EP2397756A2 - Furnace for burning solid fuels - Google Patents

Furnace for burning solid fuels Download PDF

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Publication number
EP2397756A2
EP2397756A2 EP11170106A EP11170106A EP2397756A2 EP 2397756 A2 EP2397756 A2 EP 2397756A2 EP 11170106 A EP11170106 A EP 11170106A EP 11170106 A EP11170106 A EP 11170106A EP 2397756 A2 EP2397756 A2 EP 2397756A2
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
carburetor
burner
furnace
combustion zone
combustion
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
EP11170106A
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
EP2397756A3 (en
EP2397756B1 (en
Inventor
Hans-Jürgen BRANDT
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Windhager Zentralheizung Technik GmbH
Original Assignee
Windhager Zentralheizung Technik GmbH
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Publication date
Priority to AT10252010A priority Critical patent/AT510063B8/en
Application filed by Windhager Zentralheizung Technik GmbH filed Critical Windhager Zentralheizung Technik GmbH
Publication of EP2397756A2 publication Critical patent/EP2397756A2/en
Publication of EP2397756A3 publication Critical patent/EP2397756A3/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP2397756B1 publication Critical patent/EP2397756B1/en
Active legal-status Critical Current
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23BMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING ONLY SOLID FUEL
    • F23B50/00Combustion apparatus in which the fuel is fed into or through the combustion zone by gravity, e.g. from a fuel storage situated above the combustion zone
    • F23B50/12Combustion apparatus in which the fuel is fed into or through the combustion zone by gravity, e.g. from a fuel storage situated above the combustion zone the fuel being fed to the combustion zone by free fall or by sliding along inclined surfaces, e.g. from a conveyor terminating above the fuel bed
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23BMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING ONLY SOLID FUEL
    • F23B10/00Combustion apparatus characterised by the combination of two or more combustion chambers
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23BMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING ONLY SOLID FUEL
    • F23B60/00Combustion apparatus in which the fuel burns essentially without moving
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23BMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING ONLY SOLID FUEL
    • F23B90/00Combustion methods not related to a particular type of apparatus
    • F23B90/04Combustion methods not related to a particular type of apparatus including secondary combustion
    • F23B90/06Combustion methods not related to a particular type of apparatus including secondary combustion the primary combustion being a gasification or pyrolysis in a reductive atmosphere

Abstract

The invention relates to a furnace with at least one burner (4a, 4b) for the combustion of solids, in particular pellets, with at least one primary air supply and at least one secondary air supply (7a, 7b, 8), the furnace (1) having at least two separate combustion zones (11, 12), at least a first combustion zone (11) for the solid fuel and at least a second combustion zone (12) is formed for the gasified solid fuel, wherein the first combustion zone (11) in a substantially tubular carburetor part (3) and the second combustion zone (12) is arranged in a burner part (4) having at least one burner (4a, 4b). In order to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions and dust emissions with little effort, it is provided that the second combustion zone (12) is arranged at least predominantly higher than the first combustion zone (11), wherein preferably the burner section (4) is at least predominantly higher than the gasifier section (3). is arranged.

Description

  • The invention relates to a furnace with at least one burner for the combustion of solids, in particular pellets, with at least one primary air supply and at least one secondary air supply, wherein the furnace with at least two separate combustion zones, at least a first combustion zone for the solid fuel and at least a second combustion zone is formed for the gasified solid fuel, wherein the first combustion zone is arranged in a substantially tubular carburetor part and the second combustion zone in a burner part having at least one burner.
  • Conventional solid fuel combustion plants release relatively high NO x and dust emissions, unlike with liquid or gaseous fuel fired furnaces, so that similarly low emissions can not or only be met with expensive exhaust aftertreatment equipment.
  • Commonly known and widely used in practice are firings for solid fuels in which the combustion air is supplied in two spatially separated areas in order to optimize the quality of combustion. Wood gasification boilers for firewood furnaces, for example, are fed once with fuel, incinerate this fuel with supply of a first amount of air incomplete in a Glutzone in the bottom area - with the feed fuel by gravity down into this Glutzone slips - and subsequently the incompletely burned gases directly from the primary Glutzone forwarded to an afterburner zone below or in the side area for complete combustion, in which case the second air supply takes place.
  • The EP 2 077 311 describes a device for the gasification of biomass, wherein the gasification is carried out by the heat released during the combustion of biomass without direct connection of heat source to the gasification material.
  • From the WO 2006/117579 A1 it is known to carry out the gasification and combustion of pellets in the combustion chamber of a boiler, wherein the amount of air, the amount of gas and the thickness of the pellet bed are controlled so that the resulting temperature remains below the melting point of the ash produced. However, the ember bed (in variable height) is in direct contact with the combustion chamber, which experience has shown to be associated with high dust emissions.
  • Furthermore, combined heating and carburettor ("semi-carburettor") from the publications CN 201043760 Y and CN 101059248 A but both of them can perform the gasification process only incomplete or not with the necessary spatial distance.
  • From the website www.pyro-man.net, it is also known to gas pellets fuel and direct the combustion gases to a burner. Are carburetor and burner part spatially relatively widely spaced, so this has the disadvantage that the connecting line between the carburetor part and burner part tends by low temperatures to Verteerungen.
  • The US 5,678,494 A1 discloses a biomass furnace having a first combustion zone for the solid fuel and a second combustion zone for the gasified solid fuel, the first combustion zone having a substantially tubular carburetor portion. The second combustion zone is arranged laterally of the first combustion zone.
  • A similar firing is from the US 4,463,687 A known. Again, there is a second combustion zone to the side of a first combustion zone.
  • Other burners with burners for the combustion of solids are from the pamphlets DE 198 50 376 A1 . DE 39 22 060 A1 and DE 203 21 670 U1 known.
  • The object of the invention is to reduce the NOx and dust emissions in a furnace of the type mentioned in the simplest possible way.
  • According to the invention this is achieved in that, the second combustion zone is at least predominantly higher than the first combustion zone, wherein preferably the burner part is at least predominantly higher than the carburetor part.
  • It is preferably provided that the burner part is connected in a region remote from the first combustion zone of the carburetor part to the carburetor part.
  • It is particularly advantageous if, in a charging section of the carburetor part facing away from the first combustion zone, a charging device for heating material opens, wherein preferably the charging section is arranged in an upper half, particularly preferably in an upper third of the carburetor part. A charging opening of the charging device can be arranged in the jacket region of the carburetor part approximately in the region of a maximum filling height of the heating material.
  • Particularly low emissions can be achieved if the burner part is connected to the carburetor part in the region of the feed section and / or in an upper half, preferably in an upper third of the carburetor part.
  • A particularly good reduction in NOx and dust emissions can be achieved if the burner part is placed on the carburettor part.
  • The measures described cause the product gases formed in the first afterburning part and the heat released to flow through the unburned part in the carburetor part counter to the material flow direction of the heating material in order to reach the second combustion zone.
  • The height of the carburetor part can be at least twice the diameter of the carburetor part in the small power range (<= 30kW), preferably the diameter of the carburetor part is at least 100 mm.
  • The height of the carburettor part can be at least one and a half times the diameter of the carburetor part in the middle power range (> 30kW to <= 100kW), preferably the diameter of the carburetor part is at least 125 mm for this power.
  • The height of the carburetor part can be at least the simple diameter of the carburetor part in the high power range (> 100kW), preferably the diameter of the carburetor part is at least 150 mm at this power.
  • According to the invention, it is provided that the second combustion zone of the combustion part of the gaseous solid fuel is located between 50 mm to 1000 mm above the maximum filling level of the solid fuel in the direction of the combustion gases perpendicularly, obliquely or laterally of the fuel bed, preferably vertically above the fuel bed. The distance depends on the type of fuel (material, water content, piece size, etc.) and the power range of the furnace. For wood pellets in the power range of 5 kW - 20 kW, it is for example in the range of preferably 80 mm - 300 mm.
  • Burner part and carburetor can be arranged coaxially or axially offset one above the other.
  • The area between the fuel bed and the combustion zone is heated by direct or indirect energy input through the primary and secondary combustion zones, with steady state high and low power temperatures of between 200 ° C and 500 ° C.
  • The gasification is carried out mainly by the energy generated in the primary combustion zone, but also by the direct or indirect combustion heat in the burner part placed on the carburetor.
  • At least one primary air supply is provided in the bottom region of the carburetor part. Furthermore, it is provided that the burner part has at least one lateral secondary air supply in the region of the second combustion zone.
  • A further air supply can be arranged in the region of the jacket of the carburettor part and / or above the secondary air supply.
  • In the bottom region of the carburetor part, an ash disposal device is arranged.
  • The fuel is introduced in countercurrent principle in the shell part, wherein as a result of heat generated in the bottom half of the carburetor in substoichiometric combustion by the supplied from below primary air gasification of the top third fuel supplied above the primary combustion zone, but below the fuel bed surface takes place. Between the primary combustion zone and the gasification zone there is a transition zone in which no significant chemical or physical reactions take place. The fuel gas is then burned stoichiometrically or superstoichiometrically in the burner part with the supply of secondary air, with particularly low dust and NOx emissions are released.
  • The invention will be explained in more detail below with reference to FIGS. Show it:
  • Fig. 1
    a furnace according to the invention in the small power range installed in a boiler for use as a heating system in an oblique view in a first embodiment;
    Fig. 2
    the firing in a first side view;
    Fig. 3
    the furnace in a second side view;
    Fig. 4
    the firing in a section along the line IV-IV in Fig. 2 ;
    Fig. 5
    the firing in a section along the line VV in Fig. 2 ;
    Fig. 6
    a furnace according to the invention in a second embodiment variant in a section along the line VI-VI in Fig. 7 ;
    Fig. 7
    this firing in a front view;
    Fig. 8
    this firing in a side view; and
    Fig. 9
    this firing in a section according to the line IX-IX in Fig. 6 ,
  • Functionally identical parts are provided in the embodiment variants with the same reference numerals.
  • The in the Fig. 1 to Fig. 5 shown formed on the principle of a countercurrent gasification furnace 1 comprises a boiler body 2 with a carburetor part 3 and a burner part 4, wherein the burner part 4 is placed on the substantially tubular carburetor part 3. The burner part 4 may have one or two burners 4a, 4b.
  • The height H v of the carburetor part 3 is at least twice as large as the inner diameter D v of the carburetor part 3. The inner diameter D B of the burner part 4 in the embodiment is approximately the inner diameter D v of the carburetor part 3, but can for example also significantly larger or be smaller, adapted to the respective performance or to the respective solid fuel.
  • The carburetor part 3 has a first combustion zone 11 (primary combustion zone) for the solid fuel, wherein in the lower third of the carburettor part 3 a primary air supply 6 and an ash disposal device 5 are arranged in the bottom region. A second combustion zone 12 (secondary combustion zone) for gasified solid fuels is arranged in the burner part 4, wherein the burner part 4 is equipped with one or two burners 4a, 4b. Each burner 4a, 4b has a lateral first secondary air supply 7a, 7b, which are passed through the combustion chamber wall in the second combustion zone 12 for the gasified solid fuel. Optionally, a further secondary air supply 8 may also be provided in the region of the jacket 3a of the carburetor part 3.
  • In the upper region of the carburettor part 3, in a feed section 30, a feed device 9 opens via a feed opening 9a, the feed device 9 conveying solid fuel from a container (not further illustrated) into the carburetor part 3 up to a maximum fill level h.
  • Particularly low NOx and dust emissions can be achieved if the distance α between the maximum fill level h and the combustion zone 11 for the gasified solid fuel is between about 50 mm to 1,000 mm. The distance α is measured between the maximum filling height h and the center line 7 'of the secondary air supply 7a of the adjoining the carburetor part 3 burner 4a.
  • The solid fuel formed for example by fuel pellets is introduced, for example, with a stoker screw not shown on the charging device 9 in the carburetor part 3 to the maximum filling level h. In the carburettor part 3, the solid fuel is gasified by heat preferably generated in the first combustion zone 11 for the solid fuel, wherein in the lower part of the carburettor part 3, for example 5 cm above the bottom of the carburettor part 3, an air ratio λ of about 0.3 is established. The resulting ash in the decomposition of the fuel ashes is removed by the ash disposal facility 5.
  • The stinging in the gasification fuel gases are burned in the burner 4a of the burner part 4 with the supply of secondary air, wherein the first burner 4a, a second burner 4b can be connected downstream. The exhaust gases containing only small amounts of nitrogen oxides and dust are subsequently used correspondingly energetically. In the present example, the exhaust gases are passed in known manner via heat exchanger not shown in detail in a boiler body 2.
  • In the in the Fig. 1 to Fig. 5 shown firing burner part 4 and carburetor 3 are arranged coaxially one above the other.
  • The FIG. 6 to FIG. 9 show a further embodiment of a furnace in which burner part 4 and carburetor 3 are arranged axially offset one above the other.

Claims (15)

  1. Firing with at least one burner (4a, 4b) for the combustion of solids, in particular pellets, with at least one primary air supply and at least one secondary air supply (7a, 7b, 8), the furnace (1) having at least two separate combustion zones (11, 12 ), at least one first combustion zone (11) for the solid fuel and at least one second combustion zone (12) for the gasified solid fuel, wherein the first combustion zone (11) in a substantially tubular carburetor part (3) and the second combustion zone ( 12) is arranged in a burner part (4) having at least one burner (4a, 4b), characterized in that the second combustion zone (12) is arranged at least predominantly higher than the first combustion zone (11), wherein preferably the burner part (4 ) is arranged at least predominantly higher than the carburetor part (3).
  2. Furnace (1) according to claim 1, characterized in that the burner part (4) in one of the first combustion zone (11) of the carburetor part (3) facing away from the gasifier part (3) is connected.
  3. Furnace (1) according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that in a first combustion zone (11) facing away from feed section (30) of the carburetor part (3) opens a charging device (9) for heating material, wherein preferably the feed section (30) in a in the upper half, particularly preferably in an upper third of the carburetor part (3), wherein preferably a charging opening (9a) of the charging device (9) in the jacket region (3a) of the carburetor part (3) approximately in the region of a maximum filling height (h) of the heating material is arranged.
  4. Furnace (1) according to one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the burner part (4) in an upper half, preferably in an upper third of the carburetor part (3) to the carburetor part (3) is connected.
  5. Furnace (1) according to one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the burner part (4) in the region of the feed section (9a) of the carburetor part (3) to the carburetor part (3) is connected.
  6. Furnace (1) according to one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the burner part (4) is placed on the carburetor part (3).
  7. Furnace (1) according to one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the second combustion zone (12) between 50 mm to 1000 mm above the maximum filling level (h) of the solid fuel in the carburetor part (3) is arranged.
  8. Furnace (1) according to one of claims 1 to 7, characterized in that the height (H v ) of the carburetor part (3) is at least the simple, preferably at least twice the inner diameter (D v ) of the carburetor part (3), preferably the inner diameter (D v ) of the carburettor part (3) is at least 100 mm.
  9. Firing (1) according to one of claims 1 to 8, characterized in that the carburetor part (3) has at least one primary air supply (6) in a ground-level third.
  10. Furnace (1) according to one of claims 1 to 9, characterized in that the burner part (4) in the region of the second combustion zone (12) has at least one lateral first secondary air supply (7a, 7b).
  11. Furnace (1) according to one of claims 1 to 10, characterized in that the carburetor part (3) in its jacket region (3a) has at least one further secondary air supply (8).
  12. Furnace (1) according to one of claims 1 to 11, characterized in that an ash disposal device (6) is arranged in the bottom region of the carburettor part (3).
  13. Furnace (1) according to one of claims 1 to 12, characterized in that the firing capacity is adjustable solely by an exact control of the primary air, wherein preferably the temperature in the area between the fuel bed upper edge and combustion zone between about 200 ° C and 500 ° C. ,
  14. Furnace (1) according to one of claims 1 to 13, characterized in that the burner part (4) and carburetor part (3) are arranged substantially coaxially, preferably one above the other.
  15. Furnace (1) according to one of claims 1 to 13, characterized in that the burner part (4) and carburetor part (3) axially offset, preferably one above the other, are arranged.
EP11170106.6A 2010-06-21 2011-06-16 Furnace for burning solid fuels Active EP2397756B1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
AT10252010A AT510063B8 (en) 2010-06-21 2010-06-21 Fire for the burning of solids

Publications (3)

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EP2397756A2 true EP2397756A2 (en) 2011-12-21
EP2397756A3 EP2397756A3 (en) 2014-02-19
EP2397756B1 EP2397756B1 (en) 2016-08-31

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
ITMI20121260A1 (en) * 2012-07-19 2014-01-20 Laminox S R L from pellet heating apparatus optimized
CN106090888A (en) * 2016-06-23 2016-11-09 佛山市浩宝金属制品有限公司 The reflective segmentation combined combustion method of biomass molding fuel and be applicable to the burning structure of the method

Citations (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4463687A (en) 1982-04-19 1984-08-07 E. K. Industries, Inc. Powered downdraft gasifier
DE3922060A1 (en) 1989-07-05 1991-01-17 Norbert Harlander Combustion system for solid fuels with second burner
US5678494A (en) 1995-03-22 1997-10-21 Ulrich; Gael Biomass-fueled furnace
DE19850376A1 (en) 1998-11-02 2000-05-25 Univ Stuttgart Incinerator reducing primary pollution comprises gasification and combustion chambers, fans, hot gas return duct and flame duct
WO2006117579A1 (en) 2005-05-02 2006-11-09 FOCK, József Method and apparatus for gasifying and burning pellets made from herbaceous plants
CN101059248A (en) 2007-03-22 2007-10-24 马良奇 Blowing type domestic biomass half-gasification oven production method and the gasification oven
CN201043760Y (en) 2007-05-30 2008-04-02 洛阳市工程机械设计所 Multi-head biomass environment-friendly gasification furnace
DE20321670U1 (en) 2002-04-09 2008-10-23 Termocabi S.R.L., Pieve S. Giacomo Burner for pellet fuel
EP2077311A1 (en) 2006-10-23 2009-07-08 Nagasaki Institute of Applied Science Biomass gasification apparatus

Family Cites Families (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5823122A (en) * 1994-09-30 1998-10-20 Alternative Energy Development, Inc. System and process for production of fuel gas from solid biomass fuel and for combustion of such fuel gas
FI112798B (en) * 1999-07-28 2004-01-15 Valtion Teknillinen Process and plant for gasification of a carbonaceous fuel in a fixed bed gasifier
US20030200905A1 (en) * 2002-04-29 2003-10-30 Reed Thomas B. Process for making a gas from solid fuels and burning the gas in a close coupled combustor to produce clean heat
DE102006046599B4 (en) * 2006-09-30 2012-02-09 Hochschule Karlsruhe-Technik Und Wirtschaft Process and apparatus for the discontinuous combustion of fuels

Patent Citations (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4463687A (en) 1982-04-19 1984-08-07 E. K. Industries, Inc. Powered downdraft gasifier
DE3922060A1 (en) 1989-07-05 1991-01-17 Norbert Harlander Combustion system for solid fuels with second burner
US5678494A (en) 1995-03-22 1997-10-21 Ulrich; Gael Biomass-fueled furnace
DE19850376A1 (en) 1998-11-02 2000-05-25 Univ Stuttgart Incinerator reducing primary pollution comprises gasification and combustion chambers, fans, hot gas return duct and flame duct
DE20321670U1 (en) 2002-04-09 2008-10-23 Termocabi S.R.L., Pieve S. Giacomo Burner for pellet fuel
WO2006117579A1 (en) 2005-05-02 2006-11-09 FOCK, József Method and apparatus for gasifying and burning pellets made from herbaceous plants
EP2077311A1 (en) 2006-10-23 2009-07-08 Nagasaki Institute of Applied Science Biomass gasification apparatus
CN101059248A (en) 2007-03-22 2007-10-24 马良奇 Blowing type domestic biomass half-gasification oven production method and the gasification oven
CN201043760Y (en) 2007-05-30 2008-04-02 洛阳市工程机械设计所 Multi-head biomass environment-friendly gasification furnace

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
Sjaak Van Loo ET AL: "Pellet burners for central heating systems" In: "The Handbook of Biomass Combustion and Co firing", 31 December 2008 (2008-12-31), XP055157887, ISBN: 978-1-84-971104-3 pages 125-126, *

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
ITMI20121260A1 (en) * 2012-07-19 2014-01-20 Laminox S R L from pellet heating apparatus optimized
CN106090888A (en) * 2016-06-23 2016-11-09 佛山市浩宝金属制品有限公司 The reflective segmentation combined combustion method of biomass molding fuel and be applicable to the burning structure of the method

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
EP2397756B1 (en) 2016-08-31
AT510063B8 (en) 2012-08-15
EP2397756A3 (en) 2014-02-19
AT510063B1 (en) 2012-05-15
AT510063A1 (en) 2012-01-15

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