EP2325807B1 - Method and device for generating toll information in a road toll system - Google Patents

Method and device for generating toll information in a road toll system Download PDF

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EP2325807B1
EP2325807B1 EP20090450219 EP09450219A EP2325807B1 EP 2325807 B1 EP2325807 B1 EP 2325807B1 EP 20090450219 EP20090450219 EP 20090450219 EP 09450219 A EP09450219 A EP 09450219A EP 2325807 B1 EP2325807 B1 EP 2325807B1
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beacon
toll
location
data
characterised
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French (fr)
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EP2325807A1 (en )
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Haperen Peter Van
Jan Kersten
Jasja Tijink
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Kapsch Trafficcom AG
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Kapsch Trafficcom AG
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G07CHECKING-DEVICES
    • G07BTICKET-ISSUING APPARATUS; FARE-REGISTERING APPARATUS; FRANKING APPARATUS
    • G07B15/00Arrangements or apparatus for collecting fares, tolls or entrance fees at one or more control points
    • G07B15/06Arrangements for road pricing or congestion charging of vehicles or vehicle users, e.g. automatic toll systems
    • G07B15/063Arrangements for road pricing or congestion charging of vehicles or vehicle users, e.g. automatic toll systems using wireless information transmission between the vehicle and a fixed station

Description

  • Die vorliegende Erfindung betrifft ein Verfahren zum Erzeugen von Mautinformationen aus den Bewegungen von Fahrzeuggeräten in einem Straßenmautsystem, das zumindest eine Mautzentrale und eine Vielzahl daran angeschlossener geographisch verteilter Baken zur Kurzreichweiten-Funkkommunikation mit den Fahrzeuggeräten umfaßt und eine Folge von Positionsdaten eines Fahrzeuggeräts in diesem fahrzeuggerät aufzeichnet. The present invention relates to a method for generating toll information from movements of vehicle devices in a road toll system comprising at least one toll center and a plurality of connected thereto geographically distributed beacons for short-range radio communication with the vehicle devices and a sequence of position data of a vehicle device in this vehicle device records ,
  • Die Erfindung betrifft ferner ein Fahrzeuggerät (onboardunit, OBU) für ein solches Straßenmautsystem, mit einem Satellitennavigationsempfänger zur Erzeugung einer Folge von Positionsdaten, einem ersten Speicher zur Aufzeichnung der Positionsdatenfolge, sowie einem Kurzreichweiten-Sendeempfänger zur Funkkommunikation mit einer von vielen geographisch verteilten Baken, wenn sich das Fahrzeuggerät in deren Sendeempfangsbereich befindet. The invention further relates to a vehicle device (onboard unit, OBU) for such a road toll system with a satellite navigation receiver for generating a sequence of position data, a first memory for recording the position-data sequence, and a short range transceiver for radio communication with a geographically distributed by many beacons when the vehicle device is in its broadcast coverage area.
  • Die Erfindung betrifft schließlich auch eine Bake und ein Überwachungsgerät für ein solches Straßenmautsystem. Finally, the invention also relates to a beacon and a monitoring device for such a road toll system.
  • Unter "Kurzreichweiten"-Funkkommunikationen werden in der vorliegenden Beschreibung Funkentfernungen (Zellradien) von bis zu einigen Kilometern verstanden. By "short range" -Funkkommunikationen (cell radii) of up to a few kilometers to be understood in the present description radio distances.
  • Moderne Straßenmautsysteme folgen in ihren Funktionen, Rollenverteilungen und Schnittstellen den im Standard ISO 17573, "Road Transport and Traffic Telematics - Electronic Fee Collection - System Architecture for Vehicle Related Transport Services", definierten Prinzipien. Modern road toll systems follow the standard ISO 17573, "Road Transport and Traffic Telematics - Electronic Fee Collection - System Architecture for Vehicle Related Transport Services" in their functions, roles and interfaces defined principles. Danach gibt es derzeit im wesentlichen zwei grundlegende Arten von Systemen: After that there are essentially two basic types of systems:
    • "Infrastrukturgebundene" Systeme, zB DSRC-Mautsysteme (dedicated short range communication), bei denen eine straßenseitige Infrastruktur (roadside equipment, RSE), beispielsweise DSRC-Funkbaken, die OBUs lokalisiert und vermautet; "Infrastructure-bound" systems, eg DSRC toll systems (dedicated short range communication), in which a road-side infrastructure (roadside equipment, RSE), e.g., DSRC radio beacons, locates the OBUs and vermautet; und and
    • "infrastrukturlose" Systeme wie GNSS-Mautsysteme (global navigation satellite systems), bei welchen sich die OBUs autark selbst lokalisieren und entweder "rohe" Positionsdaten (als sog. "thin clients") oder daraus auf Grundlage von Mautkarten "fertig" berechnete Mautinformationen (als sog. "thick clients") über ein Mobilfunknetz (cellular network, CN) an die Mautzentrale senden. "Infrastructure-less" systems such as GNSS toll systems (global navigation satellite system) in which the OBUs locate self-sufficient themselves and either "raw" position data (as so-called. "Thin clients") or from it on the basis of toll tickets "finished" calculated toll information ( as so-called. "thick clients") via a mobile network (cellular network, CN) send to the toll center. Aus der From the EP 1 909 231 A1 EP 1909231 A1 ist eine zwischen einem solchen thick- und thin-client-Betrieb umschaltende OBU bekannt. discloses a toggling between such a thick and thin-client operating OBU.
  • Infrastrukturgebundene Mautsysteme erreichen eine hohe Vermautungssicherheit, benötigen dazu jedoch eine umfangreiche straßenseitige Infrastruktur, um OBUs flächendeckend lokalisieren zu können, weil sich die Ortsauflösung der Lokalisierung aus der Größe der Sendeempfangsbereiche und Anzahl der Baken ergibt. Infrastructure-linked toll systems achieve high Vermautungssicherheit, but you must have an extensive roadside infrastructure to locate OBUs coverage because the spatial resolution of the localization of the size of the transceiver areas and number of beacons results. Infrastrukturlose Mautsysteme haben anderseits aufgrund der Selbstlokalisierungsfähigkeit der OBUs eine prinzipiell unbegrenzte Flächenabdeckung, erfordern jedoch bei "thin client"-Systemen eine enorme Rechenleistung (Serverfarm) in der Mautzentrale, um aus den rohen Positionsdaten der OBUs Mautinformationen zu erzeugen, oder bei "thick client"-Systemen entsprechend aufwendige OBUs, welche die gesamten Mautkarten des Mautabdeckungsgebiets aufnehmen und verarbeiten können, was auch eine entsprechend aufwendige Verteilung und Aktualisierung der Mautkarten über das Mobilfunknetz voraussetzt. Infrastructure lots toll systems have on the other hand due to the self-localization ability of the OBUs a principally unlimited area coverage but require enormous computing power (farm) in the toll center for "thin client" systems to generate toll information from the raw position data of the OBUs, or "thick client" systems correspondingly expensive OBUs which can record the entire toll maps of the toll coverage area, and process, which requires a correspondingly expensive distribution and updating of the toll maps via the mobile network. Dieser Datenverkehr ist bandbreitenverzehrend und nicht zuletzt kostspielig für den Benutzer. This traffic is bandwidth-sapping contempt and not least costly for the user.
  • Die Erfindung setzt sich zum Ziel, Verfahren und Vorrichtungen für ein Straßenmautsystem zu schaffen, welche die Vorteile der bekannten Systeme vereinen, ohne deren jeweilige Nachteile zu übernehmen. The invention consists in the introduction which combines the advantages of the known systems without adopting their respective disadvantages to the destination, methods and devices for a road toll system.
  • Dieses Ziel wird in einem ersten Aspekt der Erfindung mit einem Verfahren der einleitend genannten Art erreicht, das sich auszeichnet durch die Schritte: This object is achieved in a first aspect of the invention with a method of the type mentioned in the introduction, which is characterized by the steps of:
  1. a) Bereitstellen eines Satzes von Ortsdaten mautpflichtiger Geoobjekte aus der jeweiligen lokalen Umgebung einer Bake in dieser Bake, a) providing a set of location data of toll geo-objects from the respective local environment of a beacon in said beacon,
  2. b) Aufzeichnen einer Folge von Positionsdaten eines Fahrzeuggeräts in diesem Fahrzeuggerät, b) recording a sequence of position data of a vehicle device in this vehicle device,
  3. c) wenn das genannte Fahrzeuggerät im Sendeempfangsbereich einer Bake ist: Empfangen des Ortsdatensatzes von dieser Bake im Fahrzeuggerät, c) if said vehicle unit in the broadcast receiving range of a beacon: receiving the location-data set from this beacon in the vehicle device,
  4. d) Vergleichen der Positionsdatenfolge mit dem empfangenen Ortsdatensatz im Fahrzeuggerät, um daraus Mautinformationen zu erzeugen, und d) comparing the position-data sequence with the received location-data set in the vehicle device to generate toll information therefrom, and
  5. e) wenn das genannte Fahrzeuggerät im Sendeempfangsbereich einer Bake ist: Senden der Mautinformationen vom Fahrzeuggerät über die Bake an die Mautzentrale. e) when said vehicle device in the broadcast receiving range of a beacon is: transmitting the toll information from the vehicle device via the beacon to the toll center.
  • In einem zweiten Aspekt schafft die Erfindung ein Fahrzeuggerät der eingangs genannten Art, das sich durch einen zweiten Speicher zur Aufnahme zumindest eines Satzes von Ortsdaten mautpflichtiger Geoobjekte aus der Umgebung einer Bake auszeichnet, welcher Ortsdatensatz mittels des Kurzreichweiten-Sendeempfängers von dieser Bake empfangen wurde, wobei das Fahrzeuggerät die aufgezeichnete Positionsdatenfolge mit dem bzw. den empfangenen Ortsdatensatz bzw. -sätzen vergleicht, um daraus Mautinformationen zu erzeugen, und diese Mautinformationen über den Kurzreichenweiten-Sendeempfänger an eine Bake sendet, wenn das Fahrzeuggerät in deren Sendeempfangsbereich ist. In a second aspect the invention provides a vehicle device of the type mentioned, which is characterized by a second memory for holding at least one set of location data of toll geo-objects from the environment of a beacon, which location-data set was received by the short-range transceiver from this beacon, wherein the vehicle device, the recorded position-data sequence with the or compares the received location-data set or -sätzen, to generate therefrom toll information, and this toll information sent via the short rich-width transceiver to a beacon when the vehicle device in the transceiver range.
  • In einem dritten Aspekt der Erfindung wird eine Bake für ein solches Straßenmautsystem geschaffen, mit einem Kurzreichweiten-Sendeempfänger zur Funkkommunikation mit Fahrzeuggeräten, die sich in ihrem Sendeempfangsbereich befinden, welche gekennzeichnet ist durch einen Speicher zur Aufnahme eines Satzes von Ortsdaten mautpflichtiger Geoobjekte aus der Umgebung der Bake, wobei die Bake dazu ausgebildet ist, die Ortsdaten an Fahrzeuggeräte in ihrem Sende-empfangsbereich zu senden und die in den Fahrzeuggeräten erzeugten Mautinformationen zuempfangen. In a third aspect of the invention, a beacon is provided for such a road toll system, with a short-range transceiver for radio communication with vehicle devices that are located within its transceiving area, which is characterized by a memory for receiving a set of location data of toll geo-objects from the environment beacon, the beacon is adapted to transmit the location data to vehicle devices in its transmitting-receiving area and zuempfangen the toll information generated in the vehicle devices.
  • In einem vierten Aspekt schafft die Erfindung auch ein Überwachungsgerät für ein Straßenmautsystem mit zumindest einer solchen Bake, das dazu ausgebildet ist, Bewegungen von Fahrzeuggeräten zu detektieren, und welches auf Grundlage des Ortsdatensatzes einer Bake und der detektierten Bewegungen von Fahrzeuggeräten in der lokalen Umgebung der Bake die von diesen Fahrzeuggeräten - sei es direkt in diesen Fahrzeuggeräten oder in einer Bake - erzeugten Mautinformationen überprüft. In a fourth aspect, the invention also provides a monitoring device for a road-toll system with at least one such beacon, which is configured to detect movements of vehicle devices and which, based on the location data set of a beacon and the detected movements of vehicle devices in the local environment of the beacon by these vehicle devices - either directly in these vehicle devices or in a bake - checks generated toll information. Falsche oder fehlende Mautinformationen können auf diese Weise erkannt werden. Incorrect or missing toll information can be recognized in this way. Bei negativem Überprüfungsergebnis können bevorzugt weitere Maßnahmen veranlaßt werden, insbesondere Foto-oder Videoaufnahmen des Fahrzeugs und/oder die Aufnahme und Speicherung von Daten des Fahrzeuggeräts. With a negative checking result further measures in particular photo or video recording of the vehicle and / or recording and storing data of the vehicle device can be made preferable.
  • Die Erfindung beruht auf einem neuartigen Einsatz von selbstlokalisierenden OBUs im Rahmen eines infrastrukturgebundenen Mautsystems mit Funkbaken zur Verteilung lokal begrenzter Mautkarten der Umgebung, sog. Ortsdatensätze, an passierende OBUs und zur Entgegennahme von in den OBUs auf Grundlage dieser lokalen Karten berechneten Mautinformationen. The invention is based on a novel use of selbstlokalisierenden OBUs within an infrastructure-bound toll system with radio beacons for distributing locally limited toll maps of the environment, so-called. Location-data sets, to passing OBUs and for accepting calculated in the OBUs based on these local maps toll information. Damit werden die folgenden Vorteile erzielt: Thus the following advantages:
    • Durch die Aufteilung des gesamten Abdeckungsbereichs des Mautsystems auf einzelne lokale Teilkarten (Ortsdatensätze) wird die Wartung und Bereitstellung der Ortsdaten der mautpflichtigen Geoobjekte an die OBUs wesentlich vereinfacht. By dividing the whole coverage area of ​​the toll system to individual local regional maps (location-data sets) the maintenance and provision of location data of toll geo-objects to the OBUs is considerably simplified. Bei lokalen Änderungen brauchen in der Zentrale und/oder den zuständigen Baken jeweils nur die lokalen Ortsdatensätze aktualisiert zu werden. For local changes need to be updated each only local place records in the central and / or the competent beacons.
    • OBUs der Erfindung sind im Vergleich zu bekannten "thick client"-OBUs wesentlich einfacher und kostengünstiger aufgebaut, da sie nur geringen Speicher zur Aufnahme der lokalen Mautkarten ihres Aufenthaltsgebiets benötigen. OBUs of the invention are built up in comparison to known "thick client" -OBUs much easier and less expensive because they require very little memory to accommodate the local toll cards of their residence area.
    • Auch der zur Verteilung und Aktualisierung der Mautkarten erforderliche Datenverkehr ist wesentlich reduziert, was Bandbreite spart. Also required for distributing and updating the toll map data traffic is significantly reduced, which saves bandwidth. Überdies ist hiefür kein Mobilfunknetz erforderlich, was dem Benutzer beträchtliche Mobilfunkgebühren erspart. Moreover, therefor no mobile phone network is required, which saves the user considerable mobile phone charges.
    • Schließlich gestaltet sich auch die Straßeninfrastruktur wesentlich einfacher als bei den bekannten infrastrukturgebundenen Systemen: Da sich die OBUs selbst lokalisieren, ist die Lokalisierungsgenauigkeit nicht mehr von den Orten und der Dichte der Baken abhängig, so daß wesentlich weniger Baken erforderlich sind. Finally, the road infrastructure significantly simpler than in the known infrastructure-based systems: As the OBUs locate themselves, the location accuracy is no longer dependent on the types and density of the beacon, so that much less beacons are required. Die Baken brauchen auch nicht mehr - wie bei den bekannten DSRC-Systemen - Richtstrahlcharakteristik haben, um passierende OBUs möglichst genau zu lokalisieren, sondern können mit einer Rundstrahlcharakteristik ausgestattet sein und sogar OBUs in größerer Entfernung, zB 1 bis 2 km, servicieren. The beacons no longer need - as in the known DSRC systems - have directional beam pattern to locate passing OBUs as precisely as possible, but can be equipped with an omnidirectional pattern and even OBUs provide service at a greater distance, eg 1 to 2 km,.
    • Nicht zuletzt kann eine Bake damit nicht nur für ein, sondern für viele mautpflichtige Geoobjekte in ihrer Umgebung zuständig sein, wodurch mit einer sehr geringen Anzahl von Baken das Auslangen gefunden werden kann. Not least, a beacon can thus be responsible not just for one but for many toll geo-objects in their environment, making the Auslangen can be found with a very small number of beacon.
  • Gemäß einer besonders bevorzugten Ausführungsform der Erfindung wird demgemäß vorgesehen, daß die genannte lokale Umgebung einer Bake größer ist als ihr Sendeempfangsbereich, daß in Schritt a) auch der Ortsdatensatz einer benachbarten Bake in dieser Bake bereitgestellt wird, und daß in den Schritten c) und d) auch der benachbarte Ortsdatensatz empfangen und mit der Positionsdatenfolge verglichen wird. According to a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention is accordingly provided that said local environment of a beacon is larger than its transceiving area, in that in step a) and the location-data set of an adjacent beacon is provided in said beacon, and that in steps c) and d ) is also received the adjacent location-data set and compared with the position-data sequence. Die OBUs erhalten auf diese Weise auf ihrem Weg - wenn sie in den Sendeempfangsbereich einer Bake kommen - aktuelle Ortsdatensätze für ihr Aufenthaltsgebiet, können die zuletzt aufgezeichnete Positionsdatenfolge auf Grundlage dieser Ortsdatensätze zu Mautinformationen verarbeiten, und liefern die so erzeugten Mautinformationen bei einer Bake auf ihrem Weg ab. The OBUs obtained in this way on their way - when they come into the transceiver range of a beacon - current local data sets for its location area, the last recorded position-data sequence can process based on these location data sets to toll information, and provide the toll information generated in this way at a beacon on their way from.
  • Für die grundlegenden Funktionen des erfindungsgemäßen Systems ist es ausreichend, wenn sich OBUs auf beliebige in der Technik bekannte Art und Weise selbst lokalisieren, beispielsweise mittels Funkpeilung in einem Mobilfunknetz usw. Bevorzugt werden die Positionsdaten aber mit einem Satellitennavigationsempfänger des Fahrzeuggeräts ermittelt und aufgezeichnet, wie dies bei "thick client"-OBUs für GNSS/CN-Mautsysteme praktisch erprobt ist. For the basic functions of the system according to the invention, it is sufficient if OBUs locate on any known in the art fashion itself, the position data are preferred, for example by means of radio direction finding in a cellular network, etc. but determined using a satellite navigation receiver of the vehicle device and recorded as is tested in practice for "thick client" -OBUs for GNSS / CN toll systems.
  • Auch die Kurzreichweiten-Funkkommunikation zwischen den Fahrzeuggeräten und Baken kann nach jedem in der Technik bekannten Kurzreichweitenfunkstandard erfolgen, bevorzugt jedoch nach dem DSRC (dedicated short range communication), WAVE (wireless access for vehicle environments) oder WLAN (wireless local area network) -Standard, was die Verwendung bestehender Infrastrukturen ermöglicht. Also, the short-range radio communication between the vehicle devices and beacons can by any known in the art, short-range radio standard take place, but preferably according to the DSRC (dedicated short range communication), WAVE (wireless access for vehicle environments) or WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) standard , which allows the use of existing infrastructure.
  • Besonders vorteilhaft ist es, wenn der Ortsdatensatz zusätzlich Gebühreninformationen enthält, welche in die Erzeugung der Mautinformationen eingehen. It is particularly advantageous if the location-data set additionally contains fee information that is included in the generation of the toll information is. Dadurch können zB individuelle Mautgebühren für einzelne mautpflichtige Geoobjekte oder spezielle OBUs oder OBU-Einstellungen vorgegeben werden. This example, individual tolls for individual toll geo-objects or special OBUs or OBU settings can be specified.
  • Bevorzugt kann der Ortsdatensatz auch Prüfmechanismen wie Prüfsummen, Hash-Funktionen od.dgl. Preferably, the location-data set or the like can also check mechanisms such as checksums, hash functions. umfassen, mit denen seine Aktualität, Gültigkeit und/oder Vollständigkeit verifizierbar ist. include, with which its timeliness, validity and / or completeness is verifiable.
  • Die erzeugten Mautinformationen sind bevorzugt ortsanonymisiert, um Datenschutz zu gewährleisten. The toll information generated are preferred ortsanonymisiert to ensure data protection.
  • Die Speicher des Fahrzeuggeräts der Erfindung sind bevorzugt Ringspeicher, welche jeweils nur die zuletzt aufgezeichnete(n) Positionsdatenfolge(n) bzw. den oder die zuletzt empfangenen Ortsdatensätze aufnehmen, wodurch Speicherplatz gespart und das Fahrzeuggerät entsprechend kostengünstiger ausgeführt werden kann. The memory of the vehicle device of the invention are preferably circular memory, which in each case only the last recorded (n) position-data sequence (s) or the or receive the most recently received location-data sets, thereby saving storage space and the vehicle device can be carried out in accordance with cost-effective.
  • Die Erfindung wird nachstehend anhand eines in den beigeschlossenen Zeichnungen dargestellten Ausführungsbeispiels näher erläutert. The invention is explained hereinafter with reference to an embodiment shown in the accompanying drawings embodiment. In den Zeichnungen zeigt In the drawings
    • Fig. 1 Fig. 1 eine ausschnittsweise und schematische Draufsicht eines Straßenmautsystems, welches nach dem Verfahren der Erfindung arbeitet und erfindungsgemäße Fahrzeuggeräte und Baken umfaßt; is a fragmentary and diagrammatic plan view of a road toll system, which operates according to the method of the invention, and vehicle devices and beacons according to the invention comprises;
    • Fig. 2 Fig. 2 ein Blockschaltbild eines Fahrzeuggeräts der Erfindung; a block diagram of a vehicle device of the invention; und and
    • Fig. 3 Fig. 3 ein Sequenzdiagramm des erfindungsgemäßen Verfahrens. a sequence diagram of the inventive method.
  • In In Fig. 1 Fig. 1 ist ausschnittsweise ein Straßenmautsystem 1 mit einer Mautzentrale (central system, CS) 2 und einer Vielzahl daran über Verbindungen 2' angeschlossener, geographisch verteilter Kurzreichweiten-Funkbaken (kurz "Baken") 3 gezeigt. is partial shown (in short "beacon") 3, a road toll system 1 with a toll center (central system, CS) 2 and a plurality thereto via compounds 2 'connected, geographically distributed short-range radio beacons. Die Baken 3, von denen hier stellvertretend drei Baken RSE 1 , RSE 2 , RSE 3 (allgemein RSE i ) gezeigt sind, haben jeweils einen lokal begrenzten Sendeempfangsbereich S 1 , S 2 , S 3 (allgemein S i ), innerhalb dessen sie mit Fahrzeuggeräten bzw. OBUs 4 kommunizieren können. The beacons 3, of which is representative of the three beacons RSE 1, RSE 2, RSE 3 (general RSE i) are shown here, each have a locally limited transmitting-receiving area S 1, S 2, S 3 (generally S i), within which they with vehicle devices or OBUs can communicate 4th Zu diesem Zweck sind die OBUs 4 mit entsprechenden Kurzreichweiten-Sendeempfängern 5 ( For this purpose, the OBUs 4 are (with corresponding short-range transceivers 5 Fig. 2 Fig. 2 ) zur Funkkommunikation mit den Baken 3 ausgestattet. ) Equipped for radio communication with the beacons. 3 Die Kurzreichweis ten-Funkkommunikation zwischen den Baken 3 und den OBUs 4 erfolgt bevorzugt nach dem DSRC-, WAVE- oder WLAN-Standard. takes place the short-range Weis th radio communication between the beacons 3 and the OBUs 4 preferably by the DSRC, WAVE or WLAN standard.
  • Die OBUs 4 werden von Fahrzeugen 6 mitgeführt, welche sich auf Verkehrsflächen 7, zB Straßen, Autobahnen, Parkplätzen, Parkhäusern usw., des Abdeckungsgebiets 8 des Straßenmautsystems 1 bewegen. The OBUs 4 are carried by vehicles 6 that move on traffic areas 7, for example, roads, highways, parking lots, parking garages etc. of the coverage area 8 of the road toll system. 1
  • Das Abdeckungsgebiet 8 des Straßenmautsystems 1 ist in eine Vielzahl aneinandergrenzender lokaler Umgebungen U 0 , U 1 , U 2 , U 3 , U 4 (allgemein U i ) aufgeteilt, denen jeweils eine der Baken 3 zugeteilt ist. The coverage area 8 of the road toll system 1 is divided into a plurality of adjacent local environments U 0, U 1, U 2, U 3, U 4 divided (generally U i), where one of the beacons is respectively allocated. 3 Die lokale Umgebung U i einer Bake 3 ist bevorzugt größer als ihr Sendeempfangsbereich S i . The local environment Ui of a beacon 3 is preferably larger than its transceiving area S i. Geographische Objekte O ij im Abdeckungsgebiet 8 des Straßenmautsystems 1, deren Ortsbenützung durch ein Fahrzeug 6, genauer dessen OBU 4, vergebührt ("vermautet") werden soll, sog. mautpflichtige Geoobjekte, verteilen sich dementsprechend auf die lokalen Umgebungen U i . Geographical objects O ij in the coverage area 8 of the road toll system 1, the local use by a vehicle 6, more precisely, its OBU 4, billed ( "vermautet") is to be called. Toll geoobjects, distributed accordingly to the local environments Ui. Jede Bake 3 ist damit für die Vermautung der Geoobjekte O ij in ihrer Umgebung U i zuständig. Each beacon 3 is therefore i responsible for Vermautung of geo-objects O ij in their neighborhood U.
  • Die mautpflichtigen Geoobjekte O ij können beliebiger Art sein. The toll geoobjects O ij can be of any type. In In Fig. 1 Fig. 1 sind einige Beispiele gezeigt, wie Straßenabschnitte O 11 , O 12 und O 21 , deren Befahren vermautet werden soll, ein Parkplatz O 23 , dessen Benützungszeit vergebührt werden soll, und ein Schranken O 22 , dessen Passieren mautpflichtig ist. some examples are shown, such as street sections O 11, O 12 and O 21 whose driving is to be vermautet, a parking O 23, the use time is to be billed, and a barriers O 22 whose passing is subject to toll.
  • Wie in As in Fig. 2 Fig. 2 im Detail gezeigt, ist jede OBU 4 mit einer Einrichtung 9 zu ihrer autarken Positionsbestimmung ausgestattet. shown in detail, each OBU 4 is equipped with a device 9 to its autonomous position determination. Die Einrichtung 9 ist bevorzugt ein Satellitennavigationsempfänger, zB GPS-Empfänger, welcher fortlaufend seine Position in einem globalen Satellitennavigationssystem ermittelt und daraus eine Abfolge ("track") t von Positionsdaten ("position fixes") p 1 , p 2 , ... erzeugt, die in einem ersten Speicher 10 der OBU 4 aufgezeichnet wird. The device 9 is preferably a satellite navigation receiver, such as GPS-receiver, which continually determines its position in a global satellite navigation system, and therefrom a sequence ( "track") t of position data ( "position fixes") p 1, p 2 generated ... that is recorded in a first memory 10 of the OBU. 4 Der Speicher 10 ist bevorzugt ein Ringspeicher, der jeweils nur die zuletzt ermittelten Positionsdaten p i enthält. The memory 10 is preferably a ring buffer, which contains in each case only the last determined position data p i.
  • Zurückkehrend auf Returning to Fig. 1 Fig. 1 stellt jede Bake 3 in einem lokalen Speicher 11 die Ortsdaten der Geoobjekte O ij ihrer Umgebung U i als ein Ortsdatensatz m i für passierende OBUs 4 bereit. , each beacon 3 in a local memory 11, the location data of the geo-objects O ij its environment Ui as a location-data set m i for passing OBUs 4 ready. Der Ortsdatensatz m i wird lokal in die Bake 3 eingepflegt oder zentral von der Mautzentrale 2 über die Verbindungen 2' an die Baken 3 verteilt. The location-data set m i is locally entered in the beacon 3 or distributed centrally from the toll center 2 via the connections 2 'to the beacons. 3 Bevorzugt enthält jede Bake 3 zusätzlich zu ihrem eigenen Ortsdatensatz m i auch die Ortsdatensätze einer oder mehrerer angrenzender Umgebungen U i , wie hier zB die Bake RSE 2 für die Ortsdatensätze m 1 und m 3 der benachbarten Umgebungen U 1 und U 3 . Preferably, each beacon 3 contains, in addition to its own location-data set m i and the location-data sets of one or more adjacent environments Ui, as in this example, the beacon RSE 2 for the location-data sets m1 and m3 of the adjacent environments U1 and U. 3
  • Wenn eine OBU 4 in den Sendeempfangsbereich S i einer Bake 3 gelangt, sendet die Bake 3 die in ihrem Speicher 11 bereitgestellten Ortsdatensätze m i an die OBU 4, welche diese über ihren Sendeempfänger 5 empfängt und in einem zweiten Speicher 12 speichert. If an OBU 4 of a beacon 3 enters the transmission-reception region S i, 3 sends the beacon those provided in its memory 11 location-data sets m i of the OBU 4, which receives them via its transceiver 5 and stores in a second memory 12th Auch der zweite Speicher 12 ist bevorzugt ein Ringspeicher, welcher nur die zuletzt empfangenen Ortsdatensätze m i aufnimmt. Also, the second memory 12 is preferably a ring buffer, which receives only the most recently received location-data sets m i.
  • Die OBU 4 vergleicht daraufhin die im Speicher 10 aufgezeichnete Positionsdatenfolge t mit den empfangenen Ortsdatensätzen m i im Speicher 12 auf geographische Ähnlichkeit bzw. Zuordenbarkeit ("map maching", Block 14), um daraus Mautinformationen tc ("toll charge") zu erzeugen. The OBU 4 then compares the recorded in the memory 10 position-data sequence t with the received location-data sets m i in the memory 12 to geographical similarity or assignability ( "map maching", block 14) to produce therefrom toll information tc ( "toll charge").
  • Die in der OBU 4 erzeugten Mautinformationen tc werden über den Sendeempfänger 5 an eine Bake 3 abgesetzt, und zwar entweder an dieselbe Bake 3, wenn sich die OBU 4 noch in deren Sendeempfangsbereich S i befindet, oder zu einem späteren Zeitpunkt an eine nächste Bake 3, in deren Sendeempfangsbereich S i die OBU 4 auf ihrem Weg gelangt. The toll information tc generated in the OBU 4 are deposited via the transceiver 5 to a beacon 3, either to the same beacon 3, if the OBU 4 is still in its transceiving area S i, or at a later time to a next beacon 3 , the OBU 4 enters the transmitting reception area S i on their way.
  • Bei dem "map matching"-Vergleich 14 werden bevorzugt auch Gebühreninformationen berücksichtigt, welche gemeinsam mit den Ortsdatensätzen m i von den Baken 3 empfangen wurden, zB geoobjekt- und/oder OBU-spezifische oder OBU-Einstellungsspezifische Mautgebühren. In the "map matching" comparison 14 also charging information to be considered preferred, which have been received together with the location data sets m i from the beacons 3, for example geoobjekt- and / or OBU-specific or OBU-setting-specific toll charges.
  • Fig. 3 Fig. 3 zeigt den Ablauf des Verfahrens noch einmal im Detail. shows the sequence of the method in detail again. In einem ersten Schritt a) werden in den Baken 3 ein oder mehrere Sätze m i mit Ortsdaten mautpflichtiger Geoobjekte O ij der jeweiligen Umgebung U i einer Bake 3 bereitgestellt, beispielsweise durch Empfangen von der Mautzentrale 2 über die Verbindungen 2'. In a first step a) are in the beacons 3, one or more sets of m i with location data of toll geoobjects O ij of the respective environment Ui provided to a beacon 3, for example, by receiving from the toll center 2 via the connections 2 '.
  • In einem Schritt b) zeichnet eine OBU 4 eine erste Folge t 1 von Positionsdaten {p 1 , p 2 , p 3 , ...} in ihrem Speicher 10 auf. In a step b) an OBU 4 records a first sequence t1 of position data {p 1, p 2, p 3, ...} in its memory 10. Sobald die OBU 4 in den Sendeempfangsbereich S 1 einer ersten Bake 3, hier RSE 1 , gelangt, empfängt sie von dieser - nach entsprechendem Handshake ("connect") - in einem Schritt c) den Ortsdatensatz m 1 der Bake RSE 1 und - optional - die Ortsdatensätze m 0 , m 2 der benachbarten Umgebungen U 0 , U 2 . As soon as the OBU 4 to the transmission-reception area S 1 of a first beacon 3, here RSE 1, arrives, it receives from this - after an appropriate handshake ( "connect") - in a step c) the location-data set m1 of the beacon RSE 1 and - optional - the location-data sets m 0, m 2 of the adjacent environments U 0, U. 2
  • In einem anschließenden Schritt d) führt die OBU 4 einen Vergleich zwischen der aufgezeichneten Positionsdatenfolge t 1 und dem bzw. den empfangenen Ortsdatensätzen m 0 , m 1 , m 2 durch ("map matching"-Block 14), gegebenenfalls unter Berücksichtigung von geoobjekt- und/oder OBU-(Einstellungs)-spezifischen Gebühreninformationen, die zusammen mit den Ortsdatensätzen m i empfangen wurden, und erzeugt daraus Mautinformationen tc 1 . In a subsequent step d), the OBU 4 1 makes a comparison between the recorded position-data sequence t and the or the received location-data sets m 0, m 1, m 2 by ( "map matching" block 14), optionally taking into account geoobjekt- and / or OBU (setting) -specific fee information, which were received together with the location data sets m i, and generates toll information tc. 1 Die Mautinformationen tc 1 werden in einem darauffolgenden Schritt e) über den Sendeempfänger 5 der OBU 4 und über die nächstverfügbare Bake 3, hier noch die Bake RSE 1 , an die Mautzentrale 2 abgesetzt. The toll information tc 1 are deposited in a subsequent step e) via the transceiver 5 of the OBU 4, and via the closest available beacon 3, here still the beacon RSE 1, to the toll center. 2
  • Nach Erzeugung der ersten Mautinformationen tc 1 kann der Ringspeicher 10 gelöscht und mit der Aufzeichnung der Positionsdaten p i neu begonnen werden, um eine nächste Positionsdatenfolge t 2 {p 1 ,p 2 ,...) aufzuzeichnen. After generation of the first toll information tc 1, the ring memory with the recording of the position data p i to be restarted deleted and 10 to a next position-data sequence t2 {p 1, p 2, ... record).
  • Sobald die OBU 4 dann in den Sendeempfangsbereich S 2 einer nächsten Bake 3, hier RSE 2 , auf ihrem Weg gelangt, werden wieder die Schritte c) und d) durchgeführt. As soon as the OBU 4 then in the broadcast reception area S2 of a next beacon 3, here RSE 2, passes on its way to be performed again, the steps c) and d). Wie in As in Fig. 3 Fig. 3 gezeigt, können die erzeugten zweiten Mautinformationen tc 2 über eine der nächsten Baken 3 auf dem Weg, hier die Bake RSE 3 , an die Mautzentrale 2 abgesetzt werden, zB wenn der Sendeempfangsbereich S 2 der zweiten Bake RSE 2 während des Schritts d) bereits verlassen wurde. shown, the second toll information generated tc 2 here the beacon RSE 3 may be via one of the next beacons 3 on the way, be sent to the toll center 2, for example, if the broadcast reception area already left S 2 of the second beacon RSE 2 during the step d) has been.
  • Die Ortsdatensätze m i der Baken 3 können auch (stationären oder mobilen) Überwachungsgeräten 15 des Straßenmautsystems 1 zur Verfügung gestellt werden, u.zw. The location-data sets m i of the beacons 3 can also be placed (stationary or mobile) monitoring devices 15 of the road toll system 1 available u.zw. bevorzugt durch direktes Senden von den Baken 3 über die genannte Kurzreichweiten-Funkkommunikation. preferably by direct transmission from the beacons 3 via said short-range radio communication. Die Überwachungsgeräte 15 sind in herkömmlicher Art und Weise befähigt, die Bewegungen von Fahrzeugen 6 mit Fahrzeuggeräten 4 in ihrer Nähe zu detektieren bzw. zu erfassen, beispielsweise mittels Foto- oder Videoüberwachung, Lichtschranken, Radar- oder Laserscannern usw. Die Überwachungsgeräte 15 überprüfen auf Grundlage des bzw. der Ortsdatensätze m i einer Bake 3 und der detektierten Fahrzeugbewegungen in der Umgebung U i der Bake 3 die von den Fahrzeuggeräten 4 erzeugten Mautinformationen tc i und können so im Falle einer Divergenz, zB einer Fehlfunktion oder eines Mautvergehens, weitere Maßnahmen veranlassen, beispielsweise eine Foto- oder Videoaufnahme des Fahrzeugs 6 und/oder eine Registrierung und Speicherung von Daten des Fahrzeuggeräts 4. The monitoring devices 15 are enabled in a conventional manner to detect the movements of vehicles 6 with vehicle devices 4 in their vicinity, or to detect, for example by means of photo or video monitoring, light barriers, radar or laser scanners, etc. The monitoring devices 15 check on the basis of of or the location-data sets m i of a beacon 3 and the detected vehicle movements in the environment Ui 3, the toll information tc generated by the vehicle devices 4 i, and can thus in the event of divergence, for example, a malfunction or a toll offense, further measures cause the beacon, for example, a photo or video recording of the vehicle 6 and / or a registration and storage of data of the in-vehicle apparatus. 4
  • Wenn das Mautsystem 1 auch "thin client"-OBUs umfaßt, welche ihre Positionsdatenfolgen t i direkt an eine Bake 3 senden, damit diese daraus anhand ihrer Ortsdatensätze m i die Mautinformationen tc i erzeugt, könnten die Überwachungsgeräte 15 auch dazu eingesetzt werden, auf Grundlage der von einer Bake empfangenen Ortsdatensätze m i und der detektierten Bewegungen der OBUs in der lokalen Umgebung U i einer Bake die von dieser Bake 3 erzeugten Mautinformationen tc i zu überprüfen. If the toll system 1 also called "thin client" -OBUs comprises which their position data sequences ti directly to a beacon 3 send, so that it produces therefrom based on their location-data sets m i the toll information tc i, the monitoring device 15 could be also used to on the basis of received from a beacon location data sets m i and the detected movements of the OBUs in the local environment Ui of a beacon i to check the toll information tc generated by said beacon. 3
  • Die Erfindung ist nicht auf die dargestellten Ausführungsformen beschränkt, sondern umfaßt alle Varianten und Modifikationen, die in den Rahmen der angeschlossenen Ansprüche fallen. The invention is not limited to the illustrated embodiments, but comprises all variants and modifications that fall within the scope of the appended claims.
  • Claims (17)

    1. Method for generating toll information (tci) from movements of vehicle devices (4) in a road-toll system (1) that comprises at least one toll centre (2) and a plurality of connected, geographically distributed beacons (3) for short-range radio communication with the vehicle devices (4), the method comprising:
      a) providing a set (mi) of location data of toll-requiring geo-objects (Oij) from a local environment (Ui) of a beacon (3) in this beacon (3),
      b) recording a sequence (ti) of position data (pi) of a vehicle device (4) in this vehicle device (4),
      c) when said vehicle device (4) is in the transmitting/receiving range (Si) of a beacon (3): receiving the location-data set (mi) from this beacon (3) in the vehicle device (4),
      d) comparing the position-data sequence (ti) with the received location-data set (mi) in the vehicle device (4) to generate toll information (tci) therefrom, and
      e) when said vehicle device (4) is in the transmitting/receiving range (Si) of a beacon (3): transmitting the toll information (tci) from the vehicle device (4) via the beacon (3) to the toll centre (2).
    2. Method according to claim 1, characterised in that said local environment (Ui) of a beacon (3) is larger than its transmitting/receiving range (Si), in step a) also the location-data set (mi) of an adjacent beacon (3) is provided in said beacon (3), and in steps c) and d) also the adjacent location-data set (mi) is received and compared with the position-data sequence (ti).
    3. Method according to claim 1 or 2, characterised in that the position data (pi) is acquired and recorded with a satellite-navigation receiver (9) of the vehicle device (4).
    4. Method according to one of claims 1 to 3, characterised in that the short-range radio communication between the vehicle device (4) and the beacon (3) takes place according to the DSRC, WAVE or WLAN standard.
    5. Method according to one of claims 1 to 4, characterised in that the location-data set (mi) further includes fee information utilised for generation of the toll information (tci).
    6. Method according to one of claims 1 to 5, characterised in that the location-data set (mi) further includes checksums or hash functions or the like with which its currentness, validity or completeness is verifiable.
    7. Method according to one of claims 1 to 6, characterised in that the generated toll information (tci) is location-anonymised.
    8. Vehicle device for a road-toll system, particularly for performing the method according to one of claims 1 to 7, with a satellite-navigation receiver (9) for generating a sequence (ti) of position data (pi), a first memory (10) for storing the position-data sequence (ti) as well as a short-range transceiver (5) for radio communication with one of a plurality of geographically distributed beacons (3) when the vehicle device is in the transmitting/receiving range (Si) of that beacon (3) characterised by a second memory (12) for holding at least one set (mi) of location data of toll-requiring geo-objects (Oij) from the environment (Ui) of the beacon (3), which location-data set (mi) was received by the short-range transceiver (5) from this beacon (3), wherein the vehicle device (4) compares the recorded position-data sequence (ti) with the received location-data set or sets (mi) to generate toll information (tci) therefrom, and transmits this toll information (tci) via the short-range transceiver (5) to a beacon (3) when the vehicle device (4) is in the transmitting/receiving range (Si) of said beacon (3).
    9. Vehicle device according to claim 8, characterised in that the second memory (12) is a ring buffer, which holds only the most recently received location-data set or sets (mi).
    10. Vehicle device according to claim 8 or 9, characterised in that the second memory (12) holds fee information received with the location-data sets (mi), and the vehicle device (4) utilizes this fee information at the generation (14) of the toll information (tci).
    11. Vehicle device according to one of claims 8 to 10, characterised in that the short-range transceiver (5) is a DSRC, WAVE or WLAN transceiver.
    12. Beacon for a road-toll system, for performing the method according to one of claims 1 to 7, with a short-range transceiver for radio communication with vehicle devices (4) that are located in its transmitting/receiving range (Si), characterised by a memory (11) for holding a set (mi) of location data of toll-requiring geo-objects (Oij) from the environment (Ui) of the beacon (3), wherein the beacon (3) is configured to transmit the location-data to vehicle devices (4) in its transmitting/receiving range (Si) and to receive the toll information (tci) generated in the vehicle devices (4).
    13. Beacon according to claim 12, characterised in that the memory (11) also holds location-data sets (mi) of adjacent beacons (3) and the beacon (3) also transmits the location-data sets (mi) to vehicle devices (4) in its transmitting/receiving range (Si).
    14. Beacon according to claim 12 or 13 that is connected to a toll centre (2) of the road-toll system (1) characterised in that it receives the location-data set or sets (mi) from the toll centre (2).
    15. Beacon according to one of claims 12 to 14 for communication with vehicle devices which transmit toll information (tci), characterised in that it relays toll information (tci) received from vehicle devices (4) to a toll centre (2).
    16. Monitoring device for a road-toll system with at least one beacon according to claim 15, wherein the monitoring device is configured to detect movements of vehicle devices, characterised in that the monitoring device (15) checks, based on the location-data set (mi) of a beacon (3) and the detected movements of vehicle devices (4) in the local environment (Ui) of the beacon (3), the toll information (tci) transmitted from these vehicle devices (4).
    17. Monitoring device according to claim 16, characterised in that in case of a negative checking result, the monitoring device initiates further measures, preferably photographic or video recording, and/or recording and storage of data from the vehicle device.
    EP20090450219 2009-11-23 2009-11-23 Method and device for generating toll information in a road toll system Active EP2325807B1 (en)

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    EP20090450219 EP2325807B1 (en) 2009-11-23 2009-11-23 Method and device for generating toll information in a road toll system
    DK11008288T DK2407935T3 (en) 2009-11-23 2009-11-23 Monitoring device for a system to collect tolls-
    ES09450219T ES2382951T3 (en) 2009-11-23 2009-11-23 Procedure and devices for generating information on a toll road toll system
    EP20110008288 EP2407935B1 (en) 2009-11-23 2009-11-23 Control device for a road toll system
    DK09450219T DK2325807T3 (en) 2009-11-23 2009-11-23 A method and apparatus for making toll information to a charging system
    ES11008288T ES2401375T3 (en) 2009-11-23 2009-11-23 Monitoring device for road toll system
    US12900928 US9269197B2 (en) 2009-11-23 2010-10-08 Method and device for generating toll information in a road-toll system

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