EP2505043A1 - Method for generating neutrons - Google Patents

Method for generating neutrons

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Publication number
EP2505043A1
EP2505043A1 EP10803507A EP10803507A EP2505043A1 EP 2505043 A1 EP2505043 A1 EP 2505043A1 EP 10803507 A EP10803507 A EP 10803507A EP 10803507 A EP10803507 A EP 10803507A EP 2505043 A1 EP2505043 A1 EP 2505043A1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
beam
nuclei
state
interference
step
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
EP10803507A
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Arash Mofakhami
Tarek Nassar
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Levet Eric
Mofakhami Florence
Original Assignee
LEVET ERIC
MOFAKHAMI FLORENCE
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to FR0958354A priority Critical patent/FR2953091B1/en
Priority to FR0958353A priority patent/FR2953060B1/en
Application filed by LEVET ERIC, MOFAKHAMI FLORENCE filed Critical LEVET ERIC
Priority to PCT/IB2010/055431 priority patent/WO2011064739A1/en
Publication of EP2505043A1 publication Critical patent/EP2505043A1/en
Application status is Withdrawn legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H05ELECTRIC TECHNIQUES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H05HPLASMA TECHNIQUE; PRODUCTION OF ACCELERATED ELECTRICALLY-CHARGED PARTICLES OR OF NEUTRONS; PRODUCTION OR ACCELERATION OF NEUTRAL MOLECULAR OR ATOMIC BEAMS
    • H05H3/00Production or acceleration of neutral particle beams, e.g. molecular or atomic beams
    • H05H3/06Generating neutron beams
    • GPHYSICS
    • G21NUCLEAR PHYSICS; NUCLEAR ENGINEERING
    • G21BFUSION REACTORS
    • G21B1/00Thermonuclear fusion reactors
    • G21B1/11Details
    • G21B1/19Targets for producing thermonuclear fusion reactions, e.g. pellets for irradiation by laser or charged particle beams
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E30/00Energy generation of nuclear origin
    • Y02E30/10Fusion reactors
    • Y02E30/14Inertial plasma confinement
    • Y02E30/16Injection systems and targets

Abstract

The present invention relates, in particular, to a method for generating neutrons comprising at least the series of steps that consists of: a) placing at least one beam of electrons and at least one beam of nuclei selected from among protons, deuterons and tritons into a predefined spin state and/or an interference state; and b) causing said at least one beam of nuclei and said at least one beam of electrons to collide.

Description

METHOD FOR GENERATING NEUTRONS

The present invention particularly relates to methods and neutron generation sources.

The present invention further relates, methods for melting and / or nuclear fission as well as collisiorineurs for the generation of nuclei.

Rear-pian

The international application WO 2009/052330 discloses a neutron generating method comprising a step of collision of an ion beam and a target. The target includes atoms having the same spin state that ions.

International patent application WO 99/05683 describes an electronic capture process by the protons to form neutrons.

It is known to generate neutrons as described in EP0338619 or in the publication "Giant Dipole Resonance Neutron Yields Produced By Electrons As A Function Of Target Material And .Thickness" Mao et al, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University. However, such processes may have a generation of relatively high energy cost neutrons.

U.S. Patent 4,390,494 discloses a nuclear fusion process comprising a step of collision between two ion beams having their spins aligned.

The H446 discloses a method for controlling the fusion reactions.

U.S. Patent 7,232,985 describes, for its part, a controlled melting process.

A first object of the present invention is to provide new neutron generation processes.

A second objective of the present invention to provide new collisiorineurs to generate neutrons.

A third obj ective of the present invention is to provide methods and neutron generating devices having an energy cost generating neutrons lower than that of known methods and devices of the prior art.

A fourth object of the present invention is to provide novel methods for generating nuclei by fusion or nuclear fission.

A fifth objective of the present invention to provide new colliders to generate nuclei. summary

Generation and neutron uses

According to a first aspect, the invention relates to a method for generating neutrons, e.g., a neutron beam, comprising at least the successive steps of:

a) put in a spin state defined and / or put in a state interfere! el at least one beam selected from nuclei protons (hydrogen nuclei), deuterons (deuterium nuclei) and newts (tritium nuclei) and at least one electron beam, and 'b) colliding the at least one bundle of cores and at least one electron beam.

By "bundle" is meant a collection of particles, driven at a speed produced by a source in one or more given directions in space (s).

By "putting a beam in a spin state defined," we must understand that the means used to set a defined spin state allow, for example, at least 50% eg at least 75% by example, substantially all of the particles constituting said beam having a determined spin state.

The spins of the electrons and nuclei may, during the collision stage, be aligned in the same direction.

The electron spins of the nuclei and the velocity vectors respectively cores respectively electrons can be collinear at the collision point.

By "spin and velocity vector collinear", it is understood that the spin vector and the velocity of said particle can be the same direction or opposite direction.

In particular, the electron spins of nuclei and the velocity vectors respectively cores respectively electrons can be collinear and have the same meaning when collision step. In other words, the spins of particles form data with the velocity vectors of the same particles an oriented angle of between - 10 and 10 °.

The beams of nuclei and electrons can, during the collision step, have a sense of movement substantially opposite. In other words, the velocity vectors of the nuclei and electrons, caused to collide may form at the collision step, an oriented angle of between 170 and 190 °. Alternatively, the bundles of nuclei and electrons may have, IORS the collision step, substantially the same traveling direction. In other words, the velocity vectors of the nuclei and electrons, caused to collide may form at the collision step, an oriented angle of between -10 and 10 °.

The method according to the invention may have a neutron generation efficiency greater than 10%, eg 25%.

The "neutron generation efficiency" is defined as: [number of neutrons generated by the collision of nuclei and electrons beams] / [0.5 * (number of protons in the nuclei beam + number of electrons in the electron beam) + (number of neutrons within the core beam)],

According to another of its aspects, the invention relates to a collider for generating neutrons, for example for the implementation of a method as described above, comprising:

- a speaker,

- a source of nuclei configured to generate at least one beam nuclei selected from protons, deuterons and tritons,

- an electron source configured to generate at least one electron beam, and

• means for generating one or more field (s) magnetic (s) configured (s) to said at least one core bundle and at least one electron beam in a spin state set before the collision, and / or

a means for obtaining particles of interference configured to said at least one core bundle and at least one electron beam in an interference condition before the collision.

By "collider" is understood a device for obtaining at least a collision between two beams of particles.

In yet another aspect, the invention relates to a medical facility, for example the destruction of human or animal cancer cells, comprising at least:

- positioning means for a patient to be treated,

- a collider, for example as defined above, comprising at least: • an enclosure,

• a source of nuclei configured to generate at least one ring beam,

• an electron source configured to generate at least one electron beam, and

• means for generating one or more field (s) magnetic (s) set (s) to the spins of the nuclei and electrons, to a defined state, and / or

• a means for obtaining particles of interference configured to said at least one beam nuclei and electrons in an interference state.

The neutrons generated according to the invention can thus be used eg for hadron therapy.

In yet another aspect, the invention relates to the use of neutrons generated by ies processes and / or colîisionneurs as described above for nuclear fusion or generally obtaining cores Physics, Experimental, the production of radioisotopes and transmutation.

Generation cores and uses

According to another aspect, the invention relates to a method for generating nuclei, for example a core beam, comprising at least the successive steps of:

a) to at least:

a neutron beam and at least one core bundle in a spin state defined and / or an interference state, or

- a neutron beam and at least one beam of atomic particles in a defined spin state, or

a first core beam and at least one second cores beam in an interference state, and

b) colliding said beams.

"Atomic particle" is meant an ion or atom.

By "putting a beam of atomic particles in a spin state defined", it is understood that the cores of said atomic particles are put into a defined spin state. That is, unless specified otherwise, the characteristics relating to the spin of an atomic particle are related to the spin of the nucleus of that atomic particle.

The spins of neutrons and nuclei may, during the collision stage, be aligned in the same direction.

In another embodiment, the spins of the neutron and atomic particles can, then. the collision step, be aligned in the same direction.

The spins of neutrons, nuclei, respectively, and the velocity vectors neutrons, nuclei, respectively, are collinear in the collision stage.

The spins of the neutrons, respectively atomic particles, and the velocity vectors of neutrons, respectively atomic particles can be collinear when collision step.

In particular, the spins of the neutrons, each of the cores, and the velocity vectors of neutrons, respectively nuclei may be collinear and have the same meaning when collision step.

In another embodiment, the spins of the neutrons, respectively atomic particles, and the neutron velocity vectors, respectively atomic particles can be co-linear and have the same meaning when collision step.

The :

neutron beams and cores, or

the neutron beams and atomic particles, or

the first and second beams of nuclei,

may, at the stage of collision, have a sense. movement substantially opposite.

In other words, the velocity vectors:

neutrons and nuclei, or

neutrons and atomic particles, or

the nuclei of the first and second beams of nuclei,

brought to collide, may form during step b), an oriented angle of between 170 and 190 °.

According to another of its aspects, the invention relates to a method for producing energy comprising at least the successive steps of:

a) contacting at least: a beam of neutrons and at least one core bundle within a defined spin state and / or an interference state, or

a neutron beam and at least one beam of atomic particles in a defined spin state, or

a first core beam and at least one second cores beam in an interference state, and

b) colliding said beams, and

c) recovering the energy generated by the collision taking place in step b).

According to another of its aspects, the invention relates to a method for generating particles comprising at least the steps of:

put in a spin state defined and / or an interference state of at least a first and a second neutron beams, and

colliding said first and second neutron beams. According to another of its aspects, the invention relates to a collider to generate nuclei, for example for the implementation of methods as described above, comprising:

a speaker,

a source :

• cores configured to generate at least one core bundle, or

• of atomic particles configured to generate at least one atomic particle beam,

a neutron source configured to generate at least a neutron beam, and

• means for generating one or more field (s) magnetic (s) set (s) to the spins of the nuclei and neutrons or the spins of atomic particles and neutrons in a defined state before the collision, and / or

• a means for obtaining particles of interference configured to said at least one beam of nuclei and neutrons in an interference before the collision state. In another aspect, the invention relates to a collider to generate nuclei, for example the implementation of processes as described above, comprising:

a speaker,

a first source cores configured to generate at least one first core beam,

a second source of nuclei configured to generate at least one second cores beam, and

a means for obtaining particles of interference configured to said first and second beams of nuclei in an interference before the collision state.

According to another of its aspects, the invention relates to a collisiomieur to generate particles, for example for the implementation of the particle generation method described above, comprising:

a speaker,

a first neutron source configured to generate at least a first neutron beam,

a second source of neutrons configured to generate at least a second neutron beam, and

• means for generating one or more field (s) magnetic (s) set (s) to put in a spin state defined said first and second neutron beams, and / or

• a means for obtaining Configured particle interference to put said first and second neutron beam in an interference state.

In yet another aspect, the invention relates to a medical facility, for example the destruction of human or animal cancer cells, comprising at least:

positioning means for a patient to be treated,

a collider, for example as defined above, comprising at least:

• a source: a. cores configured to generate at least one core bundle, or

b. atomic particles configured to generate at least one atomic particle beam,

* A neutron source configured to generate at least a neutron beam, and

at. means for generating one or more field (s) magnetic (s) set (s) to the spins of the nuclei and neutrons or the spins of atomic particles and neutrons in a defined state before the collision, and / or b . a means for obtaining particles of interference configured to said at least one beam of nuclei and neutrons in an interference before the collision state.

In yet another aspect, the invention relates to a medical facility, such as the destruction of human or animal cancer cells, comprising at least:

- positioning means for a patient to be treated,

a collider, for example as defined above, comprising at least:.

• a first source cores configured to generate at least one first core beam,

• a second source cores configured to generate at least one second cores beam, and

· A means for obtaining particles of interference configured to said first and second beams of nuclei in an interference condition before the collision.

The cores generated according to the invention can thus be used eg for hadron therapy.

In yet another aspect, the invention relates to the use of the cores generated by the methods and / or colliders as described above for Experimental Physics, radioisotope production, propulsion and transmutation. The means for generating one or more field (s) magnetic (s) used in the collider according to the invention may be selected from the superconducting coils, the resistive coils or "hybrid" coils comprising a resistive coil and a coil superconductor. It is also possible to use resonant circuits, for example. RLC type, having at least one resonance coil.

The means for obtaining particles of interference used in the collider according to the invention may comprise interferometric devices, such as detailed later, including, for example, one or more diffraction gratings. It is for example possible to use one or more field (s) Magnetic (s) to obtain particles used in an interference condition.

In the context of the production of neutrons, the values ​​for a parameter, for example relative to the electron beams and cores may be selected based on the other parameter values.

In the context of the production of cores, the values ​​for a parameter, for example relative to the cores of beams of atomic particles and neutrons, may be selected based on the other parameter values.

Beam cores

Nature cores sources

The methods according to the invention may comprise, before step a), a step of generating nuclei beam.

As a source of nuclei used in the context of the present invention include the source taught in the publication "Ion Gun Injection In Support Of Fusion II Ship Research And Development" of Miley et al ..

The sources kernels can contain within them any type of accelerators usable cores such as accelerators straight or linear, circular accelerators or synchrotrons as cyclotrons.

Features nuclei beam

The cores beam can have, at the time of generation, a diameter of 10 "8 to 10" 'm, for example between 10 "6 and 10" s m, for example between 5.10 "4 to 5.10" 3 m .

By "diameter of a beam" should be understood to the largest dimension of said beam cross-section. The cores beam may have a flow of nuclei between 10 and 10 nuclei / s.

At least 50%, e.g. at least 75%, for example essentially all of the cores constituting the core beam may have an energy between 1 and 10 7 eV, for example from 1 to 10 6 eV, such as between 1 and April 10 eV.

The nuclei beam can be emitted continuously.

Alternatively, the cores beam may be pulsed.

By "pulsed beam", it is understood that the beam is emitted in the form of for example less duration pulses or equal to 0 "3 sec, for example 1 μ≤, for example 1 ns, for example less than or equal to 10 "11 sec.

The pulses can for example have a duration of between 10 2 and

10 "s.

A pulsed beam may in particular allow to limit the disruptive interactions between particles constituting the beams and particles generated during the collision step.

. When the cores beam is pulsed, the duration separating two successive pulses may for example be less than or equal to 1 ms, for example 1 με, for example less than or equal to 1 ns.

When third cores beam is pulsed, the number of nuclei per pulse emitted may for example be between 10 '2 and 10 17 nuclei / pulse.

In another embodiment, nuclei generation methods according to the invention may comprise, before step a), a step of generating the first and second cores beams.

It is understood that the characteristics and sources described above can for example be applicable first and second cores beams audits.

In yet another embodiment, nuclei generation methods according to the invention may comprise, before step a), a step of generating the atomic particle beam.

The characteristics described above relating to the beam cores may be applicable to atomic particle beam. In addition, the atomic particles can for example be produced by all ionization techniques and creating beams of atoms known to the skilled person.

Neutron beam

Nature neutron sources

The generation processes. cores according to the invention may comprise, before step a), a step of generating the neutron beam.

Can be used as part of the nuclei generation methods according to the invention, neutrons obtained, for example during fission reactions within reactor nucl éaires plants.

Mention may also be used for the nuclei of generation methods according to the invention, the neutrons produced by the neutron generation methods described above.

It is also possible to use neutron sources as described in the publication "Giant Dipoîe Resonance Neutron Yields Produced By Electrons As A Function Of Target Materia! And Thickness "Mao et al., Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University.

Characteristics of neutron beams

The neutron beam can have, at the time of generation, a diameter of 10 "8 10" 1 m, for example between 1CT 6 and 10 "1 m, for example between 5.1 G" 4 to 5.10 "3 m .

By "diameter of a beam" should be understood to the largest dimension of said beam cross-section.

The neutron beam may have a neutron flux of between 10 14 and 10 "neutrons / s.

At least 50%, e.g. at least 75%, for example substantially all neutrons constituting the neutron beam can have an energy between 1 and July 1 eV, for example from 1 to 10 6 eV, such as between 1 and April 10 eV.

The neutron beam can be emitted continuously.

Alternatively, the neutron beam can be pulsed. By "pulsed beam", it is understood that the beam is emitted in the form of pulses of duration, for example less than or equal to 10 "3 sec, for example, $ 1 μ, for example 1 ns, for example less than or equal to 10 "n s.

The pulses can for example have a duration of between lG "i2 and lO.

A pulsed beam may in particular allow to limit the disruptive interactions between particles constituting the beams and particles generated during the collision step.

When the neutron beam is pulsed, the duration separating two successive pulses may for example be less than or equal to 1 ms, for example, $ 1 μ, for example 1 ns.

When the neutron beam is pulsed, the number of neutrons emitted per pulse may for example be between 12 and 10 IO 17 neutrons / pulse.

Furthermore, the cores beam generated by the nuclei of generation methods according to the invention can be emitted continuously.

Alternatively, when the cores beam generated is emitted in the form of pulses, the nuclei generation methods according to the invention may comprise a step of adjusting the pulse duration of said beam.

The step of adjusting the pulse width of the cores beam may comprise a step of adjusting the pulse duration of the neutron beam and / or a step of adjusting the pulse width of the beam nuclei for be in collision.

The nuclei generated beam can be emitted in the form of pulses of duration for example less than or equal to 10 "3 sec, for example î με, for example, 1 ns, for example less than or equal to 10" "s.

The nuclei generation process according to the invention may comprise a step of adjusting the flow of generated cores.

The step of adjusting the flow generated cores may include a step of adjusting the flux of neutrons of the neutron beam and / or a core flow step of adjusting the beam cores to be placed in collision.

The cores beam generated may have a flux cores for example between 10 14 and 10 23 nuclei / s. It is therefore possible, in the context of the present invention, to have beams of nuclei which can vary the flow and / or the pulse duration.

Of course, the characteristics of nuclei generated beams and adjustment steps described above apply mutatis mutandis to the embodiments in which the nuclei are generated by collision between a neutron beam and atomic particles or between first and second cores beams.

Electron beam

Nature of electron sources

neutron generation methods according to the invention may comprise, before step a), a step of generating the electron beam for example from a source of thermionic electrons or field effect.

Thermionic electron source

The method for generating an electron beam from a thermionic source comprises a heating step, for example by the Joule effect, of a conductive material.

This heating step can help to extract electrons that were originally linked to the conductive material.

Grubbed electrons are then accelerated under an electric field to generate an electron beam.

The conductive material may for example be selected from tungsten or lanthanum hexaboride (LaB 6).

electron source field effect

The method for generating an electron beam, from: a source field effect transistor, may include a step of applying a potential difference between a metal cathode, for example having a shaped end tip, and an anode.

The shape of the end of the metal cathode may earn his. vicinity of an electric field whose intensity is greater than 10 6 V / m, for example 5.10 to 6 V / m. Such electric fields may allow the tear of electrons of the material forming the cathode.

Whatever their nature, the electron sources can include them, in any type of usable electron accelerators such as linear accelerators or linear, circular accelerators such as cyclotrons or synchrotrons them. Features of the electron beam

The diameter of the electron beam at the time of its generation, may be between 10 "8 10" 1 m, for example between 10 -6 and 10 "1 m, for example between 5.10 'and 5.10 4" 3 m .

The electron beam may for example have a flow of electrons between 10 1 and 10 23 electrons / s.

At least 50%, e.g. at least 75%, for example substantially all of the electrons constituting the electron beam can have an energy between 1 and 10 7 eV, for example from 1 to 10 6 eV, for example from 1 and 10 4eV.

The electron beam can be emitted continuously.

Alternatively, the electron beam may be pulsed.

Thus, the electron beam may be emitted in the form of pulses of duration, for example less than or equal to 10 "s, for example, $ 1 μ, for example 1 ns, for example less than or equal to 10" "s.

The pulses can for example have a duration for example between 10 "I2 and 10" 6 sec.

When the electron beam is pulsed, the duration separating two successive pulses may for example be less than or equal to I ms, for example, $ 1 μ, for example less than or equal to 1 ns.

When the electron beam is pulsed, the number of electrons emitted per pulse may for example be between 10 and 10 electrons / pulse.

Furthermore, the beam of neutrons generated by the neutron generation methods according to the invention can be emitted continuously.

Alternatively, where the neutron beam generated is emitted in the form of pulses, the neutron generation methods according to the invention may comprise a step of adjusting the pulse duration of said beam.

The step of adjusting the pulse duration of the neutron beam may comprise a pulse width setting step of the electron beam and / or a step of adjusting the pulse width of the core beam.

The neutron beam generated may be transmitted as pulses of length for example less than or equal to 10 "3 sec, for example 1 Ξ, for example 1 ns, for example less than or equal to 10" n s. neutron generation methods according to the invention may comprise a step of adjusting the flow of generated neutrons.

The step of adjusting the flow of neutrons generated can include a step of adjusting the beam electrons flow of electrons and / or an adjustment step of the flow of nuclei nuclei beam.

The neutron beam generated may have a neutron flux, for example between 10 14 and 10 23 neutrons / s.

It is therefore possible, in the context of the present invention, to have neutron beam which can vary the flow and / or the pulse duration.

interference States

neutron generation methods according to the invention may comprise, before the collision step, a step of in an interference state of the beams of nuclei and electrons.

The nuclei generation process according to the invention may comprise, before the collision step, a step of in an interference state of the beams of nuclei and neutrons.

The nuclei generation process according to the invention may comprise, before the collision step, a step of in an interference state of the first and second beams of cores intended to come into collision.

By "patterned beam in an interference state," it is meant that the particles, which by their very quantum nature are associated with waves constituting the beam interfere with each other thereby forming, within the beam, at least one zone constructive interference and at least an area of ​​destructive interference.

The particle beams can be put in a state of spatial interference. In this case, the constructive interference areas correspond to areas of high probability of particle detection and destructive interference zones correspond to zones of low probability of particle detection.

A particle beam placed in a state of spatial interference may especially be obtained by crossing at least one interferometric device.

The particle beams can include not being in a state of spinor interference. The means for particle beams in an interference condition may in particular be different from the action of an electromagnetic field. neutron generation processes

For each of the beams of nuclei and electrons placed in an interference state, the width of the zones of constructive and destructive interference can be less than or equal to 10 "1 ΰ m, for example 10" 13 m, for example 10 "14 m, for example at 10 i 5 m.

Areas of constructive interference of the beams of nuclei and electrons, put in an interference state, may overlap at least partially, for example substantially completely during the collision step.

More particularly, at least 50%, e.g. at least 75%, for example substantially the entire volumes of the respective constructive interference areas nuclei and electrons beams, placed in an interference state, may overlap when collision stage.

nuclei generation processes

For each of the beams and neutron cores placed in an interference state, the width of the zones of constructive and destructive interference can be less than or equal to 10 "10 m, for example at 10" m, for example 10 "l4 m , for example 10 "15 m.

Areas of constructive interference beams novaux and neutrons, placed in an interference state, may overlap at least partially, for example substantially completely during the collision step.

More particularly, at least 50%, e.g. at least 75%, for example substantially the entire volumes of the respective constructive interference areas nuclei beams and neutrons, placed in an interference state, can overlap when the collision step.

The theory on the duality wave / particle of the particles involved provides that the particles constituting the patterned beam in a state of spatial interference, may have a higher probability of detection in areas of constructive interference in the areas of destructive interference.

The covering areas of respective constructive interference of the beams, each set beforehand in an interference state, may cause an overlap of the zones of maximum likelihood of particle detection and can therefore allow to increase the particle collision probability constituting the two beams.

Furthermore, when it is desired to generate particles by collision between at least two neutron beams, said neutron beam set before the collision, in a state interference can for example have the characteristics described above for the beam nuclei and neutrons.

Process for obtaining beams nuclei and electrons placed in an interference state (the case of neutron generation methods)

The step in an interference condition nuclei and electrons beams can at least contain:

- a step of crossing by the nuclei beam, of a first interferometric device capable of bringing said nuclei beam in an interference state, and

- a step of crossing, by the electron beam, of a second interferometric device capable of putting said electron beam in an interference state.

The first and second interferometric devices may be identical or different.

The beam of nuclei and / or electrons may undergo, during the step of traversing its interferometric device, at least one, for example at least two, for example at least three successive diffractions.

(S) first and / or second device (s) interferometer (s) may comprise a set of at least four, e.g., at least five, for example at least six diffraction gratings.

Diffraction gratings may be in transmission networks.

Diffraction gratings may include silicon single crystals. Interferometric devices used in the context of the present invention are for example described in "Neutron Interferometry", H. Rauch, ISBN: 3-540-70622-9 78-.

The step in a state of interference of the beams nuclei and electrons may further comprise a step of traversing at least one monochromator by at least one of said beams.

The step of traversing said at least one monochromator can take place before the step of passing through the interferometric device. Alternatively, during the step of in a state interférentieî beams of nuclei and electrons, each of said beams can not cross monochromator. Thus, during the step in a state interférentieî beams of nuclei and electrons, it is possible! Esdits beams are polychromatic.

The step in a state interférentieî beams of nuclei and electrons may further comprise a step of traversing at least one collimator at least one example each of said beams.

Collimators cores used in the context of the present invention may comprise, for example, consist, for example, copper or graphite.

An example of electron collimator suitable for the invention is for example described in US 3,942,019.

The collimator passage step may take place after the step of passing through the interferometric device and may allow to obtain a single beam from a plurality of incident beams.

'Alternatively, during the step of in a state interférentieî beams of nuclei and electrons, each of said beams can not pass through collimator. It is for example possible to use interferometric devices spherically symmetric where the emerging beam may converge to the same point.

The step in a state interférentieî beams of ■. nuclei and electrons may comprise a step of maintaining the interference states of said beams.

This step of maintaining the interference states may for example comprise a step waveguiding cores beams and electrons, which may for example be performed using one or more laser (s).

In addition, neutron beam may undergo a step of traversing at least one collimator. It is then, for example, be used as collimators stacks of polyethylene films and monocrystalline Si film covered S0 B or Gd.

Process for obtaining beams interférentieî put into a state (the case of nuclei generating methods

The step in a state interférentieî bundles nuclei and neutrons can comprise at least: a step of crossing by the nuclei beam, of a first interferometric device capable of bringing said nuclei beam in an interference state, and

a step of crossing by the neutron beam, a second interferometric device capable of bringing said neutron beam in an interference state.

Characteristics relating to interferometric devices used to put in an interference state bundles nuclei and electrons can be applied to interferometric devices 3a placed in an interference state of the beams of nuclei and neutrons intended to come into collision in the framework nuclei generation methods according to the invention.

The step of bringing in an interference state of the beams of nuclei and neutrons can further comprise a step of traversing at least one monochromator by at least one of said beams.

The step of traversing said at least one monochromator can take place before the step of passing through the interferometric device.

Alternatively, during the step of bringing in an interference state of the beams of nuclei and neutrons, each of said beams can not cross monochromator. Thus, during the step of bringing in an interference state of the beams of nuclei and neutrons, it is possible that said beams are polychromatic.

The step of bringing in an interference state of the beams of nuclei and neutrons can further comprise a step of traversing at least one collimator at least one example each of said beams.

Collimators cores used in the context of the present invention may comprise, for example, consist, for example, copper or graphite.

For neutrons, it is for example possible to use as collimators stacks of polyethylene films and monocrystalline Si film covered 10 B or Gd.

The collimator passage step may take place after the step of passing through the interferometric device and may allow to obtain a single beam from a plurality of incident beams.

Alternatively, during the step of bringing in an interference state of the beams of nuclei and neutrons, each of said beams can not pass through collimator. It is for example possible to use interferometric devices spherically symmetric where the emerging beam may converge to the same point.

In another embodiment, the methods of the invention may comprise, before the collision step, a step of in an interference state of the first and second cores beams. These first and second beams of nuclei placed in an interference state can for example have the characteristics described above for the beam nuclei and neutrons placed in an interference state.

It is understood, moreover, that these first and second cores beams can undergo the steps described above for the cores beams, device traversal (s) interferometer (s) and optionally mono Chromat eur bushing ( s) and collimator (s).

When seeking to generate particles by collision between at least two neutron beams, said beams can for example suffer the steps described above, feedthrough devices) interferometer (s) and optionally monochromator aperture (s ).

The interference states obtained can be maintained for example by optical confinement using one or more laser (s).

magnetic fields

magnetic field used for carrying in a spin state defined beams

In the context of neutron generation methods according to the invention, the step of in a spin state defined nuclei and electrons beams may comprise at least one step of applying at least:

- a first magnetic field, configured to the spins of nuclei in a defined state, having a static component in the intensity time between

0.5 and 45 T and / or a non-zero gradient on the axis of the collision, and

- a second magnetic field, configured to the spins of the electrons in a defined state, having a static component in the intensity time between 0.1 and 20 T and / or a non-zero gradient on the axis of the collision .

In the context of nuclei generation methods according to the invention, the step of in a spin state defined nuclei beams and neutron beams or atomic particles and neutrons may comprise at least one step of applying at least :

a first magnetic field, configured to the spins of the nuclei or atomic particles in a defined state, having a static component of an intensity of between 0.5 and 45 T and / or a non-zero gradient on the axis of the collision and

a second magnetic field, configured to the spins of the neutrons in a defined state, having a static component of an intensity of between 0.5 and 45 T and / or a non-zero gradient on the axis of the collision.

The first and second magnetic fields may be identical or different.

The first and second magnetic fields may be generated by the same source or from separate sources.

At least one, for example each of the first and second magnetic fields can be static.

Alternatively, at least one, for example each of the first and second magnetic fields may comprise a static component and a variable non-zero component. .

In the following, for a given magnetic field B (x, y, z, t), we define its static component Bsm (x, y, z) and has a variable component B (x, y, z, t) as satisfying: S M (x, y, z) is an independent variable of time and B (x, y, z, t) is a value having no term invariant over time. In other words, the frequency spectrum? (X, y, z, t) does not include a peak centered at the zero frequency.

static components

The features for static components described below also apply to static magnetic fields with no variable component. In the context of neutron generation methods according to the invention, the static component of the first, respectively second, magnetic field can be used to put in a spin state defined nuclei beam, respectively electrons.

In the context of nuclei generation methods according to the invention, the static component of the first, respectively second, magnetic field can be used to put in a spin state defined nuclei beam, neutron respectively.

The static component of the first magnetic field can for example be: an intensity between 1 T and 20 T.

The static component of the second magnetic field may for example have an intensity between 1 T and 20 T.

Static components suitable for the invention may be generated by superconducting coils, resistive coils or "hybrid" coils comprising a resistive coil and a superconducting coil.

The first and second magnetic fields may have different variable components.

The variable components of the first and or second field (s) magnetic (s) may for example be applied in the form of at least one photon beam.

The application of a variable component can allow for the particles involved, increasing the proportion of spins oriented in the direction of the static component to increase the probability of generation of neutrons or nuclei upon collision .

Indeed, quantum theory provides that the application of at least one variable component for example having a frequency spectrum comprising at least one peak centered at a frequency equal to the spin resonance frequency can for example be induced transitions between different energy levels. This resonance frequency corresponds to the frequency of precession of the spins around the static component, called the Larmor precession. It then becomes possible for the spins oriented, for example, before applying the variable component in the opposite direction to the direction of application of the static component to absorb at least a portion of the energy of the applied variable component and transiting to an oriented state in which said spins are aligned in the same direction as the static component. One can for example implement the variable component together with the static component.

Measuring the amount of neutrons, protons or diverted to the electrical potential created by proton not subjected to collision can, for example, enable an operator to have indicators on the need to apply the variable component the first and / or second field (s) magnetic (s).

The field lines of the variable component can be at the level of particle beams, non-collinear to the field lines of the static component. They may, for example, forming therewith an angle greater than 10 °, for example greater than 45 °. In particular, the field lines of the variable component can form an angle between 85 and 95 ° with the field lines of the static component.

The variable component of the first magnetic field can be applied continuously.

Alternatively, the variable component of the first magnetic field can be applied in the form of pulses whose skilled in the art will determine the length. As an indication, the pulse duration may for example be between 0.1 and $ 100 μ, for example between 1 and 50 μ $.

The variable component of the second magnetic field may be applied continuously.

Alternatively, the variable component of the second magnetic field may be applied in the form of pulses, the skilled artisan will determine the length.A. indication, the duration of the pulses may for example be between 0.1 and 100 μ≤.

The variable component of the first magnetic field may have a frequency spectrum having at least one peak centered at a frequency, for example between 20 and 600 MHz, for example between 50 and 500 MHz, for example between 100 and 200MHz.

In . the context of neutron generation methods according to the invention, the variable component of the second magnetic field may have a frequency spectrum having at least one peak centered at a frequency, for example between 10 and 200 GHz. In the context of nuclei generation methods according to the invention, the variable component of the second magnetic field may have a frequency spectrum having at least one peak centered at a frequency, for example between 20 and 600 MHz, for example between 50 and 500 MHz, for example between 100 and 200MHz;

The variable components of the first and second magnetic fields may be generated by the resonant circuits, for example of the RLC, having at least one resonance coil.

Gradients on the axis of the collision

As mentioned above, the first and / or second field (s) magnetic (s) bit (s) may have a non-zero gradient on the axis of the collision.

Quantum theory provides that the application of a magnetic field having a non-zero gradient can help put into a defined state of the spins and align collinearly with the field.

The gradient direction can form a non-zero angle, for example greater than 45 °. for example substantially equal to 90 °, with the axis of the collision.

When the gradient direction forms a non-zero angle with the axis of the collision, it is for example possible to separate the particles according to their spin state. Can then be obtained from the same particle beam a plurality of beams each having within them of particles placed in a defined spin state.

Alternatively, the gradient direction can form a substantially zero angle with the axis of the collision. In the latter case, it is possible that the (s) first and / or second field (s) magnetic (s) comprise (s). each further a static component and a variable non-zero component. Said static and variable components may be as described above.

Furthermore, the first and / or second field (s) magnetic (s) bit (s) may present, on the axis of the collision, a non-zero intensity gradient and for example less than 20 T / m. The first and / or second field (s) magnetic (s), having a non-zero gradient on the axis of the collision bit (s) may be applied (s) continuously.

Alternatively, the first and / or second field (s) magnetic (s), having a non-zero gradient on the axis of the collision bit (s) may be applied (s) in the form of pulses. magnetic field gradients suitable for the invention may for example be produced by two air gaps similar to those implemented in the Stern and Gerlach experience or by a plurality of coils having different numbers of loops and / or different diameters .

magnetic and electric fields used for particle deflection

Deflection of electrons

Neutron generation methods according to the invention may comprise, before the collision stage, a deflection step 'of the electron beam.

The deflection of the electron beam can afford not necessarily positioned opposite the electron sources and cores thus reducing the damage of the electron source by neutrons generated after collision between the beams of nuclei and electrons .

The step of deflecting the electron beam may incorporate a step of applying at least one magnetic field and / or at least one electric field deflection.

The deflection magnetic field may be static or not.

The electric field deflection may be static or not.

The deflecting magnetic field may for example have an intensity between 0.1 and 5 T, for example between 0.5 and 3 T.

The deflection magnetic field may be homogeneous or inhomogeneous.

The electric field deflection may be homogeneous or inhomogeneous.

Deviation nuclei and atomic particles

neutron generation methods according to the invention may comprise a core of the deflection step has not been subjected to collision with electrons.

The nuclei generation process according to the invention may comprise a step of deviation cores, or atomic particles which have not undergone collisions with the neutrons.

This nuclei deflection step or atomic particles may comprise a step of applying at least one magnetic field and / or at least one electric field deflection.

For example, when the sources of nuclei or nuclear particles and neutrons are positioned opposite, the neutron source may be damaged by the nuclei or atomic particles which have not undergone crash. Thus, the deviation of these nuclei or the atomic particles, for example by Γ via a magnetic field and / or electric, can limit, for example delete, this damage

The deflection of the cores which have not undergone collisions can still allow to limit the presence of the latter in the neutron beam produced in the case of neutron generation methods according to the invention.

The deflection magnetic field may be static or not.

The electric field deflection may be static or not.

The deflecting magnetic field may for example have an intensity between 0.1 and 5 T, for example between 0.5 and 3 T.

The deflection magnetic field may be homogeneous or inhomogeneous.

The electric field deflection may be homogeneous or inhomogeneous.

Furthermore, when it is desired to collide a first core beam and a second beam of nuclei placed in an interference state, the magnetic field and / or electric deflection can be used to deflect the nuclei unreacted collision.

Magnetic fields used for maintaining the spin state of the neutrons generated after colliding beams of nuclei and electrons

neutron generation processes according to the invention may comprise, after the collision step, a step of maintaining the spin state of the generated neutrons.

This maintenance step can include a step of applying at least one magnetic field maintenance.

The magnetic field of maintenance can be static.

The magnetic field of maintenance can be homogeneous.

The magnetic field of maintenance can have an intensity between 0.5 and 45 T, for example between 1 and 20 T.

The magnetic field can be obtained by keeping the superconducting coils, resistive coils or "hybrid" coils.

Pregnant

The vacuum and temperature methods of the invention can take place in a chamber having a lower pressure for example or equal to 1 Pa, e.g. Î 0 "5 Pa.

Pregnant with low pressure limits the particle density and may therefore limit potential sources of disturbance of the beams.

Such pressure can, for example, be obtained by using ionic vacuum pumps or other means regarded by the art as suitable for the invention.

The method according to the invention may take place in a chamber having substantially no material other than the beam intended to come into collision.

F enclosure wall

We can choose the thickness and nature of the material constituting the wall of the enclosure so as to contain the radiation and particles produced after the collision stage and the beams to be brought into collision.

Diaphragm output

Collider for generating neutrons according to the invention may comprise an output diaphragm.

For example in the case where the collider according to the invention is connected to another vacuum chamber, the outlet aperture may be a perforated disc so as to pass the neutron beam.

The output diaphragm may comprise, for example, be constituted of one or more material (s) weakly neutron absorbers.

The output diaphragm may comprise, consist, for example, carbon, magnesium, lead, silica, zirconium or aluminum.

The opening of the outlet aperture may be of any shape for example circular, oval, elliptical, polygonal.

Production and Energy Recovery

Collision step, particularly within the nuclei of generation methods according to the invention may generate an energy release, such as heat. The heat produced during. the collision step can for example be recovered by a heat exchanger in which circulates one or more fluid (s) coolant (s).

Can be used as any fluid coolant known in the art as suitable for the invention.

It is also possible to use any type of material becoming fluid at high temperatures such as sodium.

Description of figures

The invention can be better understood on reading the detailed description that follows, non-limiting examples of implementation thereof, and on examining the accompanying drawings, wherein:

- Figure 1 schematically illustrates a plurality of spins subjected to the action of a magnetic field adapted to put them in a defined spin state,

- the '2 schematically shows an example of neutron generation plant according to the invention,

- Figures 2a and 2b schematically show, at two different times, a facility corresponding to a variant embodiment of Figure 2,

- Figure 3 schematically illustrates a detail of Figure 2,

- Figures 3a to 3c schematically illustrate variants of Figure 3, ~ 4 schematically shows another embodiment of a neutron generating plant according to the invention,

- 5 schematically illustrates the collision of electron beams and cores implemented in Figure 4,

- Figure 6 shows schematically an embodiment of an interferometer device for obtaining a beam placed in an interference state, and

- Figure 7 shows schematically an embodiment of a medical apparatus according to the invention.

- Figure 8 shows schematically an example of nuclei generation plant according to the invention,

- Figure 9 shows schematically a detail of Figure 8,

- Figure 9a schematically represents a variant of figure 9, - figure 10 diagrammatically shows another embodiment of a nuclei generating plant according to the invention,

- Figure 1 1 schematically illustrates the collision of the beams of nuclei and neutrons used in Figure 10, and

- Figure 12 shows schematically an embodiment of a medical apparatus according to the invention.

In the following, the vectors are represented in bold.

In Figure 1 is schematically illustrated a plurality of cores 1, for example intended to come into collision with a plurality of electrons, each having a spin SN subjected to the action of a magnetic field B adapted to put them in a state definite spin. The Bo field has a static component and a variable component and / or a non-zero gradient on the axis of the collision. The spins of the nuclei 1 are under the influence of the Bo field, aligned with Bo- Moreover, the spins can, as shown, be in the same direction with Bo- Of course, although not illustrated, the spins of a plurality electron subjected to the action of a magnetic field adapted to put them in a defined spin state will also be aligned with said magnetic field. These spins can also be further in the same direction with said magnetic field.

Of course, although not illustrated, the spins of a plurality of neutron subjected to the action of a magnetic field adapted to put them in a defined spin state will also be aligned with said magnetic field. These spins can also be in the same direction with said magnetic field.

In Figure 2 is shown an electron beam 2 generated by an electron source and a core beam 1 generated by a source of nuclei.

The electron beams generated and cores are each caused to pass through a diaphragm 100 disposed after the release of their respective source.

A first magnetic field B 0, configured for carrying in a spin state defined nuclei beam 1 having a static component and a variable component and / or a non-zero gradient on the axis of the collision is applied.

The electron beam 2 is subjected to a second magnetic field B 1} configured for carrying in a spin state set of the electron beam 2, which has a static component and a variable component and / or a non-zero gradient on tax the collision.

The electron beam 2 is then deflected by a deflection magnetic field B 2. Although not illustrated, the electron beam could be deflected by an electric field for deflection or by the combination of an electric field and a magnetic field deflection.

It is noted that the beams cores 1 and 2 form electrons at the exit of their respective source, an angle a which is shown in Figure 2 as being substantially equal to 90 °. More generally, the angle may be between 0 and 180 °. When a is greater than or equal to 90 °, it may be preferable to apply a magnetic field and / or electric deflection so as to cause, during the collision step, the cores 1 and beam 2 of electrons in a direction of movement substantially opposite. In contrast, when a is less than 90 °, it may be preferable to apply a magnetic field and / or electric deflection so as to cause, during the collision step, the cores 1 and beam 2 of electrons in a substantially identical direction of movement.

The first and second magnetic fields are generated by unrepresented coils.

The collision between the cores of beam 1 and the electron beam 2 takes place in an enclosure 30 having a wall 10 and causes the generation of neutrons 3. It is seen that, during the collision step, the cores beam 1 and two electrons have a direction of movement substantially opposite.

The neutrons generated 3 may have to pass through a diaphragm 100. The neutrons generated 3 can be maintained in a spin state defined by the magnetic field B3 maintenance, for example created by a coil 20.

In FIG 3 are shown the cores of spin states 1 and electron 2 just before collision. As illustrated, the spins of the electrons E S and the spins of nuclei S may, upon collision step, be aligned in the same direction. Moreover, the spins of the nuclei 1 respectively 2 electrons can be collinear vectors velocities of cores 1 respectively 2 electrons upon collision step.

In Figure 3a is shown an alternative embodiment of Figure 3 wherein the second magnetic field is identical to the first magnetic field BQ and is a static field. We can see that the spins are put into a defined state but not all aligned in the direction of the field.

In Figure 3b is shown a variant embodiment of Figure 3 where the beams cores 1 and 2 are electron during the collision step, the direction of displacement substantially identical. In this case, the angle between the beams cores 1 and 2 electrons at the exit of their respective source may, for example, be less than 90 °. The core of spin 1 respectively 2 of the electron and the nucleus of the velocity vector of the electron 1 respectively 2 may be collinear and have the same direction when the collision step.

In Figure 3c is shown an alternative embodiment where a core 1 that have not undergone collision is deflected by the deflecting magnetic field B

In Figures 3b and 3c, although not shown, the deflection magnetic field

B may be replaced by an electric field deflection or by the combination of a magnetic field and an electric field deflection ..

Sources of nuclei and electrons are shown, in Figure 2a, as being placed facing one another, each generating respectively a core beam 1 and an electron beam 2, each having substantially the same direction and an opposite direction of movement .

Furthermore, a first magnetic field Bo identical to the second magnetic field for carrying the bundles of cores 1 and 2 in a defined electron spin state, is applied in the chamber 30.

In Figure 2b is shown the evolution of the system of Figure 2a after the collision step, where a neutron beam 3 is generated substantially in the direction of the electron source.

Of course, the electron source 2 is, as illustrated, chosen so as to limit the interaction and therefore the damage produced by the neutron beam 3.

In Figure 4, the beams cores 1 and 2 are electron before the collision, put in an interference state. 2 the electron beam is further deflected under the action of a deflection magnetic field B 2. A neutron beam 3 is generated after collision between the electron beam and the beam core.

To Figure 5 is illustrated schematically in the collision of the cores of beams 1 and 2 electrons placed each in a state of spatial interference. Constructive interference areas 40 within the core 1 of the beam are illustrated as substantially covering the entire constructive interference areas 50 present within the electron beam 2 placed in a state of spatial interference. 5 illustrates further the recovery of the respective zones destructive interference of the two beams 41 and 51.

In Figure 6 is shown an interferometric device 300 for placing a beam of incident particles in a Staff interference having a diffraction grating in succession transmission 200.

The particles emerging beams of the diffraction gratings 200 then pass through a collimator to generate only a single beam.

The medical apparatus shown in Figure 7 is used for the destruction of cancer cells by neutron beam. This installation comprises a means for positioning a patient P to be treated and a collider according to the invention at the outlet of which is placed an irradiation head 400 'for irradiating the patient P with the generated neutron beam by collider according to the invention.

In Figure 8 is shown a core beam 1 generated by a source of nuclei and a neutron beam 3 generated by a neutron source. Which will be described below with respect to the cores 1, put into a defined state of spin, can be applicable to atomic particles.

Neutron beams 3 and 1 generated nuclei are each caused to pass through a diaphragm 100 disposed after the release of their respective source.

A first magnetic field Bo having a static component and a variable component and / or a non-hindered gradient on the axis of the collision, configured for carrying in a spin state defined nuclei beam 1 is applied.

The neutron beam 3 undergoes a second magnetic field B \, configured for carrying in a spin state defined neutron beam 3, which has a static component and a variable component and / or a non-zero gradient on the axis of collision.

The first and second magnetic fields are generated by one or more coil (s) 80. The collision between the cores of beam 1 and the neutron beam 3 takes place in an enclosure 30 having a wall 10 and causes the generation of nuclei 1 and a heat.

The heat produced during the collision is recovered by a heat exchanger 60 in which circulates a heat transfer fluid 70.

The particles which have not undergone collisions and / or produced during the collision is evacuated by the vacuum pump.

In Figure 9 is illustrated the spin states of nuclei 1 and neutrons 3 just before collision. As illustrated, the neutron spins S u and the spins of the nuclei may SN, when collision step, be aligned in the same direction. Moreover, the spins of the nuclei 1 respectively neutron 3 may be collinear with the velocity vectors of the cores 1 respectively 3 neutrons upon collision step.

In figure 9a is shown an alternative embodiment of Figure 9 where the second magnetic field is identical to the first magnetic field Bo and is a static field. We can see that the spins are put into a defined state but not all aligned in the direction of the field.

In Figure 10, the beams cores 1 and 3 are neutrons, before the collision, placed in an interference state. What will. be described below for the neutron beam 3, put in an interference state can be applicable to a second cores beam 3.

In Figure 1 1 is illustrated schematically in the collision of the cores of beams 1 and 3 each neutron put in an interference state. Constructive interference areas 40 within the cores beam 1 are illustrated as substantially covering the entire constructive interference areas 500 present within the neutron beam 3 placed in an interference state. Figure I 1 illustrates, in addition, the recovery of the respective zones destructive interference of the two beams 41 and 510.

The medical facility shown in Figure 12 is used for the destruction of cancer cells by nuclei beam. This installation comprises a means for positioning a patient to be treated P and a collider according to the invention at the outlet of which is placed a radiation head 400 to the irradiation of the patient P with the ring beam generated by the collider according to the invention. The expression "comprising a (e)" should be understood as "comprising at least one (e)".

Claims

1. A method for generating neutrons comprising at least the successive steps of:
a) contacting in a spin state set and / or in a state of spatial interference at least an electron beam and at least one core bundle selected from protons, deuterons and tritons, the beams of nuclei and electrons put in a state of spatial interference each having at least one region of constructive interference, and at least an area of ​​destructive interference, and
b) colliding the at least one core bundle and at least one electron beam.
2. The method of claim 1, the beams of nuclei and electrons each being placed in a defined spin state and in a state of spatial interference during the step a).
3. A method according to one of claims 1 and 2, the spins of the electrons and nuclei being, during step b), aligned in the same direction.
4. A method according to any preceding claim, the electron spins of nuclei and respectively the velocity vectors of the electrons of the cores being respectively collinear during step b).
5. A method according to any preceding claim, the velocity vectors of the electrons and nuclei, caused to collide, forming, during step b), an oriented angle of between 170 and 190 °.
6. A method according to any one of claims 1 to 4, the velocity vectors of the electrons and nuclei, caused to collide, forming, during step b), an oriented angle of between -10 and 10 °.
7. A method according to any preceding claim, at least 50% of the cores constituting the core beam having an energy between 1 and 0 7 eV.
8. A method according to any preceding claim, at least 50% of the electrons constituting the electron beam having an energy between 1 and 10 7 eV.
9. A method according to any one of the preceding claims, step a) comprising a step of applying at least:
- a first magnetic field, configured to the spins of nuclei in a defined state, having a static component of an intensity of between 0.5 and 45 I and / or a non-zero gradient on the axis of the collision, and
- a second magnetic field, configured to the spins of the electrons in a defined state, having a static component of an intensity of between 0.1 and 20 T and / or a non-zero gradient on the axis of the collision.
10. Method according to the preceding claim, the first magnetic field having, in addition, a variable component applied under IA form of pulses of duration for example between 0.1 and 100 3 and the second magnetic field further having,
. a variable component applied in the form of for example pulses of duration between 0.1 and 100, us.
11. Method according to one of the two preceding claims, the first magnetic field having, in addition, a variable component having a fréquentiei spectrum having a peak centered at a frequency between 20 and 600 MHz and the second magnetic field having, Furthermore, a variable component having a fréquentiei spectrum having a peak centered at a frequency between 10 and 200 GHz.
12. A method according to any preceding claim, said at least one core beam being emitted in the form of shorter duration pulses or equal to 10 's.
13. A method according to any preceding claim, said at least one electron beam being emitted in the form of shorter duration pulses or equal to 10 "3 sec.
14. A method according to any preceding claim further comprising a step of maintaining the spin state of the neutrons generated after step b).
15. collider for generating neutrons, for example for the implementation of a method according to any preceding claim, comprising:
- a speaker. - a source of nuclei configured to generate at least one beam nuclei selected from protons, deuterons and tritons,
- an electron source configured to generate at least one electron beam, and
• means for generating one or more field (s) magnetic (s) set (s) to said at least one core bundle and at least one electron beam in a spin state set before the collision, and / o
• a means, in particular comprising one or more interferometric devices, for obtaining particles of interference configured to said at least one core bundle and at least one electron beam in a state of spatial interference, before the collision, the bundles of nuclei and electrons placed in a state of spatial interference each having at least one region of constructive interference, and at least an area of ​​destructive interference.
16. A method for generating cores comprising at least the successive steps of:
a) to at least:
a neutron beam and at least one core bundle within a defined spin state and in a state of spatial interference,
a neutron beam and at least one beam of atomic particles in a defined spin state, or
a first core beam and at least one second cores beam in a state of spatial interference, and
b) colliding said beams,
the bundles put into a state of spatial interference each having at least one region of constructive interference, and at least an area of ​​destructive interference.
17. The method of claim 16, the spins:
nuclei and neutrons, or
atomic particles and neutrons,
being, in step b), aligned in the same direction.
18. A method according to any one of claims 16 and 17, the spins: neutrons, respectively of the cores, and the neutron velocity vectors, respectively nuclei being collinear in step b), or neutrons, respectively atomic particles, and the velocity vectors neutrons, atomic particles, respectively, are collinear during step b).
19. A method according to any one of claims 16 to 18, the velocity vectors:
neutrons and nuclei, or
neutrons and atomic particles, or
the nuclei of the first and second beams of nuclei caused to collide, forming, during step b), an oriented angle of between 170 and 190 °.
20. The method of any one of claims 16 to 19, at least. 50% of nuclei component (s) beam (s) of cores having an energy of between l and l0 7 eV.
21. A method according to any one of claims 16 to 20, at least 50% of the neutrons constituting the beam of neutrons having an energy between 1 and
July 10 eV.
22. A method according to any one of claims 16 to 21, step a) comprising a step of applying at least:
a first magnetic field, configured to the spins of the nuclei or atomic particles in a defined state, having a static component of an intensity of between 0.5 and 45 T and / or a non-zero gradient on the axis of the collision and a second magnetic field, configured to the spins of the neutrons in a defined state, having a static component of an intensity of between 0.5 and 45 T and / or a non-zero gradient on the axis of the collision.
23. The method of claim 22, the first magnetic field having, in addition, a variable component applied in the form of pulses of duration between 0.1 and ΙΟΟμε and the second magnetic field having, in addition, a variable component applied in the form of pulses of duration between 0.1 and 5 100μ.
24. A method according to one of deu preceding claims, the first magnetic field having, in addition, a variable component having a frequency spectrum comprising a peak centered at a frequency between 20 and 600 MHz and the second magnetic field further having , a variable component having a fréquentiei spectrum having a peak centered at a frequency between 20 and 600 MHz.
25. A method according to any one of claims 16 to 24, said at least one core beam being emitted in the form of shorter duration pulses or equal to 10 "3 sec.
26. A method according to any one of claims 16 to 25, said at least one neutron beam being emitted in the form of shorter duration pulses or equal to 10 -3 sec.
27. A method of producing energy comprising at least the successive steps of:
a) to at least:
a neutron beam and at least one core bundle within a defined spin state and in a state of spatial interference, or
- a neutron beam and at least one beam of atomic particles in a defined spin state, or
a first core beam and at least one second cores beam in a state of spatial interference, and
b) colliding beams iesdits and
c) recovering the energy generated by the collision taking place in step b), the beams being in a state of spatial interference each having at least one region of constructive interference, and at least an area of ​​destructive interference.
28. collider for generating cores for the implementation of a method according to any one of claims 16 to 27, comprising:
- a speaker,
a source :
• cores configured to generate at least one core bundle, or
* Of atomic particles configured to generate at least one atomic particle beam,
a neutron source configured to generate at least a neutron beam, and • means for generating one or more field (s) magnetic (s) set (s) to the spins of the nuclei and neutrons or the spins of particles atomic and neutrons in a defined state before the collision, and / or
• a means, in particular comprising one or more interferometric devices, for obtaining particles of interference configured to said at least one beam of nuclei and neutrons in a state of spatial interference, before the collision, the core bundles and neutron put in a state of spatial interference each having an area of ​​constructive interference and areas of destructive interference.
29. Collisiormeur to generate nuclei for the implementation of a method according to any one of claims 16 to 27, comprising:
a speaker,
a first source cores configured to generate at least one first core beam,
a second source of nuclei configured to generate at least one second cores beam, and
means, in particular comprising one or more interferometric devices, for obtaining particles of interference configured to said first and second cores beams in a state of spatial interference, before the collision, the first and second cores beams used in a state of spatial interference each having at least one region of constructive interference, and at least an area of ​​destructive interference.
EP10803507A 2009-11-25 2010-11-25 Method for generating neutrons Withdrawn EP2505043A1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FR0958354A FR2953091B1 (en) 2009-11-25 2009-11-25 Method to generate neutrons.
FR0958353A FR2953060B1 (en) 2009-11-25 2009-11-25 Method to generate the nuclei.
PCT/IB2010/055431 WO2011064739A1 (en) 2009-11-25 2010-11-25 Method for generating neutrons

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