EP2127161A2 - System and portable device for transmitting identification signals - Google Patents

System and portable device for transmitting identification signals

Info

Publication number
EP2127161A2
EP2127161A2 EP08700560A EP08700560A EP2127161A2 EP 2127161 A2 EP2127161 A2 EP 2127161A2 EP 08700560 A EP08700560 A EP 08700560A EP 08700560 A EP08700560 A EP 08700560A EP 2127161 A2 EP2127161 A2 EP 2127161A2
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
electrodes
portable device
characterized
electrode
portable
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
EP08700560A
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Andreas HÄBERLI
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Dormakaba Schweiz AG
Original Assignee
KABA AG
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to CH2402007 priority Critical
Application filed by KABA AG filed Critical KABA AG
Priority to PCT/CH2008/000058 priority patent/WO2008098398A2/en
Publication of EP2127161A2 publication Critical patent/EP2127161A2/en
Application status is Pending legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04BTRANSMISSION
    • H04B13/00Transmission systems characterised by the medium used for transmission, not provided for in groups H04B3/00 - H04B11/00
    • H04B13/005Transmission systems in which the medium consists of the human body
    • GPHYSICS
    • G07CHECKING-DEVICES
    • G07CTIME OR ATTENDANCE REGISTERS; REGISTERING OR INDICATING THE WORKING OF MACHINES; GENERATING RANDOM NUMBERS; VOTING OR LOTTERY APPARATUS; ARRANGEMENTS, SYSTEMS OR APPARATUS FOR CHECKING NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • G07C9/00Individual entry or exit registers
    • G07C9/00007Access-control involving the use of a pass
    • GPHYSICS
    • G07CHECKING-DEVICES
    • G07CTIME OR ATTENDANCE REGISTERS; REGISTERING OR INDICATING THE WORKING OF MACHINES; GENERATING RANDOM NUMBERS; VOTING OR LOTTERY APPARATUS; ARRANGEMENTS, SYSTEMS OR APPARATUS FOR CHECKING NOT PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE
    • G07C9/00Individual entry or exit registers
    • G07C9/00174Electronically operated locks; Circuits therefor; Nonmechanical keys therefor, e.g. passive or active electrical keys or other data carriers without mechanical keys
    • G07C2009/00753Electronically operated locks; Circuits therefor; Nonmechanical keys therefor, e.g. passive or active electrical keys or other data carriers without mechanical keys operated by active electrical keys
    • G07C2009/00809Electronically operated locks; Circuits therefor; Nonmechanical keys therefor, e.g. passive or active electrical keys or other data carriers without mechanical keys operated by active electrical keys with data transmission through the human body

Abstract

The invention relates to a system comprising a portable device for transmitting signals to a second device, wherein the portable device can be worn on the body of a user. The portable device comprises at least two electrodes and transmitter electronics for applying an electrical signal between the electrodes in such a manner that the signal can be coupled into the body of a user by means of the electrodes and can be detected by means of at least one electrode of the second device when emitted by the body. According to an embodiment of the invention, a portable device is characterized in that components of transmitter electronics and/or of an application different from transmitter electronics are interposed between the electrodes and/or that there is an air gap.

Description

SYSTEM AND PORTABLE DEVICE FOR THE TRANSMISSION OF HHENTIFIKATIONSSIGNALEN

The invention relates to the communication between a sender (transmitter) and a receiver via the capacitive coupling (sometimes called, capacitive coupling resisitive, "intrabody" coupling, RCID coupling or PAN coupling hereinafter) in which small currents in the human body produces be used to transmit information between the transmitter and the receiver, and / wherein the transmitter and the receiver over very short distances via electric fields interact with each other.

This type of coupling is disclosed in the US Patents 4,591,854, 5,914,701 and 5,796,827. Applications thereof are described in International Patent Application PCT / CH 2006/000518 and in published writings of different owners.

A particular advantage of the capacitive coupling through the human body or over short distances is the selectivity of the data transmission. Depending on the constellation can be determined with high degree of certainty that the receiver from the received signal may have been transmitted only by the person ,, which is located in close proximity to or in physical contact to a designated receiver electrode. Disadvantage is that due to the poor signal to noise ratio, among other things, (actually signal interference ratio), only a limited amount of data can be transmitted. A good signal-to-noise ratio is only possible with a large amplitude of the transmission signal. A large amplitude (ie high voltage) is not tolerated by the user. In the Swiss patent application No ". 548/06 approaches are shown with which this problem can be addressed. Nevertheless, the bandwidth of the signal transmission remains limited.

Important for the most effective signal transmission is .the interpretation of the electrodes in the transmitter. These are formed according to the prior art as a pair of electrodes that lie parallel lies in the way of a plate condenser opposite. The electrodes should be as large as possible to maximize the coupling to the body and to the signal-to-noise ratio to improve in the situation in which no electrically conductive contact between the one electrode and the human body is. but these large electrodes have a problematic effect on the design and dimensions of the transmitter. In addition, they cause that the power consumption by the transmitter is quite high, so that frequent battery replacement is necessary.

Has also been found that can reverse the signal itself practically depending on the geometric configuration because of a capacitor plate in the body injected currents of opposite sign corresponding to the injected from the other capacitor plate in the body currents.

Against this background, it is an object of the invention to provide solutions for the design of the transmitter electrode available remedy the above disadvantages at least partially and a further step for the commercial application of the technology and its acceptance by the consumers. Said solutions should be usable in particular in the access control.

This object is achieved by the invention as defined in the claims.

A portable device according to the inventive approach is, for example, by a user. On the body portable, it can be designed as a card-like identification medium, as a "smart card cover", mobile phone, watch, portable computer (eg. The type "handheld" computers etc. in. It has at least two electrodes and means for applying an electrical signal between the electrodes, so that the signal is detectable by the electrodes in the user's body can be coupled and from the body by at least one electrode of the second device. such a device allows also a direct, short-range communication (not through the body), for example., by holding the portable device in the immediate vicinity of a receiver electrode, that applications of the invention are not limited to the coupling by the human body but also extend to cases in which the user carries the portable device right near a Recei holds verelektrode or otherwise allows the communication takes place directly and not exclusively through the body between the transmitter and receiver.

According to one aspect of the invention, two electrodes of a portable device (transmitter) are now arranged so that are arranged between the electrodes, either components of the transmitter electronics and / or distinct from the transmitter electronics application or an air gap is present, in which such a member - for example . with a "smart card" as a carrier of the component -. can be inserted, it is also combinations of "air gap" with "transmitter electronics," "another application" and / or "battery" possible for a component of the transmitter electronics and / or. one of the

Transmitter electronics various application may also be a fixed or replaceable battery.

As components active or passive preferably electronic components are referred to herein that are mehrs than a mere separating layer between the electrodes, for example., In particular active electronic components such as ASICs, processors, integrated circuits, memory devices, transmitters and / or receivers for contactless information transfer, including active or passive RFID transponder, passive components such as antennas, resistors, capacitors, coils, etc., or batteries, optical elements etc ..

In particular, the embodiments having disposed between the electrode member of another application and the embodiments having disposed between the electrodes battery, but also the embodiments is arranged between the electrode members a different application enabling new levels of integration. This is also true for the embodiments having an air gap, where the corresponding component is inserted in the air gap.

Of course, the transmitter electronics and electronic components of various of the transmitter electronics application can each other in at least one common component - be incorporated - for example, an integrated circuit.. The inventive feature of the "components of a different from the transmitter electronics application" simply implies that arranged between the electrodes of electronic elements can perform functions that, .are entirely different from the capacitive-resistive transmission of information and preferably also of other, non-contact information transmission types, for example. by controlling the display of a mobile phone, or form, by storing information and / or have saved that are not delivered with the Intrabody- information transmission etc.

This approach takes advantage of the new knowledge advantage that the surface of the electrodes is decisive for data transmission, but not the capacitive coupling between. It has been shown, on the contrary, that a large capacity for a given electrode size is a disadvantage, because a large capacity negatively affects the life of a battery of the portable device, since when generating the signal flow enlarge the currents. In addition, due to the larger size currents flowing in Grosserer capacity, the requirements on the electrode conductivity are higher. Another realization that the two electrodes can be plane-parallel, that this is, however, not necessary. Thus, the electrodes of a housing shape of the portable device can be adapted for example., Thereby substantially no consideration for the electrodes must be taken in the design of the portable device.

In a plate capacitor, the capacitance proportional to the area of ​​the electrodes and to the dielectric constant of the material between the electrodes, but is inversely proportional to the distance of the electrodes. Due to the inventive approach, the two electrodes are generally spaced further apart than in the prior art, without requiring a compact design of the portable device would be impossible. Due to the larger size electrode spacing, the capacitance is reduced. Also particularly advantageous is the combination with the first aspect of the invention, since transparent electrodes are particularly useful with their relatively low electrical conductivity in relation to 'the procedure according to the invention due to the smaller flowing streams. In embodiments where an air gap remains between the electrodes are insertable in the components of another application - for example, a .Identitätskarte and / or Smartcärd -., The compatibility with existing systems, as well as the retrofitting are given.

According to a special embodiment can have the portable device with the air gap, a communication interface via which data can be exchanged with the application, which is inserted in the air gap. Such an interface can, for example, as a conventional per se Smart Cart-Reader be formed.

According to another specific embodiment may be a communication link between the transmitter electronics and an input unit, wherein the signals of entered data transmitted from the Transmitterlelektronik may be dependent. For example. the signals transmitted may include a PIN, which the user has previously entered into the input unit. In this embodiment, the portable device may be configured as a mobile phone, for example., Wherein the input unit of the input unit of the mobile phone can correspond to (keyboard, touch screen, voice recognition device, etc.).

According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, a portable device or a receiver is characterized also by the fact that at least one of the electrodes is at least partially transparent.

Transparent electric conductors are now available, for example as a vapor-deposited on a transparent substrate or sputtered very thin metal layers or some doped semiconductor oxide-based (such as TCOs. ITO layers). These are great for certain applications has long been known, for example. As components fiir flat screens or thin film solar cells. For information transmission, but were not previously considered because they have a known poor electrical conductivity and would result in the usual for information transfer high frequencies to large losses.

It has now shown, however, that the capacitive resistive information transmission is furnishable that the conductivity of the transparent electrodes is sufficient. In particular, the combination of relatively low voltages (e.g., less than 5 V or even less than 3 V) and currents and low frequencies (eg. Less than 2 MHz center frequency) the use of the electrode of low conductivity.

This measure results in many new degrees of freedom in the design of the transmitter, when portable device design appeared so far to be less significant as a portable device according to the invention type generally in a pocket or otherwise obscured is worn. A further finding of the invention that greatly multiply the design options of the portable device in the transparent electrodes of the portable device:

form the outermost layers of the card - arranging the electrodes as layers on a map, the labels - in the manner of an identity card or a "Badges", possibly with photo - has as well as possibly further functions, the electrodes can -. optionally up to thin protective layers . If the

Badge an antenna for wireless communication on a different

having communication channel, the antenna is not covered locally by at least one of the electrodes. Arranging the electrodes in a holder ( "envelope", "Cover") for a smart card. Smart cards for access control are often referred to as so-called. "Badges" is used. They are incorporated in transparent holders which, for example with a clamp to a garment are attachable to and visible from the outside.. According to the first aspect of the invention, it is now possible configure these holders of dimensionally rigid or flexible material as a transmitter. this arrangement has the additional advantage that the capacitance of the capacitor arrangement formed by the two electrodes which will be described below with reference to the second aspect of the invention in more detail is reduced.

- combination with another electronic device, eg a mobile phone.. Modern electronic devices often have large-area displays. According to the invention may be disposed a first of the two transmitter electrodes in or on the display, that the display is provided with the transparent electrode or covered. This also has the advantage of a reduced capacity when the second - in the electrode for example - transparent or non-transparent.

Near a back of the unit is disposed. In addition, also result in the functionality of a variety of combinations, which will also be described hereinafter, "based on the second aspect of the invention in more detail.

In addition, the procedure according to the preferred embodiment has the "Access Control" quite attractive advantage, especially for the application that you would not think the electrodes that are electrodes and thus part of an electronic device. It seems to be depending on the arrangement rather merely a shell, . to act a design element or another functional element, by the portable device is a mobile phone, and the power supply of the transmitter electronics can be solved in a simple manner, namely by the transmitter electronics are powered by the very powerful battery of the mobile phone, for example a 3V. . DC supply communication between the transmitter electronics and other electronic components of the mobile phone - if they are not integrated with each other - via any known or yet to be developed interface, for example via an I 2 C Datenbus.a.

According to a further aspect of the invention, the transmitter on an array of electrodes, the electrode areas includes that are not parallel to each other.

For example, there may be at least three electrodes, wherein at least one of the electrodes is not parallel to another of the electrodes, and wherein two different pairs of the electrodes can each be supplied with an electric signal.

By proceeding in accordance with the further aspect of the invention, the information transmission is improved. In particular, practically ruled out that both electrode pairs canceling the signal itself.

As a possible embodiment of another aspect of the invention, at least two pairs of electrodes may be present, wherein the electrodes of each electrode pair are parallel to each other, and wherein the electrode pairs with each other are not parallel but, for example, perpendicular or at some other angle to each other. As a further embodiment, three electrode surfaces can be present, at least two of which are not parallel. The signal is applied in each case between two of the three electrode surfaces, eg. Between the first and the third electrode surface and between the second and the third electrode area. The first and second electrode surface can then optionally be connected electrically in parallel and, for example, even be formed together from a single, non-planar electrode. Alternatively - when the electrodes are not connected in parallel - the pairs of electrodes can be alternately acted upon with the signal, also for example.. Thus, the data transfer speed is indeed somewhat reduced, but the power consumption per electrode surface is lower compared to the parallel solution.

Subsequently, the power consumption of a portable device for the transmission of signals to a second device, wherein the portable unit is portable by a user on the body, having at least two electrodes and a transmitter electronics for applying an electrical signal between the electrodes, so that the signal through the electrodes into the user's body and can be coupled from the body by at least one electrode of the second device detectable detail yet with reference to further aspects discussed. In each case, assume that the transmitter electronics by a battery (wiederaufiadbar or non-rechargeable) is fed.

The following aspects of the invention can further contribute to a reduced power consumption. Each of the aspects may occur alone, in combination with any of the other aspects, or in combination with any of the above-indicated aspects one to four are used: 58

11

Using an activity detector (motion detector) which adjusts the transmission of the signal when the portable device is not moved over a longer time and again sets, if it is moved. Such activity detectors are known and - available on the market - at reasonable prices.

At least partially powering the transmitter electronics and / or charging of the battery with a solar cell and / or a generator, by which mechanical kinetic energy converted into electrical energy.

Large electrode distance of at least 1 mm, preferably at least 1.5 or at least 2 mm.

- means for waking up the transmitter electronics with an external signal, such as a RFID or UFH wake-up pulse. This wake-up pulse can also be coded to wake only authorized transmitter.

Embodiment of the transmitter electronics or a portion thereof as an ASIC on which to optimize the power consumption of only the absolutely necessary electronic switching elements are activated and which, for example, in Gegnesatz to a non-application-specific microprocessor interrogates any unused inputs.

Also in any desired combination with the above aspects, its devices for communication between the battery level provided to the user can also: transmitting a signal concerning the battery level - for example, a particular bit, when the battery is almost empty - to the receiver.. About this can then - for example, by an output device such as a display or an acoustic signal -. Information to the user and / or other entity (headquarters etc.).

at least one LED display of the battery level via suitable display device of the portable device, for example.. Such LED may flash when the battery life is approaching its end.

- providing a "low comfort mode", in which the transmitter electronics are inactive by default and must be actively activated, for example by pressing a button After activation, it may be provided that the..

Transmitter electronics automatically returns after a certain time to an inactive state. It can, for example, be provided that the "low-

Comfort Mode "is taken only after a second, lower voltage threshold is exceeded, while only suitable displays (eg. At least one of the above aspects of the invention) are activated on falling below a first, higher voltage threshold.

The receiver includes at least one receiver electrode, and a transmitter, by which a signal generated by the capacitive resistive signal transmission signal between the receiver electrode and another electrode, or between the receiver electrode and a ground contact can be detected and can be evaluated. Especially preferred in connection with the various aspects of the invention is the use of an information transmission method, which is based on the spread spectrum, wherein the signal as an ultra-wideband transmitted signal, preferably according to the teaching of WO 2007/1 12,609th Ultra- High defined as the use of a frequency range of a bandwidth of at least 20% of the center frequency or Trägerfrequen. According to teaching of this document is in particular a direct-sequence Frequenzspreiz- (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) procedures used. The data is preferably first modulated with a method of digital data modulation and then frequency-spread. In WO 2007/112609, methods are also described to evaluate a capacitive-resistive signal.

In the following, embodiments of the invention are illustrated with reference to schematic drawings. Show it:

Fig. 1 is an illustration of an inventive portable device;

- Figure 2 is a representation of another embodiment of an inventive portable device with inserted smartcard another application.

Figure 3 is a sectional view of a portable device using a smart card.

Figure 4 is a representation of a portable device with RFID module.

- Fig. 5 shows an invention designed according to the mobile telephone; Figure 6 is a scheme for mobile telephone of FIG. 5.

Fig 7-9 very schematic representations of electrode assemblies in accordance with the further aspect of the invention.

Figure 10 is a schematic of a transmitter of possible input and output units.

The portable device 1 in accordance with Figure 1 is essentially flat, for example, with a rigid support structure. 2 of plastic. The device further comprises a first electrode 3 and a second electrode. 4 The first and second electrodes 3, 4 are, for example, the outer side is applied to the major surfaces of the support structure or integrated therein. They are made of electrically conductive material, for example. From one Kύpferfolie, aluminum foil or any other electrically conductive material. The support structure may still be inked and / or the outer side labels or the like (not shown), so that the electrodes for the user are not visible as such. Alternatively, the electrodes can also be made of a transparent conductive material, as will be further explained below.

are shown schematically also in the figure, a battery 6 and an electronic control 7, comprising means by applying an electric voltage with a predetermined time dependency between the two electrodes 3, 4 to produce a capacitive-resistive signal. an ASIC for driving the electrodes, an EEPROM or EPROM memory, conductor track structures and / or other elements, for example, include - the built-in and / or applied electronic components of the control electronics may - this applies to all embodiments of the invention.. Instead of plastic, the support structure 2 can also be ceramic, fabric or of another material to be important is only that the two electrodes are electrically insulated from each other.

The support structure 2 is now designed so that an air gap 5 exists between the electrodes. Air has a very small dielectric constant of about 1 (ie, close to the vacuum level), therefore, the capacitance of the capacitor formed by the two electrodes is correspondingly lower. In addition, the air gap for other purposes can be used, eg. For the insertion of other elements.

The embodiment according to Figure 1 has the portable device further comprises a schematically illustrated interface 8, which allows data exchange with an inserted into the air gap device, eg. A "smart card". Thus, the capacitive-resistive emitted signals from data made dependent may be which are present on this device. It is also possible that only one data transmission unit (plug or similar) is in the air gap pushed a device which otherwise remains outside of the air gap, for example. for the programming of the control electronics. 7

Figure 2 shows an embodiment in which at least one of the electrodes is transparent. The transmitter 1 is designed as a so-called "smart card cover". Smartcard Covers are known per se. They are available as, for example, rigid, formed transparent shell, which can be. Secured for example to a garment, and in which a smart card (ie, a card-shaped medium, with memory and communication functionality) can be inserted. the transmitter includes a compartment for a battery 6 and a schematically represented by a chip 7 control electronics for the at least partly transparent electrodes 3, 4 in. the smart card 11 is in an air gap insertable. an eventual labeling area 12 of the smart card remains visible through the transparent first electrode 3 therethrough.

Figure 3 shows a variant of the embodiment of Figure 2, in which the smart card (or other components of a different from the transmitter electronics application) simultaneously serves as an RFID identification medium. In addition to the above-described elements can be seen schematically, the RFID antenna 51, here of one of the electrodes - is not completely covered - in the example shown from the transparent electrode. 3 However, it has been shown that in the case of transparent electrodes - for example, electrodes made of ITO -. The RFID communication works even if different than shown in the figure, both the transparent electrodes 15 fully cover the RFID antenna, that is, when the transparent electrode 3 the entire upper surface is covered in the figure.

Figure 4 shows another embodiment that allows the combination with the RFID technology. For example, passive - - RFID tag 21 and an RFID antenna 22 in the portable device present and at least partially disposed between the electrodes 3, 4 in this embodiment are. An apparatus according to FIG 4 for example, can serve as a key ring, which simultaneously a Idenfϊkationsmedium for access control (or another application) using the capacitive coupling and resisitiven as RFID identification medium ( 'day') is used. Because often there is a need - which is, for example, in a key fob of the case -. To keep the external dimensions of the portable device is comparatively small, should be as in Figure 4, the electrodes 3, 4 as possible to cover a large portion of the device surface. Since ageschirmt by the electrically conductive electrodes' Radio-frequency signals, the problem may arise that RFID signals in the interior of the portable device are only weak. According to Figure 4 is therefore provided by a magnetically soft ferromagnetic material 23 (eg. A ferrite) so as to align the fields that they are frontally coupled into the portable device, as is schematically represented by the dotted lines in Figure 4. The RFID antenna 22 is arranged in accordance with this field alignment, for example. Wound directly around the ferrite 23rd

The RFID transponder 21 (or the electronics, the RFID functionability controls) can be optionally in communication connection the control electronics 7, which causes the resistive-capacitive coupling. To this end, an electronic component may be present, the RFID electronics 21 and control electronics 7 controlled, or it can be an integration of RFID electronics and control electronics one a single device - for example, an ASIC -. Be provided.

Figures' 5 and 6 relate to a configured as a mobile phone 31 erfmdungsgemässes portable device. The first electrode 3 is here integrated into the display and transparent at least in the display area, while the second electrode 4 is not necessarily transparent as in the above examples of transmitter electrodes. The second electrode is located on a rear side of the mobile phone (or as in the example of the hinged lid or of another part of the mobile telephone), and may optionally also be formed by a conductive housing portion. It is disposed in large, fixed possible distance from the first electrode. In Fig. 6 is shown very schematically how the transmitter electronics 7 can communicate with the other mobile telephone electronics: The mobile phone feeds the transmitter electronics (3V), and there is a communication link via an I 2 C interface. Alternatively to the arrangement of the electrodes drawn both electrodes can - of which then no must- be absolutely transparent exist in a different area from the display of the mobile phone; also the attachment of the electrodes at least partially next to each other is possible.

By integrating the transmitter electronics 7 in a mobile phone more functionalities can be integrated into a portable device together. Possible are eg .:

Dynamic change of the capacitive resistive transmitted data signal. The current data signal can be used as a PIN code eg., Which can be changed as often as desired.

Increased security can be enabled, for example. By so-called "rolling codes" or other known per se means of secure data transmission.

A further improved safety can be effected by the UHF (etc. Bluetooth, 3G) are included in the information transfer procedure transmission means of the mobile phone, for example. As do wnlink. This allows for example the use of the known "challenge-response" -.. System A central unit can be included in the communication and, for example, issue certificates (Cerberus etc.).

The mobile phone with the transmitter electronics can be used as a programmer. A continuous data stream can use the

Transmitter electronics are sent to the receiver. Future mobile phones may be with NFC, active or passive RJFID- or low-power wireless (eg. As sold under the brand name Wibree ™ (www.wibree.com), or Ultra Low Power Bluetooth or other identification standards be provided. By using the, capacitive resistive information transmission, such an identification technology will be integrated into a single device, and the user does not necessarily know which technology is currently used. the combination with the inventive approach is particularly interesting among other reasons, because, for example. selective, capacitive can follow resistive information transmission of a potentially short-range (<10 m), contactless nonselective information transmission and interact with it.

A Transmitterelektronk for a mobile phone can be configured by default and can be integrated into existing Mobilitelefonarchitekturen easily.

Concerning radio frequency signals and / or concerning interaction of RFID electronics with the control electronics for the capacitive resistive coupling can also apply four statements made for integration into a mobile phone the concerning figure.

Electronic devices are often provided with a screen for electromagnetic fields, protects the internal components of the devices. This may, for example, be made as a vapor depositions of housing parts. According to one embodiment of the invention, such a shield ( "EMC-shielding") is now positioned and contacted so that it can be used the same as the first and second electrode for the resistive, capacitive coupling. For example, the EMC shielding layer of two housing parts of a mobile telephone are used as the first or second electrode. This combination of functionalities "electrodes for the capacitive resistive coupling" and "EMC-shielding" is particularly it informally possible because the proposed herein capacitive resistiven- signal frequencies of less than 2 MHz are very small compared to frequencies of signals, of which the mobile phone electronics is to be shielded, for example. UHF signals. the capacitive resistive Sigal acts quasi-static. For high frequencies, the capacitance between the two electrodes acts as a short-circuiting of the electrodes against each other . In addition, a parasitic capacitance and / or egg ne specially designated capacitance between the electrodes (or one of the electrode) and a reference potential (GND) cause a real short-circuit with respect to this reference potential, while the electrodes are mutually and optionally decoupled from the reference potential for the low frequencies of the capacitive-resistive coupling.

Figures 7 to 9 are concerned with the further aspect of the invention and show very schematically electrode assemblies with non-parallel electrode surfaces.

According to FIG 7 are two mutually standing at an angle (rectangular in the example shown) electrode pairs 71, 72 present. The electrode pairs can be driven simultaneously or alternately or in any desired sequences.

Other arrangements of such electrode pairs than the drawn are possible, for example. By the pairs of electrodes forming four faces of a cuboid, which also includes the electronic components. A disadvantage of a configuration with two orthogonal or approximately orthogonal electrode pairs that large Elekrodenflächen must be paid for by a relatively large volume of the whole transmitter.

Figure 8 shows an arrangement with three electrodes 51, 52, 53, which form a triangle in a cross section. The driven electrode pairs, between which the signal is applied are formed for example by the first and third electrodes 51, 53 and through the second and the third electrode 52, 53rd

Figure 9 shows an arrangement having three electrode surfaces, of which a first and a second electrode face 61.1, 61.2 is formed by a common curved first electrode 61st The third electrode area 62 is formed by a separate second electrode from the first electrode 62nd

are preferred as the electrodes described above as far apart, and the dielectric constant of the medium / media between the electrodes is as small as possible. other aspects will be described with reference to FIG 10 which are associated with the smallest possible power consumption and / or monitoring the battery charge in connection. The components in the figure are optional and may be present individually or in combination.

The transmitter electronics 7 according to Figure 10 is connected to an output unit 41, via which a status indication of the battery charge is enabled. Such may include a light emitting diode (LED) or a plurality of light emitting diodes. Further, an activity detector 44 may be provided, which turns off the electrode driver when the portable device is not moved. As an alternative, or possibly in addition to an LF may also be provided that the transmitter electronics are only active when a wake-up signal, for example. Wake-up signal is detected. A corresponding detection unit is provided with the B.ezugszeichen 45th Configurations with LF-detectors for the in-service setting of a circuit are already known per se.

In the figure, a switch is also shown 42nd Such may, for example, are used if the electronics were switched off automatically in a "low comfort mode" for low battery. The electronics for a limited time is reactivated by pressing the switch 42. Also shown is an input off switch through which the entire portable device can be turned off when not in use. In case of a connection to a "host system" (eg. a mobile phone) 31 may help manage power consumption is a little less important.

The "off the electronics" does not rule out that individual components are still active, eg. The timer. With "Off" the transition into such a partially active "sleep mode is expressly mitgemeint.

Claims

1. Portable device for the transmission of signals to a second device, wherein the portable unit is portable by a user, comprising at least two electrodes and a transmitter electronics for applying an electrical signal between the electrodes so that the signal through the
Electrodes can be coupled and detected from the body by at least one electrode of the second device in the user's body, characterized in that between the electrode members of the
Transmitter electronics and / or a different application from the transmitter electronics are arranged and / or that an air gap is present.
2. The portable device according to claim 1 with an air gap, characterized in that the air gap is adapted in its dimensions to a different element from the portable device, that this is precisely inserted into the air gap.
3. Portable device for the transmission of signals to a second device, wherein the portable unit is portable by a user, comprising at least two electrodes and a transmitter electronics for applying an electrical signal between the electrodes so that the signal through the electrodes into the body of the user and be coupled be detected from the body by at least one electrode of the second device, for example according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the distance between the electrodes is at least 1 mm, preferably at least 1.5 mm or at least 2 mm.
4. The portable device according to any one of the preceding claims with an air gap, characterized in that in the air gap a Kommunikationsintefface for the exchange of data between the portable device and a different from the portable device, can be inserted into the air gap device 'is present.
5. The portable device according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that a communication link between the transmitter electronics and an input unit exists or can be produced and the transmitter electronics designed and / or programmed is that the electrical signal from the input unit inputted data depends.
6. The portable device according to claim 5, wherein components of a different application from the transmitter electronics are disposed between the electrodes, characterized in that it is designed as a mobile phone and the input unit is the input unit of the mobile phone.
7. The portable device according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that at least one of the electrodes of the portable device is at least partially transparent.
8. The portable device according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized by an antenna for communication by means of induction or electromagnetic waves.
9. The portable device according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized by an active or passive RFID transponder.
10. The portable device are as claimed in claim 9, characterized by a ferromagnetic element through which electromagnetic fields so aligned that they are increased at the location of an RFID antenna.
11. The portable device according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the electrodes also serve for shielding electromagnetic interference.
12. The portable device, for example according to one of the preceding claims for the transmission of signals to a second device, wherein the portable unit is portable by a user on the body having electrodes and a transmitter electronics for applying an electrical signal between the electrodes so, that the signal through the electrodes into the body of
is couplable user and detected from the body by at least one electrode of the second device, characterized by
Electrode arrangement with electrode surfaces that are not parallel to each other.
13. Use of a device according to any one of claims 1 to 12 for the access control.
EP08700560A 2007-02-14 2008-02-14 System and portable device for transmitting identification signals Pending EP2127161A2 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

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CH2402007 2007-02-14
PCT/CH2008/000058 WO2008098398A2 (en) 2007-02-14 2008-02-14 System and portable device for transmitting identification signals

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EP2127160A1 (en) 2009-12-02
WO2008098399A1 (en) 2008-08-21
EP2127159B1 (en) 2018-11-28
US20100231353A1 (en) 2010-09-16
JP2010521079A (en) 2010-06-17
US20100144268A1 (en) 2010-06-10
EP2127159A1 (en) 2009-12-02
JP2010518790A (en) 2010-05-27
WO2008098398A3 (en) 2008-12-04
US20100048127A1 (en) 2010-02-25
JP5273871B2 (en) 2013-08-28
JP5224546B2 (en) 2013-07-03
US8798531B2 (en) 2014-08-05
WO2008098398A2 (en) 2008-08-21
JP2010518789A (en) 2010-05-27
WO2008098397A1 (en) 2008-08-21

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