EP2154431B1 - Thermal machine - Google Patents

Thermal machine Download PDF

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Publication number
EP2154431B1
EP2154431B1 EP20090167590 EP09167590A EP2154431B1 EP 2154431 B1 EP2154431 B1 EP 2154431B1 EP 20090167590 EP20090167590 EP 20090167590 EP 09167590 A EP09167590 A EP 09167590A EP 2154431 B1 EP2154431 B1 EP 2154431B1
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Prior art keywords
cooling
34a
shells
parting plane
shroud segments
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EP20090167590
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German (de)
French (fr)
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EP2154431A2 (en )
EP2154431A3 (en )
Inventor
Remigi Tschuor
Hartmut Hähnle
Uwe Rüdel
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General Electric Technology GmbH
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General Electric Technology GmbH
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23RGENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY, e.g. GAS-TURBINE COMBUSTION CHAMBERS
    • F23R3/00Continuous combustion chambers using liquid or gaseous fuel
    • F23R3/42Continuous combustion chambers using liquid or gaseous fuel characterised by the arrangement or form of the flame tubes or combustion chambers
    • F23R3/54Reverse-flow combustion chambers
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23RGENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY, e.g. GAS-TURBINE COMBUSTION CHAMBERS
    • F23R3/00Continuous combustion chambers using liquid or gaseous fuel
    • F23R3/002Wall structures
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23RGENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY, e.g. GAS-TURBINE COMBUSTION CHAMBERS
    • F23R3/00Continuous combustion chambers using liquid or gaseous fuel
    • F23R3/42Continuous combustion chambers using liquid or gaseous fuel characterised by the arrangement or form of the flame tubes or combustion chambers
    • F23R3/50Combustion chambers comprising an annular flame tube within an annular casing
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23RGENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY, e.g. GAS-TURBINE COMBUSTION CHAMBERS
    • F23R2900/00Special features of, or arrangements for continuous combustion chambers; Combustion processes therefor
    • F23R2900/00017Assembling combustion chamber liners or subparts
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23RGENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY, e.g. GAS-TURBINE COMBUSTION CHAMBERS
    • F23R2900/00Special features of, or arrangements for continuous combustion chambers; Combustion processes therefor
    • F23R2900/00018Manufacturing combustion chamber liners or subparts
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23RGENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY, e.g. GAS-TURBINE COMBUSTION CHAMBERS
    • F23R2900/00Special features of, or arrangements for continuous combustion chambers; Combustion processes therefor
    • F23R2900/03044Impingement cooled combustion chamber walls or subassemblies

Description

    TECHNISCHES GEBIET TECHNICAL FIELD
  • Die vorliegende Erfindung bezieht sich auf das Gebiet der Verbrennungstechnik. The present invention relates to the field of combustion technology. Sie betrifft eine thermische Maschine gemäss dem Oberbegriff des Anspruchs 1. It relates to a thermal machine according to the preamble of claim 1.
  • STAND DER TECHNIK STATE OF THE ART
  • Moderne Industrie-Gasturbinen (IGT) werden in der Regel mit Ringbrennkammern ausgelegt. Modern industrial gas turbines (IGT) are generally designed with annular combustors. Meist kleinere IGTs werden als so genannte "Can Annular Combustors" ausgeführt. are usually smaller than IGT's so-called "Can Annular combustor" executed. Bei einer IGT mit Ringbrennkammer ist der Brennraum begrenzt durch die Seitenwände sowie die Eintritts- und Austrittsebene des Heissgases. In an IGT with annular combustion chamber, the combustion chamber is bounded by the side walls and the inlet and outlet level of the hot gas. Eine solche Gasturbine ist in den Such a gas turbine is in the Fig. 1 Fig. 1 und and 2 2 dargestellt. shown. Die in den In the Fig. 1 Fig. 1 und and 2 2 im Ausschnitt gezeigte Gasturbine 10 hat ein Turbinengehäuse 11, in dem ein um eine Achse 27 drehender Rotor 12 untergebracht ist. A gas turbine 10 shown in the cutout has a turbine casing 11 in which a rotating about an axis 27 the rotor is housed 12th Auf der rechten Seite ist an Rotor 12 ein Verdichter 17 zur Verdichtung von Verbrennungs- und Kühlluft ausgebildet, auf der linken Seite ist eine Turbine 13 angeordnet. On the right side, a compressor 17 for compressing combustion and cooling air is formed at the rotor 12, on the left side is a turbine 13 is disposed. Der Verdichter 17 verdichtet Luft, die in ein Plenum 14 einströmt. The compressor 17 compresses air, which flows into a plenum fourteenth Im Plenum ist konzentrisch zur Achse 27 eine ringförmige Brennkammer 15 angeordnet, die eingangsseitig durch eine mit Frontplattenkühlluft 20 gekühlte Frontplatte 19 abgeschlossen ist und ausgangsseitig über einen Heissgaskanal 25 mit dem Eingang der Turbine 13 in Verbindung steht. In the plenum, an annular combustion chamber 15 is arranged concentrically with the axis 27, the input side is closed by a front plate cooled with cooling air 20 Front plate 19 and the output side is connected via a hot gas duct 25 with the inlet of the turbine 13 in connection.
  • EP599055 EP599055 beschreibt eine derartige Gasturbine. describes such a gas turbine.
  • In der Frontplatte 19 sind in einem Ring Brenner 16 angeordnet, die beispielsweise als Doppelkegel- oder EV-Brenner ausgelegt sind und ein Brennstoff-Luft-Gemisch in die Brennkammer 15 eindüsen. In the front plate 19, 16 are arranged in a ring burners which are designed for example as a dual cone or EV-burner and a fuel-air mixture in the combustion chamber 15 inject. Der bei der Verbrennung des Gemisches entstehende Heissluftstrom 26 gelangt durch den Heissgaskanal 25 in die Turbine 13 und wird dort unter Arbeitsleistung entspannt. The formed during the combustion of the mixture of hot air stream 26 passes through the hot gas passage 25 into the turbine 13 and is expanded there under performance. Die Brennkammer 15 mit dem Heissgaskanal 25 ist aussen mit Abstand von einem äusseren und inneren Kühlhemd 21 bzw. 31 umgeben, die mittels Befestigungselementen 24 an der Brennkammer 15, 25 befestigt sind und zwischen sich und der Brennkammer 15, 25 jeweils einen ringsförmigen äusseren und inneren Kühlkanal 22 bzw. 32 ausbilden. The combustion chamber 15 with the hot gas duct 25 is outwardly spaced from an outer and inner cooling shirt 21 or 31 surrounded, which are fixed to the combustion chamber 15, 25 by means of fasteners 24 and between itself and the combustion chamber 15, 25 each have a ring-shaped outer and inner cooling channel 22 or 32 formed. In den Kühlkanälen 22, 32 strömt in Gegenrichtung zum Heissgasstrom 26 Kühlluft an den Wänden der Brennkammer 15, 25 entlang in eine Brennkammerhaube 18 ein und von dort in die Brenner 16 bzw. als Frontplattenkühlluft 20 direkt in die Brennkammer 15. In the cooling channels 22, 32 in opposite direction to the hot gas flow 26 of cooling air on the walls of the combustion chamber 15, 25 flows along a into a combustion chamber hood 18 and from there into the burner 16 and the front panel cooling air 20 directly into the combustion chamber 15 °.
  • Die Seitenwände der Brennkammer 15, 25 werden dabei entweder als Schalenelemente ausgeführt oder als Vollschalen (Aussenschale 23, Innenschale 33). The side walls of the combustion chamber 15, 25 are in this case designed either as shell elements or full shells (the outer shell 23, inner shell 33). Bei der Verwendung von Vollschalen ergibt sich montagebedingt die Notwendigkeit einer Trennebene (29 in When using full-shells resulting assembly requires the need for a separation plane (29 in Fig. 2a FIG. 2a ), die es erlaubt eine obere Hälfte der Schale 23, 33 (obere Halbschale 33a in ) Which allows an upper half of the shell 23, 33 (upper half-shell 33a in Fig. 2a FIG. 2a ) von der unteren Hälfte (untere Halbschalle 33b in ) (Lower half from the lower half 33b in Schalle Fig. 2a FIG. 2a ) abzunehmen, um zum Beispiel den Gasturbinen-Rotor 12 zu montieren bzw. zu demontieren. decrease) in order to mount, for example, the gas turbine rotor 12 and to dismantle. Die Trennebene 29 weist entsprechend zwei Trennebenenschweissnähte 30 ( The parting plane 29 has two corresponding split line welds 30 ( Fig. 2a FIG. 2a ) auf, die sich im Beispiel der von der Anmelderin gebauten Gasturbine vom Typ GT13E2 auf der Höhe der Maschinenachse 27 befinden (3- und 9-Uhr-Position). ), Which are located in the example of the built by the assignee of the gas turbine of the type GT13E2 at the height of the machine axis 27 (3 and 9 o'clock position). Wie bereits erwähnt, müssen die jeweils unteren und oberen Halbschalen 33a, 33b konvektiv gekühlt werden. As mentioned above, each bottom and top half-shells 33a, 33b are cooled by convection must. Um die Kühlung zu begünstigen, werden auf die Halbschalenkaltseite die bereits genannten Kühlhemden (CoShirts) 21 und 31 montiert, welche Umgebungsluft umleiten und aufgrund des Brennkammerdruckabfalls bzw. Brennerdruckabfalls über die Halbschalen führen und damit eine konvektive Kühlung bewirken. To promote cooling, the aforementioned cooling shrouds (CoShirts) to be mounted 21 and 31 on the half-shell cold side, redirect, which ambient air, and due to the combustor pressure drop or burner pressure drop across the half-shells and thus cause a convective cooling.
  • Die Kühlhemden 21, 31 haben dabei vorzugsweise folgende Eigenschaften und Funktionen: The cooling shrouds 21, 31 have preferably the following features and functions:
    • Sie dichten zwei Plena bzw. Kammern ab; They seal off two Plena or chambers;
    • Sie müssen untereinander auch dichten (Montage einer Dichtlippe oder Überlappung nötig); You need each other too dense (installation of a sealing lip or overlap necessary);
    • Sie werden, mit Ausnahme der Trennebene 29, rotationssymmetrisch ausgeführt; They are executed with the exception of the parting plane 29 rotationally symmetrical;
    • Sie müssen bei der Montage der Brennkammerhalbschalen in der Trennebene ineinander geführt werden; They must be performed when installing the combustion chamber shells in the parting plane into one another;
    • Die Kühlhemden 31 der Brennkammer-Innenschalen 33a,b müssen an der Trennebene 29 "blind" ineinander geführt werden (kein Zugang für eine visuelle Kontrolle der Verbindungsebene, da von den Brennkammer-Innenschalen abgedeckt); The cooling shrouds 31 of the combustor inner shells 33a, are "blind" have led to the parting plane 29 b each other (no access for a visual inspection of the connection level, as covered by the combustor inner shells);
    • Sie können Kühllöcher aufweisen (für einen gezielten Kühlluftmassenstrom) You can have cooling holes (for a targeted cooling air mass flow)
    • Sie können Kühllöcher für eine allfällige Prallkühlung aufweisen (für eine gezielte, lokal forcierte Kühlung der Halbschalen); They may have cooling holes for a possible impingement cooling (for a targeted, local forced cooling of the half shells);
    • Sie müssen keine grossen axialen oder radialen Kräfte aufnehmen; You must include no large axial or radial forces;
    • Sie sind id Regel nicht selbsttragend, sondern werden auf ein Trägerteil montiert; They are id generally not self-supporting, but are mounted on a support member;
    • Sie müssen einen grossen axialen und radialen Bewegungsspielraum aufweisen, insbesondere bei transienten Betriebszuständen; They must have a large axial and radial freedom of movement, especially during transient operating states;
    • Sie müssen temperaturfest sein (Zeitfestigkeit - Dauerfestigkeit); You must be temperature resistant (term strength - endurance);
    • Sie müssen einfach und kostengünstig herstellbar sein; They must be simple and inexpensive to produce; und and
    • Sie dürfen im Betrieb keine Eigenschwingungen ausweisen. You may display no natural vibrations during operation.
  • Die Innen- und Aussenschale 33 bzw. 23 einer Gasturbine wie der GT13E2 sind thermisch und mechanisch im Betrieb stark beansprucht. The inner and outer shells 33 and 23 of a gas turbine such as the GT13E2 are thermally and mechanically highly stressed during operation. Die Festigkeitseigenschaften des Materials der Schalen 23, 33 sind stark temperaturabhängig. The strength properties of the material of the shells 23, 33 are strongly temperature dependent. Um die Materialtemperatur unter dem maximal zulässigen Materialtemperaturniveau zu halten, werden die Schalen 23, 33 konvektiv gekühlt. To maintain the material temperature below the maximum permissible material temperature level, the shells 23, cooled by convection 33rd Die Formgebung und die hohe thermische Belastung nahe dem Turbineneintritt (Heissgaskanal 25) erfordern vor allem in diesem Bereich einen konstant hohen Wärmeübergang auch auf der Kühlluftseite. The design and the high thermal load close to the turbine inlet (hot-gas duct 25) require especially in this region, a constant high heat transfer on the cooling air side. Dies wird bei der Aussenschale 23 durch Prallkühlung erreicht. This is achieved by impingement cooling at the outer shell 23rd An der Innenschale 33 sind Platz und Strömungszustände sowie eine Abdichtung gegen einen Querstrom für solch eine Prallkühlung nicht gegeben. Place and flow conditions as well as a seal against a cross-flow of such impingement cooling are not given to the inner shell 33rd Daher wird auf eine konventionelle Konvektionskühlung zurückgegriffen, bei der die Intensität der Kühlung durch Verringerung der Kanalhöhe des Kühlkanals 32 erhöht wird. Therefore, use is made of a conventional convection cooling, in which the intensity of the cooling by reducing the channel height of the cooling duct is increased 32nd
  • Die bisher eingesetzte Konfiguration des inneren Kühlhemds 31 aus 2 axialen Blechen ist zum einen anfällig für Abstandstoleranzen und sonstige Ungleichförmigkeiten, zB im Strömungsfeld vor dem Kühllufteintritt in den Kühlkanal, und bewirkt zum anderen eine unerwünschte Verringerung des Kühlluftmassenstroms im Bereich des kleineren der beiden axialen Bleche. The configuration of the inner cooling skirt 31 from 2 axial plates used up to now is the one susceptible to distance tolerances and other non-uniformities, for example, in the flow field in front of the cooling air entering the cooling channel, and causes the other hand an undesirable reduction of the cooling air mass flow in the region of the smaller of the two axial plates.
  • DARSTELLUNG DER ERFINDUNG SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • Es ist daher Aufgabe der Erfindung, eine thermische Maschine der eingangs genannten Art so zu gestalten, dass die Nachteile der bisherigen Lösungen vermieden und insbesondere die Strömungsverhältnisse der Kühlluft in den Kühlkanälen zwischen den Schalen und den Kühlhemden im Sinne einer intensivierten Kühlung deutlich verbessert werden. It is therefore an object of the invention to make a thermal machine of the type mentioned above so that the drawbacks of the previous solutions is avoided and particularly the flow conditions of the cooling air in the cooling channels between the shells and the cooling shrouds in the sense of an intensified cooling can be significantly improved.
  • Die Aufgabe wird durch die Gesamtheit der Merkmale des Anspruchs 1 gelöst. The object is achieved by the totality of the features of claim 1. Wesentlich für die Erfindung ist, dass zumindest eines der Kühlhemden auf der Seite, auf welcher die Kühlluft in den Kühlkanal eintritt, zur Verbesserung der Einströmbedingungen eine nach aussen gebogene, abgerundete Eintrittskante aufweist. is essential for the invention that at least one of the cooling shrouds on the side on which the cooling air in the cooling channel occurs, has to improve the inflow conditions an outwardly curved, rounded leading edge. Vorzugsweise ist das zumindest eine Kühlhemd im Bereich der Eintrittskante glockenförmig bzw. trompetenartig aufgeweitet. Preferably, the at least bell-shaped or trumpet-like widened a cooling shirt in the region of the leading edge. Erfindungsgemäss weist das innere Kühlhemd auf der Seite, auf welcher die Kühlluft aus dem Kühlkanal austritt, zur Verringerung der Strömungsverluste eine nach aussen gebogene, abgerundete Austrittskante auf. According to the invention the inner cooling shirt on the side on which the cooling air exits the cooling channel, for reducing flow losses a bent outwardly rounded outlet edge. Gemäss einer anderen Ausgestaltung der Erfindung sind die Kühlhemden aus einzelnen, in Umfangsrichtung aneinander anschliessenden Kühlhemdsegmenten zusammengesetzt, wobei die Kühlhemdsegmente mittels verteilt angeordneten Befestigungselementen an den zugehörigen Schalen befestigt sind. According to another embodiment of the invention, the cooling shrouds of individual, adjoining one another in the circumferential direction cooling shirt segments are composed, wherein the cooling shirt segments are secured to the associated trays by means of fastening elements which are arranged distributed.
  • Eine bevorzugte Weiterbildung ist dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Kühlhemdsegmente in den Anschlussbereichen einander paarweise überlappen, und dass jeweils ein Kühlhemdsegment eines Paares im Überlappungsbereich mit Überlappungselementen für eine formschlüssige Verbindung zwischen den überlappenden Kühlhemdsegmenten ausgestattet ist. A preferred development is characterized in that the cooling shirt segments in the terminal areas overlap one another in pairs, and that in each case a cooling shirt segment of a pair is provided in the overlap region with overlapping elements for a positive connection between the overlapped cooling shirt segments.
  • Eine andere Ausgestaltung der Erfindung ist dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Befestigungselemente bei den Kühlhemdsegmenten jeweils in axialer Richtung hintereinander angeordnet sind, und dass in axialer Linie mit den Befestigungselementen zusätzliche Bohrungen in den Kühlhemdsegmenten vorgesehen sind, durch welche zur Verbesserung der Kühlung Kühlluft in Strahlen von aussen in den jeweiligen Kühlkanal einströmt. Another embodiment of the invention is characterized in that the fastening elements at the cooling shirt segments respectively in the axial direction are arranged one behind the other, and that additional bores are provided in the cooling shirt segments in axial line with the fastening elements by which to improve the cooling of cooling air jets from the outside flows into the respective cooling channel. Erfindungsgemäss ist die Brennkammer in einer Trennebene in eine obere Hälfte mit oberen Halbschalen und eine untere Hälfte mit unteren Halbschalen aufgeteilt. According to the invention the combustion chamber is split in a parting plane into an upper half with the top half-shells and a lower half with the lower half shells. Die Halbschalen sind in der Trennebene durch Trennebenenschweissnähte miteinander verbunden und weisen im Bereich der Trennebenenschweissnähte eine von der Rotationssymmetrie abweichende Form auf. The half-shells are connected to each other in the separation plane by plane separating weld seams and have a deviating from the rotational symmetry shape in the region of the separating plane welds. Die Kühlhemden sind in der Trennebene an die abweichende Form der Schalen angepasst. The cooling shrouds are adjusted in the parting plane to the different shape of the shells. Vorzugsweise ist die Gesamtheit der Kühlhemdsegmente in erste Kühlhemdsegmente, welche an die Trennebene angrenzen, und zweite Kühlhemdsegmente, welche ausserhalb der Trennebene liegen, unterteilt, wobei die ersten Kühlhemdsegmente zur Anpassung an die abweichende Form der Schalen eine hochgezogene Seitenkante aufweisen. Preferably, the whole of the cooling shirt segments in first cooling shirt segments which are adjacent to the parting plane, and second cooling shirt segments which lie outside the parting plane, divided, wherein the first cooling shirt segments to adapt to the different shape of the shells have a raised side edge.
  • KURZE ERLÄUTERUNG DER FIGUREN BRIEF EXPLANATION OF THE FIGURES
  • Die Erfindung soll nachfolgend anhand von Ausführungsbeispielen im Zusammenhang mit der Zeichnung näher erläutert werden. The invention will be explained in more detail with reference to exemplary embodiments in conjunction with the drawing. Es zeigen Show it
  • Fig. 1 Fig. 1
    den Längsschnitt durch eine gekühlte Ringbrennkammer einer Gasturbine nach dem Stand der Technik; the longitudinal section through a cooled annular combustion chamber of a gas turbine according to the prior art;
    Fig. 2 Fig. 2
    im einzelnen die Ringbrennkammer aus the annular combustion chamber in detail in Fig. 1 Fig. 1 mit den aussen befestigten Kühlhemden; with the externally mounted cooling shrouds;
    Fig. 2a FIG. 2a
    in einer Prinzipdarstellung am Beispiel der Innenschale die Unterteilung der Brennkammerschalen in einer Trennebene in zwei Halbschalen; in a basic representation of the example of the inner shell, the subdivision of the combustion chamber bowls in a parting plane into two half-shells;
    Fig. 3 Fig. 3
    in einer Seitenansicht den Teil einer Innenschale mit segmentiertem Kühlhemd gemäss einem Ausführungsbeispiel der Erfindung; in a side view the part of an inner shell with segmented cooling shirt according to an embodiment of the invention;
    Fig. 4 Fig. 4
    einen vergrösserten Ausschnitt des Ausführungsbeispiels aus shows an enlarged detail of the embodiment of Fig. 3 Fig. 3 mit der besonderen Ausgestaltung des an die Trennebene angrenzenden Kühlhemdsegments; with the special design of the adjoining the parting plane cooling shirt segment;
    Fig. 5 Fig. 5
    ein nicht an die Trennebene angrenzendes Kühlhemdsegment des Ausführungsbeispiels aus a non-adjacent to the parting plane cooling shirt segment of the embodiment of Fig. 3 Fig. 3 ; ;
    Fig. 6 Fig. 6
    ein an die Trennebene angrenzendes Kühlhemdsegment des Ausführungsbeispiels aus contiguous to the parting plane cooling shirt segment of the embodiment of Fig. 3 Fig. 3 mit der speziellen Seitenkante; with the particular side edge;
    Fig. 7 Fig. 7
    in einem Ausschnitt die Anordnung der Überlappungselemente an dem Kühlhemdsegment aus in a section of the arrangement of the overlap elements on the cooling shirt segment Fig. 5 Fig. 5 bzw. 6 und or 6 and
    Fig. 8 Fig. 8
    den Längsschnitt durch das Kühlhemdsegment aus the longitudinal section through the cooling shirt segment Fig. 6 Fig. 6 in der dort eingezeichneten Ebene VIII-VIII. in the illustrated there plane VIII-VIII.
    WEGE ZUR AUSFÜHRUNG DER ERFINDUNG WAYS OF IMPLEMENTING THE INVENTION
  • In In Fig. 3 Fig. 3 ist in einer Seitenansicht der Teil einer Innenschale mit segmentiertem Kühlhemd gemäss einem Ausführungsbeispiel der Erfindung wiedergegeben. the part of an inner shell with segmented cooling shirt is reproduced according to an embodiment of the invention in a side view. Zur Kühlung der Innenschale 33 ist auf der Aussenseite der Innenschale 33 durch ein im Abstand dazu konzentrisch angeordnetes inneres Kühlhemd 31 ein ringförmiger Kühlkanal 32 ausgebildet, in den auf der in To cool the inner shell 33, an annular cooling channel 32 is on the outside of the inner shell 33 by a thereto concentrically arranged at a distance from internal cooling shirt 31 formed in the in the in Fig. 3 Fig. 3 linken Seite Kühlluft einströmt, nach rechts fliesst und auf der rechten Seite den Kühlkanal 32 wieder verlässt (siehe Strömungspfeile in left cooling air flows, flows to the right and to the right of the cooling channel 32 again leaves (see flow arrows in Fig. 3 Fig. 3 ). ). Das innere Kühlhemd 31 ist aus einzelnen, sich in axialer Richtung erstreckenden Kühlhemdsegmenten 34 zusammengesetzt, die überlappend aneinander anschliessen. The internal cooling shirt 31 is composed of individual, extending in the axial direction of cooling shirt segments 34 which connect overlapping each other. Im Überlappungsbereich sind an den Kühlhemdsegmenten 34 randseitig abstehende Überlappungselemente 36 angeschweisst (siehe insbesondere In the overlapping region on the edge side projecting overlap elements 36 are welded to the cooling shirt segments 34 (see in particular Fig. 7 Fig. 7 ), die im Überlappungsbereich für einen Formschluss zwischen den überlappenden Segmenten sorgen. ), Which ensure the overlap area for a positive connection between the overlapping segments.
  • Die Kühlhemdsegmente 34 sind mittels verteilt angeordneten Befestigungselementen 24, die durch Befestigungslöcher 40 in den Segmenten gehen ( The cooling shirt segments 34 (by means which are arranged distributed fasteners 24 which pass through mounting holes 40 in the segments Fig. 5 Fig. 5 , . 6 6 und and 8 8th ), an der zugehörigen Innenschale 33 befestigt. ) Fixed to the associated inner shell 33rd Die Befestigungselemente 24 sind dabei in axialer Richtung hintereinander angeordnet. The fastening elements 24 are arranged in the axial direction one behind the other. In axialer Linie mit den Befestigungselementen 24 sind im Nachlaufgebiet der Befestigungselemente 24 zusätzliche Bohrungen 35 in den Kühlhemdsegmenten 34 vorgesehen, durch die Luft aus dem Kühllufteintritt zuströmt. In axial alignment with the fasteners 24 24 additional holes are provided in the cooling segments 34 shirt 35 in the wake region of the fastening elements, flows in through the air from the cooling air inlet. Der in den Kühlkanal 32 eintretende Luftstrahl führt auf Grund seiner lokal hohen Geschwindigkeit bezüglich des ankommenden Kühlluftmassenstromes zu einer Anhebung des Wärmeübergangskoeffizienten und damit zu einer Reduktion der Wandtemperatur der Innenschale 33. The air jet entering the cooling channel 32 performs, due to its locally high speed with respect to the incoming cooling air mass flow to an increase in the heat transfer coefficient and thus to a reduction of the wall temperature of the inner shell 33rd
  • Das innere Kühlhemd 31 ist im Bereich der Eintrittskante 37 glockenförmig bzw. trompetenartig aufgeweitet. The internal cooling shirt 31 is flared bell-shaped or trumpet-shaped in the area of ​​the leading edge 37th Diese abgerundete "bellmouth-shaped" Eintrittskante 37 des in axialer Richtung einteiligen Kühlluftbleches erlaubt es, zum einen den Druckverlust am Kühllufteintritt zu minimieren und zum anderen eine (unbeabsichtigte) Variation des Wärmeübergangskoeffizienten durch Ablösung der Kühlluft am Kühlkanaleintritt (Eintrittskante 37), wie sie zum Beispiel an scharfkantigen Eintritten entstehen, zu verhindern. This rounded "bell mouth-shaped" leading edge 37 of the axial one-piece cooling air sheet allows, on the one hand to minimize the pressure loss of the cooling air inlet and the other an (unintentional) variation of the heat transfer coefficients by replacing the cooling air to the cooling channel inlet (leading edge 37) as described, for example of sharp-edged inlets are formed to prevent. Die durch die verbesserten Einströmbedingungen erzielten Verminderungen der Verwirbelungsverluste führen zu einer Verringerung des benötigten Kühlluftmassenstromes und damit zu einer effizienteren Wirkungsweise der Brennkammer. The reductions in pressure drops obtained by the improved inflow conditions lead to a reduction of the required cooling air mass flow, and thus to a more efficient operation of the combustion chamber. Die Strömungsrichtung der Kühlluft ist dabei der Heissgasströmungsrichtung entgegengesetzt. The flow direction of the cooling air of the hot-gas flow direction is opposite.
  • Das Innenschalenkühlhemd bzw. innere Kühlhemd 31 ist weiterhin so ausgeführt, dass an seiner Austrittsseite (Austrittskante 38) neu ein Übergangsradius gewählt wird, der einen wesentlich günstigeren, dh geringeren, Strömungsverlust verursacht als die bisherige Konfiguration. The inner shell cooling or internal cooling shirt shirt 31 is further designed so that a transition radius is selected at its exit side (trailing edge 38) again, which causes a much more favorable, that is, lower, fluid loss than the previous configuration. Die Reduktion im Strömungsverlust an dieser Stelle wird kompensiert durch eine Verminderung der Kühlkanalhöhe, was dort wiederum zu einer Erhöhung des kühlluftseitigen Wärmeüberganges und damit zu einer Absenkung der mittleren Materialtemperatur der Innenschale 33 führt. The reduction in the flow loss at this point is compensated by a reduction in the cooling duct height, which in turn leads to an increase in there the cooling air side heat transfer and to a lowering of the average temperature of the inner shell material 33rd
  • Die Kühlhemdsegmente 34: The cooling shirt segments 34:
    • können, müssen aber nicht, als Bleche (Walzmaterial) ausgeführt werden; may, but need not, as sheets (rolling material) are carried out;
    • müssen untereinander dichten, Montage einer Dichtlippe oder Überlappung (Überlappungselemente 36) nötig must be mutually dense assembly of a sealing lip or overlap (overlap elements 36) necessary
    • werden, mit Ausnahme der an die Trennebene 29 angrenzenden Kühlhemdsegmente 34a, rotationssymmetrisch ausgeführt; are, rotationally symmetrical with the exception of the adjoining the separating plane 29 of cooling shirt segments 34a;
    • können Kühllöcher (35) aufweisen (für einen gezielten Kühlluftmassenstrom); can cooling holes (35) (for a targeted cooling air mass flow);
    • müssen temperaturfest sein (Zeitfestigkeit - Dauerfestigkeit). must be temperature fixed (term strength - endurance).
  • Wie in As in Fig. 4 Fig. 4 und and Fig. 6 Fig. 6 zu erkennen ist, weisen die an die Trennebene 29 angrenzenden Kühlhemdsegmente 34a eine hochgezogene bzw. nach aussen gezogene Seitenkante 39 auf. It can be seen 34a have adjacent to the parting plane 29 of cooling shirt segments on a raised or outwardly drawn side edge. 39 Dadurch tritt das Kühlhemd 31 im Bereich der Trennebenenschweissnähte 30 nach aussen zurück und schafft Platz für eine entsprechende Ausbuchtung der Brennkammerschale 33 im Bereich der Trennebenenschweissnaht 39. Characterized the cooling shirt 31 occurs in the region of the separating plane welds 30 to the outside back and makes room for a corresponding bulge of the combustion chamber bowl 33 in the region of the parting line weld seam. 39
  • BEZUGSZEICHENLISTE LIST OF REFERENCE NUMBERS
  • 10 10
    Gasturbine gas turbine
    11 11
    Turbinengehäuse turbine housing
    12 12
    Rotor rotor
    13 13
    Turbine turbine
    14 14
    Plenum plenum
    15 15
    Brennkammer combustion chamber
    16 16
    Brenner (Doppelkegel- oder EV-Brenner) Burner (dual cone or EV-burner)
    17 17
    Verdichter compressor
    18 18
    Brennkammerhaube combustion chamber hood
    19 19
    Frontplatte front panel
    20 20
    Frontplattenkühlluft Front plate cooling air
    21 21
    äusseres Kühlhemd external cooling Shirt
    22 22
    äusserer Kühlkanal external cooling channel
    23 23
    Aussenschale outer shell
    24 24
    Befestigungselement fastener
    25 25
    Heissgaskanal Hot-gas duct
    26 26
    Heissgasstrom Hot gas flow
    27 27
    Achse axis
    29 29
    Trennebene parting plane
    30 30
    Trennebenenschweissnaht Split line weld seam
    31 31
    inneres Kühlhemd internal cooling Shirt
    32 32
    innerer Kühlkanal internal cooling channel
    33 33
    Innenschale inner shell
    33a 33a
    obere Halbschale (Innenschale) upper half-shell (inner shell)
    33b 33b
    untere Halbschale (Innenschale) lower half-shell (inner shell)
    34 34
    Kühlhemdsegment Cool shirt segment
    34a 34a
    Kühlhemdsegment (Trennebene) Cooling shirt segment (parting plane)
    35 35
    Bohrung drilling
    36 36
    Überlappungselement lap element
    37 37
    Eintrittskante (abgerundet, "bellmouth-shaped") Leading edge (rounded "bell mouth-shaped")
    38 38
    Austrittskante (abgerundet) Trailing edge (rounded)
    39 39
    Seitenkante (hochgezogen) Side edge (pulled)
    40 40
    Befestigungsloch mounting hole

Claims (7)

  1. Thermal machine, especially gas turbine (10), which comprises an annular combustor (15, 25) which is outwardly delimited by an outer shell (23) and an inner shell (33) and through which a hot gas flow (26) flows in the axial direction, wherein the outer shell (23) and inner shell (33) are provided in each case with a concentric cooling shroud (21 or 31) which is attached at a distance on their outer side, forming a cooling passage (22 or 32), through which cooling passage (22 or 32) cooling air can flow in a direction which is opposite to the hot gas flow (26), wherein at least one of the cooling shrouds (21 or 31), on the side on which the cooling air can enter the cooling passage (22 or 32), has an outwardly curved, rounded inlet edge (37) for improving the inflow conditions, that the combustor (15, 25) is split in a parting plane (29) into an upper half with upper half-shells (33a) and a lower half with lower half-shells (33b), characterized in that the half-shells (33a, 33b) are interconnected in the parting plane (29) by parting plane welded seams (30), in that the shells (23, 33) in the region of the parting plane welded seams (30) have a shape which deviates from the axial symmetry, and in that the cooling shrouds (21, 31) in the parting plane (29) are adapted to the deviating shape of the shells (23, 33).
  2. Thermal machine according to Claim 1, characterized in that the at least one cooling shroud (21 or 31) is widened out in the region of the inlet edge (37) in a bellmouth-shaped or flared manner.
  3. Thermal machine according to Claim 2, characterized in that the inner cooling shroud (31), on the side on which the cooling air discharges from the cooling passage (32), has an outwardly curved, rounded discharge edge (38) for reducing the flow losses.
  4. Thermal machine according to one of Claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the cooling shrouds (21, 31) are assembled from individual cooling shroud segments (34, 34a) which adjoin each other in the circumferential direction, and in that the cooling shroud segments (34, 34a) are fastened on the associated shells (23 or 33) by means of fastening elements (24) which are arranged in a distributed manner.
  5. Thermal machine according to Claim 4, characterized in that the cooling shroud segments (34, 34a) overlap each other in pairs in the adjoining regions, and in that a cooling shroud segment of a pair is equipped in each case in the overlapping region with overlapping elements (36) for a form-fitting connection between the overlapping cooling shroud segments (34, 34a).
  6. Thermal machine according to Claim 4 or 5, characterized in that the fastening elements (24) in the case of the cooling shroud segments (34, 34a) are arranged one behind the other in the axial direction in each case, and in that additional holes (35) are provided in the cooling shroud segments (34, 34a) in axial alignment with the fastening elements (24), through which cooling air flows in in jets from outside into the respective cooling passage (22 or 32) for improving the cooling.
  7. Thermal machine according to Claim 4, characterized in that the entirety of the cooling shroud segments (34, 34a) is divided into first cooling shroud segments (34a) which are adjacent of the parting plane (29), and second cooling shroud segments (34) which lie outside the parting plane (29), and in that the first cooling shroud segments (34a) have a raised side edge (39) for adapting to the deviating shape of the shells (23, 33).
EP20090167590 2008-08-14 2009-08-11 Thermal machine Active EP2154431B1 (en)

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US9267687B2 (en) 2011-11-04 2016-02-23 General Electric Company Combustion system having a venturi for reducing wakes in an airflow
US8899975B2 (en) * 2011-11-04 2014-12-02 General Electric Company Combustor having wake air injection
US9897317B2 (en) * 2012-10-01 2018-02-20 Ansaldo Energia Ip Uk Limited Thermally free liner retention mechanism
US20140208771A1 (en) * 2012-12-28 2014-07-31 United Technologies Corporation Gas turbine engine component cooling arrangement
US9322553B2 (en) 2013-05-08 2016-04-26 General Electric Company Wake manipulating structure for a turbine system
US9739201B2 (en) 2013-05-08 2017-08-22 General Electric Company Wake reducing structure for a turbine system and method of reducing wake
US9435221B2 (en) 2013-08-09 2016-09-06 General Electric Company Turbomachine airfoil positioning
EP3236155A3 (en) * 2016-04-22 2017-11-22 Rolls-Royce plc Combustion chamber with segmented wall

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Publication number Publication date Type
EP2154431A2 (en) 2010-02-17 application
US8434313B2 (en) 2013-05-07 grant
US20100037621A1 (en) 2010-02-18 application
EP2154431A3 (en) 2010-08-04 application

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