EP2240789A1 - Method for recognizing the theft of a pv module and a failure of a bypass diode of a pv module, corresponding pv sub-generator junction box, pv inverter, and corresponding pv system - Google Patents

Method for recognizing the theft of a pv module and a failure of a bypass diode of a pv module, corresponding pv sub-generator junction box, pv inverter, and corresponding pv system

Info

Publication number
EP2240789A1
EP2240789A1 EP09710620A EP09710620A EP2240789A1 EP 2240789 A1 EP2240789 A1 EP 2240789A1 EP 09710620 A EP09710620 A EP 09710620A EP 09710620 A EP09710620 A EP 09710620A EP 2240789 A1 EP2240789 A1 EP 2240789A1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
pv
voltage
connected
test
generator
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
EP09710620A
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Bodo Giesler
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Siemens AG
Original Assignee
Siemens AG
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE102008008504A priority Critical patent/DE102008008504A1/en
Application filed by Siemens AG filed Critical Siemens AG
Priority to PCT/EP2009/051559 priority patent/WO2009101102A1/en
Publication of EP2240789A1 publication Critical patent/EP2240789A1/en
Application status is Withdrawn legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G08SIGNALLING
    • G08BSIGNALLING OR CALLING SYSTEMS; ORDER TELEGRAPHS; ALARM SYSTEMS
    • G08B13/00Burglar, theft or intruder alarms
    • G08B13/02Mechanical actuation
    • G08B13/14Mechanical actuation by lifting or attempted removal of hand-portable articles
    • G08B13/1409Mechanical actuation by lifting or attempted removal of hand-portable articles for removal detection of electrical appliances by detecting their physical disconnection from an electrical system, e.g. using a switch incorporated in the plug connector
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02SGENERATION OF ELECTRIC POWER BY CONVERSION OF INFRA-RED RADIATION, VISIBLE LIGHT OR ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT, e.g. USING PHOTOVOLTAIC [PV] MODULES
    • H02S50/00Monitoring or testing of PV systems, e.g. load balancing or fault identification
    • H02S50/10Testing of PV devices, e.g. of PV modules or single PV cells

Abstract

Disclosed is a method for recognizing the theft of at least one photovoltaic (PV) module (3) of a PV system. The PV system comprises at least one string (31) of serially connected PV modules (3) for supplying a field voltage (uF), said at least one string (31) being connected in parallel and said PV modules (3) each having a plurality of serially connected PV cells (7). According to the invention, bypass diodes (8) that are connected in an anti-parallel manner are provided for protecting the PV cells (7). During non-feeding operation, especially in the evening and at night, a test voltage that is negative relative to the field voltage (uF) is connected to the at least one PV string (2) in order to adjust a test current through the bypass diodes (8). A theft message is automatically output when the test current and/or the test voltage significantly change/s.

Description

description

A process for the theft detection of a PV module and to detect a failure of a bypass diode of a photovoltaic module as well as to corresponding PV generator junction box, PV alternating selrichter and corresponding thereto PV system

The invention relates to a process for the theft detection of at least one PV module of a PV system, which has at least one parallel-connected string of series-connected PV modules for providing a field voltage. The PV modules in turn comprise a plurality of series-connected PV cells.

The invention further relates to a method for failure detection, at least a bypass diode of a PV module in a PV system, which has at least one parallel-connected string of series-connected PV modules for providing a field voltage, wherein the PV modules each including a plurality of series- have connected PV cells as well as several to anti-parallel and series-connected bypass diodes to protect the PV cells.

Furthermore, the invention relates to a PV sub-generator arrival terminal box for a PV system having a plurality of electrical terminals for connecting each of a PV strand guide of a plurality of series-connected PV modules, each having a plurality of series-connected PV cells , having a portion for connecting a generator connection PV part generator line situated a particular remote central PV inverter and an electronic control unit.

Moreover, the invention relates to a photovoltaic inverter to a PV system with at least a portion of generator terminal for connecting a respective PV-part generator line of a plurality of PV-generator junction boxes and / or to connect each of a PV DC main line a in between, connected PV generator -Anschlusskastens. The PV alternating selrichter has a mains connection for connection to a power supply network and a central control unit for controlling the PV inverter.

Finally, the invention relates to a PV system with at least one conventional or with such a central PV inverter comprising a plurality of such sub-PV generator junction boxes.

Known photovoltaic systems or solar panels usually have a central PV inverter and a variety of series-connected PV modules. Typically, about 10 to 20 PV modules are tet geschal- in series to form a strand, in order to achieve an expedient for the PV inverter field voltage of about 1000 V. The PV inverter then converts the DC input voltage to a single phase, preferably in a three-phase AC power to feed-in solution into a power grid.

To minimize the conduction loss of the PV inverter is typically located in the center of the PV system. The PV modules are preferably arranged in a star shape around the PV inverter around. There can be several PV inverters available. In photovoltaic plants with a maximum supply power of more than 100 kW, in particular of more than 1 MW, a plurality of PV Teilgene- rator junction boxes is provided which on the one hand selrichter each have a PV-part generator line to the central PV alternating is connected and which on the other hand connected to a plurality of serially connected to a strand of PV modules. a few strands of PV modules are typically connected to such a PV Teilgenera- tor junction box such. B. eight.

A PV generator junction box comprises a plurality of electrical terminals for connecting the many PV string cables. At this the ends of the JE weiligen PV string cables can be laid and fastened. Further typically, the PV generator junction box on a part of the generator connection for connecting a PV sub-generator line.

For particularly large PV plants with an electrical feed power of several megawatts still PV generation tor junction boxes between the many PV Teilgenerator- junction boxes and the central PV inverter may be overall on. can box of such a PV generator connection several PV sub-generator junction boxes come off. junction boxes, the number of connected PV sub-arrival generator is typically in the range 16 to 20 Such PV systems an area of ​​many hectares can occupy, whereby several hundred may be distributed to several thousand PV modules.

Because of the high costs of a PV module of several hundred euros the risk of theft in such, far extending PV systems is particularly high. For some time, the number of thefts increases sharply with increasing demand for PV modules. The consequence is that many insurance companies have in turn denounced the policy after a theft of PV modules or the premiums are raised so that insurance is only partly economically justifiable.

For complicating a theft is known to fence the entire area of ​​a PV system. Acoustic, optical and mechanical see surveillance systems, such as motion sensors or cameras, then sound the alarm when activities have been detected in the area of ​​the fence. However, such systems are to a very expensive and error-prone to the other, especially when game gets into the area of ​​the fence.

Furthermore, monitoring systems are known which are based on an alarm wire which is guided through the frame profiles of a framed PV module. However, such monitoring systems are easily recognizable and easily manipulated by "trained" thieves, such. as bridged.

Another known possibility is the symmetry monitoring of the phase currents of several series-connected PV modules. To this end, junction boxes current measuring units for measuring the phase currents are present in known PV sub-generator arrival. A monitoring unit triggers an alarm if one of the measured phase currents differs significantly from the other measured phase currents. Such a monitoring unit is z. As the "Sunny String Monitor" from. SMA. Such systems work during the day reliable.

The disadvantage is that a lack of symmetry monitoring presence of a significant phase current is in the evening or at night no longer possible. Typically also the central PV inverter falls below egg ner infeed power of about 10 W / m 2 is switched off, because then the dissipated power of the PV inverter is usually higher than the remaining available power input. However, just under cover of darkness, most thefts occur by far.

Furthermore, a recurring elaborate measuring equipment is required for the operation of a PV system, in order continuously to check the quality of the PV modules. This is usually done as part of a field measurement. One aspect of the measurement is the measurement of bypass diodes, which are normally present in all PV modules to protect the plurality of PV cells. The bypass diodes are connected in antiparallel to a series of PV cells in order to prevent burning of defective PV cells with a defect or partial shading. In these cases, then the entire string current no longer flows through these PV cells, but through the parallel bypass diode. However, these bypass diodes can be high impedance or low impedance and thus fail due to aging or due to lightning damage. This protection of the PV module is no longer guaranteed, so that an entire string of PV modules must be switched off in case of a fault. On the other hand, the bypass diodes such. B. during a thermal overload, durchlegieren and fail. In this case, the performance ie the subfield voltage of such a PV module decreases.

It is therefore, starting from the above mentioned prior art an object of the invention to provide a simpler and at the same time reliable method for theft detection of a PV module.

It is a further object of the invention to provide a simpler and yet more reliable method to detect a failure of a bypass diode in a PV module.

Furthermore, it is an object of the invention to provide a corresponding method to the PV sub-generator junction box.

Finally, it is an object of the invention to a suitable PV inverter and a PV system with a plurality of such PV sub-generator junction boxes indicate.

The object of the invention is solved for the method for theft detection of at least one PV module with the features of claim 1. In claim 2, an advantageous variant of the method is specified.

The object of the invention is solved for the method for failure detection, at least one bypass diode having the features of claim 3 and having the features of patent claim. 4 Advantageous process variants are given in the dependent claims 5 and 6. FIG.

In Claim 7 a to the method of claim 1, 3 and 4 corresponding PV generator junction box is specified. Advantageous embodiments are mentioned in the dependent Claims 8 to 12th In claim 13 a suitable PV inverter is indicated. In the dependent claim 14, an embodiment of the PV inverter is overall Nannt. In claim 15 a PV plant is indicated by a PV inverter and having a plurality of such inventive PV generator junction boxes. In claim 16 a PV system is indicated with an inventive PV inverter and having a plurality of invention PV generator junction boxes. In claim 17, an advantageous embodiment of the PV system is called.

According to the invention are provided to protect the PV cells connected in antiparallel bypass diodes. It is a non-feed-in, in particular evening and at night, a negative with respect to the field voltage test voltage to the at least one PV string connected line to set a test current through the bypass diodes. It is issued automates a theft alert if the test current for a given test voltage or test voltage for a given test current change significantly.

The big advantage is that any significant change in the test current or the test voltage a safe way looking to manipulation in a respective PV string line.

By "significant" an abrupt decline of the test voltage at a predetermined constant test current in a period of less than one second is meant in particular. A significant change is z. B. present when the test voltage is changed at least by a few volts. Preferably the impressed test current is a current within the range of 10 mA to 100 mA, ie, it has a current strength at which a falling above the respective bypass diode forward voltage is substantially constant. the forward voltage is z. B. case of silicon diodes, depending on the type in range of 0.7 V to 1 V. an increase in the test voltage to a maximum measured voltage value or idling voltage value is in particular an indication that a PV has been interrupted strand line such. as in the theft of a PV module. in this case, the theft can avoidance include a notice that a PV string line has been opened against it Goes Tues. e test voltage by a few volts back, the theft message may include an indication that at least one PV module has been bridged. In this case, the drop across the bypass diodes of the stolen PV module forward voltages are missing.

In a corresponding manner, a constant predetermined test voltage can be used instead of a constant predetermined test current. In this case, a tearing of the associated test to-current indicates an opening of the PV string line. An increase in the test current, however, displays a lock-up of one or more PV modules, as decreases in this case, the total resistance of the PV string line.

According to a particular variant of the method the anti-theft message is displayed when a currently detected test voltage goes back at a predetermined test current is approximately the sum of the forward voltage values ​​of all the bypass diodes of the PV module or an integral multiple thereof. In this case, an exact number of presumably bridged PV modules is advantageous be output as part of the error message.

With regard to the first method for failure detection, at least one bypass diode according to the invention in a Nichteinspeisebetrieb, particularly in the evening and at night, one of the field voltage switched with respect to negative test voltage to a PV strand line of series-connected PV modules, to set a test current through the bypass diodes. It is automated output a failure message if a currently detected test voltage compared to a previously measured reference voltage back by approximately an integral multiple of the forward voltage of a bypass diode is.

Thus, a review of all bypass diodes in a respective PV string line is particularly evening and night possible. For comparison, a comparison voltage measured on the previous day is preferably used. Is in a same test current one currently recorded test voltage is lower by about 0.7 V, for example, compared to the previous day, then this is a sure indication that exactly one bypass diode is shorted, ie shorted.

With regard to the second method of failure detection, at least one bypass diode, the failure message is then output according to the invention, if only a smaller compared to residual stream can be adjusted due to an open circuit at least one of the bypass diodes in place of the adjusted test current. This is for. B. be the case if when a maximum test voltage only a fraction of such. As can be impressed in the respective PV string line 30% of the conventional controlled testing current.

In one embodiment, a plurality of strands is connected in parallel. It is set a respective strand test current in each strand for detecting a strand-related theft or a bypass diode failure. Thereby, each PV string line can be monitored for a failure of bypass diodes back.

According to a particular embodiment, the respective string test current is sent off cyclically in each one of the strands. As a result, the circuit design greatly simplified. The object of the invention is also achieved with a PV partial generator connection box, which feed-in according to the invention for switching a with respect to a field voltage negative test voltage to the PV-part generator line in a non-, particularly in the evening and at night, is formed so that a test current through one or more bypass diodes of the PV modules is adjustable.

The PV generator junction box comprises a voltage measuring unit for detecting the test voltage and / or at least a current measuring unit for detecting the test current. It is a theft notification means of the control unit can be output when the test current and / or the test voltage change significantly. It is a failure message at least one bypass diode by means of the control unit can be output when a currently detected test voltage compared to a previously measured reference voltage fall or by approximately an integral multiple of the forward voltage of a bypass diode if, instead of discontinuing the test current due to an open circuit at least one of bypass diodes only one in

Comparison, smaller residual current is adjustable. In particular, the theft message can be output when an associated test voltage value back at the set test current value to a voltage value which substantially corresponds to the sum of the forward voltage values ​​of all the bypass diodes of the PV module or an integral multiple thereof.

According to an advantageous embodiment of the PV generator sub-terminal box has a respective controllable by the control unit switching means for turning on a PV string line of a respective strand on. There is only one switching means for setting a respective strand test current in each strand to the possible output of a continuously-related theft report or failure message cyclically actuation bar.

In another embodiment, the PV Strangleitun- are times connected to a busbar of the PV sub-generator connection box connected. The PV generator junction box comprises a controllable means of the control unit separation switching means for separating the PV-part generator line of the busbar. Furthermore, the PV-sub-generator-arrival terminal box to a test power supply for providing the test voltage, and a controllable by the control unit switches for switching the test voltage to the busbar.

In particular, the test voltage supply for supplying electrical power input side is connected to the sub-generator connecting the PV generator junction box. This electrical supply to the invention PV Teilgenera- tor junction box via the central PV inverter is possible.

According to a particular embodiment, the test voltage supply a loadable on the part generator connection energy storage, in particular an accumulator on. The particular advantage of this embodiment is that a non-intrusive monitoring of the PV modules and an uninterruptible review of bypass diodes in the evening and at night even with the part of the central PV inverter is possible. With the start of the feed-operative, ie typically the next morning, the energy storage can be recharged on the part of the generator connection.

The object of the invention is also achieved selrichter with a PV alternating which lines an auxiliary voltage supply for providing an auxiliary voltage, and a coupling switch for supplying the auxiliary voltage in the PV Teilgenerator- and / or having PV DC mains. This auxiliary voltage via the PV sub-generator lines to the respective inventive PV sub-generator junction boxes can be fed advantageous in switching off the power section in case of insufficient solar feed. According to one embodiment, the auxiliary power supply is provided an AC voltage in terms of the fed-field potential negative auxiliary voltage, a positive supply voltage or an auxiliary. The auxiliary power supply is pre-preferably a power supply, which is an input connected to the electricity grid, in which the PV inverter feeds in feeding operation.

In case of fed-negative auxiliary voltage it can be used by the respective PV sub-generator junction boxes directly as a test voltage for setting a test current through the bypass diode for detecting a theft, and / or for checking the bypass diodes.

Alternatively, the auxiliary voltage may have on the field voltage of the same sign with respect. In this case, the auxiliary voltage junction boxes used for the electrical supply of the test power supplies in the PV sub-generator arrival.

Furthermore, the auxiliary voltage may be an alternating voltage. In this case, the auxiliary power supply is preferably a transformer which has its input side connected to the power supply network.

The auxiliary voltages above amount is less than 100 V, typically less than 40 V.

According to the invention the object of the invention with a PV system with at least one central PV inverter according to the prior art and having a plurality of such PV sub-generator junction boxes is released.

Alternatively, the PV system a cen- eral PV inverter according to the invention for the electrical supply of the PV generator junction boxes, switch off the power supply, especially in the evening and at night, on. Finally, the PV system according to an advantageous embodiment at least a capacitor connected between the at least one central PV inverter and the plurality of PV Teilgene- rator junction boxes PV generator junction boxes.

The invention and advantageous embodiments of the invention are described below with the aid of the following figures. Show it:

1 shows a flow chart of the method for theft detection,

FIG 2 is a flowchart of the inventive method to detect a failure of at least one bypass diode,

3 shows a PV system according to the prior art,

4 shows an example of a series connection of several PV modules each including a plurality of PV cells and each having a plurality of antiparallel-connected bypass diode according to the prior art,

5 shows a PV generator junction box according to the prior art,

FIG 6 shows an example of an inventive PV sub-generator junction boxes,

FIG 7 is an example of an inventive PV inverter and

FIG 8 an example of a PV generator junction box according to an embodiment of the invention.

1 shows a flow chart of the method for theft detection. SO a starting step is indicated. In the following step Sl a waste takes place asking if currently a feeding operation of the PV system 100 is present. There is this, a comparison of the current electric feed-P with a Mindesteinspeiseleistung Pmin, for the operation of the power unit of the PV-AC converter must yet economical. If so, a return branching takes place to step Sl. Otherwise, in the designated "TEST" step S2, that is up when in non, and particularly in the evening and at night, one of the field voltage negative test voltage uT to the at least shifted with respect to one PV string line to set a test current iT through the bypass diodes. The following step S3, it is checked whether the test current iT at a given test voltage uT or the test voltage uT for a given test current iT change significantly. if no change is fixed, a return branch is taken to step S3.

Otherwise is automated an output of a theft message DM, particularly when the currently detected test voltage approximately back uT at a predetermined test current iT is the sum of the forward voltage values ​​of all the bypass diodes of the PV module or an integral multiple thereof.

2 shows a flowchart of the inventive method for fault detection at least one bypass diode. The steps TO to T2 correspond to steps S2 to SO according to the previously described method. The following

Step T3, it is checked whether a currently detected test voltage uT back as compared to a previously measured reference voltage uV by approximately an integral multiple of the forward voltage of a bypass diode. If no amendments noted tion, a return branching takes place on the

Step T3. Otherwise is automated output a failure message AM.

Alternatively, but not shown as a flowchart, a predetermined test current iT can be adjusted by the bypass diodes. There may be output in the corresponding step T3, the failure message AM, if only a smaller compared to residual stream can be adjusted due to an open circuit at least one of the bypass diodes in place of the alternate ends einzu- test current iT. Preferably, the test voltage U is limited to a maximum voltage value. then should be absolutely no test current iT adjust or instead of the adjusted test current iT only compared to smaller residual current, so this is a sure indication of the failure of a bypass diode.

It can be set failure for the three methods previously described in a number of parallel strands of a respective strand test current in each strand for detecting a strand-related theft or Bypassdioden-, wherein the respective strand test stream is then preferably adjusted cyclically in each one of the strands.

The methods of the invention are preferably carried out in the form of software routines on an electronic control unit of the PV generator junction box. 1 The controller is preferably a microcontroller or processor.

3 shows a PV system 100 in accordance with the prior art. In the left part of FIG 3, a loading signed by the reference numeral 5 PV inverter is shown. From that shown

PV inverter 5 by example four PV Teilgenerator- lines 4 and four PV DC main lines 4 'from. The 'registered respectively in the PV sub-generator lines 4 and PV-DC main lines 4 cross bar with the numeral 2 indicates that there is a preferably two-wire line. The respective PV sub-generator lines 4 and PV-DC main lines 4 'are separable via a controllable isolating switch means 52 from a power section 51 of the PV inverter. 5 The actuation is managed primarily by a central control unit 57. In parallel with the four PV sub-generator lines 4 and PV-DC main lines 4 'are each a communication line 9 for the bidirectional transmission of data DAT between the central len PV inverter 5 and the respective, illustrated shown PV generator junction boxes 1 3 in the right part of FIG.

In the middle part of FIG 3, a photovoltaic generation is illustrated port junction box 6 by way of example, which is in relation to the solar feed-input side with three PV Teilgene- rator junction boxes 1 and its output connected to the central PV inverter. 5 In the example of FIG 3, however, only the vorliegen- a PV generator junction box 1, and only a PV generation port junction box 6 is shown for the sake of clarity. For smaller PV systems 100 a PV generator junction box 6 is not necessarily required. In this case, the respective partial PV generator connection box 1 is connected via a PV sub-generator line 4 directly to the PV inverter. 5 As shown in Figures 3 further shows, the communication lines 9 are also in the case of the presence of a PV generator check circuit box 6 to the respective PV sub-generator arrival terminal box 1 is further distributed.

The reference numeral 25 designates an actuator by way of example, which box by the PV sub-generator connection 1 can be controlled to z. B. accordingly to track a PV module 3 correspond to the respective position of the sun. That in the

the PV generator junction box Box 1 registered icon of an ampere meter symbolizes the possible presence of current measurement units in the PV sub-generator connection box must first serve for the detection of individual phase currents in PV string lines 2 to the connected PV modules 3 lead, and / or for the detection of an entire bus current.

In the right part of Figure 3 are shown as an example five in series to form a strand 31-3n connected PV modules. 3 The series connection is shown graphically by the drawing offset arrangement of a second PV module. 3 FIG 4 shows an example of a series connection of several PV modules 3 each having a plurality of PV cells 7 and each having a plurality of antiparallel-connected bypass diode 8 according to the prior art. In the present example, three PV modules are connected in series. 3 The drawn between the middle and right-hand PV module 3 points suggest that a plurality of such photovoltaic modules can be connected in series 3 such. B. 18 PV modules 3. Typically used 100 identical, in particular identical see PV module types and an equal number of series-connected PV modules 3 for a PV system, which then in parallel in the respective PV generator junction box 1 are connected. For decoupling the respective strands 31-3n a decoupling diode can, preferably in the respective PV sub-generator arrival terminal box 1 having. Further, each PV module to 3 of example 10 to 30 bypass diode 8, which are respectively connected in anti-parallel to three PV cells. 7 In the left part of Figure 4 not further designated terminals are shown, to which the field voltage uF applied. With IL-in the associated phase current is indicated, which flows in the feeding operation and error-free PV cells 7 completely across the PV cells. 7 Only when failure of a PV cell 7 or in case of shading at least flows a large part of the winding current il-in via the parallel-connected bypass diode 8. In Nichteinspeisebetrieb, particularly in the evening and at night, 7 have the PV cells a more ohmic character. One on each strand then 31-3n applied test voltage uT causes log-adjusting or set test current sentlichen essen-, in particular almost completely, is guided via the bypass diode 8 with a negative voltage to the field uF sign. The sign of the phase currents il-in and the respective test current in this case have the same sign.

5 shows a PV generator junction box 1 according to the prior art. The PV generator part shown connection box 1 comprises example 11 to connect respective one PV string line 2 of one or more series-connected PV modules 3 on the four electrical connections. By the reference numeral 21, a positive conductor, and reference numeral 22 a minus conductors of the PV string line 2 is designated. In addition, the PV generator junction box 1 shown on a portion of generator terminal 12, via which the PV generator junction box 1 can be connected to the central PV Wechselrich- ter 5 or to the PV generator junction box. 6

Furthermore, the PV generator junction box 1 on an electronic control unit 10, which is electronically linked to the central control unit 57 of the PV inverter 5 for exchanging data DAT. The data DAT can be to control, diagnostic and operating data or to current or voltage measurements that are captured feeder side. 10 For this purpose the control unit comprises a bus interface 29, to which the communication line can be connected. 9 By the reference numeral 17 is a connection of the communication line is designated. 9 The control unit 10 itself is preferably a microcontroller or a microcomputer. The control unit 10 further includes electrical outputs 28 to which actuators, such. B. Tracker, can be connected. Driving the electrical outputs 28 is performed by a program of the electronic control unit 10. The control unit 10 further includes four exemplary current measurement inputs 26 for detecting corresponding phase current values ​​Il-in on. The latter derived from a respective current measuring unit 14, which is connected to detect a current of each strand il-in into the respective PV string line. 2 The reference numeral 24 electrical inputs of the control unit 10 are referred to, for example, acknowledgment signals from switching means such. to capture as an isolation switching means 20, as well as other states to be detected in the PV Teilgenerator- junction box 1 as input signals ON. The corresponding thereto input data DAT can be output via the communication line 9 to the central control unit 57 of the PV inverter 5 in turn. In series with the respective current measuring unit 14, a release switch 15 and a fuse 16 for protecting the respective PV string line 2 are still running. In the illustrated circuit breakers 15 there are usually manu- ally operated switch. The four shown PV string lines 2 are all connected in parallel to a common bus bar 23, which in turn ratorleitung to the PV Teilgene- is connected. 4 In the PV generator part-arrival terminal box 1 is a fuse 18 to the group protection, and a further current measuring unit 19 for detecting a collector current iG is connected to the PV-part generator line. 4 A corresponding collecting current measurement value IG can be detected by the electronic control unit 10, processed and, where appropriate, via the communication line 9 to the central control unit 57 of the PV inverter. 5 In series with the further current measuring unit 19, the isolating switching means 20 is shown, which can be driven to the group disconnection of the PV-sub-generator lines 2 via the control unit 10th

Between the shown control unit 10 and the PV-part generator line 4 is further a power supply in the form of a DC / DC converter 27 connected, which are usually applied to the PV-part generator line 4 hochvoltige FeId- voltage uF in a low voltage for the supply

Control unit 10 of the PV generator junction box 1 is converted.

FIG 6 shows an example for an inventive PV generator junction box 1. The circuit configuration shown differs from that according to FIG 5 in that the PV generator junction box 1 for switching a test voltage uT is formed on the PV-part generator line 4 , The test voltage uT here has respect to the field voltage uF a negative sign. This is illustrated in FIG 6 by the in comparison to FIG 5 opposite sign ,, + - identified by the bus bar 23 "and ,,". In the example of FIG 6 is an advanced power supply 27 is further provided ', WEL also in che is capable negative input DC voltages and AC voltages to implement in a low voltage for supplying the control unit 10th The switching of the test voltage uT is preferably carried out in a Nichteinspeise- operation. For this purpose, the control unit 10 of the PV Teilgenera- port junction box 1 can be obtained as the date DAT a corresponding control command from the central PV inverter. 5 Alternatively, a connected to the PV generator junction box 1 of optical radiation sensor can provide a corresponding criterion. uT with turning on of the test voltage is a test current iT through one or more bypass diodes 8 of the connected PV modules 3 adjustable. The test voltage U is fed by way of example via the electrical connections 12th The feed z can. B. voltage source through an external chip or via the PV sub-generator line 4 by the PV inverter. 5

Furthermore, the PV generator junction box 1 to a voltage measuring unit 30. Fig. It is used to detect the test voltage uT in Nichteinspeisebetrieb. They can advantageously be used in addition to measuring the voltage applied to the bus bar 23 field voltage uF in feed. With the UT uT for the detected test voltage corresponding test voltage measured value is referred to, which can be detected by the control unit 10 and processed further. By means of the control unit 10 is then an anti-theft message DM can be output when the test voltage uT changes significantly for a given test current iT.

Alternatively or additionally, the PV generator part 1 the connection box must each have a current measuring unit 14 for detecting the phase currents il-in in feed as well as for detecting the respective strand test currents ITL-ITN in Nichteinspeisebetrieb. Alternatively or additionally, a further current measurement unit 19, as shown in the example of the present FIG 6, may be present. It is used for detecting the entire test current iT in the event that all controllable by the control unit 10 strand switching means 15 'overall concluded. The further current measuring unit 10 also serves to detect a collector current iG. With IT, the corresponding test current measured value is indicated. The anti-theft message DM is then be output by the control unit 10 when the test current iT at a given test voltage changes uT. In the present example, the theft message DM is output by the control unit 10 via the communication line 9 to the central PV inverter. 5

Alternatively or additionally, a failure message at the at least one bypass diode 8 is by means of the control unit 10 can be output when a currently detected test voltage uT such. B. means of the voltage measuring unit 30 goes back as compared to a previously measured reference voltage uV by approximately an integral multiple of the forward voltage of a bypass diode. 8 The comparison voltage UV is exemplary stored in non-volatile memory of the control unit 10th The issue of the failure message AM is again via the communication line. 9

Alternatively or additionally, the failure message AM can be output even if only one is adjustable in comparison to smaller leakage current to be set in place of the test current iT due to an open circuit at least one of the bypass diodes. 8

The turning on of the test voltage uT is done by way of example by means of the cyclically controllable by the control unit 10 strand switching means 15 '. Al-A4 the corresponding activation signals Al-A4, respectively. This can be issued a string-related theft message DM or failure message AM. Typically, the PV Teilgenerator- junction box 1 each have a current measuring unit 14 for the continuous measurement of each phase current il-in on. In this case, to dispense with the more current measuring unit 19th can be determined by the cyclical control of the strand switching means 15 'then a respective strand test current ITL-ITN. FIG 7 shows an example for an inventive PV inverter 5. The PV inverter 5 shown has exemplary two part generator terminals 55 for connecting a respective PV sub-generator line 4 of a plurality of non-illustrated PV generator junction boxes 1 on. Alternatively or additionally, a PV DC main line 4 'in between, of a connected photovoltaic generator junction box 6 may be provided on the portion of generator connections 55th Furthermore, the 5 PV inverter terminal 53 to connect the PV inverter 5 on to a not further designated a power grid network. By the numeral 54 power lines are designated. Furthermore, 5, the PV inverter to the central control unit 57 for controlling the PV inverter 5 as well as for transmitting data DAT to the plurality of data-technically connected to the central control unit 57 PV generator junction boxes. 1

Further, a power section of the PV inverter 5 is indicated by the reference numeral 51, which the hochvoltige applied field voltage uF or the DC link voltage UZK converts a three-phase line voltage. Alternatively, the PV inverter 5 can convert the input side adjacent field voltage uF in a single-phase AC voltage.

According to the invention, the PV inverter 5 an auxiliary power supply 56 for providing an auxiliary voltage Uh and a coupling switch 59 to supply the auxiliary voltage VA in the PV sub-generator lines 4 and / or PV DC main ducts 4 '. With iH the associated auxiliary power is indicated. Characterized the devices connected to the PV inverter 5 PV generator junction boxes 1 can also switch off the power section 51 of the PV inverter 5, in particular evening and night, continue to be supplied with energy.

In the example of FIG 7 three possible voltage waveforms of the injected auxiliary voltage uH listed. If the auxiliary voltage Uh one with respect to the supplied field voltage uF negative auxiliary voltage UH, this auxiliary voltage UH can be centrally discharged from the PV inverter 5 to the PV generator junction boxes 1 as a test voltage uT. The respective PV generator junction boxes 1 can by means of the current measurement units 14, 19 detect a respective strand-related strand test current ITL-ITN and / or an entire test current iT. By means of the control unit 10 is then an anti-theft message DM and / or a failure message AM produced. The messages DM, AM can be forwarded via the communication line 9 to the central control unit 57 of the PV inverter. 5

If the auxiliary voltage U a with respect to the supplied field voltage uF positive auxiliary voltage U +, or an auxiliary AC voltage UH ~ so, the respective PV Teilgenerator- junction box 1 is preferably a suitable test voltage supply 40 for generating the test voltage uT from the auxiliary voltage Uh on. The auxiliary power supply 56 of the PV inverter 5 is preferably a power supply, which is connected on the input side to the power supply, in which the PV inverter 5 feeds in feed.

8 shows an example of a PV sub-generator connection boxes 1 according to an embodiment of the invention. The

Circuit of FIG 8 differs from that according to FIG 6, characterized in that the PV generator junction box 1 comprises an isolating switching means 20 for separating the PV-part generator line 4 from the busbar 23rd The isolation switching means 20 is controlled by the control unit 10th Furthermore, the PV generator junction box 1 to a test power supply 40 for providing the test voltage uT, and a controllable by the control unit 10 switch 42 for switching the test voltage uT to the busbar 23rd The isolation switching means 20 and the switch 42 are connected, preferably simultaneously, ie, the isolating switching means 20 and also the switch 42 a or vice versa. Furthermore, the test power supply 40 is to supply electric comparison input side to the PV Teilgeneratorleitungs- terminal 12 of the PV generator junction box 1 connected. the test voltage supply through these means can in test mode, especially in the evening and at night, 40 supplied with energy such. B. 'coupled over the line from the central PV inverter 5 if the power stage 51 into the PV-part generator line 4 or into the PV-4 Gleichstromhaupt- auxiliary voltage Uh.

Alternatively or additionally, the test voltage supply 40 via a terminal 12 subgenerator loadable energy storage 41, in particular an accumulator, on. Characterized an electrical power supply of the test voltage uT for theft monitoring and checking the bypass diode 8 is also evening or at night, and especially in case of missing or not provided for coupling an auxiliary voltage Uh possible. The power supply 27 for the control unit 10 and the test voltage supply 40 can be in one device together quantity sums. Is an energy storage 41 is provided, this is preferably also used to energize the

Control unit 10. Similarly, the switch 42 in the test power supply 40 and in such a device may be integrated. The switch 42 may take the form of electronic components, such as. B. transistors realized be. On the other reindeer with words, the test voltage supply 40 may be switched electronically and have disconnectable outputs for the test voltage uT.

Opened isolating switch means 20 and at the same time overall schlossenem switch 42 a theft monitoring and verification of the bypass diodes 8 to a failure out are possible by the test voltage measuring unit uT means of Testspannungs- 30 and / or the test current iT or the respective strand test current iTl- ITN are detected by means of current measurement units fourteenth With individual control of the strand switching means 15 'is possible to continuously output the theft-related message DM, or a failure message AM. In the present example this is done by means of a radio data transmitter 43, which is electronically linked to the control unit 10th The data transmitter 43 is for example a GSM module with a corresponding antenna 44. Z is a main central office for the operation and monitoring of the PV system 100 is referred to, which is connected to a corresponding receiver.

Claims

claims
comprising 1. A method for theft detection of a PV system (100) of at least one PV module (3), which at least one parallel strand (31-3n) of series-connected PV modules (3) for providing a field voltage (UF) wherein the photovoltaic modules (3) in turn comprise a plurality of series-connected PV cells (7), characterized in that - for the protection of the PV cells (7) connected in antiparallel bypass diodes (8) are provided,
- that in a Nichteinspeisebetrieb, particularly in the evening and at night, one with respect to the field voltage (UF) negative test voltage (UT) is connected to the at least one PV string line (2) to set a test current (iT) through the bypass diodes (8), and
- that automates a theft message (DM) is output when the test current (iT) at a predetermined test voltage (UT) or the test voltage (UT) for a given test current (iT) change significantly.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the theft message (DM) is issued when a currently detected test voltage (UT) at a predetermined test current (iT) by approximately the sum of the forward voltage values ​​of all the bypass diodes (8) of a PV module (3) or an integral multiple thereof decreases.
3. A process for the failure detection of at least one bypass diode (8) of a PV module (3) in a PV system (100) comprising at least one parallel strand (31-3n) of series-connected PV modules (3) to provide a field voltage (uF), wherein the PV modules (3) each having a plurality of series-connected PV cells (7) as well as several to anti-parallel and series-connected bypass diodes (8) to protect the PV cells (7), characterized characterized in that - is connected in a Nichteinspeisebetrieb, particularly in the evening and at night, one with respect to the field voltage (uF) negative test voltage (uT) to a PV-strand line (2) of the series-connected PV modules (3) to a test Ström (iT) set by the bypass diodes (8), and
- that automates a failure message (AM) is output if a currently detected test voltage (UT) relative to a previously measured reference voltage
(UV) approximately by an integer multiple of the voltage Flussspan- a bypass diode (8) decreases.
4. A method for failure detection, at least one bypass diode (8) of a PV module (3) in a PV system (100) comprising at least one parallel strand (31-3n) of series-connected PV modules (3) to provide a field voltage (uF), wherein the PV modules (3) each having a plurality of series-connected PV cells (7) as well as several to anti-parallel and series-connected bypass diodes (8) to protect the PV cells (7), characterized in
- that is connected in a Nichteinspeisebetrieb, particularly in the evening and at night, one with respect to the field voltage (UF) negative test voltage (UT) to a PV-strand line (2) of the series-connected PV modules (3) to Ström a test ( iT) set by the bypass diodes (8), and
- that automates a failure message (AM) is output when due to an open circuit at least one of the bypass diodes (8) instead of the test current to be set
(IT) once only a minor by comparison, residual current is adjustable.
5. The method according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that a plurality of strands (31-3n) connected in parallel and that a respective Ström Strangtest- (ITL-ITN) in the respective strand (31-3n) for detecting a strand-related theft or a Bypassdioden- is set failure.
6. The method according to claim 5, characterized in that the respective strand test current (ITL-ITN) cyclically in each one of the strands (31-3n) is set.
7. PV generator junction box for a photovoltaic system (100) having a plurality of electrical terminals (11) for connecting a respective one PV string line (2) of a plurality of series-connected PV modules (3) each having a plurality of series-connected PV cells (7), a partial generator connection (12) for connecting a PV Teilgenera- gate line (4) of a remotely located particular central PV inverter (5) and an electronic control unit (10), characterized in
- that the PV generator junction box for switching a with respect to a field voltage (UF) negative test voltage (UT) to the PV-part generator line (4) in a Nichteinspeisebetrieb, is particularly in the evening and at night, is formed so that a test current (iT) by one or more bypass diodes (8) of the PV modules (3) can be set, - that the PV generator junction box, a voltage measuring unit (30) for detecting the test voltage (uT) and / or at least a current measuring unit (14, 19) for comprising detecting the test current (iT),
- that a theft message (DM) by means of the control unit (10) can be output when the test current (iT) and / or the test voltage (UT) significantly change, and / or
- that a failure message (AM) at least one bypass diode
(8) can be output by means of the control unit (10) when a currently detected test voltage (UT) relative to a previously measured reference voltage (uv) approximately by an integer multiple of the forward voltage of a bypass diode (8) returns, or when to be set in place of the test current (iT) due to an open circuit at least one of the bypass diodes (8) only a small compared to residual stream is adjustable.
8. PV generator junction box according to claim 7, characterized in that the theft message (DM) can be output when a currently detected test voltage (UT) at a predetermined test current (iT) in such voltage values ​​to the sum of the flux of all bypass diodes ( 8) of a PV module (3) or an integral multiple thereof decreases.
9. PV generator junction box according to claim 7 or 8, characterized in that the PV Array-connection box, each one by means of the control unit (10) controllable strand switching means (15 ') for turning on a PV-strand line (2) having a respective strand (31-3n), and that only one strand switching means (15 ') for adjusting a respective strand of the test current (ITL-ITN) in the respective strand (31-3n) for possible output of a continuously-related theft message (DM) or failure message (AM ) is cyclically controlled.
10. PV generator junction box according to one of Ansprü- che 7 to 9, characterized in that
- that the PV string lines (2) are connected to a bus bar (23) of the PV generator junction box,
- that the PV generator junction box a means of the control unit (10) comprising controllable isolation switching means (20) for separating the PV-part generator line (4) of the busbar (23),
- that the PV generator junction box, a test power supply (40) for providing the test voltage
(BDC), and - that the PV generator junction box controllable one by means of the control unit (10) switch (42) for switching the test voltage (UT) to the busbar (23).
11. PV generator junction box according to claim 10, DA by in that the test voltage supply (40) input is connected to the electrical supply to the Teilgene- ratoranschluss (12) of the PV generator junction box.
12. PV generator junction box according to claim 11, characterized in that the test voltage supply (40) has a part above the generator terminal (12) chargeable energy store (41), in particular an accumulator.
13. PV inverter for a PV system (100), with at least a portion of generator terminal (55) for connecting each of a PV part generator line (4) a plurality of PV Teilgenera- tor junction boxes (1) and / or for connecting each a PV DC main line (4 ') of an intermediate PV generator junction box (6), wherein the PV inverter having a mains connection (53) for connection to a power supply network and a central control unit (7) for controlling the PV inverter, characterized in that that the PV inverter, an auxiliary power supply (56) for providing an auxiliary voltage (uH) and a coupling switch (59) for supplying the auxiliary voltage (uH) into the PV-part generator line (4) and / or PV Gleichstromhaupt- lines (4 ' ) having.
14. PV inverter according to claim 13, characterized in that the auxiliary power supply (56) with respect to the supplied field voltage (UT) negative auxiliary voltage
(UH), a positive auxiliary voltage (uH +) or an auxiliary AC voltage (uH ~) provides.
15. PV system with at least one central PV inverter (5) and having a plurality of PV sub-generator Anschlusskäs- th (1) according to any one of claims 7 to 12th
16. PV system with at least one central PV inverter (5) according to claim 13 or 14 and having a plurality of PV generator junction boxes (1) according to any one of claims 7 to 12th
17. PV system according to claim 15 or 16, characterized in that the PV system at least one between said at least one central PV inverter (5) and the plurality of PV generator junction boxes connected (1) PV generator junction box (6).
EP09710620A 2008-02-11 2009-02-11 Method for recognizing the theft of a pv module and a failure of a bypass diode of a pv module, corresponding pv sub-generator junction box, pv inverter, and corresponding pv system Withdrawn EP2240789A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE102008008504A DE102008008504A1 (en) 2008-02-11 2008-02-11 A process for the theft detection of a PV module and to detect a failure of a bypass diode of a photovoltaic module as well as to corresponding PV generator junction box, PV inverter and corresponding thereto PV system
PCT/EP2009/051559 WO2009101102A1 (en) 2008-02-11 2009-02-11 Method for recognizing the theft of a pv module and a failure of a bypass diode of a pv module, corresponding pv sub-generator junction box, pv inverter, and corresponding pv system

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EP2240789A1 true EP2240789A1 (en) 2010-10-20

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US (1) US20110032099A1 (en)
EP (1) EP2240789A1 (en)
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DE (1) DE102008008504A1 (en)
WO (1) WO2009101102A1 (en)

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CN101939660B (en) 2014-04-23

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