EP2184214B1 - Self-steering platform car - Google Patents

Self-steering platform car Download PDF

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Publication number
EP2184214B1
EP2184214B1 EP08791812.4A EP08791812A EP2184214B1 EP 2184214 B1 EP2184214 B1 EP 2184214B1 EP 08791812 A EP08791812 A EP 08791812A EP 2184214 B1 EP2184214 B1 EP 2184214B1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
truck
steering
frame
self
main frame
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Fee Related
Application number
EP08791812.4A
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
EP2184214A1 (en
EP2184214A4 (en
Inventor
Yoshihiro Suda
Wenjun Wang
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
University of Tokyo NUC
Original Assignee
University of Tokyo NUC
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to JP2007196987 priority Critical
Application filed by University of Tokyo NUC filed Critical University of Tokyo NUC
Priority to PCT/JP2008/063577 priority patent/WO2009017114A1/en
Publication of EP2184214A1 publication Critical patent/EP2184214A1/en
Publication of EP2184214A4 publication Critical patent/EP2184214A4/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP2184214B1 publication Critical patent/EP2184214B1/en
Expired - Fee Related legal-status Critical Current
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B61RAILWAYS
    • B61FRAIL VEHICLE SUSPENSIONS, e.g. UNDERFRAMES, BOGIES OR ARRANGEMENTS OF WHEEL AXLES; RAIL VEHICLES FOR USE ON TRACKS OF DIFFERENT WIDTH; PREVENTING DERAILING OF RAIL VEHICLES; WHEEL GUARDS, OBSTRUCTION REMOVERS OR THE LIKE FOR RAIL VEHICLES
    • B61F3/00Types of bogies
    • B61F3/16Types of bogies with a separate axle for each wheel
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B61RAILWAYS
    • B61FRAIL VEHICLE SUSPENSIONS, e.g. UNDERFRAMES, BOGIES OR ARRANGEMENTS OF WHEEL AXLES; RAIL VEHICLES FOR USE ON TRACKS OF DIFFERENT WIDTH; PREVENTING DERAILING OF RAIL VEHICLES; WHEEL GUARDS, OBSTRUCTION REMOVERS OR THE LIKE FOR RAIL VEHICLES
    • B61F5/00Constructional details of bogies; Connections between bogies and vehicle underframes; Arrangements or devices for adjusting or allowing self-adjustment of wheel axles or bogies when rounding curves
    • B61F5/26Mounting or securing axle-boxes in vehicle or bogie underframes
    • B61F5/30Axle-boxes mounted for movement under spring control in vehicle or bogie underframes
    • B61F5/32Guides, e.g. plates, for axle-boxes
    • B61F5/325The guiding device including swinging arms or the like to ensure the parallelism of the axles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B61RAILWAYS
    • B61FRAIL VEHICLE SUSPENSIONS, e.g. UNDERFRAMES, BOGIES OR ARRANGEMENTS OF WHEEL AXLES; RAIL VEHICLES FOR USE ON TRACKS OF DIFFERENT WIDTH; PREVENTING DERAILING OF RAIL VEHICLES; WHEEL GUARDS, OBSTRUCTION REMOVERS OR THE LIKE FOR RAIL VEHICLES
    • B61F5/00Constructional details of bogies; Connections between bogies and vehicle underframes; Arrangements or devices for adjusting or allowing self-adjustment of wheel axles or bogies when rounding curves
    • B61F5/38Arrangements or devices for adjusting or allowing self- adjustment of wheel axles or bogies when rounding curves, e.g. sliding axles, swinging axles
    • B61F5/40Bogies with side frames mounted for longitudinal relative movements

Description

    Technical Field
  • The present invention relates to a truck for supporting a railway vehicle, and more particularly, to a self steering truck having excellent sharp turning performance such as a truck for an LRT (light rail transit) vehicle.
  • Background Art
  • For railway vehicles, turning performance and running stability are required. The turning performance is achieved by a self steering function based on the tread gradient of a wheel. The self steering function can be improved by freeing the yawing of a wheel axle. However, when the yawing of a wheel axle is freed, a self-excited vibration called hunting oscillation occurs, to thereby deteriorate the running stability.
  • To improve the self steering function, a monocycle independently-rotatable truck in which independently-rotatable wheel units (axle and wheel) are provided on the right and left sides of a bogie frame is preferably employed. Examples of the related art regarding the monocycle independently-rotatable truck include Patent Document 1, Patent Document 2, and Non-Patent Document 1.
  • Patent Document 1 discloses a structure in which axle arms are coupled to the right and left sides of a truck frame having a square U shape respectively via two links, right and left wheels are rotatably supported on the right and left axle arms, and the right and left axle arms are coupled together via a link in the width direction. Also, Non-Patent Document 1 discloses a basic point regarding the monocycle independently-rotatable truck.
  • In Patent Document 2, it is proposed to solve a response delay of a wheel to a curve by arranging a steering assist actuator such as an electromagnetic damper based on the disclosures in Patent Document 1 and Non-Patent Document 1.
  • Also, Patent Document 3 proposes a single truck obtained by swingably coupling two truck frames together. In the truck, a front-side truck and a rear-side truck are coupled together through a pin, and a wheel unit where right and left wheels are mounted on a single axle is provided in each of the trucks.
    • Patent Document 1
      Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 2002-302038
    • Patent Document 2
      WO 2006/075756
    • Patent Document 3
      Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 02-293253
    Non-Patent Document 1
  • Fritz Frederich, Possibilities as yet unknown or unused regarding the wheel/rail tracking mechanism, Development of modern rolling stock running gear, Rail International, November 1985, p33
  • EP 0 348 378 describes a truck for supporting a rail vehicle, the truck having two frame bars, each frame bar having a first portion on which is mounted a first wheel and a second portion on which is mounted a second wheel. Pivots between the first portion and second portion permit independent orientation of each wheel.
  • Disclosure of the Invention Problems to be Solved by the Invention
  • None of Patent Documents 1 and 2 and Non-Patent Document 1 disclosing the truck clearly describes the relationship between a drive wheel and a steering wheel. Particularly, to allow a vehicle to smoothly run on a track with a very small radius of curvature such as a light rail transit vehicle, it is considered preferable that the drive wheel and the steering wheel be as close as possible to each other. However, there is no disclosure on the point.
  • Since the truck disclosed in Patent Document 3 is based on the single axle truck where the right and left wheels are mounted on the single axle, the truck has limited turning performance, and is thus not suitable for the track of LRT or the like with a very small radius of curvature such as a light rail transit vehicle.
  • Means for Solving the Problems
  • To solve the aforementioned problems, in a self steering truck according to the present invention, a single truck includes a main frame having a rectangular frame shape in a plan view and a sub frame, wherein right and left drive wheels are rotatably supported on the main frame, the sub frame comprises right and left swing arms whose proximal end portions are supported on corners of the main frame having a rectangular shape in a swingable manner in a yawing direction and a link for coupling the arms, and independently-rotatable steering wheels having a self steering function are provided on the right and left swing arms, and a distance (L1) between a center of an axle of the drive wheel and the proximal end portion of the swing arm is set to be equal to a distance (L2) between a center of an axle of the steering wheel and the proximal end portion of the swing arm.
  • Although the sub frame may be provided at only one of the front and rear of the main frame, it is preferable to provide the sub frame at each of the front and rear of the main frame in view of stability. When the sub frames are provided at both the front and rear of the main frame, the front and rear sub frames are coupled together via a link mechanism such that the steering wheels mounted on the front and rear sub frames are in opposite phase. Accordingly, the stability is improved and a higher response to a small radius of curvature is obtained.
  • A basic shape of a link formed by one side of the main frame and the sub frame is a parallelogram where the length of the coupling link that constitutes the sub frame is equal to the length between the proximal end portions of the right and left swing arms. However, when the length of the coupling link is made larger than the length between the proximal end portions of the right and left swing arms, the radius of rotation of an inner wheel can be made smaller than the radius of rotation of an outer wheel during yawing. That is, an Ackerman steering mechanism can be formed. The Ackerman steering mechanism is a preferable structure for a curve with a very small radius of curvature.
  • A damper for damping the swing of the sub frame, or an electromagnetic damper also having a function of actively controlling the swing of the sub frame may be provided between the main frame and the sub frame.
  • Advantages of the Invention
  • According to the present invention, the drive wheels and the steering wheels are provided in the single truck, and the steering wheels are mounted on the sub frame that is swingable relative to the main frame on which the drive wheels are mounted. Accordingly, the self steering truck having excellent turning performance can be obtained.
  • Particularly, by employing a monocycle independent type wheel for all the wheels including the drive wheels, no axle is extended over the width direction of a vehicle. Thus, the self steering truck is also preferable for a low floor type vehicle.
  • Brief Description of the Drawings
    • Figure 1 is a plan view of a self steering truck according to the present invention;
    • Figure 2 is a plan view for explaining the motion of the self steering truck shown in Figure 1 at the time of turning a curve;
    • Figure 3 is a plan view of a self steering truck according to another embodiment;
    • Figure 4 is a plan view for explaining the motion of the self steering truck shown in Figure 3 at the time of turning a curve;
    • Figures 5(a) and 5(b) are plan views of a self steering truck according to another embodiment;
    • Figure 6 is a plan view of a self steering truck according to another embodiment;
    • Figures 7(a) and 7(b) are plan views of a self steering truck according to another embodiment;
    • Figure 8 is a plan view of a self steering truck according to another embodiment;
    • Figure 9 is a plan view of a self steering truck according to another embodiment;
    • Figures 10(a) and 10(b) are plan views of a self steering truck according to another embodiment;
    • Figures 10(c) and 10(d) are plan views of a self steering truck according to another embodiment;
    • Figures 11(a) to 11(c) are enlarged side views illustrating an application example to a railway vehicle; and
    • Figures 12(a) to 12(d) are side views illustrating an application example to a railway vehicle.
    Description of Symbols
  • 1:
    Main frame
    2:
    Sub frame
    3:
    Drive wheel
    4:
    Axle
    5:
    Axle box
    6:
    Swing arm
    7:
    Coupling link
    8:
    Steering wheel
    9:
    Axle
    10:
    Axle box
    11:
    Direct acting damper
    12:
    Rotating damper
    13, 14:
    Link mechanism
    15:
    Bolsterless air spring
    16:
    Mono link
    17:
    Wing spring
    18:
    Guide member
    L1:
    Distance between a drive wheel and the proximal end portion of a swing arm
    L2:
    Distance between a steering wheel and the proximal end portion of a swing arm
    R1:
    Outer rail
    R2:
    Inner rail
    Best Mode for Carrying Out the Invention
  • In the following, a best mode for carrying out the present invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings. Figure 1 is a plan view of a self steering truck according to the present invention. Figure 2 is a plan view for explaining the motion of the self steering truck shown in Figure 1 at the time of turning a curve.
  • A main frame 1 having a rectangular frame shape in a plan view and sub frames 2 provided at the front and rear of the main frame 1 based on the running direction form the base structure of the self steering truck according to the present invention.
  • Axles 4 and 4 of right and left drive wheels 3 and 3 are rotatably supported on the main frame 1 via axle boxes 5 and 5. The same drive torque is applied to the right and left drive wheels 3 and 3 by use of a series motor or a differential gear.
  • In a case of using the independent wheels as shown in the drawings or in a case of using wheels with no flange described below, a cylindrical tread is employed as the tread shape of the drive wheels 3 and 3. In a case of using integrated wheels with an axle, a conical or circular tread is preferably employed.
  • The sub frame 2 includes right and left swing arms 6 and 6 whose proximal end portions are pivotably supported on the main frame 1 in a horizontal plane, and a coupling link 7 for coupling the distal end portions of the swing arms 6 and 6 together to constitute a link. The length of the coupling link 7 is set to be equal to the length between the proximal end portions of the swing arms 6 and 6. A parallelogram link is thereby formed between the sub frame 2 and the main frame 1.
  • An axle 9 of a steering wheel 8 is rotatably supported on each of the swing arms 6 and 6 via an axle box 10. A distance L1 between the drive wheel 3 (the center of the axle 4) and the proximal end portion (a joint portion) of the swing arm 6 is set to be equal to a distance L2 between the steering wheel 8 (the center of the axle 9) and the proximal end portion of the swing arm 6.
  • With the aforementioned configuration, when a vehicle passes through a curved rail track, the swing arm 6 swings along the curve of the rail track, and a steering angle is generated in the steering wheel 8 as shown in Figure 2. Accordingly, the vehicle can smoothly yaw with substantially no angle of attack.
  • Also, since the distance L1 is equal to the distance L2 in the parallelogram link, the drive wheel 3 travels on the same arc as the steering wheel 7. The setting is suitable for a relatively gentle curve where the radius of curvature of an outer rail R1 and the radius of curvature of an inner rail R2 can be considered equivalent to each other.
  • Figure 3 is a plan view of a self steering truck according to another embodiment. Figure 4 is a plan view for explaining the motion of the self steering truck shown in Figure 3 at the time of turning a curve. In the embodiment, the length of the coupling link 7 is set to be larger than the length between the proximal end portions of the swing arms 6 and 6, to thereby form a trapezoidal link, that is, an Ackerman steering mechanism between the sub frame 2 and the main frame 1.
  • The Ackerman steering mechanism is a mechanism in which an inner wheel has a smaller radius of rotation than that of an outer wheel during yawing as shown in Figure 4. The structure is thus preferable in a case where the curve has a very small radius of curvature since there is a large difference between the radii of curvature of the outer rail R1 and the inner rail R2.
  • Figures 5(a) and 5(b) are plan views of a self steering truck according to another embodiment. In the embodiment, while an Ackerman steering link is employed as the structure of the sub frames 2 coupled to the front and rear of the main frame 1, the drive wheels are not provided in the main frame 1.
  • Figure 6 is a plan view of a self steering truck according to another embodiment. In the embodiment, a damper for damping the swing of the sub frame 2 is provided between the main frame 1 and the sub frame 2. As the damper, a direct acting electromagnetic damper 11 or a rotating electromagnetic damper 12 may be employed as well as a normal damper that exerts a hydraulic or air damping force. When the electromagnetic damper is applied as described above, the swing of the sub frame 2 is not only damped to stabilize the operation, but the swing of the sub frame can be also actively controlled in association with the curve of a track.
  • Figures 7(a) and 7(b) are plan views of a self-steering truck according to another embodiment. In the embodiment shown in Figure 7(a), the front end of the left-side swing arm 6 of the front sub frame 2 is coupled to the rear end of the right-side swing arm 6 of the rear sub frame 2 via a link mechanism 13 such that the steering wheel 8 of the front sub frame 2 is in opposite phase to the steering wheel 8 of the rear sub frame 2. Similarly, in Figure 7(b), the left-side swing arm 6 of the front sub frame 2 is formed into an L shape, and the right-side swing arm 6 of the rear sub frame 2 is formed into an L shape. A link mechanism 14 couples the L-shaped arms together such that the steering wheels are in opposite phase. By allowing the front and rear steering wheels to be in opposite phase as described above, the vehicle can smoothly run along a curve with a very small radius of curvature.
  • Figure 8 is a plan view of a self steering truck according to another embodiment. In the embodiment, the sub frame 2 is provided at only one of the front or rear ends of the main frame 1. The configuration is effective in a case where the vehicle is short and only one sub frame can be coupled thereto or in a case of a one-way operation.
  • Figure 9 is a plan view of a self steering truck according to another embodiment. In the embodiment, a single axle 4 is mounted on the main frame 1, and the drive wheels 3 and 3 are mounted on the both ends of the axle 4. Although the structure is disadvantageous to a low floor type, a mechanism for transmitting a drive force can be simplified.
  • Figures 10(a) to 10(d) are plan views of a self-steering truck according to another embodiment. In the embodiment shown in Figure 10(a), a flange for preventing derailment is not provided in the drive wheel 3. This is because the front and rear steering wheels have flanges and the drive wheel is thus not required to have a flange.
  • In the embodiment shown in Figures 10(b) to 10(d), the drive wheel 3 is made of rubber, or a rubber layer is formed on the surface of the drive wheel 3. In a type shown in Figure 10(b), the rubber drive wheel 3 is placed on a rail, so that the vehicle runs by a frictional force with the rail. Even when the drive wheel 3 is in contact with the rail as described above, a load applied to the rail can be considerably reduced and the drive force can be increased by employing the rubber drive wheel 3.
  • In a type shown in Figure 10(c), the single rubber drive wheel 3 is arranged in the intermediate portion of the main frame 1 in the width direction. In the type, the vehicle runs by friction not with the rail but with a track surface. Thus, it is necessary to make the surface between the outer rail and the inner rail flat with asphalt or concrete. In the type, the rail works only for a steering operation and is thus subject to less wear. Therefore, the rail requires less maintenance.
  • In a type shown in Figure 10(d), the rubber drive wheel 3 is arranged outside the main frame 1. In the truck according to the type, a smaller load is applied to the rail as in the aforementioned type. Also, since the drive wheels 3 project to the right and left, the running stability is improved regardless of running on a straight track or a curved track. The configuration is effective especially when the vehicle has a narrow gauge.
  • Figures 11(a) to 11(c) are enlarged side views illustrating an application example to a railway vehicle. In types shown in Figures 11 (a) and 11 (b), a bolsterless air spring 15 is arranged between the vehicle and the self steering truck, and a mono link 16, a wing spring 17, or a guide member 18 are used as a method for supporting the axle box. The drive wheel may have a larger diameter, and the steering wheels may have smaller diameters while the diameters of the front and rear steering wheels are different from each other as shown in Figure 11(c).
  • The load share ratio of the drive wheel is made largest as shown in the drawings, so that the drive force of the drive wheel can be increased.
  • Figures 12(a) to 12(d) are side views illustrating an application example to a railway vehicle. In a type shown in Figure 12(a), the self steering truck according to the present invention is applied to the front and rear of a single vehicle. In a type shown in Figure 12(b), the self steering truck according to the present invention is applied to a coupling portion between two vehicles. In a type shown in Figure 12(c), the self steering truck according to the present invention is applied to each of three coupled vehicles. In a type shown in Figure 12(d), the self steering truck according to the present invention is applied to vehicles on the both ends of three coupled vehicles excluding an intermediate vehicle.

Claims (7)

  1. A self steering truck for supporting a railway vehicle, the truck comprising a main frame (1) having a rectangular frame shape in a plan view and a sub frame (2), wherein right and left drive wheels (3) are rotatably supported on the main frame (1), the sub frame (2) comprises right and left swing arms (6) whose proximal end portions are supported on corners of the main frame (1) having a rectangular shape in a swingable manner in a yawing direction and a link (7) for coupling the arms (6), and independently-rotatable steering wheels (8) having a self steering function are provided on the right and left swing arms (6), and a distance (L1) between a center of an axle (4) of the drive wheel (3) and the proximal end portion of the swing arm (6) is set to be equal to a distance (L2) between a center of an axle (9) of the steering wheel (8) and the proximal end portion of the swing arm(6).
  2. A self steering truck for supporting a railway vehicle, the truck comprising a main frame (1) having a rectangular frame shape in a plan view and a sub frame (2), wherein a rubber drive wheel (3) is rotatably supported on the main frame (1), the sub frame (2) comprises right and left swing arms (6) whose proximal end portions are supported on the main frame (1) in a swingable manner in a yawing direction and a link (7) for coupling the arms (6), and independently-rotatable steering wheels (8) having a self steering function are provided on the right and left swing arms (6), and a distance (L1) between a center of an axle (4) of the drive wheel (3) and the proximal end portion of the swing arm (6) is set to be equal to a distance (L2) between a center of an axle (9) of the steering wheel (8) and the proximal end portion of the swing arm (6).
  3. The self steering truck according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the sub frame (2) is provided at each of a front and a rear of the main frame (1).
  4. The self steering truck according to claim 3, wherein the front and rear sub frames (2) are coupled together via a link mechanism (7) such that the steering wheels (8) mounted on the front and rear sub frames (2) are in opposite phase.
  5. The self steering truck according to claim 1 or 2, wherein a length of the coupling link (7) that constitutes the sub frame (2) is equal to a length between the proximal end portions of the right and left swing arms (6) to thereby form a parallelogram link.
  6. The self steering truck according to claim 1 or 2, wherein a length of the coupling link (7) that constitutes the sub frame (2) is larger than a length between the proximal end portions of the right and left swing arms (6) to thereby form an Ackerman steering mechanism.
  7. The self steering truck according to any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein a damper (11, 12) for damping swing of the sub frame (2), or an electromagnetic damper (11, 12) also having a function of actively controlling the swing of the sub frame (2) is provided between the main frame (1) and the sub frame (2).
EP08791812.4A 2007-07-30 2008-07-29 Self-steering platform car Expired - Fee Related EP2184214B1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
JP2007196987 2007-07-30
PCT/JP2008/063577 WO2009017114A1 (en) 2007-07-30 2008-07-29 Self-steering platform car

Publications (3)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP2184214A1 EP2184214A1 (en) 2010-05-12
EP2184214A4 EP2184214A4 (en) 2013-01-02
EP2184214B1 true EP2184214B1 (en) 2017-04-05

Family

ID=40304344

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP08791812.4A Expired - Fee Related EP2184214B1 (en) 2007-07-30 2008-07-29 Self-steering platform car

Country Status (3)

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EP (1) EP2184214B1 (en)
JP (1) JP5311414B2 (en)
WO (1) WO2009017114A1 (en)

Families Citing this family (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
KR101329001B1 (en) 2011-12-20 2013-11-12 한국철도기술연구원 Independence rotating wheels suspension apparatus for low-floor vehicle
RU2562659C1 (en) * 2014-03-18 2015-09-10 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Елецкий государственный университет им. И.А. Бунина" Diesel locomotive three axle bogie
KR101772606B1 (en) * 2015-11-05 2017-08-31 한국철도기술연구원 3 axle bogie for railway car
JP6624293B2 (en) * 2016-07-29 2019-12-25 日本製鉄株式会社 Truck for railway vehicle and railway vehicle equipped with the truck

Family Cites Families (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR719436A (en) * 1931-07-02 1932-02-05 Bogie for rail vehicles
US3066617A (en) * 1960-03-24 1962-12-04 Sidney H Bingham Light weight rapid transit truck
ZA7207978B (en) * 1972-11-10 1974-07-31 Inventions Dev Corp Sa Improvements in railway suspensions
JPH0417814B2 (en) * 1983-06-15 1992-03-26 Hitachi Ltd
JPS62285604A (en) * 1986-06-03 1987-12-11 H S S T:Kk Flexible type bogie structure of linear motor car
BE1001811A3 (en) * 1988-06-22 1990-03-13 Ferroviaires & Metall Constr Joint guidance and device for a rail vehicle lift.
JPH02293253A (en) 1989-05-08 1990-12-04 Hitachi Ltd Steering system for radial truck
GB2280160B (en) * 1993-07-14 1998-04-29 Tram Research Limited Railway rolling stock
EP0658465B1 (en) * 1993-12-15 1998-02-25 ABB Daimler-Benz Transportation (Technology) GmbH Self steering three axle bogie for a railway vehicle
JP3471157B2 (en) * 1996-02-27 2003-11-25 東芝トランスポートエンジニアリング株式会社 3-axis steering bogie for railway vehicles
JP3524511B2 (en) 2001-01-31 2004-05-10 川崎重工業株式会社 Single-axle bogies for railway vehicles
JP4562655B2 (en) * 2003-07-16 2010-10-13 財団法人生産技術研究奨励会 Self-steering cart and railway vehicle to which the self-steering cart is applied
WO2006075756A1 (en) * 2005-01-17 2006-07-20 The University Of Tokyo Self-steering bogie

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
EP2184214A1 (en) 2010-05-12
JPWO2009017114A1 (en) 2010-10-21
EP2184214A4 (en) 2013-01-02
WO2009017114A1 (en) 2009-02-05
JP5311414B2 (en) 2013-10-09

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