EP2310268A1 - Aircraft with at least two propeller drives arranged at a distance from one another in the span width direction of the wings - Google Patents

Aircraft with at least two propeller drives arranged at a distance from one another in the span width direction of the wings

Info

Publication number
EP2310268A1
EP2310268A1 EP20090777158 EP09777158A EP2310268A1 EP 2310268 A1 EP2310268 A1 EP 2310268A1 EP 20090777158 EP20090777158 EP 20090777158 EP 09777158 A EP09777158 A EP 09777158A EP 2310268 A1 EP2310268 A1 EP 2310268A1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
propeller
aircraft
rotation
according
drives
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
EP20090777158
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Daniel Reckzeh
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Airbus Operations GmbH
Original Assignee
Airbus Operations GmbH
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US8002608P priority Critical
Priority to DE200810032789 priority patent/DE102008032789A1/en
Application filed by Airbus Operations GmbH filed Critical Airbus Operations GmbH
Priority to PCT/EP2009/005083 priority patent/WO2010003698A1/en
Publication of EP2310268A1 publication Critical patent/EP2310268A1/en
Withdrawn legal-status Critical Current

Links

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B64AIRCRAFT; AVIATION; COSMONAUTICS
    • B64DEQUIPMENT FOR FITTING IN OR TO AIRCRAFT; FLYING SUITS; PARACHUTES; ARRANGEMENTS OR MOUNTING OF POWER PLANTS OR PROPULSION TRANSMISSIONS IN AIRCRAFT
    • B64D27/00Arrangement or mounting of power plant in aircraft; Aircraft characterised thereby
    • B64D27/02Aircraft characterised by the type or position of power plant
    • B64D27/10Aircraft characterised by the type or position of power plant of gas-turbine type
    • B64D27/12Aircraft characterised by the type or position of power plant of gas-turbine type within or attached to wing
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B64AIRCRAFT; AVIATION; COSMONAUTICS
    • B64CAEROPLANES; HELICOPTERS
    • B64C11/00Propellers, e.g. of ducted type; Features common to propellers and rotors for rotorcraft
    • B64C11/30Blade pitch-changing mechanisms
    • B64C11/305Blade pitch-changing mechanisms characterised by being influenced by other control systems, e.g. fuel supply
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B64AIRCRAFT; AVIATION; COSMONAUTICS
    • B64CAEROPLANES; HELICOPTERS
    • B64C11/00Propellers, e.g. of ducted type; Features common to propellers and rotors for rotorcraft
    • B64C11/46Arrangements of or constructional features peculiar to multiple propellers
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B64AIRCRAFT; AVIATION; COSMONAUTICS
    • B64DEQUIPMENT FOR FITTING IN OR TO AIRCRAFT; FLYING SUITS; PARACHUTES; ARRANGEMENTS OR MOUNTING OF POWER PLANTS OR PROPULSION TRANSMISSIONS IN AIRCRAFT
    • B64D31/00Power plant control; Arrangement thereof

Abstract

Aircraft (1) comprising a fuselage (3) and two aerodynamic wings with at least two respective propeller drives (11, 12, 13, 14) disposed thereon at a distance from one another in the span width direction of the wings, each of said propeller drives comprising a propeller rotating axle (11a, 12a, 13a, 14a), wherein the aircraft (1) comprises a control device for controlling the propeller drives (11, 12, 13, 14), wherein in an operating mode of the control device for producing propulsion, the propeller drives (11, 12, 13, 14) are actuated in such a way that the outer section of a respective propeller attached to the respective propeller rotating axle is moved downward from above on the side facing the fuselage (3).

Description

 PLANE WITH AT LEAST TWO PROPELLER DRIVES SPLATED AROUND THE WINGS OF THE WINGS

The invention relates to an aircraft, on the aerodynamic vanes of which at least two drive motors spaced apart from each other in their spanwise direction are arranged, each with a propeller rotation axis.

In such aircraft having at least two spaced in their spanwise drive motors each having a propeller axis of rotation, the special design criteria for twin-engine aircraft are not considered due to the complexity of the aerodynamic effects generated by the individual engines as well as from aircraft-related aspects.

Transport aircraft with a total of at least two propeller drives on each wing are known from the general state of the art, in which, according to FIG. 2, the propeller drives 11, 12, 13, 14 are set up such that the propulsion of the aircraft 1 is generated whose propeller axes of rotation 11a, 12a, 13a, 14a rotate in the same direction of rotation. In the illustration of Figure 2, the arrows indicate the direction of rotation of the propeller axes of rotation 11a, 12a, 13a, 14a for propulsion generation of the aircraft 1 schematically. The directions of rotation of the propeller axes of rotation 11a, 12a, 13a, 14a provided for the propulsion are not aerodynamically and control-technically optimal, since the propellers generate asymmetric aerodynamic effects in these directions of rotation with respect to the longitudinal axis of the fuselage, which compensates by corresponding adjusting movements of the flaps and these adjusting movements must be applied in addition to the control movements required for the control. Nevertheless, the propeller drives are usually realized with the propulsion directions of rotation shown in Figure 2, since all drives on the wings 5a, 5b can be realized with the same components and subsystems such as the same engine, the same gear and the same propellers and thus by this Solution results in great logistical and therefore cost benefits. Because of these logistical advantages The manufacturing costs for the drives as a whole and the maintenance and spare parts inventory of components and subsystems can be reduced.

The determination of the directions of rotation of the propeller for a propeller-driven aircraft 1 can continue to be made according to the design for cruising, while dispense with the aforementioned logistical advantages. After that, in general, the two directions of propeller rotation shown in FIGS. 3 and 4 are also suitable for the propulsion of the aircraft 1. In the first place, the symmetrical arrangement of the propeller rotation directions shown in FIG. 3 with respect to the longitudinal direction of the fuselage is provided, since this configuration is favorable in terms of aerodynamic design for cruising flight and, due to the symmetrical arrangement of the propeller rotation directions, also favorable in terms of control engineering because the flap movements no additional compensatory movements must be performed to compensate for asymmetrically occurring aerodynamic effects. Since the aircraft with these propeller drive rotational directions aerodynamic as control technology is favorable, this arrangement is used in the prior art as an alternative to the arrangement of the propeller rotation directions of Figure 2, when the cost reduction by means of commonality of the propeller drives 11, 12, 13, 14 does not need to receive special weight.

Theoretically, the arrangement of the propeller directions of rotation according to FIG. 4 can also be considered. In this arrangement, the commonality of the construction of the four propeller drives is also not given. Furthermore, with such an arrangement of the propeller rotation directions, the aerodynamic design with regard to the cruise is less favorable than the arrangement according to FIG. 3, however, this arrangement results in more favorable slow flight characteristics for the aircraft 1 than in the arrangement according to FIG Arrangement of the propeller rotation directions because of the symmetrical arrangement of the propeller rotation directions control technology advantageous. A further advantage of the arrangement of the propeller rotation directions according to the figure 4 over the arrangement of Figure 3 is that the noise input into the hull interior is low, since with an upward movement of the propeller end parts of the propellers of the inside, ie lying next to the fuselage propeller Actuators 12, 13 in the area between these propeller drives 12, 13 and the fuselage 3 less vortex depart from the propeller than if the arrangement of the propeller rotational directions, as shown for example in Figure 2, such that the propeller end pieces of the internal propeller drives 12, 13 in the area between them and the hull to be moved down. These advantages may, in particular cases, be weighted such that the configuration of FIG. 4 is preferred over the other configurations that provide a commonality of the drives.

The object of the invention is to find alternative aircraft configurations, whereby an optimal overall aircraft can be realized.

This object is achieved with the features of claim 1. Further embodiments are given in the dependent on these subclaims.

The aircraft provided according to the invention has at least two spaced apart spanwise propeller drives on both wings, each with a propeller axis of rotation, wherein the control device is designed such that it actuates the propeller drives for propulsion generation such that the outer portion of a Propeller mounted on the respective propeller axis of rotation is moved on the side facing the fuselage from top to bottom.

In the arrangement of the spanwise spaced propeller drives on each wing of the aircraft according to the invention can be provided in particular such that on each wing of the first, closer to the fuselage propeller drive in the range of 15-40% and the outer propeller drive is located in the range of between 40 and 80% with the span direction defined from the fuselage and the outer wingtip located at the location defined by 100% of the span.

In a further embodiment of the invention, each propeller drive has a single propeller circuit on one and the same propeller rotation axis. According to a further embodiment it can be provided that at least 30% of the wing span are covered by the propeller circuits.

According to the invention it can be provided that the wings of the aircraft form a sweep angle between +10 degrees and +40 degrees.

Alternatively or additionally, it can be provided according to the invention that at least 50% of the wing span is covered by the fan circles.

According to a further embodiment, the aircraft may be designed so that the propeller circuits at the point where they come closest to the wing leading edge, a local distance of at least 5% of the local, i. at this point occurring chord depth to the wing leading edge.

According to a further embodiment, the aircraft may be configured such that the distance or offset of the propeller axis of rotation at the propeller hub or the offset of the propeller axis of rotation at the point where they intersect the plane defined by the propeller circles to the airfoil leading edge in the vertical plane of the aircraft is up or down at most 30% of the propeller diameter.

The description of the invention is based on the following figures:

Figure 1, which shows schematically an aircraft with the configuration of the propeller rotation directions according to the invention;

FIG. 2 schematically shows an aircraft with a configuration of the propeller rotation directions known from the general state of the art;

Figure 3, which schematically shows an aircraft with a known from the general state of the art configuration of the propeller rotation directions;

Figure 4, which schematically shows an aircraft with another possible configuration of the propeller rotation directions. In these figures, the respective intended direction of rotation of the propeller is represented by arrows. The figures are components or parts of the aircraft shown have the same or similar function with the same reference numerals.

1 shows an aircraft 1 with a fuselage 3 and two aerodynamic vanes 5a, 5b, on each of which at least two spaced spanwise propeller drives 11, 12, 13, 14, each with a propeller axis of rotation 11a, 12a, 13a, 14a are arranged. On the axes of rotation 11a, 12a, 13a, 14a, a non-illustrated propeller is mounted in each case. The propeller drives 11, 12, 13, 14 are controlled by a control device for driving the propeller drive motors.

The control device and the propeller drives 11, 12, 13, 14 are designed such that in an operating mode of the control device for generating propulsion, the propeller drive motors are actuated such that the outer portion of a respective propeller mounted on the respective propeller rotation axis is moved on the fuselage side from top to bottom (Figure 1). The mode of operation of the propulsion control device is the mode in which the aircraft is driven in the air.

According to the invention, therefore, an aircraft 1 with a fuselage 3 and two aerodynamic vanes is provided, on each of which at least two propeller drives 11, 12, 13, 14 spaced apart in the spanwise direction are arranged, each with a propeller rotation axis 11a, 12a, 13a, 14a wherein the aircraft 1 comprises a control device for controlling the propeller drives 11, 12, 13, 14. In an operating mode of the control device for propulsion generation, the propeller drives 11, 12, 13, 14 are actuated such that the outer portion of a propeller mounted on the respective propeller rotation axis moves from top to bottom on the side facing the fuselage 3 becomes.

This can be in particular a fixed-wing aircraft. In particular, the aircraft according to the invention can be designed as a high-decker. Furthermore, it can be provided according to the invention that the control device and the propeller drives 11, 12, 13, 14 are arranged such that each propeller rotation axis 11a, 12a, 13a, 14a can be moved in addition in a rotational direction, in which on the respective propeller rotation axis 11a, 12a, 13a, 14a mounted propeller on the fuselage 3 side facing is moved from bottom to top.

In these embodiments, according to the invention, alternatively or additionally, it may be provided that the control device and the propeller drives 11, 12, 13, 14 are set up in such a way that two propeller drives 11, 12, respectively symmetrical to each other with respect to the longitudinal axis of the fuselage. 13, 14 can be moved in a direction of rotation in which a respective propeller mounted on the respective propeller rotation axis on the fuselage 3 side facing is moved from bottom to top, while other propeller drives 11, 12, 13, 14 so operated be that the outer portion of a respective propeller on the respective rotational axis mounted propeller is moved on the fuselage 3 side facing from top to bottom.

The arrangement of the propeller rotation directions according to the figure 1 is unfavorable in terms of cruise configuration of the aircraft 1, since this configuration generates a greater flow resistance, due to a superposition of the trailing currents of the propeller of the internal propeller drives 12, 13 and the wing 5a, 5b results. Furthermore, the propeller drives 11, 12, 13, 14 in an arrangement of the propeller rotation directions according to the figure 1 and no Kommunalitäts- advantages. Also, this configuration of propeller rotational directions is unfavorable with respect to the noise input to the aircraft fuselage, whereafter a configuration of the propeller rotational directions according to FIG. 2 or 4 would be advantageous.

For this reason, the configuration of the propeller rotation directions according to the invention from the prior art is not known.

In the configuration of the propeller rotational directions according to the figure 1 is achieved contrary to expectations that a separation of the flow at the wing in the wake of the propeller of the internal propeller drive 12, 13 due to interference between this propeller and the wing only at larger angles of attack as at the configuration of the propeller directions of rotation according to the figure 3. As a result, a larger maximum lift for the aircraft 1 can be achieved. According to the invention, because of this particular advantage, the configuration of the propeller rotation directions according to FIG. 1 is provided that with this configuration for the aircraft 1, a simpler high-lift system and also a smaller wing 5a, 5b can be provided to fulfill a corresponding power spectrum. As a result, the wings can be realized with the associated high-lift system at a lower cost. Furthermore, the wing can be realized with the associated high-lift system with less weight, so that the aircraft 1 can also be realized cheaper in terms of its performance.

In addition, in the inventively provided directions of rotation of the propeller fuselage side from top to bottom in addition in the outer region of the wing improved control efficiency of the outer control surfaces of the wing, in particular the ailerons is achieved. This results from the fact that the air flow generated by the outer propellers, due to their interference with the aerodynamic effect of said control surfaces additionally causes an improved control efficiency of the outer control surfaces, in particular the ailerons. By virtue of this advantage, together with the advantages mentioned, which result from the air flow generated by the internal propeller drives, the solution according to the invention is aerodynamically particularly advantageous in cruise flight as well as in take-off and landing, ie also in slow motion, compared with those of the prior art the technology known solutions.

The configuration of the propeller rotation directions according to FIG. 1 can be provided according to the invention for high-wing aircraft as well as for medium or low-wing aircraft and, in particular, for transport aircraft.

Although the disadvantages mentioned occur in the arrangement of the propeller rotation directions according to FIG. However, these disadvantages are compensated by appropriate design of the wings and the high-lift system, so by unexpected advantages of the overall aircraft configuration. The special advantages of the invention provided configuration of the propeller directions of rotation according to the figure 1 are achieved in particular at the following parameters of the aircraft 1:

The propeller thrusters are realized with a single propeller circle on the propeller axis of rotation 11a, 12a, 13a, 14a, i. there is no multiple arrangement of propeller circuits on one of the propeller rotation axis 11a, 12a, 13a, 14a one behind the other ("contra-rotating props").

The wing 5a, 5b may basically have a sweep angle in the range of -40 ° to + 40 °. However, the configuration according to the invention of the propeller rotation directions according to FIG. 1 is particularly advantageous with a blade angle of the blade between +10 degrees and +40 degrees. As a result, despite the increased flow resistance that arises in the configuration of the propeller rotational directions according to the invention, the aircraft's cruise range can lie in a higher airspeed range. This sweep angle range is inventively provided in particular with a single propeller circuit or single or multiple propeller on one and the same propeller rotation axis 11a, 12a, 13a, 14a.

In this context, the term sweep angle is based on conventional definitions and may, in particular, be the angle, seen in plan view, between the leading edge of the vanes 5a, 5b relative to the intended flow or the transverse axis of the aircraft 1.

Alternatively or in addition to the aforementioned embodiments, the effect according to the invention already occurs when, in the front view, at least 30% of the wing span is swept by the propeller jets or if at least 30% of the wing span is covered by the propeller circles. However, in the case where the wing is swept by the propeller jets with at least 50% of the wing span or at least 50% of the wing span is covered by the propeller circles, the configuration according to the invention can be carried out particularly favorably. This overlap of the wing can advantageously be provided to 70% of the span and in particular cases beyond. The propeller circuits are arranged according to the invention in front of the wing 5a, 5b. In this case, the propeller drives 11, 12, 13, 14 are designed in an embodiment according to the invention such that the propeller circles at the point where they come closest to the wing leading edge, a local distance of at least 5% of the blade depth occurring at this point Wing leading edge have. This local distance can amount to a maximum of 70% of the local wing depth at the wing leading edge occurring at this point.

The propeller axes of rotation 11a, 12a, 13a, 14a may be above or below the wing. In an embodiment according to the invention, the distance or offset of the propeller axis of rotation at the propeller hub or the offset of the propeller axis of rotation at the point where they intersect the plane defined by the propeller circles to the airfoil leading edge seen in the vertical plane of the aircraft up or down maximum 30% of the propeller diameter.

In another embodiment, the distance between the propeller tips of the propeller circuits of the engines to each other is at least 5% of the wing span. This prevents the edge vortices, which depart from propellers, from producing disturbing interferences.

In another embodiment, the distance of the propeller tips of the inner engine to the hull exterior is at least 10% and a maximum of 80% of the propeller diameter.

The aircraft according to the invention in the mentioned embodiments preferably operates with cruise velocities in the subsonic range above 0.6 Mach and up to a maximum of 0.85 Mach.

Claims

claims
1. aircraft (1) having a fuselage (3) and two aerodynamic wings, on each of which at least two in the spanwise direction spaced propeller drives (11, 12, 13, 14) each having a propeller axis of rotation (11a, 12a , 13a, 14a), the aircraft (1) having a control device for driving the propeller drives (11, 12, 13, 14),
characterized in that
in an operating mode of the propulsion generation control apparatus, the propeller drives (11, 12, 13, 14) are operated such that the outer portion of a propeller mounted on the respective propeller rotation axis (11a, 12a, 13a, 14a) on the fuselage (3) facing side is moved from top to bottom.
2. aircraft (1) according to claim 1, characterized in that each propeller drive (11, 12, 13, 14) has a single propeller circuit on one and the same propeller axis of rotation (11a, 12a, 13a, 14a).
3. aircraft (1) according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that at least 30% of the wing span are covered by the propeller circles.
4. aircraft (1) according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the wings (5a, 5b) of the aircraft (1) form a sweep angle between +10 degrees and +40 degrees.
5. aircraft (1) according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that at least 50% of the wing span are covered by the propeller circles.
6. Aircraft (1) according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the propeller circuits at the point where they come closest to the wing leading edge, have a local distance of at least 5% of the local wing depth to the wing leading edge.
7. Aircraft (1) according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the distance of the propeller rotation axis at the point where it intersects the plane defined by the propeller circles, seen to the wing leading edge in the vertical plane of the aircraft up or down maximum 30% of the propeller diameter.
8. aircraft (1) according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the control device and the propeller drives (11, 12, 13, 14) are arranged such that each propeller rotation axis (11a, 12a, 13a, 14a) can additionally be moved in a direction of rotation, in which a on the respective propeller rotation axis (11a, 12a, 13a, 14a) mounted propeller on the fuselage (3) facing side is moved from bottom to top.
9. Aircraft (1) according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the control device and the propeller drives (11, 12, 13, 14) are arranged such that two in each case with respect to the fuselage longitudinal axis symmetrically located propeller Actuators (11, 12, 13, 14) can be moved in a direction of rotation in which a respective propeller mounted on the respective propeller axis of rotation is moved on the side facing the fuselage (3) from bottom to top, while further propeller drives ( 11, 12, 13, 14) are actuated in such a way that the outer portion of a respective propeller mounted on the respective propeller rotation axis is moved from top to bottom on the side facing the fuselage (3).
EP20090777158 2008-07-11 2009-07-13 Aircraft with at least two propeller drives arranged at a distance from one another in the span width direction of the wings Withdrawn EP2310268A1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US8002608P true 2008-07-11 2008-07-11
DE200810032789 DE102008032789A1 (en) 2008-07-11 2008-07-11 Aircraft having at least two spanwise spaced apart drive motors
PCT/EP2009/005083 WO2010003698A1 (en) 2008-07-11 2009-07-13 Aircraft with at least two propeller drives arranged at a distance from one another in the span width direction of the wings

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP2310268A1 true EP2310268A1 (en) 2011-04-20

Family

ID=41412797

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP20090777158 Withdrawn EP2310268A1 (en) 2008-07-11 2009-07-13 Aircraft with at least two propeller drives arranged at a distance from one another in the span width direction of the wings

Country Status (9)

Country Link
US (1) US20110186679A1 (en)
EP (1) EP2310268A1 (en)
JP (1) JP2011527253A (en)
CN (1) CN102089209A (en)
BR (1) BRPI0915902A2 (en)
CA (1) CA2730460A1 (en)
DE (1) DE102008032789A1 (en)
RU (1) RU2011104794A (en)
WO (1) WO2010003698A1 (en)

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CN105059542B (en) * 2015-08-10 2017-09-19 成都纵横自动化技术有限公司 A kind of fixation chord endurance aircraft of VTOL
CN105857579A (en) * 2016-05-12 2016-08-17 中国航空工业集团公司西安飞机设计研究所 Propeller airplane

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Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
JP2011527253A (en) 2011-10-27
CN102089209A (en) 2011-06-08
RU2011104794A (en) 2012-08-20
US20110186679A1 (en) 2011-08-04
CA2730460A1 (en) 2010-01-14
BRPI0915902A2 (en) 2017-05-30
WO2010003698A1 (en) 2010-01-14
DE102008032789A1 (en) 2010-01-14

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