EP2521224B1 - Quick connection device for electrical appliance - Google Patents

Quick connection device for electrical appliance Download PDF

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Publication number
EP2521224B1
EP2521224B1 EP12162375.5A EP12162375A EP2521224B1 EP 2521224 B1 EP2521224 B1 EP 2521224B1 EP 12162375 A EP12162375 A EP 12162375A EP 2521224 B1 EP2521224 B1 EP 2521224B1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
connector
electrical
permanent magnet
terminal
sleeve
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Active
Application number
EP12162375.5A
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
EP2521224A1 (en
Inventor
Bruno Neel
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Schneider Toshiba Inverter Europe SAS
Original Assignee
Schneider Toshiba Inverter Europe SAS
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to FR1153815A priority Critical patent/FR2974947B1/en
Application filed by Schneider Toshiba Inverter Europe SAS filed Critical Schneider Toshiba Inverter Europe SAS
Publication of EP2521224A1 publication Critical patent/EP2521224A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP2521224B1 publication Critical patent/EP2521224B1/en
Active legal-status Critical Current
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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01RELECTRICALLY-CONDUCTIVE CONNECTIONS; STRUCTURAL ASSOCIATIONS OF A PLURALITY OF MUTUALLY-INSULATED ELECTRICAL CONNECTING ELEMENTS; COUPLING DEVICES; CURRENT COLLECTORS
    • H01R11/00Individual connecting elements providing two or more spaced connecting locations for conductive members which are, or may be, thereby interconnected, e.g. end pieces for wires or cables supported by the wire or cable and having means for facilitating electrical connection to some other wire, terminal, or conductive member, blocks of binding posts
    • H01R11/11End pieces or tapping pieces for wires, supported by the wire and for facilitating electrical connection to some other wire, terminal or conductive member
    • H01R11/30End pieces held in contact by a magnet
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01RELECTRICALLY-CONDUCTIVE CONNECTIONS; STRUCTURAL ASSOCIATIONS OF A PLURALITY OF MUTUALLY-INSULATED ELECTRICAL CONNECTING ELEMENTS; COUPLING DEVICES; CURRENT COLLECTORS
    • H01R13/00Details of coupling devices of the kinds covered by groups H01R12/70 or H01R24/00 - H01R33/00
    • H01R13/66Structural association with built-in electrical component
    • H01R13/70Structural association with built-in electrical component with built-in switch
    • H01R13/703Structural association with built-in electrical component with built-in switch operated by engagement or disengagement of coupling parts, e.g. dual-continuity coupling part
    • H01R13/7031Shorting, shunting or bussing of different terminals interrupted or effected on engagement of coupling part, e.g. for ESD protection, line continuity
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01RELECTRICALLY-CONDUCTIVE CONNECTIONS; STRUCTURAL ASSOCIATIONS OF A PLURALITY OF MUTUALLY-INSULATED ELECTRICAL CONNECTING ELEMENTS; COUPLING DEVICES; CURRENT COLLECTORS
    • H01R2201/00Connectors or connections adapted for particular applications
    • H01R2201/20Connectors or connections adapted for particular applications for testing or measuring purposes

Description

    Domaine technique de l'inventionTechnical field of the invention
  • La présente invention se rapporte à un dispositif de connexion rapide employé sur un appareil électrique.The present invention relates to a quick connect device used on an electrical appliance.
  • Etat de la techniqueState of the art
  • Lorsqu'un appareil électrique, tel que par exemple un contacteur, un disjoncteur ou un variateur de vitesse doit être testé, chaque conducteur d'alimentation doit être connecté individuellement sur les bornes de l'appareil électrique. Lorsque ces bornes sont à vis ou même élastiques, la durée nécessaire pour la connexion des conducteurs sur chaque borne peut s'avérer particulièrement longue. Cette durée augmente d'autant plus que le nombre d'appareils à tester est important.When an electrical appliance such as a contactor, a circuit breaker or a variable speed drive has to be tested, each supply conductor must be connected individually to the terminals of the electrical appliance. When these terminals are screw or even elastic, the time required for the connection of the conductors on each terminal can be particularly long. This duration increases especially as the number of devices to be tested is important.
  • Le document EP1865581 décrit un connecteur intégrant un aimant de manière à pouvoir faciliter sa connexion sur un appareil électronique.The document EP1865581 discloses a connector incorporating a magnet so as to facilitate its connection to an electronic device.
  • Le document US7625213 décrit des enceintes acoustiques assemblables entre elles en employant des aimants.The document US7625213 describes loudspeakers assembled together by using magnets.
  • Le document WO2007053871 décrit un appareil disjoncteur doté de bornes à connexion sans outil.The document WO2007053871 describes a circuit-breaker device with tool-less connection terminals.
  • Le but de l'invention est de proposer un dispositif de connexion électrique pour appareil électrique muni de bornes à vis ou élastiques, permettant de se connecter rapidement sur les bornes à vis ou élastiques de l'appareil.The object of the invention is to provide an electrical connection device for electrical appliance provided with screw terminals or elastic, for quick connection to the screw terminals or elastic of the device.
  • Exposé de l'inventionPresentation of the invention
  • Ce but est atteint par un dispositif de connexion électrique adapté pour se connecter sur un appareil électrique doté d'une ou plusieurs bornes électriques à vis ou élastiques, caractérisé en ce que le dispositif comporte un ou plusieurs connecteurs destinés chacun à venir se connecter directement sur l'une des une ou plusieurs bornes de connexion électrique, et en ce que chaque connecteur comporte un aimant permanent destiné à venir aimanter le connecteur sur ladite borne électrique lorsque le connecteur est approché de la borne et en ce que le connecteur comporte un manchon à l'intérieur duquel est inséré l'aimant permanent.This object is achieved by an electrical connection device adapted to connect to an electrical appliance having one or more electrical screw or elastic terminals, characterized in that the device comprises one or more connectors each intended to connect directly to one or more electrical connection terminals, and in that each connector comprises a permanent magnet for coming to magnetize the connector on said electrical terminal when the connector is approached from the terminal and in that the connector comprises a sleeve to inside which is inserted the permanent magnet.
  • Selon une autre particularité, le connecteur comporte un ressort monté entre l'aimant permanent et le manchon.According to another feature, the connector comprises a spring mounted between the permanent magnet and the sleeve.
  • Selon une autre particularité, le connecteur comporte un élément conducteur de l'électricité connecté directement à l'aimant permanent.According to another feature, the connector comprises an electrically conductive element connected directly to the permanent magnet.
  • Selon une autre particularité, le manchon est réalisé dans un matériau conducteur de l'électricité et le connecteur comporte un organe d'actionnement mobile en translation par rapport au manchon, ledit organe d'actionnement étant réalisé dans un matériau isolant de l'électricité et agencé pour accueillir l'aimant permanent.According to another feature, the sleeve is made of an electrically conductive material and the connector comprises an actuating member movable in translation relative to the sleeve, said actuating member being made of an insulating material of electricity and arranged to receive the permanent magnet.
  • Selon une autre particularité, l'organe d'actionnement comporte une tête destinée à s'interposer entre la borne électrique et l'aimant permanent lorsque le connecteur est connecté sur la borne électrique.According to another feature, the actuating member comprises a head intended to be interposed between the electrical terminal and the permanent magnet when the connector is connected to the electrical terminal.
  • Selon une autre particularité, le connecteur comporte un système de contact auxiliaire agencé sur l'organe d'actionnement et sur une partie fixe par rapport à l'organe d'actionnement.According to another feature, the connector comprises an auxiliary contact system arranged on the actuating member and on a fixed part relative to the actuating member.
  • Selon une autre particularité, le connecteur comporte un corps en matériau isolant recouvrant le manchon.According to another feature, the connector comprises a body of insulating material covering the sleeve.
  • Selon une autre particularité, le dispositif comporte plusieurs connecteurs adjacents solidaires entre eux et écartés d'une distance correspondant à une distance inter-bornes de l'appareil électrique.According to another feature, the device comprises several adjacent connectors integral with each other and spaced apart by a distance corresponding to an inter-terminal distance of the electrical apparatus.
  • Selon une autre particularité, chaque connecteur comporte des moyens d'accrochage mâles et femelles réalisés sur son corps et apte à coopérer avec des moyens d'accrochage complémentaires réalisés sur un corps d'un connecteur adjacent.According to another feature, each connector comprises male and female hooking means made on its body and adapted to cooperate with complementary hooking means made on a body of an adjacent connector.
  • Brève description des figuresBrief description of the figures
  • D'autres caractéristiques et avantages vont apparaître dans la description détaillée qui suit en se référant à un mode de réalisation donné à titre d'exemple et représenté par les dessins annexés sur lesquels :
    • la figure 1 représente un appareil électrique de type contacteur électromécanique et le dispositif de connexion de l'invention,
    • la figure 2 représente une première variante de réalisation d'un connecteur employé pour le dispositif de connexion de l'invention,
    • les figures 3A et 3B représentent une deuxième variante de réalisation d'un connecteur employé pour le dispositif de connexion de l'invention, respectivement déconnecté et connecté sur une borne électrique à vis,
    • la figure 4 représente un mode de réalisation avantageux du dispositif de connexion de l'invention.
    Other features and advantages will appear in the detailed description which follows with reference to an embodiment given by way of example and represented by the appended drawings in which:
    • the figure 1 represents an electrical apparatus of the electromechanical contactor type and the connection device of the invention,
    • the figure 2 represents a first embodiment of a connector used for the connection device of the invention,
    • the Figures 3A and 3B represent a second embodiment of a connector used for the connection device of the invention, respectively disconnected and connected to an electrical screw terminal,
    • the figure 4 represents an advantageous embodiment of the connection device of the invention.
  • Description détaillée d'au moins un mode de réalisationDetailed description of at least one embodiment
  • De manière connue, un appareil électrique 1 comporte plusieurs bornes électriques 10 à vis ou élastiques sur chacune desquelles peut venir se connecter un conducteur 3, par l'intermédiaire d'une cosse. Dans une borne à vis, la cosse est serrée par une vis 100 dans un étrier 101. Dans une borne de type élastique (non représentée), l'extrémité du conducteur 3 est insérée dans une cage élastique. Un appareil électrique 1 de type contacteur électromécanique comporte notamment trois bornes d'entrée et trois bornes de sortie connectées à la puissance et deux bornes de commande de l'électroaimant situé à l'intérieur du contacteur. Sur la figure 1, le contacteur est représenté avec des bornes électriques 10 à vis.In known manner, an electrical apparatus 1 comprises a plurality of electrical screw terminals 10 or elastic on each of which can come to connect a conductor 3, via a terminal. In a screw terminal, the terminal is tightened by a screw 100 in a stirrup 101. In an elastic type terminal (not shown), the end of the conductor 3 is inserted into an elastic cage. An electrical apparatus 1 of electromechanical contactor type comprises in particular three input terminals and three output terminals connected to the power and two control terminals of the electromagnet located inside the contactor. On the figure 1 the contactor is shown with electrical screw terminals.
  • Lorsque l'appareil électrique doit être testé, chacune de ses bornes électriques 10 doit être reliée à un conducteur. Le dispositif de l'invention permet de réaliser une connexion rapide des conducteurs sur chaque borne électrique 10 à vis ou élastique de l'appareil électrique.When the electrical apparatus is to be tested, each of its electrical terminals 10 must be connected to a conductor. The device of the invention makes it possible to make a fast connection of the conductors on each electrical terminal 10 screw or elastic of the electrical apparatus.
  • Pour cela, le dispositif de connexion 2 de l'invention comporte au moins un connecteur 20, 21 muni d'un aimant permanent 200, 210 permettant au connecteur de s'aimanter directement sur la borne électrique, par exemple sur la vis pour une borne électrique 10 à vis. Selon l'invention, l'aimant permanent 200, 210 ne sert pas simplement à guider un connecteur 20, 21 vers son emplacement normal de connexion mais sert à venir connecter le conducteur 3 sur une borne électrique 10 d'une manière différente de celle normalement prévue par la borne.For this, the connection device 2 of the invention comprises at least one connector 20, 21 provided with a permanent magnet 200, 210 allowing the connector to be magnetized directly on the electrical terminal, for example on the screw for a terminal 10 electric screw. According to the invention, the permanent magnet 200, 210 does not simply serve to guide a connector 20, 21 towards its normal connection location but serves to connect the conductor 3 to an electrical terminal 10 in a manner different from that normally provided by the terminal.
  • En référence à la figure 1, chaque connecteur 20, 21 vient donc s'aimanter sur une borne électrique 10 de l'appareil électrique. Les connecteurs 20, 21 peuvent être assemblés entre eux pour former un bloc de connexion permettant en une seule action de venir connecter plusieurs bornes simultanément (figure 1).With reference to the figure 1 each connector 20, 21 therefore comes to be magnetized on an electrical terminal 10 of the electrical apparatus. The connectors 20, 21 can be assembled together to form a connection block allowing a single action to connect several terminals simultaneously ( figure 1 ).
  • En référence à la figure 2, une première variante de réalisation d'un connecteur 20 employé dans le dispositif comporte par exemple un manchon 201 en matériau isolant à l'intérieur duquel vient se loger l'aimant permanent 200. Le connecteur 20 peut également comporter un élément conducteur 202 connecté directement à l'aimant permanent 200 et au conducteur 3. De cette manière, le courant électrique passe par l'élément conducteur 202 et par l'aimant permanent 200. Le connecteur 20 peut également comporter un ressort 203 de type hélicoïdal positionné entre l'aimant 200 et une partie supérieure du manchon 201, et un corps 204 en matériau isolant recouvrant le manchon 201 et permettant la préhension du connecteur 20. Cette architecture est adaptée pour les faibles courants, par exemple inférieurs à quatre ampères. Lors de la connexion sur une borne électrique 10, le connecteur 20 s'aimante sur la borne 10 par son aimant permanent 200 qui véhicule alors lui-même le courant électrique.With reference to the figure 2 a first embodiment of a connector 20 used in the device comprises for example a sleeve 201 of insulating material inside which the permanent magnet 200 is housed. The connector 20 may also comprise a conductive element 202 connected directly to the permanent magnet 200 and to the conductor 3. In this way, the electric current passes through the conductive element 202 and the permanent magnet 200. The connector 20 may also include a helical spring 203 positioned between the magnet 200 and an upper portion of the sleeve 201, and a body 204 of insulating material covering the sleeve 201 and for gripping the connector 20. This architecture is suitable for low currents, for example less than four amperes. When connected to an electrical terminal 10, the connector 20 is magnetized on the terminal 10 by its permanent magnet 200 which itself then conveys the electric current.
  • Pour les forts courants, compris entre quatre et soixante-dix ampères, une deuxième variante de réalisation du connecteur 21 employé dans le dispositif de l'invention comporte un manchon 211 en matériau conducteur de l'électricité destiné à être connecté au conducteur 3 (non représenté sur les figures 3A et 3B). En référence aux figures 3A et 3B, le connecteur 21 comporte également un organe d'actionnement 212 mobile en translation par rapport au manchon 211 et un aimant permanent 210 fixé sur l'organe d'actionnement 212. Cet organe d'actionnement 212 est réalisé dans un matériau isolant de l'électricité. Plus précisément, l'organe d'actionnement 212 comporte à son extrémité inférieure une tête 2120 dotée d'une surface d'appui destinée à venir en contact avec la tête de la vis et une surface opposée à ladite surface d'appui sur laquelle est positionné l'aimant permanent. Dans cette configuration, l'aimant permanent ne vient pas directement en contact avec la vis 100 de la borne électrique 10, ce qui permet d'éviter une démagnétisation de l'aimant permanent 210 lorsque le courant est particulièrement élevé. Le connecteur 21 comporte également un ressort 213 de type hélicoïdal positionné entre le manchon 211 et un premier écrou 217 en matériau isolant de l'électricité vissé à l'extrémité supérieure de l'organe d'actionnement 212. Le connecteur 21 peut comporter un système de contact auxiliaire comportant par exemple deux conducteurs 219 et un deuxième écrou 218 en matériau conducteur de l'électricité vissé sur l'organe d'actionnement 212, au-dessus du premier écrou 217. Lorsque le connecteur 21 est déconnecté de la borne électrique 10, le deuxième écrou 218 établit le contact électrique entre les deux conducteurs 219 (figure 3A). Lorsque le connecteur 21 est connecté à la borne électrique 10, le contact électrique est rompu (figure 3B). Ce système permet de s'assurer du bon fonctionnement mécanique du connecteur 21 avant connexion sur la borne électrique 10.For strong currents, between four and seventy amperes, a second embodiment of the connector 21 used in the device of the invention comprises a sleeve 211 of electrically conductive material intended to be connected to the conductor 3 (no represented on the Figures 3A and 3B ). With reference to Figures 3A and 3B , the connector 21 also comprises an actuating member 212 movable in translation relative to the sleeve 211 and a permanent magnet 210 fixed to the actuating member 212. This actuating member 212 is made of an insulating material of the electricity. More specifically, the actuating member 212 comprises at its lower end a head 2120 provided with a bearing surface intended to come into contact with the head of the screw and a surface opposite to said bearing surface on which is positioned the permanent magnet. In this configuration, the permanent magnet does not come into direct contact with the screw 100 of the electrical terminal 10, which makes it possible to avoid demagnetization of the permanent magnet 210 when the current is particularly high. The connector 21 also comprises a coil-type spring 213 positioned between the sleeve 211 and a first nut 217 of electrically insulating material screwed to the upper end of the actuating member 212. The connector 21 may comprise a system auxiliary contact element comprising for example two conductors 219 and a second nut 218 of electrically conductive material screwed onto the actuating member 212, above the first nut 217. When the connector 21 is disconnected from the electrical terminal 10 the second nut 218 makes electrical contact between the two conductors 219 ( figure 3A ). When the connector 21 is connected to the electrical terminal 10, the electrical contact is broken ( figure 3B ). This system ensures the proper mechanical operation of the connector 21 before connection to the electrical terminal 10.
  • Dans cette deuxième variante de réalisation, le courant passe donc par le manchon 211. Lors de la connexion sur une borne électrique 10, l'organe d'actionnement 212 vient se plaquer contre la tête de la vis 100 sous l'action de l'aimant permanent 210. Grâce à l'action conjuguée de l'aimant permanent 210 et du ressort 213, le manchon 211 vient alors se plaquer sur la surface de l'étrier 101 située sous la tête de la vis 100 (figure 3B) et en périphérie de la tête de la vis. Le connecteur 21 peut comporter un corps 214 en matériau isolant recouvrant le manchon conducteur 211. La taille du manchon 211 peut varier d'un connecteur 21 à l'autre pour s'adapter à la taille de la borne électrique 10 de l'appareil électrique.In this second embodiment, the current thus passes through the sleeve 211. When connected to an electrical terminal 10, the actuating member 212 is pressed against the head of the screw 100 under the action of the permanent magnet 210. Thanks to the combined action of the permanent magnet 210 and the spring 213, the sleeve 211 then presses against the surface of the stirrup 101 located under the head of the screw 100 ( figure 3B ) and at the periphery of the head of the screw. The connector 21 may comprise a body 214 made of insulating material covering the conductive sleeve 211. The size of the sleeve 211 may vary from one connector 21 to the other to adapt to the size of the electrical terminal 10 of the electrical appliance. .
  • D'un appareil électrique 1 à l'autre, les distances inter-bornes peuvent varier. Il est donc utile de prévoir des connecteurs 20, 21 pouvant s'adapter aux différentes bornes électriques, en taille et en type. En référence à la figure 4, le dispositif de connexion 2 peut se composer d'un ensemble modulaire dans lequel les connecteurs 20, 21 peuvent s'assembler les uns aux autres pour s'adapter au nombre de bornes de l'appareil électrique 1 et à la distance inter-bornes de l'appareil électrique 1. Le corps 204, 214 en matériau isolant d'un connecteur 20, 21 peut ainsi comporter des organes d'accrochage femelles 215 susceptibles de recevoir des organes d'accrochage mâles 216 d'un connecteur identique adjacent et des organes d'accrochage mâles 216 susceptibles de s'engager dans des organes d'accrochage femelles 215 d'un connecteur identique adjacent. Les corps 204, 214 de chaque connecteur 20, 21 peuvent être de tailles différentes pour s'adapter à la configuration de l'appareil.From one electrical appliance 1 to another, the inter-terminal distances may vary. It is therefore useful to provide connectors 20, 21 that can be adapted to different electrical terminals, size and type. With reference to the figure 4 , the connection device 2 may consist of a modular assembly in which the connectors 20, 21 can be assembled to each other to adapt to the number of terminals of the electrical apparatus 1 and to the inter-terminal distance of the electrical apparatus 1. The body 204, 214 of insulating material of a connector 20, 21 may thus comprise female fastening members 215 capable of receiving male fasteners 216 of an identical identical connector and male engaging members 216 engageable with female engaging members 215 of an adjacent identical connector. The bodies 204, 214 of each connector 20, 21 may be of different sizes to adapt to the configuration of the apparatus.
  • L'invention présente un intérêt tout particulier pour la connexion électrique des appareils électriques 1 lors de leur test ou de leur configuration en usine.The invention is of particular interest for the electrical connection of electrical devices 1 during their test or their factory configuration.

Claims (9)

  1. Electrical connection device (2) suitable for being connected to an electrical apparatus (1) furnished with one or more screw or elastic electrical terminals (10), the device comprising one or more connectors (20, 21) each designed to be connected directly to one of the one or more electrical connection terminals, characterized in that each connector (20, 21) comprises a permanent magnet (200, 210) designed to magnetize the connector on the said electrical terminal (10) when the connector (20, 21) is brought near to the terminal (10) and a sleeve (201, 211) inside which the permanent magnet (200, 210) is inserted.
  2. Device according to Claim 1, characterized in that the connector (20) comprises a spring (203) mounted between the permanent magnet (200) and the sleeve (201).
  3. Device according to Claim 1, characterized in that the connector (20) comprises an electrically conductive element (202) connected directly to the permanent magnet.
  4. Device according to Claim 1, characterized in that the sleeve (211) is made of an electrically conductive material and in that the connector (21) comprises an actuation member (212) that can move in translation relative to the sleeve (211), the said actuation member (212) being made of an electrically insulating material and being arranged to accommodate the permanent magnet (210).
  5. Device according to Claim 4, characterized in that the actuation member (212) comprises a head (2120) designed to be interposed between the electrical terminal (10) and the permanent magnet (210) when the connector (21) is connected to the electrical terminal (10).
  6. Device according to Claim 4, characterized in that the connector (21) comprises an auxiliary contact system arranged on the actuation member (212) and on a portion that is fixed relative to the actuation member (212).
  7. Device according to Claim 1, characterized in that the connector (20, 21) comprises a body (204, 214) made of insulating material covering the sleeve (201, 211).
  8. Device according to Claim 7, characterized in that it comprises several adjacent connectors (20, 21) attached together and separated at a distance corresponding to an inter-terminal distance of the electrical apparatus (1).
  9. Device according to Claim 8, characterized in that the body (204, 214) of each connector (20, 21) comprises male and female coupling means (215, 216) capable of interacting with matching coupling means made on a body of an adjacent connector.
EP12162375.5A 2011-05-04 2012-03-30 Quick connection device for electrical appliance Active EP2521224B1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FR1153815A FR2974947B1 (en) 2011-05-04 2011-05-04 Quick connection device for an electrical apparatus

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP2521224A1 EP2521224A1 (en) 2012-11-07
EP2521224B1 true EP2521224B1 (en) 2015-06-10

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US (1) US8734165B2 (en)
EP (1) EP2521224B1 (en)
JP (1) JP2012234811A (en)
CN (1) CN102769227B (en)
ES (1) ES2544080T3 (en)
FR (1) FR2974947B1 (en)

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JP2012234811A (en) 2012-11-29
ES2544080T3 (en) 2015-08-27
CN102769227B (en) 2016-07-06
FR2974947B1 (en) 2014-01-24
FR2974947A1 (en) 2012-11-09
CN102769227A (en) 2012-11-07
US8734165B2 (en) 2014-05-27
EP2521224A1 (en) 2012-11-07
US20120282786A1 (en) 2012-11-08

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