or can assume any other desired outline contour. Finally, the paper web is removed from the paper wire round screen via a take-off roll, whereby the closure element is deformed or sunk into the wire area such that the paper web remains intact remains. The resulting continuous opening may be provided at least on a surface of the security paper after its production with a security element projecting beyond the opening, which may in particular also be strip-shaped.
  • In this manufacturing process, however, two separate steps are required, since initially the security paper produced with the opening and the opening must be closed with a security element in a subsequent step. Furthermore, it is not possible in this manufacturing process to produce a so-called window thread, i. a security thread which is guided on at least one opening in the security paper to one of the surfaces of the security paper.
  • The invention is therefore based on the object, a generic method for producing a security paper in such a way that the disadvantages of the prior art is eliminated and the protection against counterfeiting is further increased.
  • This object is solved by the features of the independent claims. Further developments of the invention are the subject of the dependent claims.
  • According to the invention, at least one first elevation is applied to the round screen per use, wherein the first elevation is formed by a self-contained frame enclosing at least one recess and at least one further elevation is applied to the circular screen, which guides the strip-shaped security element Transverse direction causes, so that the strip-shaped security element is performed on the round screen, that the strip-shaped security element on the first increase comes to lie and the first increase on the two longitudinal sides not or only slightly surmounted, so that can store inside the first increase no fiber-water suspension.
  • Security paper is usually made in wide webs where multiple so-called benefits are juxtaposed. As an advantage, an object or print on a paper or printed sheet is referred to, wherein a plurality of equal benefits of the same motif are arranged in grid-like manner at certain intervals in the transverse and vertical direction on the paper or sheet. For example, nine benefits in the transverse direction and six benefits in the vertical direction and thus a total of 54 uses can be arranged in a matrix on one sheet. If, for example, the round screen of a round-screen paper machine also has 54 uses, at least 54 first elevations are thus provided on the round screen.
  • In the context of this invention, the side or direction of an elevation or an edge, which is parallel to the direction of rotation of the round screen, is defined as a vertical or longitudinal side or a longitudinal or longitudinal direction. For the purposes of this invention, the lateral direction or transverse direction is defined as the side or direction which is aligned on the surface of the round screen perpendicular to the vertical or longitudinal side or the vertical or longitudinal direction.
  • The first increase is formed by a self-contained frame. For the purposes of this invention, a frame is defined as a peripheral border or border without interruptions in the direction of rotation, similar to a picture frame. This frame is designed as a "wall-like" increase enclosing a depression, the height of the depression preferably at the level of the unembossed surface of the Rundsiebs lies. The first increase thus resembles a castle wall, but in contrast to this has no openings.
  • For the production of the first or further increase, wires or molded parts (so-called electrotypes or E types) are preferably applied to the paper mesh round screen. These wires or moldings are preferably made of metal or metal-containing materials which are soldered onto the paper wire screen or of plastic which is glued, pressed or melted onto the paper wire screen. Alternatively, the first increase or the further increase similar to a multi-level watermark as a three-dimensional relief embossed in the PapiersiebRundsieb.
  • The height of the first increase, i. their increase relative to the surface of the round screen in the radial direction is preferably about 0.3 mm to 0.7 mm, at most 1 mm and particularly preferably 0.5 mm.
  • The inner width of two further elevations, which guide the strip-shaped security element at its respective outer edge, ie the distance between the inner flanks of the two further elevations, is at least the width of the strip-shaped security element. Preferably, the inner width is 40% and more preferably 20% (each based on the width of the strip-shaped security element) wider than the strip-shaped security element. The height of the further elevations, ie their increase relative to the surface of the round screen in the radial direction, corresponds at least to the thickness of the strip-shaped security element and preferably to the height of the first elevation.
  • In the manufacture of the security paper, a strip-shaped security element is usually not inserted at the same position in the transverse direction for each benefit from which, for example, a banknote later results. Rather, the strip-shaped security element "wobbles", i. changes its position in the transverse direction to benefit from e.g. Sinusoidal around a certain average, so that when stacking banknotes not all strip-shaped security elements come to lie one above the other and the stack has no excessive thickening at this point. This principle can also be applied to the present invention, wherein the first and corresponding two further increases benefit from changing their position by sinusoidally changing their position about an average, i. E. increasing from one mean value to one side in the transverse direction and then decreasing again, and then increasing towards the other side in the transverse direction and then decreasing again to the mean value. The strip-shaped security element in this case must also be fed "wobbling" to the corresponding first and corresponding two further elevations by the supply of the strip-shaped security element being moved back and forth in the transverse direction, always on the respective first or between the corresponding two further increases comes to rest. This means that the supply of the strip-shaped security element takes place in the transverse direction synchronously "wobbling" with the "wobbling" position of the first and the corresponding two further elevations on the round screen.
  • Particularly preferably, the first elevation may have any outline contour. In particular, the outline contour can be made triangular or polygonal, round, oval, star-shaped, wavy or irregular. The Outline contour can also take the form of an alphanumeric character or a graphic.
  • The strip-shaped security element is, for example, a security thread, as it is made EP 0 492 407 A1 is known, or a wide security tape, as in EP 0 625 431 A1 is described. The subjects of these two disclosures are fully incorporated into this invention in this regard.
  • The strip-shaped security element projects beyond the first increase on the two longitudinal sides either not or only by about 0.5 mm, and preferably by about 1 mm. The width of the strip-shaped security element is thus at least as wide as the maximum width, i. the maximum extension in the transverse direction of the first increase.
  • A generic security document is, for example, a banknote, a security, a credit or identity card, a passport, a document or the like, a label, a packaging or another element for product assurance.
  • Reference to the following embodiments and the additional figures, the advantages of the invention will be explained. The embodiments represent preferred embodiments, to which, however, the invention should not be limited in any way. Furthermore, the representations in the figures of better understanding are highly schematized and do not reflect the realities. In particular, the proportions shown in the figures do not correspond to the conditions present in reality and serve exclusively to improve the clarity. Furthermore, those in the following embodiments described embodiments for better understanding reduced to the essential core information. In the practical implementation much more complex patterns or images can be used.
  • In detail, show schematically:
  • Fig. 1
    a round screen paper machine according to the invention,
    Fig. 2
    an inventive round screen,
    Fig. 3
    an enlarged section Fig. 2 .
    Fig. 4
    the cutout Fig. 3 with overlying strip-shaped security element,
    Fig. 5
    a security document with the strip-shaped security element according to the invention and in this case Fig. 5a in supervision and in Fig. 5b in an oblique view,
    Fig. 6
    a section AA Fig. 5a .
    Fig. 7
    a further embodiment of the invention.
  • The Fig. 1 shows a round screen paper machine according to the invention, which consists of a circular sieve 1, which dips into a water-fiber suspension 2 ', which in turn is located in a chest 2. The fibers of the water-fiber suspension 2 'are preferably made of cotton fibers or fibers of annual plants, as used for the production of banknote paper become. However, other fibers are possible, for example synthetic fibers or cellulose fibers, or else a mixture of different fibers, for example a mixture of cotton and cellulose fibers. Furthermore, the water-fiber suspension may contain additives, such as mottled fibers or dyes.
  • On the circular sieve 1 are first elevations 3 and further elevations 7. A strip-shaped security element 5 is fed as endless element from a coil on which the strip-shaped security element 5 is wound over a pulley 1 to the round screen. The strip-shaped security element 5 rests on the first elevations 3 and is guided by the further elevations 7, so that it is held and guided in the further rotation of the round screen 1 on the first elevations 3.
  • During immersion in the water-fiber suspension 2 ', the fibers and, if present, the additives are deposited on the round screen 1 on top of the strip-shaped security element 5, i. between the round screen 1 and the strip-shaped security element 5, as well as on the underside of the strip-shaped security element 5 and thus form the paper web, in which the strip-shaped security element 5 is embedded.
  • In the interior of the round screen 1 there is a slight negative pressure relative to the ambient air pressure, so that the water of the water-fiber suspension 2 'is sucked into the interior of the round screen 1. However, the fibers of the water-fiber suspension 2 'can not pass through the multi-layered and closely meshed fabric or grid of the round screen 1 and accumulate on the surface of the round screen. At the points where the strip-shaped security element 5 rests on the first elevations 3, the strip-shaped security element 5 is sucked by the negative pressure in the interior of the round screen 1 to the first elevations 3. Due to the frame-shaped configuration of the first elevations 3, no water-fiber suspension 2 'in the interior, which is formed by the surrounded by the first increase 3 recess 4 and the strip-shaped security element 5, penetrate, so that no water in this area Fiber suspension and thus can not attach fibers or additives. This means that the strip-shaped security element 5 remains free of paper fibers in this area, whereas paper fibers can accumulate in the surrounding areas. In the area of the first elevations 3, an opening in the paper thus forms, so that here the strip-shaped security element 5 comes to the surface of the paper.
  • The strip-shaped security element 5 protrudes slightly beyond the edge of the first elevation 3, i. by about 0.5 mm to 1 mm, so that this edge of the water-fiber suspension 2 'is backwashed and accumulate fibers there. The strip-shaped security element 5 is thus embedded at its edges in the resulting paper. If, however, the width of the strip-shaped security element 5 chosen such that the strip-shaped security element 5 is substantially wider than the first increase 3, and the side of the first increase 3 superior edge region of the strip-shaped security element 5 is sucked from the vacuum to the round screen 1, so that No or less fibers attach and no reliable embedding of the strip-shaped security element 5 results in the resulting paper.
  • After about a three-quarter turn of the round screen 1, the security paper 6 produced on a non-woven and a deflection roller of the round screen. 1 removed and fed to further processing, in particular a further drying.
  • Fig. 2 shows a round screen 1 according to the invention with a plurality of benefits 8. Each individual benefit 8 has a first increase 3. In the longitudinal direction between the respective benefits are two further elevations 7, which hold the strip-shaped security element 5 in position relative to the first elevation 3.
  • Fig. 3 shows an enlarged section Fig. 2 , The first elevation 3 is configured as a wave-shaped frame, which framed or framed a depression 4. Two further elevations 7 at the upper and at the lower edge of the benefit 8 have a distance from each other that corresponds to the width of the strip-shaped security element 5, so that the strip-shaped security element 5, as in Fig. 4 represented, is guided by the further elevations 7. The strip-shaped security element 5 lies exactly above the first elevation 3 and projects slightly beyond it on both longitudinal sides.
  • Fig. 5 shows a security document produced in the form of a banknote 9 produced by the production method according to the invention. This banknote 9 was formed from a sheet of paper which coincides with the round screen 1 according to FIGS FIGS. 1 to 4 was made, cut out. In the banknote 9, the strip-shaped security element 5 is embedded. An opening 10 created by the first elevation 3 contains, as in FIG Fig. 5b represented no paper, so that in this opening 10, the strip-shaped security element 5 is guided to the surface of the banknote 9 and visible in incident light. For the purposes of this invention, viewing in incident light is illumination of an object from one side and observation of the object from the same side.
  • A reflection in incident light is thus present, for example, when the front of the object is illuminated and also viewed. In contrast, viewing in transmitted light in the sense of this invention is an illumination of an object from one side and a viewing of the object from another side, in particular the opposite side. A reflection in transmitted light is thus present, for example, when the back of the object is illuminated and the front of the object is viewed. The light thus shines through the object.
  • Fig. 6 shows a section AA according to Fig. 5a through the banknote 9. In addition, for a better understanding schematically a section of the round screen 1 is shown with the first increase 3, which surrounds the recess 4. The strip-shaped security element 5 is embedded in the paper of the banknote 9, wherein the strip-shaped security element 5 passes through the opening 10 to the surface of the banknote 9. The area of the opening 10 corresponds to that area which is formed by the outer contour of the first elevation 3.
  • In an embodiment according to Fig. 7 is the depression 4 is not carried out over the entire surface within the first elevation 3, but is partially filled or divided by webs 11. These webs 11 support the strip-shaped security element 5 in the area in which it is sucked by the negative pressure in the round screen 1. This advantageously prevents the strip-shaped security element 5 from being deformed, since otherwise it would be sucked into the depression 4 by the negative pressure and bear against the round screen 1 within the first elevation 3.
  • The first increase 3 encloses in the embodiment according to Fig. 7 not just one depression, but several. In the embodiment with wavy outline contour, these are 12 depressions, in the embodiment with elliptical outline contour 4 depressions.
  • Fig. 7 further shows that the outline contour of the first elevation 3 can not only be wave-shaped but, for example, also elliptical. Of course, further outline shapes are possible, for example triangular, quadrangular, star-shaped or irregular outline shapes.
  • LIST OF REFERENCE NUMBERS
  • 1
    Round Screen
    2
    vat
    2 '
    Water-fiber suspension
    3
    first increase
    4
    deepening
    5
    strip-shaped security element
    6
    security paper
    7
    further increase
    8th
    Use
    9
    bill
    10
    opening
    11
    web

Claims (10)

  1. A method for manufacturing a security paper (6) for the manufacture of security documents, such as bank notes, identification cards or the like, having a strip-shaped security element (5) which is embedded into the security paper (6) and is guided to one of the surfaces of the security paper (6) at at least one opening (10) in the security paper (6), wherein a cylinder (1) of a cylinder paper machine pulls a paper pulp in the form of a fiber-water suspension (2') from a vat (2), characterized in that
    - at least a first elevation (3) is applied per copy on the cylinder (1),
    - the first elevation (3) is formed by a closed frame which encloses at least one depression (4),
    - there is applied on the cylinder (1) at least one further elevation (7) which causes a guidance of the strip-shaped security element (5) in the transverse direction, so that the strip-shaped security element (5) is guided on the cylinder (1) such that the strip-shaped security element (5) comes to lie on the first elevation (3) and does not protrude, or protrudes only slightly, beyond the first elevation (3) on both longitudinal sides thereof, so that no fiber-water suspension (2') can be deposited in the interior of the first elevation (3).
  2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the first elevation (3) is formed by an electrotype which is applied to the mesh of the cylinder (1), or by a high embossing of the mesh of the cylinder (1).
  3. The method according to either of the above claims, characterized in that the first elevation (3) has an arbitrary outline contour, in particular a triangular or polygonal, circular, oval, star-shaped, wavy or irregular outline contour.
  4. The method according to any of the above claims, characterized in that the at least one further elevation (7) is formed by a high embossing or an electrotype.
  5. The method according to any of the above claims, characterized in that the strip-shaped security element (5) protrudes beyond the first elevation (3) on both longitudinal sides thereof respectively by 0 mm, preferably respectively by about 0.5 mm and particularly preferably respectively by about 1 mm.
  6. A cylinder (1) of a cylinder paper machine for manufacturing a security paper (6) for the manufacture of security documents, such as bank notes, identification cards or the like, the security paper (6) having a strip-shaped security element (5) which is embedded into the security paper (6) and is guided to one of the surfaces of the security paper (6) at at least one opening (10) in the security paper (6), the cylinder (1) pulling a paper pulp in the form of a fiber-water suspension (2') from a vat (2), characterized in that
    - at least a first elevation (3) is applied per copy on the cylinder (1),
    - the first elevation (3) is configured in the form of a closed frame which encloses at least one depression (4),
    - there is applied on the cylinder (1) at least one further elevation (7) which causes a guidance of the strip-shaped security element (5) in the transverse direction, so that the strip-shaped security element (5) is guided on the cylinder (1) such that the strip-shaped security element (5) comes to lie on the first elevation (3) and does not protrude, or protrudes only slightly, beyond the first elevation (3) on both longitudinal sides thereof, so that no fiber-water suspension (2') can be deposited in the interior of the first elevation (3).
  7. The cylinder (1) according to claim 6, characterized in that the first elevation (3) is an electrotype which is applied to the mesh of the cylinder (1), or a high embossing of the mesh of the cylinder (1).
  8. The cylinder (1) according to claim 6 or 7, characterized in that the first elevation (3) has an arbitrary outline contour, in particular a triangular or polygonal, circular, oval, star-shaped, wavy or irregular outline contour.
  9. The cylinder (1) according to any of claims 6 to 8, characterized in that the at least one further elevation (7) is a high embossing or an electrotype.
  10. The cylinder (1) according to any of claims 6 to 9, characterized in that the strip-shaped security element (5) protrudes beyond the first elevation (3) on both longitudinal sides thereof respectively by 0 mm, preferably respectively by about 0.5 mm and particularly preferably respectively by about 1 mm.
EP20110738621 2010-08-18 2011-07-15 Method for producing a security paper, and circular screen for this purpose Active EP2605917B1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE201010034693 DE102010034693A1 (en) 2010-08-18 2010-08-18 Method for producing a security paper and round screen for it
PCT/EP2011/003548 WO2012022402A1 (en) 2010-08-18 2011-07-15 Method for producing a security paper, and circular screen for this purpose

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP2605917A1 EP2605917A1 (en) 2013-06-26
EP2605917B1 true EP2605917B1 (en) 2015-01-07

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Country Link
EP (1) EP2605917B1 (en)
CN (1) CN103079835B (en)
DE (1) DE102010034693A1 (en)
ES (1) ES2530491T3 (en)
RU (1) RU2538512C2 (en)
WO (1) WO2012022402A1 (en)

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EP2607550B1 (en) * 2011-12-22 2017-02-22 Giesecke & Devrient GmbH Base substrate for a film composite bank note
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CN106218209A (en) * 2016-09-09 2016-12-14 上海陈兴印刷器材有限公司 A kind of arc half tone, the manufacture method of arc half tone and printing process thereof

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Publication number Publication date
ES2530491T3 (en) 2015-03-03
RU2013111607A (en) 2014-09-27
CN103079835B (en) 2015-06-24
DE102010034693A1 (en) 2012-02-23
RU2538512C2 (en) 2015-01-10
CN103079835A (en) 2013-05-01
WO2012022402A1 (en) 2012-02-23
EP2605917A1 (en) 2013-06-26

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