EP2102443B1 - Device or actuating a bottom tool - Google Patents

Device or actuating a bottom tool Download PDF

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Publication number
EP2102443B1
EP2102443B1 EP20070701581 EP07701581A EP2102443B1 EP 2102443 B1 EP2102443 B1 EP 2102443B1 EP 20070701581 EP20070701581 EP 20070701581 EP 07701581 A EP07701581 A EP 07701581A EP 2102443 B1 EP2102443 B1 EP 2102443B1
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EP
Grant status
Grant
Patent type
Prior art keywords
hollow
piston
position
tubular
tool
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Not-in-force
Application number
EP20070701581
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
EP2102443A1 (en )
Inventor
Erik Dithmar
Phillipe Fanuel
Stein Erik Moi
Luis Quintana
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Halliburton Energy Services Inc
Original Assignee
Halliburton Energy Services NV
Halliburton Energy Services Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
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Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B23/00Apparatus for displacing, setting, locking, releasing, or removing tools, packers or the like in the boreholes or wells
    • E21B23/04Apparatus for displacing, setting, locking, releasing, or removing tools, packers or the like in the boreholes or wells operated by fluid means, e.g. actuated by explosion
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21BEARTH DRILLING, e.g. DEEP DRILLING; OBTAINING OIL, GAS, WATER, SOLUBLE OR MELTABLE MATERIALS OR A SLURRY OF MINERALS FROM WELLS
    • E21B10/00Drill bits
    • E21B10/26Drill bits with leading portion, i.e. drill bits with a pilot cutter; Drill bits for enlarging the borehole, e.g. reamers
    • E21B10/32Drill bits with leading portion, i.e. drill bits with a pilot cutter; Drill bits for enlarging the borehole, e.g. reamers with expansible cutting tools
    • E21B10/322Drill bits with leading portion, i.e. drill bits with a pilot cutter; Drill bits for enlarging the borehole, e.g. reamers with expansible cutting tools cutter shifted by fluid pressure

Description

  • [0001]
    La présente invention est relative à un outil de fond comportant The present invention relates to a downhole tool comprising
    • un corps tubulaire (1) doté d'une cavité axiale (2), a tubular body (1) having an axial cavity (2),
    • un piston creux (8) capable de coulisser dans ladite cavité axiale et soumis à des pressions hydrauliques différentielles variables, et a hollow piston (8) slidable in said axial cavity and subjected to variable differential hydraulic pressures, and
    • un dispositif d'activation du piston creux. an activation device of the hollow piston.
  • [0002]
    On connaît des outils de fond de ce genre, par exemple des outils d'élargissement et de stabilisation à mettre en oeuvre dans un trou de forage (voir par exemple Known downhole tools of this kind, for example enlargement tools and stabilization to implement in a bore hole (see e.g. WO 2005/124094 WO 2005/124094 ). ).
  • [0003]
    Les outils de forage, d'élargissement ou autres, doivent être descendus avec le piston creux maintenu de manière fixe à l'intérieur du corps tubulaire et ensuite, lorsque l'outil est en position, le piston creux peut être activé. Drilling tools, enlargement or other, must be lowered with the hollow piston fixedly held inside the tubular body and then, when the tool is in position, the hollow plunger may be activated. On a déjà envisagé un système de verrouillage du piston qui, dans une position de fermeture, maintient axialement le piston creux dans une position d'immobilisation et qui est amené en position de libération par commande électrique. a piston lock system has already been envisaged that, in a closed position, axially holds the hollow piston in a standstill position and which is brought into electrical control by release position.
  • [0004]
    Toutefois, d'une manière générale, il est plus courant de commander l'activation du piston creux par voie hydraulique, à l'aide du fluide formé par les boues de forage. However, in general, it is more common to control the activation of the hollow piston hydraulically, with the fluid formed by the drilling mud. Lors de la circulation de celles-ci dans le train de tiges qui relie l'outil à la surface, le piston immobilisé par le dispositif d'activation est soumis à une pression différentielle qui agit sur le piston vers le haut ou vers le bas. During circulation thereof in the drill string which connects the tool to the surface, the piston locked by the activation device is subjected to a differential pressure which acts on the piston up or down. Le dispositif d'activation prévoit une extension tubulaire prolongeant le piston . The activation device includes a tubular extension extending the piston. L'extrémité de cette extension est maintenue fixe dans un manchon tubulaire par des goupilles de cisaillement. The end of this extension is kept fixed in a tubular sleeve by shear pins. Le manchon s'appuie sur une bague formant butée et fixée au corps tubulaire de l'outil. The sleeve rests on a ring forming an abutment and fixed to the tubular body of the tool. Cette butée empêche le mouvement du piston soumis à une pression différentielle et produisant donc un effort de traction sur le manchon tubulaire, tant que cette pression reste inférieure à un seuil prédéterminé. This abutment prevents movement of the piston subjected to differential pressure and thus producing a pulling force on the tubular sleeve, so that this pressure remains below a predetermined threshold.
  • [0005]
    Les goupilles de cisaillement sont calibrées de façon qu'une force de traction du piston supérieure au seuil susdit provoque un cisaillement des goupilles et libère le piston creux qui peut alors coulisser dans la cavité axiale du corps tubulaire de l'outil. The shear pins are calibrated so that a tensile force of the upper piston to the aforesaid threshold causes shear pins and releases the hollow piston which can then slide in the axial cavity of the tubular body of the tool. Dans le cas d'un outil d'élargissement, le piston devenu moteur permet alors le déploiement de bras de coupe. In the case of an expansion tool, the engine became piston then allows the cutting arm deployment.
  • [0006]
    La valeur calibrée des goupilles de cisaillement est un compromis entre, d'une part, la limite d'utilisation de l'outil dans son mode dormant, c'est-à-dire lorsque le piston creux n'est pas activé, et la limite de la pression maximale acceptable par l'outil ou disponible par les pompes de forage. The calibrated value of the shear pins is a compromise between on the one hand, the limit of use of the tool in its sleep mode, that is to say, when the hollow piston is not activated, and maximum pressure limit acceptable to the tool or provided by drilling pumps.
  • [0007]
    Afin de ne pas limiter les capacités de travail de l'outil en mode dormant, et d'éviter, ce qui n'est pas toujours possible, les risques d'une activation accidentelle qui pourrait être causée par exemple par un à-coup de pression, le calibre des goupilles de cisaillement est prévu le plus élevé possible. In order not to limit the working capacity of the tool in sleep mode, and avoid, which is not always possible, the risk of accidental activation that may be caused for example by a surge of pressure, the size of the shear pins is provided the highest possible. Le cisaillement est provoqué par une obturation temporaire du manchon tubulaire par une bille et/ou par une augmentation très importante de la pression des boues de forage. The shear is caused by a temporary closure of the tubular sleeve by a ball and / or a very substantial increase in the pressure of drilling muds. L'énergie substantielle stockée par le piston moteur doit alors être dissipée à la libération du piston provoquée par la rupture des goupilles. Substantial energy stored by the piston must be dissipated to the release of the piston caused by the rupture of the pins. Le choc qui en résulte peut provoquer des déformations de pièces et altérer le fonctionnement ultérieur de l'outil. The resulting shock can cause deformations of parts and impair subsequent operation of the tool.
  • [0008]
    D'autre part, l'expérience a montré que des volumes morts et des jeux entre pièces pouvaient présenter un obstacle au bon fonctionnement de la mécanique de l'outil. On the other hand, experience has shown that dead volumes and games between rooms could present an obstacle to the proper functioning of the mechanical tool. En effet, les particules présentes dans les boues de forage peuvent se compacter ou se cimenter à ces endroits de façon à gêner ou à empêcher les mouvements des pièces. Indeed, the particles in the drilling mud may be compacted or cement at these locations so as to impede or prevent the movements of the pieces.
  • [0009]
    La présente invention a pour but de mettre au point un dispositif d'activation qui ne soit pas soumis aux risques d'activation accidentelle du piston creux et qui permette une activation sélective de celui-ci sans dégagement important d'énergie de façon à libérer le piston creux dans la cavité axiale de l'outil de forage, de manière toujours adéquate. The present invention aims to develop an activation device that is not subject to the risk of accidental activation of the hollow piston and allows selective activation of it without significant release of energy to release the hollow piston in the axial cavity of the drill bit, always adequately. Avantageusement, des mesures de sécurité seront prévues pour éviter que le mouvement des pièces de l'outil ne soit empêché ou gêné par les boues de forage. Advantageously, security measures are provided to prevent the movement of parts of the tool will be prevented or hindered by the drilling mud.
  • [0010]
    On résout ces problèmes par un dispositif tel qu'indiqué au début, qui comprend These problems are solved by a device as indicated at the beginning which comprises
    • - un élément de gâchette solidaire du piston creux qui est déplaçable depuis une position d'immobilisation du piston creux, dans laquelle l'élément de gâchette est retenu en butée, à l'encontre desdites pressions différentielles, contre un appui du corps tubulaire, vers une position d'effacement dans laquelle l'élément de gâchette n'est pas en butée contre ledit appui et libère le piston creux, - a trigger element integral with the hollow piston which is movable from a stop position of the hollow piston, wherein the trigger member is retained in abutment against the said differential pressures, against a support of the tubular body, to a retracted position wherein the trigger element is not in abutment against said support and releases the hollow piston,
    • - un manchon tubulaire de détente de l'élément de gâchette qui, dans ladite position d'immobilisation dudit élément de gâchette, est relié au piston creux par au moins une goupille de cisaillement et empêche un déplacement de l'élément de gâchette de sa position d'immobilisation du piston creux à sa position d'effacement, et - a tubular sleeve of the trigger element relaxation which in said fixing position of said trigger element, is connected to the hollow piston by at least one shear pin and prevents movement of the trigger element from its position immobilizing the hollow piston to its retracted position, and
    • - un moyen d'obturation temporaire du manchon tubulaire de détente qui, en position d'obturation, provoque une élévation de pression hydraulique sur le manchon tubulaire, au-dessus d'un seuil prédéterminé où a lieu un cisaillement de ladite au moins une goupille de cisaillement, et un coulissement du manchon tubulaire de détente dans une position de libération permettant un déplacement de l'élément de gâchette de sa position d'immobilisation du piston creux à sa position d'effacement. - a temporary closure means of the tubular expansion sleeve which, in the closed position causes a hydraulic pressure increase on the tubular sleeve, above a predetermined threshold where shearing takes place of a said at least one pin shearing and sliding of the tubular relief sleeve into a release position allowing movement of the trigger member from its immobilizing position of the hollow piston to its retracted position.
  • [0011]
    On peut constater que, en mode dormant de l'outil, les efforts de traction exercés par le piston creux sous l'action d'une pression différentielle ne sont pas directement transmis aux goupilles de cisaillement du dispositif d'activation. It can be seen that sleep mode of the tool, the pulling forces exerted by the hollow piston under the action of a pressure differential are not directly transmitted to the shear pins of the activation device. Au contraire, c'est l'élément de gâchette qui retient le piston creux immobilisé, par appui sur une bague fixe, solidaire du corps tubulaire de l'outil, l'élément de gâchette et l'appui n'étant en aucune façon destinés à être rompus pendant l'utilisation. Rather, it is the trigger element which retains the fixed hollow piston by bearing against a fixed ring, integral with the tubular body of the tool, the trigger element and support being in no way intended to be broken during use. Les risques d'activation accidentelle durant la phase de travail en mode dormant de l'outil sont ainsi écartés. The risk of accidental activation during the work phase of the tool sleeping mode are thus excluded. D'autre part, une pression hydraulique ne peut s'appliquer sur le manchon que lorsque celui-ci est obturé. On the other hand, a hydraulic pressure can not be applied on the sleeve when the latter is closed. Il y a donc une activation sélective du piston, car celle-ci ne peut avoir lieu que par une obturation voulue du manchon, laquelle est commandée depuis la surface. There is therefore a selective activation of the piston, as this can only take place by a desired sealing of the sleeve, which is controlled from the surface. Puisqu'il n'y a pas de lien direct entre les efforts de traction exercés par le piston et les efforts de cisaillement des goupilles, celles-ci peuvent être calibrées à une valeur de résistance beaucoup plus basse qu'auparavant et la pression d'activation nécessaire pour les rompre peut être relativement faible, ce qui permet d'éviter une mise en jeu d'énergie trop importante et donc des dommages potentiels à l'équipement. Since there is no direct link between the tensile forces exerted by the piston pins and shear forces, they can be calibrated at a much lower resistance value than before and the pressure activation required for break can be relatively low, which avoids setting too high energy game and therefore potential damage to equipment.
  • [0012]
    Suivant une forme de réalisation de l'invention, le manchon tubulaire de détente est inséré entre l'élément de gâchette solidaire du piston creux et une extension du piston creux, de manière à pouvoir coulisser entre eux après cisaillement de ladite au moins une goupille de cisaillement. In one embodiment of the invention, the tubular relief sleeve is inserted between the trigger element integral with the hollow piston and an extension of the hollow piston, so as to be able to slide between them after shearing of the said at least one pin shear.
  • [0013]
    Suivant une forme avantageuse de réalisation de l'invention, le manchon tubulaire comporte une première partie à paroi présentant une première épaisseur et une deuxième partie à paroi présentant une deuxième épaisseur inférieure à la première et, dans sa position d'immobilisation du piston creux, l'élément de gâchette est en appui radialement sur ladite première partie de paroi du manchon tubulaire et, dans sa position d'effacement, il est en appui radialement sur ladite deuxième partie de paroi. According to an advantageous embodiment of the invention, the tubular sleeve has a first wall part having a first thickness and a second wall part having a second thickness less than the first and in its immobilizing position of the hollow piston, the trigger element is in abutment radially on the said first wall portion of the tubular sleeve and, in its retracted position, it is radially supported on said second wall portion.
  • [0014]
    Suivant une forme perfectionnée de réalisation de l'invention, l'élément de gâchette est formé d'une couronne de lames qui s'étendent axialement autour de la première partie du manchon tubulaire en position d'immobilisation de l'élément de gâchette et qui viennent en appui radialement sur ladite deuxième partie du manchon tubulaire lorsque l'élément de gâchette est en position d'effacement. According to an improved embodiment of the invention, the trigger element is formed by a ring of blades that extend axially around the first part of the tubular sleeve stop position of the trigger element and are radially supported on said second portion of the tubular sleeve when the trigger element is in retracted position.
  • [0015]
    L'extension tubulaire prolongeant le piston creux est donc pourvue d'une couronne de lames, de préférence métalliques, avantageusement en acier à ressort. The tubular extension extending the hollow piston is provided with a crown of blades, preferably of metal, preferably spring steel. Le manchon tubulaire, rigide, est maintenu de manière fixe à cette extension par des goupilles de cisaillement. The tubular sleeve, rigid, is fixedly maintained at this extension by shear pins. Dans cette position les lames reposent sur la partie épaisse du manchon et sont donc maintenues écartées l'une de l'autre. In this position the blades based on the thick portion of the sleeve and are held apart from each other. L'extrémité de ces lames, qui sont avantageusement épaissies et font saillie radialement vers l'extérieur, sont alors en appui axial contre une bague de retenue faisant saillie radialement à l'intérieur du corps tubulaire. The ends of these blades, which are advantageously thickened and protrude radially outwards, are then axially against a retaining ring projecting radially to the inside of the tubular body. Cet agencement empêche tout mouvement du piston et l'outil est maintenu dans son mode dormant. This arrangement prevents any movement of the piston and the tool is maintained in its dormant mode.
  • [0016]
    Suivant encore une forme de réalisation de l'invention le moyen d'obturation temporaire est une bille lancée dans ladite cavité axiale, le manchon tubulaire de détente comportant un siège pour recevoir cette bille et des ouvertures latérales permettant de rétablir une circulation de fluide hydraulique lorsque le manchon tubulaire est dans sa position de libération. In yet one embodiment of the invention the temporary closure means is a ball launched in the said axial cavity, the tubular relief sleeve comprises a seat for receiving this ball and lateral openings for re-establishing a circulation of hydraulic fluid when the tubular sleeve is in its release position.
  • [0017]
    Une pression hydraulique obtenue par l'obturation du passage des boues de forage au moyen de ladite bille exerce un effort sur le manchon. A hydraulic pressure obtained by the sealing of the drilling mud passing through said ball exerts a force on the sleeve. Cet effort, qui peut être minime, provoque le cisaillement des goupilles de cisaillement et libère le manchon qui peut se dégager. This effort, which may be minimal, causes the shearing of shear pins and releases the sleeve can be released. Les lames de l'élément de gâchette se trouvent alors en face de la partie amincie du manchon et elles peuvent fléchir radialement vers l'intérieur, par exemple sous une poussée radiale de la bague de retenue ou sous l'action d'une force de rappel élastique. the trigger member slides are then located opposite the tapered portion of the sleeve and they can flex radially inwardly, for example in a radial push the retaining ring or under the action of a force elastic return. Dans cette position fléchie, les lames peuvent coulisser à l'intérieur de la bague de retenue sous l'action de la traction du piston creux libéré. In this flexed position, the blades can slide inside the retaining ring under the action of pulling the hollow piston released. L'outil est alors activé. The tool is activated.
  • [0018]
    Suivant une autre forme de réalisation de l'invention, l'outil comprend en outre According to another embodiment of the invention the tool further comprises
    • - une chambre en cul-de-sac qui s'étend annulairement entre ledit corps tubulaire et ledit piston creux et/ou une extension tubulaire de celui-ci où passent des boues de forage, une surface du piston creux limitant axialement cette chambre en cul-de-sac, d'un premier côté, - a cul-de-sac chamber that extends annularly between the said tubular body and said hollow piston and / or a tubular extension thereof where drilling mud pass, a surface of the hollow piston axially limiting this B cul -de-bag, a first side,
    • - une bague annulaire qui limite axialement la chambre en cul-de-sac, d'un second côté opposé au premier susdit, et qui est reliée au corps tubulaire par au moins une goupille de cisaillement, - an annular ring that axially limits the room cul-de-sac, a second side opposite the first aforesaid, and which is connected to the tubular body by at least one shear pin,
    • - une communication pour fluide entre l'intérieur du piston creux et/ou de son extension tubulaire et la chambre en cul-de-sac, ladite surface du piston creux étant ainsi soumise auxdites pressions hydrauliques différentielles variables desdites boues de forage, - a fluid communication between the interior of the hollow piston and / or its tubular extension and the room cul-de-sac, said surface of the hollow piston being thus subjected to said variable differential hydraulic said drilling mud pressure,
    • - le piston creux, libéré par effacement dudit élément de gâchette, étant capable de coulisser entre une première position dans laquelle la chambre en cul-de-sac présente un premier volume et une deuxième position dans laquelle la chambre en cul-de-sac présente un deuxième volume supérieur au premier, ainsi que - the hollow piston, released by erasing said trigger element, being slidable between a first position in which the chamber in a cul-de-sac having a first volume and a second position in which the chamber in this cul-de-sac a second volume greater than the first, and
    • - des moyens de rappel qui agissent sur le piston creux pour le ramener à sa première position, ladite au moins une goupille de cisaillement étant, lorsqu'un obstacle empêche le piston creux de retourner à sa première position et augmente ainsi la pression appliquée sur la bague annulaire au-delà d'un seuil prédéterminé, cisaillée en libérant la bague annulaire et en permettant ainsi un retour du piston creux à sa première position. - biasing means which act on the hollow piston to return it to its first position, said at least one shear pin being, when an obstacle prevents the hollow piston returning to its first position and thus increases the pressure applied to the annular ring beyond a predetermined threshold, sheared, releasing the annular ring and thus allowing the hollow piston return to its first position.
  • [0019]
    D'autres particularités de l'invention sont indiquées dans les revendications annexées. Other features of the invention are indicated in the appended claims.
  • [0020]
    D'autres détails de l'invention ressortiront de la description donnée ci-après, à titre non limitatif, d'une forme de réalisation de l'outil de fond muni d'un dispositif d'activation suivant l'invention. Further details of the invention emerge from the description given hereinbelow, without limitation, an embodiment of the downhole tool provided with an activation device according to the invention.
    • Les The figures 1 et 2 Figures 1 and 2 représentent une vue en coupe axiale d'un même outil d'élargissement doté d'un dispositif d'activation suivant l'invention. represent an axial section view of the same expanding tool has an activation device according to the invention.
    • La The figure 3 Figure 3 représente une vue en coupe axiale d'un dispositif d'activation suivant l'invention, dans laquelle l'outil fonctionne en mode dormant. shows an axial sectional view of an activation device according to the invention, in which the tool operates in dormant mode.
    • La The figure 4 Figure 4 représente une vue en coupe axiale du dispositif d'activation suivant la shows an axial sectional view of the device following activation figure 3 Figure 3 , dans laquelle l'outil est en mode activé. Wherein the tool is in active mode.
    • La The figure 5 Figure 5 représente une vue en perspective partiellement brisée du dispositif d'activation illustré sur les shows a partially broken perspective view of the activation device shown in figures 3 figures 3 et and 4 4 . .
    • La The figure 6 Figure 6 représente une vue à l'échelle agrandie du détail A de la shows an enlarged scale view of the detail A figure 2 Figure 2 . .
  • [0021]
    Sur les différents dessins les éléments identiques ou analogues portent les mêmes références. In the various drawings the identical or similar elements bear the same references.
  • [0022]
    La description des The description of figures 1 et 2 Figures 1 and 2 porte sur un exemple d'outil de fond suivant l'invention sur lequel un dispositif d'activation peut être agencé. relates to an example downhole tool according to the invention on which an activation device may be provided. On a prévu ici, à titre d'exemple, que l'outil est un outil d'élargissement et de stabilisation à mettre en oeuvre dans un trou de forage. Is provided here by way of example, that the tool is an expanding tool and stabilization to implement in a borehole. Il pourrait cependant s'agir de tout outil faisant usage d'un piston moteur qui doit être activé uniquement lorsque l'outil est en position dans le trou de forage et qui est immobilisé pendant la descente. However, it could be any tool making use of a piston to be actuated only when the tool is in position in the borehole and which is immobilized during the descent.
  • [0023]
    L'outil illustré sur les The tool illustrated on figures 1 et 2 Figures 1 and 2 comprend un corps tubulaire 1 à monter entre une première section d'un train de tiges et une deuxième section de celui-ci. comprises a tubular body 1 to be mounted between a first section of a drill string and a second section thereof. Ce corps tubulaire 1 présente une cavité axiale 2 dans laquelle circule les boues de forage. The tubular body 1 has an axial cavity 2 in which circulates drilling muds. En périphérie le corps tubulaire 1 comporte des logements 3 pourvus d'une ouverture vers l'extérieur. In the periphery of tubular body 1 comprises housing 3 provided with an opening towards the outside.
  • [0024]
    Dans l'exemple illustré, un élément de couteau 4 est logé dans chaque logement 3 et il comporte deux bras de coupe 5 et 6 articulés entre eux ainsi que sur un moyen de transmission en forme de coulisseau 7. Dans la position illustrée les bras 5 et 6 sont en retrait dans leur logement et l'outil est en mode dormant. In the illustrated example, a cutter element 4 is housed in each housing 3 and it comprises two 5 and 6 the cutting arms articulated to each other as well as a transmission means in the form of slide 7. In the illustrated position the arms 5 and 6 are retracted in their housing and the tool is in dormant mode.
  • [0025]
    Dans l'exemple illustré, un moyen moteur conçu sous la forme d'un piston creux 8 est agencé à l'intérieur du corps tubulaire 1, en permettant une circulation des boues sans entrave à l'intérieur du corps tubulaire. In the example illustrated, a drive means designed in the form of a hollow piston 8 is arranged inside the tubular body 1 while allowing a flow of sludge unhindered inside the tubular body. Le piston creux 8 est relié au coulisseau 7. The hollow piston 8 is connected to the slide 7.
  • [0026]
    Ainsi qu'il ressort des As is clear from figures 1, 2 Figures 1, 2 et and 6 6 , les boues de forage peuvent s'accumuler dans une chambre ou cul-de-sac annulaire 10 où le piton 8 est, par sa surface 11, en contact avec le fluide hydraulique sous pression formé par les boues de forage. , Drilling mud can accumulate in an annular chamber or cul-de-sac 10 wherein the spike 8 is by its surface 11 in contact with the pressurized hydraulic fluid formed by the drilling mud. Le piston, est, dans le cas illustré, indirectement en appui sur un ressort de rappel 12 qui, à son extrémité opposée, bute sur un élément solidaire du corps tubulaire 1 et agit en sens inverse à la pression susdite du fluide hydraulique passant par la cavité axiale 2. The piston is, in the illustrated case, indirectly supported on a return spring 12 which, at its opposite end, abuts on an element integral with the tubular body 1 and acts in the opposite direction to the aforementioned pressure of the hydraulic fluid passing through the axial cavity 2.
  • [0027]
    Ainsi qu'il est représenté de manière plus détaillée dans l'exemple de réalisation illustré sur les As shown in more detail in the embodiment shown in figures 3 à 5 Figures 3 to 5 , le piston 8 est doté d'une extension tubulaire 13 du côté aval autour de laquelle le ressort de rappel est agencé en prenant appui sur elle, ce qui permet une disposition décentrée du ressort 12 par rapport aux bras de coupe. The piston 8 is provided with a tubular extension 13 on the downstream side around which the return spring is arranged supported on it, which allows an off-center arrangement of the spring 12 relative to the cutting arm. Cette extension est pourvue d'un élément de gâchette 14 qui est donc solidaire du piston 8. Dans l'exemple illustré, l'élément de gâchette est formé d'une couronne de lames 15 avantageusement flexibles, par exemple en acier à ressort, qui s'étendent axialement en direction aval, autour d'une partie de l'extension tubulaire 13. This extension is provided with a trigger member 14 which is secured to the piston 8. In the example shown, the trigger element is formed by a crown of blades 15 preferably flexible, for example of spring steel, which extend axially downstream direction, around a portion of the tubular extension 13.
  • [0028]
    Un manchon tubulaire de détente 16 est inséré entre les lames 15 de l'élément de gâchette 14 et ladite extension tubulaire 13 du piston creux 8. Ce manchon est relié à l'extension 13 par des goupilles de cisaillement 17, dont une seule est représentée. A tubular relief sleeve 16 is inserted between the blades 15 of the trigger member 14 and the tubular extension 13 of the hollow piston 8. The sleeve is connected to the extension 13 by shear pins 17, only one of which is shown .
  • [0029]
    Dans l'exemple illustré, dans sa partie aval 18, le manchon tubulaire 16 présente une plus grande épaisseur que dans sa partie amont 19 et avantageusement la transition entre les parties aval et amont est réalisée en pente. In the example illustrated, in its downstream part 18, the tubular sleeve 16 has a greater thickness than in its upstream portion 19 and preferably the transition between the upstream and downstream portions is made sloping. Dans la position illustrée sur la In the position illustrated in figure 3 Figure 3 où le manchon tubulaire 16 est immobilisé sur l'extension tubulaire 13, les lames 15 de l'élément de gâchette 14 sont en appui sur la partie aval 18 plus épaisse du manchon et sont donc maintenues écartées radialement vers l'extérieur. wherein the tubular sleeve 16 is locked on the tubular extension 13, the blades 15 of the trigger member 14 are in abutment on the 18 thicker downstream portion of the sleeve and are held apart radially outwardly.
  • [0030]
    Dans cette position d'écartement, l'extrémité libre 20, avantageusement épaissie, des lames 15 vient axialement en butée contre une bague de retenue 21, solidaire du corps tubulaire 1 de l'outil. In this expanded position, the free end 20, preferably thickened, of the blades 15 comes into abutment axially against a retaining ring 21 integral with the tubular body 1 of the tool.
  • [0031]
    Lorsque l'outil est descendu en mode dormant, même si la pression hydraulique des boues exercées sur le piston 8 est importante et développe un effort de traction vers le haut, celle-ci est contrecarrée par la butée des lames 15 contre la bague de retenue 21. When the tool is lowered in dormant mode, even if the hydraulic pressure of the sludge exerted on the piston 8 is high and develops a tensile force upwards, this is counteracted by abutment of the blades 15 against the retaining ring 21.
  • [0032]
    A son extrémité aval le manchon tubulaire de détente 16 est pourvu d'un siège de réception 22 destiné à recevoir un moyen d'obturation 23, une bille dans le cas illustré, qui est lancé depuis la surface. At its downstream end the tubular relief sleeve 16 is provided with a receiving seat 22 for receiving a sealing means 23, a ball in the case illustrated, which is launched from the surface. Le manchon 16 est aussi pourvu d'ouvertures latérales 24, dont une seule est représentée sur la The sleeve 16 is also provided with lateral openings 24, only one of which is shown in figure 3 Figure 3 . . Lorsqu'une bille est amenée à obturer le passage des boues dans la cavité axiale, l'augmentation brusque de pression exercée sur le manchon tubulaire 16 a pour effet de cisailler les goupilles 17 en libérant le manchon. When a ball is caused to close off the passage of the sludge in the axial cavity, the sudden increase in pressure exerted on the tubular sleeve 16 has the effect of shear pins 17 freeing the sleeve. Celui-ci peut alors coulisser vers l'aval entre les lames 15 de l'élément de gâchette et l'extension tubulaire 13 du piston creux. It can then slide in the downstream direction between the blades 15 of the trigger member and the tubular extension 13 of the hollow piston. Dans cette position illustrée sur la In this position shown figure 4 Figure 4 , les ouvertures latérales 24 permettent de rétablir la circulation des boues dans la cavité axiale. , The side openings 24 allow to restore the movement of sludge in the axial cavity.
  • [0033]
    Ainsi qu'il ressort de la As is clear from the figure 4 Figure 4 , les lames 15 sont parvenues, par rappel élastique, en appui radial contre la partie amincie 19 du manchon tubulaire de détente 16. On pourrait aussi prévoir que ce fléchissement des lames 15 résulte d'une déformation élastique sous une poussée en sens radial de l'extrémité en biais de la bague de retenue 21. Les lames 15 sont ainsi passées dans une position d'effacement dans laquelle elles ne sont plus en appui axial contre la bague de retenue 21. Sous l'action du piston creux 8 soumis à une pression hydraulique qui le pousse vers l'amont, les lames 15 de l'élément de gâchette 14 en position d'effacement peuvent passer à l'intérieur de ladite bague 21. Le piston creux 8 est à présent libéré et l'outil est activé. , The blades 15 are received, by elastic return, to bear radially against the tapered portion 19 of the tubular relief sleeve 16. One could also provide that the bending of the blades 15 due to an elastic deformation in a radial direction of thrust end by means of retaining ring 21. the blades 15 are thus passed into a retracted position in which they are no longer in axial abutment against the retaining ring 21. Under the action of the hollow piston 8 subjected to hydraulic pressure that drives the upstream, the blades 15 of the trigger member 14 in the retracted position can pass through the inside of said ring 21. the hollow piston 8 is now released and the tool is activated . Dans le cas présent, le piston peut commander un déploiement des bras de coupe 5 et 6 pour procéder par exemple à un élargissement du trou de forage. In this case, the piston may control a roll of 5 and 6 the cutting arm to perform for example, a widening of the borehole.
  • [0034]
    Ainsi qu'il ressort de la As is clear from the figure 6 Figure 6 , et comme déjà indiqué précédemment, l'outil compte une chambre annulaire en cul-de-sac 10 qui s'étend entre, d'une part, le corps tubulaire 1 et, d'autre part, le piston creux 8 et son extension tubulaire 13 par où passent les boues de forage. , And as already indicated above, the tool has an annular chamber in a cul-de-sac 10 which extends between, on one hand, the tubular body 1 and, on the other hand, the hollow piston 8 and its extension tubular 13 through which pass the drilling muds. La surface 11 du piston limite axialement la chambre 10, d'un côté, et, du côté opposé, elle est limitée par une bague annulaire 26. Cette bague annulaire 26 est reliée au corps tubulaire 1 par l'intermédiaire d'au moins une goupille de cisaillement 27. The surface 11 of the piston axially limit the chamber 10, on one side, and on the opposite side, it is limited by an annular ring 26. The annular ring 26 is connected to the tubular body 1 by means of at least one shear pin 27.
  • [0035]
    Une communication pour fluide, sous la forme d'orifices 25, permet une pénétration des boues de forage à l'intérieur du piston creux 8 dans la chambre annulaire 10. La surface 11 du piston 8 est ainsi soumise aux variations de pression des boues de forage passant par l'outil. A fluid communication in the form of holes 25, allowing penetration of drilling fluids inside the hollow piston 8 into the annular chamber 10. The surface 11 of the piston 8 is thus subjected to pressure variations sludge drilling through the tool. Le piston creux 8, libéré par effacement de l'élément de gâchette, est ainsi capable de coulisser entre une première position représentée sur la The hollow piston 8, released by deletion of the trigger element is thus capable of sliding between a first position shown in figure 6 Figure 6 , qui correspond à la position d'immobilisation du piston non libéré, et une position où la chambre annulaire 10 présente un volume supérieur à celui de la première position, le piston étant repoussé vers le haut sous la pression des boues de forage. , Which corresponds to the fixing position of the undischarged piston, and a position where the annular chamber 10 has a volume greater than that of the first position, the piston being urged upwardly under the pressure of drilling muds. Le piston peut être rappelé vers sa première position par le ressort de rappel 12 en cas de diminution de la pression des boues de forage passées dans le corps de l'outil. The piston may be biased towards its first position by the return spring 12 in case of decrease of pressure past drilling mud in the body of the tool.
  • [0036]
    Chaque mouvement du piston moteur 8 entraîne un phénomène de succion (augmentation du volume de la chambre 10 quand le piston est en position haute) et de rejet (diminution du volume 10 quand le piston est en position basse) de la boue de forage par les orifices 25 dans et respectivement hors de la chambre en cul-de-sac 10. Ces mouvements de boue, associés à des effets de décantation de particules solides de la boue ou à des effets centrifuges des particules solides de la boue, peuvent provoquer un encrassement excessif du volume de la chambre 10. De plus, le pourcentage du volume de boue stagnante, qui n'est pas renouvelé, peut présenter un phénomène de cimentation. Each movement of the piston 8 causes a suction phenomenon (increase in the volume of the chamber 10 when the piston is in the upper position) and rejection (decreased volume 10 when the piston is in low position) of the drilling mud by orifices 25 respectively in and out of the cul-de-sac chamber 10. These movements mud, combined with settling effects of solid particles of the sludge or centrifugal effects of the solid particles of the sludge can cause fouling excessive volume of the chamber 10. in addition, the percentage of the volume of stagnant mud, which is not renewed, may have a cementing phenomenon. Le bourrage du volume de la chambre 10 peut ainsi empêcher la course complète du mouvement du piston moteur, en entravant le retrait complet des bras de coupe 5 et 6. The packing volume of the chamber 10 can thus prevent the complete stroke movement of the engine piston by impeding the complete removal of 5 and 6 the cutting arm.
  • [0037]
    Dans cette configuration, les bras de coupe partiellement exposés à l'extérieur du corps tubulaire principal 1 forment un obstacle à la remontée de l'outil, au moment du passage à l'endroit d'une restriction du diamètre du puits. In this configuration, partially exposed cutting arms out of the tubular main body 1 form an obstacle to the rise of the tool, at the time of the passage at the location of a restriction in the diameter of the well. La réaction sur les bras de coupe, due à l'effort de traction de l'outil bloqué par la restriction du diamètre du trou, transmet, par l'intermédiaire des coulisseaux 7, une force de rappel supplémentaire au piston moteur. The reaction on the cutting arm, due to the traction force of the blocked tool by restricting the diameter of the hole, transmits, via the slide 7, an additional restoring force to the engine piston. L'accroissement de l'effet de compactage des particules dans le volume mort de la chambre 10 engendre une pression sur la bague 26. Cette force de pression sur la bague 26 provoque, au-delà d'un seuil prédéterminé, un cisaillement des goupilles 27 de cette bague 26. La bague n'étant plus solidaire du corps tubulaire principal 1 peut sous l'effet de la pression du compactage se déplacer vers le bas, en permettant alors le mouvement complet du piston moteur et par conséquence le retrait complet des bras de coupe. The increase in particle compaction effect in the void volume of the chamber 10 generates a pressure on the ring 26. This pressing force causes the ring 26 beyond a predetermined threshold, a shearing of the pins 27 of the ring 26. the ring is no longer secured to the main tubular body 1 may as a result of the compaction pressure to move downwardly, in then allowing full movement of the piston and consequently the complete withdrawal of cutting arm.
  • [0038]
    Avantageusement on peut prévoir de remplir les jeux entre pièces et les volumes morts de la mécanique par une graisse ou un gel déterminé. Advantageously it can be provided to fill the gaps between parts and dead volumes of mechanics by grease or gel determined. Cela permet d'empêcher la boue de forage de venir occuper ces volumes et de gêner le fonctionnement de l'outil. This prevents the drilling mud to occupy these volumes and interfere with the operation of the tool. Il peut être intéressant par conséquent de remplir la chambre annulaire en cul-de-sac 10 par une telle matière, cette chambre pouvant être considérée comme un volume mort. It may be interesting therefore to fill the annular space in a cul-de-sac 10 by such a material, this room can be considered a dead volume.
  • [0039]
    Par ailleurs, on peut constater que les mouvements longitudinaux de la mécanique provoquent des variations de volume à divers endroits de l'outil, comme c'est le cas par exemple dans la chambre annulaire 10. Ces variations de volume engendrent des effets de succion et de rejet de la boue de forage avec les inconvénients connus précités. Furthermore, it can be seen that the longitudinal movements of the mechanical cause volume changes to various parts of the tool, as is the case for example in the annular chamber 10. These volume changes generate suction effects and rejection of the drilling mud with the known above mentioned drawbacks.
  • [0040]
    Il est donc avantageux de dimensionner les pièces de façon à obtenir un volume mort le plus grand possible en comparaison de la variation de volume provoquée par les mouvements mécaniques, ceci afin de limiter les effets de compactage de la boue. It is therefore advantageous to dimension the parts to obtain a dead volume as large as possible in comparison to the volume change caused by mechanical movements, in order to limit compaction effects of the mud.
  • [0041]
    Il doit être entendu que la présente invention n'est en aucune façon limitée à la forme de réalisation décrite ci-dessus et que bien des modifications peuvent y être apportées sans sortir du cadre des revendications annexées. It should be understood that the invention is in no way limited to the embodiment described above and that many modifications can be made without departing from the scope of the appended claims.
  • [0042]
    On peut par exemple prévoir que le piston et son extension tubulaire soient agencés de manière à subir de la part des boues de forage une pression dirigée vers le bas. One can for example provide that the piston and its tubular extension are arranged so as to suffer from the drilling mud pressure downward.

Claims (15)

  1. Downhole tool comprising
    - a tubular body (1) provided with an axial cavity (2),
    - a hollow piston (8) capable of sliding in the said axial cavity and subjected to variable differential hydraulic pressures, and
    - a device for activating the hollow piston,
    characterised in that the activation device comprises
    - a trigger element (14) integral with the hollow piston (8), which is movable from a position of immobilisation of the hollow piston, in which the trigger element is held in abutment, counter to the said differential pressures, against a support on the tubular body, towards a retracted position in which the trigger element (14) is not in abutment against the said support and releases the hollow piston,
    - a tubular relief sleeve (16) for the trigger element (14) which, in the said position of immobilisation of the said trigger element, is connected to the hollow piston (8) by at least one shear pin (17) and prevents movement of the trigger element from its position of immobilisation of the hollow piston to its retracted position, and
    - a means (23) of temporary closure of the tubular relief sleeve (16) which, in the blocked position, causes a rise in hydraulic pressure on the tubular sleeve (16), above a predetermined threshold where shearing of the said at least one shear pin (17) takes place, and a sliding of the tubular relief sleeve (16) into a release position allowing movement of the trigger element (14) from its position of immobilisation of the hollow piston (8) to its retracted position.
  2. Tool according to claim 1, characterised in that the tubular relief sleeve (16) is inserted between the trigger element (14) integral with the hollow piston (8) and an extension (13) of the hollow piston, so as to be able to slide between them after shearing of the said at least one shear pin (17).
  3. Tool according to claim 2, characterised in that the tubular sleeve (16) comprises a first part (18) with a wall having a first thickness and a second part (19) with a wall having a second thickness less than the first and in that, in its position of immobilisation of the hollow piston, the trigger element (14) is in abutment radially on the said first wall part (18) of the tubular sleeve and, in its retracted position, it is in abutment radially on the said second wall part (19).
  4. Tool according to claim 3, characterised in that, as the aforesaid support, the tubular body comprises a retaining ring (21) projecting radially towards the inside of the said axial cavity and in that, in its position of immobilisation of the hollow piston (8), the trigger element (14) is in abutment axially against the said ring and, in its retracted position, it is driven by the hollow piston released inside the said ring (21).
  5. Tool according to one of claims 3 and 4, characterised in that the trigger element (14) is formed by a ring of blades (15) that extend axially around the first part (18) of the tubular sleeve (16) in the position of immobilisation of the trigger element (14) and that come into abutment radially on the said second wall part (19) when the trigger element (14) is in the retracted position.
  6. Tool according to claim 5, characterised in that the blades (15) of the said ring are made from spring steel.
  7. Tool according to one of claims 5 and 6, characterised in that the above mentioned blades (15) have a thickened free end (20) that projects radially towards the outside and which, in the position of immobilisation of the trigger element (14), are in axial abutment against the said retaining ring (21).
  8. Tool according to any one of claims 1 to 7, characterised in that the temporary closure means (23) is a ball launched in the said axial cavity (2), and in that the tubular relief sleeve (16) comprises a seat (22) for receiving this ball and lateral openings (24) for re-establishing a circulation of hydraulic fluid when the tubular sleeve (16) is in its release position.
  9. Tool according to any one of claims 1 to 8, characterised in that it is an underreamer provided with knife elements (4) formed by cutting arms (5, 6) articulated on one another and in that the hollow piston (8) is a drive means allowing an extension of the cutting arms out of the tubular body (1) of the tool.
  10. Tool according to claim 9, characterised in that it also comprises a return spring (12) that acts on the hollow piston (8) in order to return it in the direction of its immobilisation position, in which the said cutting arms are in the retracted position.
  11. Tool according to claim 10, characterised in that the return spring (12) is arranged around a tubular extension (13) of the hollow piston so as to bear on it.
  12. Tool according to any one of claims 1 to 11, characterised in that the said variable hydraulic pressures acting on the hollow piston (8) are directed upwards.
  13. Tool according to any one of claims 1 to 12, characterised in that it also comprises
    - a dead end chamber (10) that extends annularly between the said tubular body (1) and the said hollow piston (8) and/or a tubular extension (13) thereof where drilling mud passes, a surface (11) of the hollow piston axially delimiting this dead-end chamber, on a first side,
    - an annular ring (26) that axially delimits the dead-end chamber (10), on a second side opposite to the above-mentioned first side, and which is connected to the tubular body by at least one shear pin (27),
    - communication for a fluid (25) between the inside of the hollow piston (8) and/or its tubular extension (13) and the dead-end chamber (10), the said surface (11) of the hollow piston being thus subjected to the said variable differential hydraulic pressures of the said drilling mud,
    - the hollow piston (8), released by retraction of the said trigger element (14), being capable of sliding between a first position in which the dead-end chamber (10) has a first volume and a second position in which the dead-end chamber has a second volume greater than the first, as well as
    - return means (4, 5, 6, 7, 12) that act on the hollow piston in order to return it to its first position, the said at least one shear pin (27), when an obstacle prevents the hollow piston returning to its first position and thus increases the pressure applied to the annular ring beyond a predetermined threshold, being sheared, releasing the annular ring (26) and thus allowing the hollow piston to return to its first position.
  14. Tool according to claim 13, characterised in that it has clearances between parts and dead spaces and in that these clearances and dead spaces are filled with a grease or gel.
  15. Tool according to claim 14, characterised in that the aforementioned dead-end chamber (10) is a dead space in the tool.
EP20070701581 2007-01-11 2007-01-11 Device or actuating a bottom tool Not-in-force EP2102443B1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
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EP2102443A1 true EP2102443A1 (en) 2009-09-23
EP2102443B1 true EP2102443B1 (en) 2010-08-11

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US (2) US8251161B2 (en)
EP (1) EP2102443B1 (en)
CN (1) CN101636551B (en)
CA (1) CA2674030C (en)
DE (1) DE602007008471D1 (en)
WO (1) WO2008083448A1 (en)

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Publication number Publication date Type
WO2008083448A1 (en) 2008-07-17 application
US20120318497A1 (en) 2012-12-20 application
US8936112B2 (en) 2015-01-20 grant
EP2102443A1 (en) 2009-09-23 application
US8251161B2 (en) 2012-08-28 grant
CN101636551B (en) 2012-07-11 grant
CA2674030C (en) 2015-06-30 grant
CN101636551A (en) 2010-01-27 application
CA2674030A1 (en) 2008-07-17 application
US20100126715A1 (en) 2010-05-27 application
DE602007008471D1 (en) 2010-09-23 grant

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