EP2084454B1 - Boiler burner for solid fuels of the biomass or tyre type and boiler comprising such burner - Google Patents

Boiler burner for solid fuels of the biomass or tyre type and boiler comprising such burner Download PDF

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Publication number
EP2084454B1
EP2084454B1 EP07866460.4A EP07866460A EP2084454B1 EP 2084454 B1 EP2084454 B1 EP 2084454B1 EP 07866460 A EP07866460 A EP 07866460A EP 2084454 B1 EP2084454 B1 EP 2084454B1
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EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
burner
cylinder
air
boiler
shaft
Prior art date
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Expired - Fee Related
Application number
EP07866460.4A
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
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EP2084454A2 (en
Inventor
Sylvian Longatte
Original Assignee
Sylvian Longatte
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Filing date
Publication date
Priority to FR0609469A priority Critical patent/FR2907881B1/en
Application filed by Sylvian Longatte filed Critical Sylvian Longatte
Priority to PCT/FR2007/001789 priority patent/WO2008059131A2/en
Publication of EP2084454A2 publication Critical patent/EP2084454A2/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP2084454B1 publication Critical patent/EP2084454B1/en
Expired - Fee Related legal-status Critical Current
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23BMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING ONLY SOLID FUEL
    • F23B1/00Combustion apparatus using only lump fuel
    • F23B1/16Combustion apparatus using only lump fuel the combustion apparatus being modified according to the form of grate or other fuel support
    • F23B1/28Combustion apparatus using only lump fuel the combustion apparatus being modified according to the form of grate or other fuel support using ridge-type grate, e.g. for combustion of peat, sawdust, or pulverulent fuel
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23BMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING ONLY SOLID FUEL
    • F23B1/00Combustion apparatus using only lump fuel
    • F23B1/30Combustion apparatus using only lump fuel characterised by the form of combustion chamber
    • F23B1/38Combustion apparatus using only lump fuel characterised by the form of combustion chamber for combustion of peat, sawdust, or pulverulent fuel on a grate or other fuel support
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23BMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING ONLY SOLID FUEL
    • F23B30/00Combustion apparatus with driven means for agitating the burning fuel; Combustion apparatus with driven means for advancing the burning fuel through the combustion chamber
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23BMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING ONLY SOLID FUEL
    • F23B50/00Combustion apparatus in which the fuel is fed into or through the combustion zone by gravity, e.g. from a fuel storage situated above the combustion zone
    • F23B50/02Combustion apparatus in which the fuel is fed into or through the combustion zone by gravity, e.g. from a fuel storage situated above the combustion zone the fuel forming a column, stack or thick layer with the combustion zone at its bottom
    • F23B50/10Combustion apparatus in which the fuel is fed into or through the combustion zone by gravity, e.g. from a fuel storage situated above the combustion zone the fuel forming a column, stack or thick layer with the combustion zone at its bottom with the combustion zone at the bottom of fuel-filled conduits ending at the surface of a fuel bed
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23BMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING ONLY SOLID FUEL
    • F23B60/00Combustion apparatus in which the fuel burns essentially without moving
    • F23B60/02Combustion apparatus in which the fuel burns essentially without moving with combustion air supplied through a grate
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/24Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor having a vertical, substantially cylindrical, combustion chamber
    • F23G5/245Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor having a vertical, substantially cylindrical, combustion chamber with perforated bottom or grate
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G7/00Incinerators or other apparatus for consuming industrial waste, e.g. chemicals
    • F23G7/10Incinerators or other apparatus for consuming industrial waste, e.g. chemicals of field or garden waste or biomasses
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23LSUPPLYING AIR OR NON-COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS OR GASES TO COMBUSTION APPARATUS IN GENERAL ; VALVES OR DAMPERS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR CONTROLLING AIR SUPPLY OR DRAUGHT IN COMBUSTION APPARATUS; INDUCING DRAUGHT IN COMBUSTION APPARATUS; TOPS FOR CHIMNEYS OR VENTILATING SHAFTS; TERMINALS FOR FLUES
    • F23L17/00Inducing draught; Tops for chimneys or ventilating shafts; Terminals for flues
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2203/00Furnace arrangements
    • F23G2203/40Stationary bed furnace
    • F23G2203/401Stationary bed furnace with support for a grate or perforated plate
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G2209/00Specific waste
    • F23G2209/26Biowaste

Description

  • The present invention relates to a solid fuel boiler burner of biomass type, tire and a boiler comprising such a burner.
  • The field of energy production from biomass has undergone a great development in recent years. Indeed, the problems related to the usual energy resources such as hydrocarbons both from the point of view of the reduction of reserves, the pollution generated or even simply their economic cost, led to a reflection on the use of biomass as a source of energy.
  • Typically, the term biomass includes all of the energies derived from the degradation of organic matter produced from solar energy transformed by the plants used either directly or after anaerobic digestion of the organic matter (biogas) or new chemical transformations (biofuel).
  • The present invention relates more particularly to the field of the use of biomass as a fuel supplying a boiler.
  • Thus, energy production facilities are already known from the combustion of a wide variety of fuels such as sawdust, logs, straws, vegetable waste, forest by-products or coppice, corn cob, coconut, etc.
  • The burner constituting the combustion chamber of the boiler brings the fuel and the combustion agent consisting of air together for combustion. This burner is generally constituted by an enclosure in which the filling of fuel and the admission of air as an oxidizer takes place.
  • A flame poorly fed with oxidizer is long and steaming because it looks for oxygen on its height. Also, in order to generate an air flow within the burner to promote the flame, there is provided in the boiler a fan for the admission of primary and secondary air and, most often, a fan for the outlet of the fumes. in the upper part of the boiler. The presence of these fans can cause maintenance problems due to their exposure to relatively high temperatures, these high temperatures being necessary for good combustion.
  • It was also noted that depending on the nature of the fuel, the occurrence of more or less important residues. Thus, when the fuel is wood-based, combustion generates virtually no ash whereas in the case of cereals, solid residues in the form of clinker are formed during combustion.
  • In order to solve this problem of combustion residues, it has been proposed in the document FR 2 880 407 , a heating device comprising in particular a fragmented fuel burner such as cereals which is adapted to allow the extraction of solid residues without external human intervention and without interrupting the operation of the heating device. Such a self-cleaning burner thus consists of a perforated enclosure consisting of an upper part provided with upper and lower openings and a lower part also having an upper opening communicating with the lower opening of the upper part, the lower part being movably mounted in displacement between an operating position and a cleaning position in which its upper opening is directed downwards, closure means being provided for closing the lower opening of the upper part when the lower part is moved .
  • We also know by EP 0 882 201 a boiler with a continuous supply of divided solid fuel whose combustion is optimized. Such a boiler has two superimposed stages of which one lower in which is located a vertical expansion tubular combustion chamber in which open fuel supply means and another upper in which are located a heat exchanger and a discharge pipe of the two stages communicating via a nozzle for the escape of the flames from the combustion chamber to the exchanger under the effect of primary air flow means from the base of the chamber combustion and axially through its interior space to the flue gas exhaust duct. The air circulation means are constituted by means for depressurizing the upper and lower stages from the downstream of the upper stage. Such a boiler thus has the advantage that the air circulating under the effect of the depression can not follow a course other than that imposed on it by the depressing means in contrast to means of the drive type. Such a boiler has a high efficiency by optimizing the combustion and the removal of the heat produced, in particular by means of the circulation of the rising air. These means are conventional turbine type.
  • However, apart from this configuration in superimposed layers to generate the flow of air, it is not possible to envisage other configurations of boilers.
  • In DE 102004051685 it has been proposed a boiler with a combustion chamber in which wood chips are automatically pushed by an endless feed screw. The fresh air required for combustion with oxygen arrives through a primary air duct under a heater grid or above into the combustion chamber. The heat released by the combustion heats the water in the heating circuit by the walls of the tank and a system of pipes with combustion gases that transmit the heat only partly through the heating circuit. A primary air-to-air heat exchanger is provided in the flue gas line above the combustion chamber. This exchanger acts as a primary air warming chamber. Inside the heat exchanger, many tubes are arranged vertically from the bottom to the lid, the combustion gases pass vertically these pipes to go to the fireplace and heat them. On the opposite side walls of the heat exchanger, there is an inlet opening for the primary air and an outlet opening for the connecting pipe for supplying the primary air necessary for combustion. The primary air passing horizontally from the inlet opening to the outlet opening is reheated in contact with the tubes containing the combustion gases. At the outlet opening, the heated primary air passes through the duct to the boiler fuel combustion chamber and a considerable improvement in the efficiency is achieved with this air supply associated with the heat. In order to access the flow capacity necessary for combustion, a fan-type unloader is arranged for the supply of primary air and the removal of the combustion gases in the flow path. An axial fan is provided which is positioned between the heat exchanger and the chimney and operates as a vacuum in the flow path of the heat exchanger and the boiler and as a pressure generator in the heat exchanger. fireplace. So here we have a boiler with two floors and therefore bulky.
  • In US 2003/0097969 is proposed an incinerator for the combustion of solid waste such as pods. This incinerator comprises a fireplace having vertically extending peripheral walls with a bottom portion defining the main combustion chamber, an intermediate section above defining an auxiliary combustion chamber, a cooling section above the intermediate section and a section high above the cooling section formed with an effluent outlet for the output of the combustion gases generated in the main and auxiliary combustion chamber. There is also a partition plate separating the two combustion chambers and forming a channel in fluid communication with both chambers. A feed unit comprising an advance motor is used to deliver the solid waste to the home. A space is arranged between the peripheral wall and a heat insulating screen extends all around the different sections with the exception of the upper part and the effluent outlet. An air outlet in fluid communication with the space is formed in the peripheral wall of the heat shield and is adjacent to the upper portion thereof. A fan is placed downstream of this air outlet and on an air duct for introducing air, via the open bottom end of the incinerator, into the space, the air outlet and into the air. dryer so that the introduced air is heated in space by the heat flow of the peripheral wall. In a dryer associated with the device, a temperature sensor is installed and generates electrical signals corresponding to the sensed temperature and is connected to a control unit that regulates the supply of solid waste from the home via the engine according to the dryer temperature. A main fan is connected to the fireplace by an air duct and delivers air to said fireplace. A solid waste support tray is disposed in the lower section of the hearth and has several holes for the passage of the ash which is fed to a low output by a wheel driven by a motor. A rake is rotatably mounted via a motor above the support plate to stir the ashes and to facilitate the fall of the latter through the holes and thus increase the combustion efficiency of the fireplace.
  • Better air circulation is essential for good solid waste combustion. The good circulation of the primary air can as described in the documents described above be obtained using fans. However, these fans are still used outside the combustion chamber or burner because indeed, it is not possible to position them inside this burner because of the heat. In general, these fans are either positioned outside the combustion chamber ( US 2003/0097969 ), is positioned above said chamber, after a heat exchanger part before the chimney ( DE 10 2004 051 685 ). Due to the temperature prevailing in the burner, these provisions avoid maintenance problems due to their exposure to high temperatures. Also, the presence of these fans generates a space requirement and also limits the rise in temperature within the burner, since these fans beyond a certain temperature threshold may be damaged even if they are outside the burner .
  • The present invention therefore aims to provide a burner in which the combustion has been optimized so that it can be fed with different types of biomass while having optimized performance characteristics while being able to be integrated within a boiler. without this one needing to present two superimposed stages. Thus, with such a burner, it is possible to produce a boiler of different architecture, particularly at the level of the exchanger.
  • In addition, the present invention is directed towards a burner in which it is possible to use a solid fuel such as biomass that it consists of cereals, sunflower or rapeseed residues, granulated beets, wood pellets, of shredded wood, etc., but which also makes it possible to use other fuels such as used tires. That is to say a burner in which the combustion temperature can be very high.
  • In order to avoid the problems related to the solid residues that may result from the combustion of certain types of biomass as mentioned above, a burner is proposed in which the combustion generates much less of these residues, in particular during the combustion of cereals, and which requires therefore less frequent cleaning.
  • To this end, the subject of the invention is a solid fuel burner such as biomass, tires, comprising a heating body consisting of a cylinder provided with solid fuel supply means and primary air intake means. as an oxidizer, said cylinder being provided in its lower part with a plate, said plate is positioned above primary air intake means, this plate provided with perforations being arranged to receive the fuel without the one it traverses it, and said burner further comprising inside said cylinder means generating a depression in the burner so as to create a primary air flow from below said plate, through it and fuel resting on it to a gas outlet duct at the top of said burner.
  • Thus, the depression generated within the burner heater by the means in the cylinder itself and therefore in the combustion chamber itself and no longer outside thereof upstream and / or downstream, as was the case in the documents mentioned above, sucks the air from the bottom of the burner through the wall provided with perforation and thus accelerate the air through the burner, transport the gas formed at the base of the cylinder by raising the temperature to the outlet tube of the burner in the upper part of said cylinder, the cylinder having a height sufficient to separate the gases from unburnt particles which can go down to the wall of the cylinder; background. There is thus obtained a considerably improved air circulation within the burner, and therefore a rise in temperature within the burner which results in an almost residue-free combustion.
  • In addition, there is provided at the bottom plate a bottom plate scraping means which also serves to level the fuel level so that air passes smoothly, scraping means playing a poker role to the surface of the fire, which accelerates it again. This scraping means is maintained at a certain height to prevent the fire from going out.
  • Preferably, the fuel supply is effected from the upper part of the burner by means of distribution means such as a rotary lock. This distribution of fuel is thus much more regular than with a worm and furthermore it has the advantage of being done without the passage of air from the outside of the burner inwards. It is thus capable of producing a metered, calibrated feed of the fuel.
  • Thus, it is possible to obtain residues of less than 1% of the fuel used. This results in a high gas production.
  • Also, according to a particularly advantageous embodiment of the invention, the means for the depression in the burner and housed in said burner cylinder are constituted by means for supplying compressed air positioned in the upper part of the burner. cylinder and creating the vacuum in the manner of a venturi effect, the means for supplying compressed air being further directed to the gas outlet tube.
  • The vacuum thus created within the burner according to the invention is advantageously much larger than a vacuum created with an outdoor fan and even larger than that obtained by the natural draft of a chimney. In addition, the compressed air brought directly into the cylinder is hot and therefore does not create any cold spots that could disrupt the operation.
  • In this way, these means for supplying compressed air are positioned so that the air of this "venturi effect" also provides the oxidant necessary for the combustion of the gases in the outlet tube of the burner. Indeed, the compressed air and the "venturi effect" generate a large thrust allowing a gas outlet in the upper part of the boiler.
  • The "Venturi effect" transforms the internal depression of the burn pot (cylinder) into pressure in the burner outlet tube in a few centimeters and without a mechanical part, using a simple nozzle. This transformation of the pressure is possible only because of the restricted space of the burner and the energy related to the compressed air. This concentration and the contribution by oxidizing at the outlet tube generate a flame at high temperature between 850 ° C and 1000 ° C depending on the fuel, which finalizes the combustion.
  • Very advantageously, the supply of compressed air is done by means of a nozzle fed by a compressor and the adjustment of the compressed air pressure is carried out simply by means of a pressure regulator, which ensures optimal combustion regardless of the fuel used.
  • This internal depression created in the burner heater ensures safety in the spread of fire, especially with respect to the fuel supply.
  • Furthermore, a burner according to the invention requires the presence of little fuel, for example 100 grams of fuel for a burner of 30 Kw. Therefore, it ensures a fast stop for easier regulation.
  • A burner according to the invention therefore proposes a rapid combustion in a very hot restricted space and with a very large air circulation. This concentration of combustion at the level of the burner alone generates a much higher heat than in a conventional boiler with a fan or natural draft that the air flow is done in depression or pressure (forced air).
  • Similarly, the output of the gas-air mixture takes acceleration and compression related to the "Venturi" effect also in a small space.
  • A burner according to the invention due to the regularity of its supply of fuel and air does not require a too complex control system, in particular not requiring complex electronic control means. The "venturi effect" occurring in the burner allows a greater air addition in a smaller space (therefore warmer) which allows pyrolysis at the burner outlet (torch effect) unlike a fan which has a higher speed. low and a larger output for the same rate.
  • According to a first particular embodiment, the burner comprises an outer casing which defines with the cylinder an annular compartment constituting means for supplying air to the primary air intake means located under the bottom plate of the burner . These air intake means simply consist of a space provided under the bottom plate of said burner into which air is supplied, said space being defined by said outer envelope extending under the cylinder. Advantageously, the air circulating in the annular compartment surrounding the cylinder is heated which, when it enters the burner, further promotes combustion.
  • In this embodiment, it can be envisaged that the burner is outside the boiler.
  • Alternatively, the space under the bottom plate constituting the primary air intake means may be defined by the cylinder itself or the boiler, air supply means opening into this space and causing the air from the bottom of the boiler. These air supply means can be concentric with the outlet tubes of the exhaust gases of the boiler so that a heat exchange occurs permitting the heating of the primary air before admission into the burner which promotes combustion and cooling the exhaust gases before they exit the boiler. This optimizes the calorie yield.
  • According to another embodiment of the invention, the air intake means also consist of a space provided under the base plate of said burner into which air is supplied, the supply means of primary air being constituted by a tube extending, preferably centrally, in the cylinder from the upper part thereof and opening under the plate of said burner by a central opening of sufficient section for the primary air. The primary air moving in this central tube within the burner is considerably warmed, which promotes combustion.
  • The invention also relates to a boiler comprising a burner according to the invention. This boiler can therefore include a central burner in "all or nothing" operation, the burner feeding being done continuously in the heating phase. Preferably, such a boiler is of the vertical cylindrical type, the burner being housed in the central high part.
  • Very advantageously, a burner according to the invention and the boiler incorporating it can use as solid fuels cereals, granular beets, wood pellets, shredded wood, rapeseed cake and the like, but also shredded tires.
  • A boiler according to the invention requires few moving parts therefore few engines and therefore low maintenance. The compressor is preferably outside the boiler, so it is not subject to temperature differences.
  • Thus, such a burner can also use the waste rapeseed (cake) resulting from the pressing rapeseed, for example to make fuel.
  • For shredded wood, a calibration is necessary because pieces of wood that are too big are detrimental to the burner's operation. This calibrator serves as a distributor in the fuel supply under reserve.
  • In the case of tires, provision is then made for the burner to have, at the level of the gas outlet tube, means for generating a flame, for example means for supplying propane or butane, which make it possible to burn the gases. during their escape of the burner, which very advantageously avoids any smell of burnt rubber. Preferably, the flame generation means are adjustable over a given range.
  • The burner according to the invention therefore makes it possible to use a solid fuel such as biomass, whatever this biomass, but also makes it possible to envisage the use of shredded used tires as a solid fuel without generating any of the disadvantages. usual especially unpleasant odors.
  • In particular, to adapt to fuels with large gas expansion such as tires, rapeseeds, a larger nozzle can provide more compressed air output of the burner without increasing the vacuum within said burner. Consequently, such a nozzle makes it possible to burn off the excess gas generated without modifying the depression in the burner, in particular in the lower part of the latter, the circulation of the air is thus not modified.
  • Such a burner makes it possible to have an inverted gas-water flow (exit of the burner gases in the highest part of the boiler - output of the gases cooled in the lower part therefore at the arrival of colder water).
  • In addition, when shut down the boiler has a hot air balloon effect, the hot gases can not escape. Convection can not be done in the chimney, the losses are considerably reduced.
  • In addition, a burner according to the invention can also be arranged so as to be positioned on a conventional boiler door type fuel or wood so as to transform it. It will then preferably have a small capacity of about 10 to 15 Kw.
  • The invention will now be described in more detail with reference to the drawing in which:
    • The figure 1 is a longitudinal sectional view of a first embodiment of a burner according to the invention;
    • The figure 2 represents a sectional view of the burner of the figure 1 at line AA;
    • The figure 3 represents a longitudinal sectional view of an example of a boiler with a burner according to the figure 1 ;
    • The figure 4 is a longitudinal sectional view of another example of a boiler with a burner according to the figure 1 ;
    • The figure 5 is a longitudinal sectional view of a second embodiment of a burner according to the invention;
    • The figure 6 represents a sectional view of a portion of another example of a boiler with a burner according to the figure 5 ;
    • The figure 7 represents a sectional view of the boiler along the section line BB;
    • The figure 8 represents a sectional view of a burner according to the invention positioned on a conventional boiler; and
    • The figure 9 represents a sectional view of the figure 8 .
  • The burner according to the invention comprises a cylinder 1 made of refractory material such as refractory stainless steel and an outer shell la. This refractory stainless steel has the advantage of having a small thickness. The caloric mass is therefore less important and thus the heating up for good combustion conditions can be done more quickly than with a refractory material of larger mass.
  • In the upper wall 1b closing the cylinder 1 is provided a fuel supply opening. Through this opening engages a fuel supply tube 5 connected to a fuel reserve 6a via a rotary valve 6 which regularly ensures the fuel supply of the burner. The configuration of the lock, reserve and tube 5 allows the regularity of supply and even "dose, calibrate" this supply. The lock can be linear or cylindrical but it must especially never let air.
  • The cylinder 1 further comprises a bottom wall 3 provided with perforations whose dimensions and perforations are chosen according to the power of the burner. In particular, this bottom wall 3 constituting the bottom plate does not allow the fuel to pass but can let air through. This perforated bottom wall 3, for example a grid, is preferably made of a refractory steel sheet.
  • The cylinder 1 of the burner is surrounded by an outer casing extending parallel to said cylinder 1 and extending in the lower part thereof substantially in conical form.
  • The burner further comprises primary air intake means in the cylinder 1 or heating body. These air intake means 13 are positioned in the lower part of the burner below the bottom wall 3. The air is brought to the level of the intake means 13 constituted by the conical space defined between the wall 3 and the outer casing surrounding the cylinder and from the top of the burner, and therefore the boiler (see figure 3 ), via the annular compartment 1c formed between the cylinder 1 and said outer shell 1a.
  • The burner further comprises means for generating a depression within said burner, these means consist of compressed air distribution means 2 positioned in the upper part of the cylinder 1 of the burner.
  • This supply of compressed air generates a venturi effect in the upper part of the cylinder 1 which is thus put under vacuum.
  • Due to the depression created in the cylinder 1, the bottom wall provided with perforations 3 plays the role of a combustion nozzle, the air opening below being sucked by the depression prevailing in the cylinder 1 and through the fuel resting on it. The burner thus operates substantially in the manner of a forge.
  • Due to this depression, the gases formed at the base by the rise in temperature, rise up to the venturi effect V generated in the upper part of the cylinder 1 to the outlet tube 4 of the burner while the The air of this venturi effect provides the oxidant necessary for combustion in the outlet tube 4 of the burner.
  • Within the cylinder 1, there is also provided a shaft 8, preferably tubular, which extends through the upper wall of the cylinder 1 towards the combustion nozzle 3. This shaft 8 can be rotated simultaneously with the rotary sluice 6, while its free end in the lower part of the cylinder 1 is provided with scraper means 9 or scraper which allows the fuel to spread evenly in the lower part of the cylinder 1 on the bottom wall 3 .
  • This scraper 9 makes it possible to level the fuel so that the air passing through the bottom wall 3 passes through the same thickness of fuel so that the fire is even over the entire surface of the burner.
  • This shaft 8 further comprises, in its upper outer part to the cylinder 1, an air inlet port 8a, optionally output at the bottom. The incoming air allows the cooling of the shaft 8.
  • Secondary air intake means in the form of a tube 11 extending parallel to said shaft 8 and connected to the primary air supply means 1c are also provided. This tube 11 opens into the upper part of the cylinder 1 and ensures the continuity of the flame in the upper part of the burner, at the level of the venturi effect.
  • On the side of the burner in the compartment 1c, an electrical resistance inserted in a ceramic is housed in a tube 14 and ensures ignition of the fuel in the bottom of the burner. An air supply lower than in operating mode is expected the time of ignition. The air passing between the burn pot (cylinder 1) and the outer casing 1a of the burner heats up for better combustion. This air has an adjustable flow rate to be able to differentiate the pre-combustion-gasification of the post-combustion (more air to the "venturi effect" generates more depression).
  • When wood or sunflower is used as fuel, combustion residues consisting solely of light ash are also sucked by the venturi effect and expelled from the burner through the outlet tube 4 with the gases. This outlet tube 4 in which the pyrolysis is carried out must be of sufficient length so that all the particles and the tar are raised in temperature in order to burn them, in particular with a view to meeting the standards in force.
  • The gases at the exit of the burner (represented by the black arrows on the figure 3 ) are projected (cyclone effect) so as to turn around the burner so that the particles are projected on the inner face 15a of a wall 15 of the boiler defining with the outer wall 18 of said boiler a compartment E in which s' flows (white arrows) water heating by heat exchange with the gases. The gases are then taken up in the lower part at the outlets 16 formed in the center, so once they are less hot and without particles. Ashes descend by gravitation to a drawer 17 at the bottom of the boiler.
  • In the case of fuel such as wheat, the ashes are found on the bottom plate or nozzle 3 in the manner of clinker. In order to allow the cleaning of the burner, translation drive means of the shaft 8 are provided so as to lower the scraper means 9 from its fuel mixer position to a position of contact with the combustion nozzle 3 so that the scraping means 9 is then used to grind the residues to pass through the perforations of the nozzle 3 in the ashtray.
  • These drive means may in particular consist of a cylinder, preferably pneumatic.
  • In the center of the drawer 17 formed in the bottom of the boiler to collect the ash, there is provided a closure means 19 which obstructs the outlet of the residues in the form of clinker. When the drawer 17 is taken out, this "clinker" falls into the ashes.
  • When the fuel used consists of tire residues, the resulting metal parts accumulate on the bottom wall 3. This bottom wall 3 is then preferably arranged to rotate by 90 ° (shown in dashed line at the bottom). figure 1 ) around an axis so that the metal waste falls into the ashtray 17.
  • In the boiler example shown in figure 4 , the means for supplying primary air to the lower part of the burner are formed in the lower part of the boiler and consist of a concentric tube 20 to the gas outlets 16 which allows to heat the primary air while cooling the exhaust gas before leaving the boiler. This tube 20 opens into the lower part of the cylinder 1 substantially of conical shape, under the bottom plate 3, constituting the primary air intake means. The burner shown in the boiler of the figure 4 therefore does not have an outer casing defining an air supply compartment. For the sake of clarity some elements of the burner of the figure 1 such as, the secondary air intake means are not represented at figures 3 and 4 but can of course be present.
  • As for the burner of the figure 1 , the burner shown in figure 5 comprises a cylinder 1 '. In the upper wall 1'b closing the cylinder 1 is provided a fuel supply opening. Through this opening engages a fuel supply tube 5 connected to a fuel reserve 6a via a rotary valve 6 which regularly ensures the fuel supply of the burner. Lock 6 can be linear or cylindrical, but above all it must never let air in.
  • The cylinder 1 'further comprises a plate or bottom grid 3' having substantially the same characteristics as previously described.
  • The burner 1 'also comprises means for generating a vacuum within said burner, these means consist of compressed air distribution means 2' positioned in the upper part of the burner.
  • This supply of compressed air generates a venturi effect V in the upper part of the cylinder 1 'which is thus put in depression.
  • Due to the depression created in the cylinder 1 ', the bottom wall provided with perforations 3' plays the role of a combustion nozzle, the air opening below being sucked by the depression prevailing in the cylinder 1 'and passes through the fuel resting on it. The burner thus operates substantially in the manner of a forge.
  • Due to this depression, the gases formed at the base by the rise in temperature, rise up to the venturi effect V generated in the upper part of the cylinder 1 'to the outlet tube 4' of the burner while that the air of this venturi effect V provides the oxidant necessary for combustion in the outlet tube 4 'of the burner.
  • The burner further comprises primary air intake means in the cylinder 1 'or heating body. These air intake means 13 'consist of a space formed under the plate or grid 3'. The means for supplying primary air to said air intake means are constituted by a tube 130 extending in the cylinder 1 'from the upper wall 1'b thereof and opening under the grid 3' in space 13 '. In this way, the primary air circulating in the tube 130 is heated to the heart of the cylinder 1 and opens into the space 13 'considerably heated, which promotes combustion.
  • Also provided within the cylinder 1 ', a shaft 8', preferably tubular, which extends through the upper wall of the cylinder 1 'in the tube 130 to the combustion nozzle 3. This shaft 8' is drivable in rotation simultaneously with the rotary lock 6, while its free end in the lower part of the cylinder 1 'carries the gate 3' which, as a result, is also rotated at a speed identical to that of the fuel supply 6 so that the fuel is distributed very evenly thereon. The shaft 8 'extending into said tube 130, the air intake is thus also less hot. This shaft 8 'rotates the grid 3' which is thus drivable in rotation
  • Scraper means 9 'or scraper is rotatably mounted in the cylinder 1' so that the rotation of the grid 3 'with respect to said scraper 9' allows the fuel to be spread evenly in the lower part. of the cylinder 1 'on said bottom wall 3'.
  • This scraper 9 'allows to level the fuel so that the air passing through the bottom wall 3' passes through the same thickness of fuel so that the fire is even over the entire surface of the burner.
  • The grid 3 'preferably has a diameter substantially corresponding to the internal diameter of the cylinder 1 while the space 13' formed under the grid 3 'has a larger diameter. Preferably, the grid 3 'is lowerable in said space 13' thus releasing the periphery of the grid 3 '.
  • When the grid 3 'is lowered, the scraper 9' is also lowered with a greater amplitude so that it abuts against said grid 3 ', scraping position thereof. The rotation of the grid 3 'allows the scraper 9' fixed in rotation but inclined relative to the axis of rotation of the grid 3 ', to scrape said grid 3' which rotates and to evacuate the residues then eliminated at the periphery of the grid 3 'and falling in the space 13'.
  • The bottom 23 of the space 13 'is pivotally mounted about an axis 24 so as to open when the shaft 8' which rests against said bottom 23 is lowered to lower the gate 3 '. In this way, the residues falling in the space 13 'are evacuated by gravity in an ash drawer of the boiler formed under said space 13'.
  • This lowering of the shaft 8 ', the grid 3' and the scraper 9 'can be implemented using remote axes. This shaft 8 'has in fact, in its upper outer part to the cylinder 1', an axis 21 extending transversely to said shaft 8 '. This axis 21 is pivotally mounted at one end 21a, which is lower than a pivot point 21b of this axis 21 on the shaft 8 'itself lower than the opposite end 21c of the axis 21 mounted at the end of the rod of a cylinder 22, preferably pneumatic and connected to the compressor means for admission of compressed air. The wiper 9 'is, meanwhile, carried by a shaft 9a' extending parallel to the shaft 8 'and whose end is pivotally mounted at 21d on the axis 21 adjacent the end 21c.
  • When the cylinder 22 is actuated, the rod 22a of said cylinder 22 pushes the shaft 21 and thus lowers the shaft 9a 'which carries the scraper 9' and the shaft 8 ', the scraper 9' being lowered with a greater amplitude. great because of the realized structure.
  • Secondary air intake means in the form of a tube 11 'connected to the primary air supply means 130 are also provided. This tube 11 'opens into the upper part of the cylinder 1'et ensures the continuity of the flame in the upper part of the burner, at the level of the venturi V.
  • On the side of the burner, an electrical resistance inserted in a ceramic is housed in a tube 14 'and ensures ignition of the fuel in the bottom of the burner. An air supply lower than in operating mode is expected the time of ignition. Air is propelled around this resistance and comes from a jet of compressed air timed by a solenoid valve.
  • A boiler equipped with such a burner is shown in Figures 6 and 7 . The gases at the exit of the burner are projected from an outlet tube 4 'of the curved gases (cyclone effect) so as to turn around the burner so that the particles are projected on the inner face 50a of a wall 50 of the boiler defining with an outer wall 60 of said boiler a compartment E in which flows the water heating by heat exchange with the gases (1 st floor). The gases are then taken up in the lower part, so once they are less hot and without particles, by a gas outlet 40.
  • The boiler further comprises a second heating stage 30 of the heating return water (black arrows) with the cooled gases of the first stage.
  • This gas outlet 40, T-shaped, allows to take colder gas in the lower part of the main body of the boiler. The vertical part 41 of the T makes it possible to cool the colder gases with water at a lower temperature. This gas outlet 40 T-shaped separates any particles from combustion.
  • A cleaning pad allows to evacuate the residues and to channel the condensation at low temperature. The inlet end 42 of the outlet tube 40 of the gases in the lower part of the main body is cut in a bevel so as not to cause descending particles in the exhaust duct 41. A tube 31 makes it possible to take up the water in the upper part of the second heating body and inject it into the lower part of the main body on the other side of the partition 50.
  • To the Figures 8 and 9 a burner 1 "according to the invention is shown which is arranged to be positioned on the door P of a boiler of conventional type, such a burner 1" is fed with fuel using a lock 6 "provided with a hopper 6a "positioned in the boiler and by a connected tube 5" inclined to the burner 1 "through the door P. A deflector 5a" positioned at the end of the tube 5 "allows a distribution on the bottom plate 3 "Burner 1".
  • The tube 14 "enclosing the ignition resistor is arranged horizontally, while the primary air intake means 13" consist of a space under the bottom plate 3 ", provided with a bottom 23. ".
  • The primary air supply means 130 "consist of a chamber formed between the boiler door and the burner 1" so that this air is heated before entering the intake means 13 ". secondary air intake means in the form of a tube 11 "connected to the primary air supply means 130", are also provided.This tube 11 "opens into the cylinder 1" and ensures the continuity of the flame in the upper part of the burner, at the venturi effect V generated by compressed air distribution means 2 "positioned in the upper part of the burner at the gas outlet tube 4".
  • Naturally, the invention is not limited to the exemplary embodiments given but also encompasses all the variants falling within the scope of protection defined by the claims.

Claims (22)

  1. A burner for solid fuel such as biomass, or tyres, that comprises a heating body in the shape of a cylinder (1, 1', 1") provided with solid fuel supply means and means for the inlet of primary air (13, 13', 13") as the oxidant, with said cylinder (1, 1', 1") being provided with a plate (3, 3', 3") in its lower part, wherein said plate is positioned above the means for the inlet of primary air (13, 13', 13"), with said plate (3, 3', 3") having through holes and being so arranged as to receive the fuel without the fuel flowing therethrough, and said burner further comprising inside said cylinder (1, 1', 1") means generating a negative pressure within the burner so as to generate a primary air circulation from the underside of the plate (3, 3', 3"), and through said plate and the fuel resting thereon up to a gas outlet duct (4, 4', 4") in the upper portion of said burner, and wherein the means for generating a negative pressure within the burner consist of means for the inlet of compressed air (2, 2', 2") positioned in the upper part of the cylinder (1, 1', 1") of the burner and generating a venturi effect creating the negative pressure.
  2. A burner according to claim 1, wherein the means for the inlet of compressed air (2, 2', 2") are so positioned that the air of such venturi effect also provides the oxidant required for combustion in a gas outlet duct (4, 4', 4") of the burner.
  3. A burner according to one of claims 1 or 2, wherein the means for regularly supplying solid fuel consist of a feed tube (5, 5', 5") engaging through an opening provided in the cylinder (1) and connected to a fuel tank (6a, 6a') via a rotary feeder (6, 6") which regularly supplies fuel to the burner.
  4. A burner according to one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the means for the inlet of air consist of a spacer (13, 13', 13") provided under the bottom plate (3, 3', 3") of said burner wherein air is supplied.
  5. A burner according to one of claims 1 to 4, which comprises bottom plate (3, 3') scraping means which are also used to even the level of the fuel so that air can regularly flow therethrough.
  6. A burner according to claim 5, which comprises within the cylinder (1) a tubular shaft (8), which extends through the upper wall of the cylinder (1) towards the bottom wall (3), and such shaft (8) can be rotationally driven at its end outside the cylinder (1) whereas its free end in the lower part of the cylinder (1) is provided with scraping means (9).
  7. A burner according to claim 6, which comprises means for driving the shaft (8) in translation so as to lower the scraping means (9) from the fuel spreading position thereof to a position of contact with the plate (3) so that the scraping means (9) is then used for grinding residues on the nozzle (3) so as to make these pass through the through-holes of the nozzle (3).
  8. A burner according to claim 7, which comprises within the cylinder (1) a tubular shaft (8') which extends through the upper wall of the cylinder (1) towards the bottom wall (3), and such shaft (8') can be rotationally driven at its end outside the cylinder (1) whereas its free end carries the bottom plate (3') which is thus rotated with said shaft (8'), with the scraping means (9') being mounted so as not to rotate in the cylinder (11).
  9. A burner according to claim 8, wherein the bottom plate (3') has a diameter substantially matching the internal diameter of the cylinder (1') whereas the spacer (13') constituting the means for the inlet of air, provided under said bottom plate (3') has a larger diameter.
  10. A burner according to one of claims 8 or 9, which comprises means for driving the shaft (8') in translation so as to lower the bottom plate (3') in the spacer (13'), thus freeing the periphery of the plate (3'), the scraping means (9') also being lowered with a greater amplitude so that these abut against said bottom plate (3'), in the scraping position thereof.
  11. A burner according to claim 10, wherein the bottom (23) of the spacer (13') is so mounted as to pivot about an axis (24) so as to open when the shaft (8') which is integral with said base (23) is lowered to lower the bottom plate (3') and to close when the shaft (8') is raised.
  12. A burner according to one of claims 10 or 11, wherein the shaft (8') comprises, in its upper part outside the cylinder (1'), an axis (21) extending transversely to said shaft (8'), with such axis (21) being pivotally mounted at one end (21a), which is positioned at a lower position than a pivot point (21b) of said axis (21) on the shaft (8') which is in turn positioned lower than the opposite end (21c) of the shaft (21) mounted at the end of the rod (22a) of a pneumatic jack (22), with the scraping means (9') being carried by a shaft (9a') which extends parallel to the shaft (8'), the end of which is mounted to pivot at (21d) on the shaft (21) close to the end (21c).
  13. A burner according to one of the preceding claims, wherein the means for the inlet of primary air (130) consist of a tube extending centrally, in the cylinder (1') through the upper wall (1b') thereof and opening under the plate (3') of said burner through a central opening having a cross-section sufficient for the primary air.
  14. A burner according to claim 13, wherein the tube (130) is concentric with the shaft (8') and surrounds the latter.
  15. A burner according to one of claims 1 to 14, which further comprises an outer shell defining with the cylinder an annular chamber wherein primary air is supplied up to the means for the inlet of air (13).
  16. A burner according to one of claims 6 to 15, wherein the rotational driving of the shaft (8, 8') is provided simultaneously with the rotary feeder (6).
  17. A burner according to one of claims 6 to 15, wherein means for the inlet of secondary air consisting of a tube (11) connected to the means for the supply and/or the inlet of primary air extend in the cylinder (1) and open into the upper part of the cylinder (1) so as to ensure the continuity of the flame in the upper part of the burner, at the venturi effect level.
  18. A burner according to one of claims 1 to 17, wherein means for generating a flame, such as means for distributing a gas such as propane, butane, are provided in the outlet tube (4).
  19. A boiler for solid fuel such as biomass, which comprises at least one burner according to one of claims 1 to 18.
  20. A boiler according to Claim 19, wherein the means for the inlet of primary air from the boiler to the lower part of the burner are arranged in the lower part of the boiler and consist of a tube (20) concentric with gas outlets (16), which makes it possible to heat the primary air and to cool the outlet gases.
  21. A boiler according to Claim 19, which comprises a second stage (30) for heating return water from the heating, with the cooled gas of the first stage, a T-shaped gas outlet (40), making it possible to take cooler gases from the lower part of the main body of the boiler whereas the vertical portion (41) of the T makes it possible to cool the cooler gases with water at a lower temperature, a tube (31) making it possible to take water from the upper part of the second heating body and to inject it into the lower part of the main body on the other side of a partition (50) of the first stage of the boiler.
  22. A boiler of a conventional type using fuel or wood, according to one of claims 1 to 18, which comprises a burner so arranged as to be positioned on the door P of the boiler of a conventional type.
EP07866460.4A 2006-10-27 2007-10-29 Boiler burner for solid fuels of the biomass or tyre type and boiler comprising such burner Expired - Fee Related EP2084454B1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FR0609469A FR2907881B1 (en) 2006-10-27 2006-10-27 BURNER FOR SOLID FUEL BOILER OF BIOMASS TYPE, TIRE AND BOILER COMPRISING SUCH A BURNER
PCT/FR2007/001789 WO2008059131A2 (en) 2006-10-27 2007-10-29 Boiler burner for solid fuels of the biomass or tyre type and boiler comprising such burner

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP2084454A2 EP2084454A2 (en) 2009-08-05
EP2084454B1 true EP2084454B1 (en) 2016-03-09

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EP07866460.4A Expired - Fee Related EP2084454B1 (en) 2006-10-27 2007-10-29 Boiler burner for solid fuels of the biomass or tyre type and boiler comprising such burner

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US (1) US20100132596A1 (en)
EP (1) EP2084454B1 (en)
CA (1) CA2681615A1 (en)
FR (1) FR2907881B1 (en)
WO (1) WO2008059131A2 (en)

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US8640633B2 (en) 2008-08-15 2014-02-04 Wayne/Scott Fetzer Company Biomass fuel furnace system and related methods
WO2013148885A1 (en) * 2012-03-27 2013-10-03 Higgins Daniel R Method and apparatus for improved firing of biomass and other solid fuels for steam production and gasification
ES2432475B1 (en) * 2012-05-31 2014-11-18 Jose Enrique MORATALLA MARTINEZ Biomass boiler for multiple fuels
US20200040268A1 (en) * 2013-01-28 2020-02-06 Aries Gasification, Llc Method for Gasifying Feedstock with High Yield Production of Biochar
US8721748B1 (en) * 2013-01-28 2014-05-13 PHG Energy, LLC Device with dilated oxidation zone for gasifying feedstock
EP3153774B1 (en) * 2014-06-06 2019-07-17 Ikerlan, S. Coop Gas generator suitable for cogeneration systems, especially stirling cogeneration systems
ES2575121B1 (en) * 2014-12-23 2017-04-11 Efilume, S.L. Self-cleaning burner
CN104893757A (en) * 2015-05-10 2015-09-09 李东田 Large-scale biomass vaporizing furnace

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US3543700A (en) * 1969-07-07 1970-12-01 Environmental Control Products Air purifying incinerator apparatus
FR2082802A5 (en) * 1970-03-26 1971-12-10 Lemer & Cie
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Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
FR2907881A1 (en) 2008-05-02
WO2008059131A3 (en) 2008-07-03
EP2084454A2 (en) 2009-08-05
WO2008059131A2 (en) 2008-05-22
CA2681615A1 (en) 2008-05-22
FR2907881B1 (en) 2017-11-03
US20100132596A1 (en) 2010-06-03

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