EP1964140B1 - Load isolation circuit for the deenergized connection and isolation of electrical contacts - Google Patents

Load isolation circuit for the deenergized connection and isolation of electrical contacts Download PDF

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Publication number
EP1964140B1
EP1964140B1 EP20060793300 EP06793300A EP1964140B1 EP 1964140 B1 EP1964140 B1 EP 1964140B1 EP 20060793300 EP20060793300 EP 20060793300 EP 06793300 A EP06793300 A EP 06793300A EP 1964140 B1 EP1964140 B1 EP 1964140B1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
contact
switching element
semiconductor switching
switch
electrical
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Fee Related
Application number
EP20060793300
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
EP1964140A1 (en
Inventor
Jalal Hallak
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Siemens AG
Original Assignee
Siemens AG
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE200510061532 priority Critical patent/DE102005061532B4/en
Application filed by Siemens AG filed Critical Siemens AG
Priority to PCT/EP2006/066102 priority patent/WO2007073951A1/en
Publication of EP1964140A1 publication Critical patent/EP1964140A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP1964140B1 publication Critical patent/EP1964140B1/en
Application status is Expired - Fee Related legal-status Critical
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01HELECTRIC SWITCHES; RELAYS; SELECTORS; EMERGENCY PROTECTIVE DEVICES
    • H01H9/00Details of switching devices, not covered by groups H01H1/00 - H01H7/00
    • H01H9/54Circuit arrangements not adapted to a particular application of the switching device and for which no provision exists elsewhere
    • H01H9/541Contacts shunted by semiconductor devices
    • H01H9/542Contacts shunted by static switch means

Description

  • The invention relates to a load-disconnecting circuit, which comprises a plug connection with at least one electrical contact for the currentless connection and disconnection of an electrical device and a DC power source, wherein a semiconductor switching element is arranged in series with the at least one electrical contact.
  • In electrical connections of particular DC power sources with other electrical equipment, it may occur at a separation of a contact under load to form an arc. In this case, often occur damage to the contact elements up to the welding of the contact. For electrical contacts, which are to be separable under load, it is therefore usually an over-dimensioning, whereby possible damage to the contact elements are reduced by the arcing. The danger for persons remains however.
  • There are therefore various systems known to switch off electrical contacts before connecting or disconnecting. This is how the DE 22 53 975 A1 a load disconnecting circuit for connecting and disconnecting by means of a main contact. In this case, a controller is provided, which controls a semiconductor switching element in response to the switching state of an auxiliary contact. The semiconductor switching element is turned on before closing the main contact and turned off after opening the main contact.
  • From the US 4,772,809 A For example, a load disconnecting circuit is known which comprises a semiconductor switch arranged with a relay switch in series with a load and a power supply.
  • The DE 198 38 492 A1 describes a connector assembly for connecting a power source to a consumer, wherein between the power source and consumer, a switching device is arranged, the control current is also connected via the connector. In this case, the contacts for the main circuits accelerate, while the contacts for the control current lag, so that the main circuits are already closed before the control circuit is turned on. This prevents current flow in the main circuits when connecting or disconnecting the main circuit contacts. For the connection of, for example, photovoltaic generators to inverters, this arrangement is not suitable because the losses occurring at the transistor circuit deteriorate the efficiency.
  • Another way to separate a power source under load from an electrical device describes the DE 102 25 259 B3 , In this case, designed as a load disconnector electrical connector is specified, with which an arc should be avoided or at least reduced. This is achieved by a leading in a Aussteckvorgang main contact and a parallel-connected trailing auxiliary contact, so that when unplugging the connector of the main contact first and the auxiliary contact last are separated from its mating connector and connected in series with the auxiliary contact semiconductor switching element for arc avoidance or arc extinguishing , In this case, the semiconductor switching element is pulsed, so that it is at least once opened during the Aussteckvorgangs between a contact separation of the main contact and the auxiliary contact and prevents or at least reduced an arc.
  • For a proper function is a precise tuning of the clock frequency of the semiconductor element with the possible Time required during a removal process. In addition, due to the pulsed activation of the semiconductor element, a developing arc is always erased, but not completely avoided. The contact is thus not de-energized, which continues to pose a risk to persons.
  • The invention is therefore an object of the invention to provide a comparison with the prior art improved solution for separating and connecting an electrical contact.
  • This object is achieved by a load-disconnect circuit of the type mentioned, in which a switch is arranged parallel to the semiconductor switching element, which comprises a main contact and an auxiliary contact, wherein the main contact and the auxiliary contact are coupled in such a way that the switching state of the auxiliary contact before a closing and after opening the main contact changes and wherein a controller is provided which turns on the semiconductor switching element in response to the switching state of the auxiliary contact before closing the main contact and switches off after opening the main contact.
  • By this circuit, the power is completely turned off during a connecting or disconnecting operation of the electrical contact, so that arcing is securely prevented. In addition, the main contact is switched without power, which extends the life of the switch considerably. In this case, the load current flows through the semiconductor switching element only during the connection or disconnection process, this time being determined by the delay between the switching times of the auxiliary contact and the main contact. This delay time results from the design of the switch, the operation of which can be done either manually or electromagnetically via a relay. The switching position of the auxiliary contact is polled by the controller and leads to switching on and off of the semiconductor switching element.
  • When the electrical contact is connected and the switch is switched on, the load current flows exclusively via the main contact of the switch, because the electrical resistance of the semiconductor switching element, which is arranged parallel thereto and continues to be switched on, is greater. Accordingly, there are no undesirable losses on the semiconductor switching element, which in addition only has to be dimensioned so large that it withstands the load current during the delay time between the switching times of the auxiliary contact and the main contact plus a safety value.
  • Furthermore, the invention provides that the at least one electrical contact is secured by a mechanical locking device and that the mechanical locking device is coupled to the switch in such a way that a separation of the at least one electrical contact is possible only after the opening of the main contact and that Connecting the at least one electrical contact is possible only when the main contact is open. This will prevent people from performing the join or disconnect operation incorrectly.
  • In addition, according to the invention, the contact of a relay is arranged in series with the semiconductor switching element, and the coil of the relay is connected to the controller, so that the contact of the relay is closed before switching on the semiconductor switching element and opened after switching off the semiconductor switching element. The current is safely switched off by the galvanic isolation. The operation of the relay takes place by means of control in a connection operation before switching on the semiconductor switching element and in a separation process after switching off the power semiconductor.
  • For the formation of the main contact and the auxiliary contact in a switch, it is advantageous if a contact element of the main contact and a contact element of the auxiliary contact are coupled to an actuating element of the switch. The contact elements can be arranged fixed or movable relative to each other, resulting in the switching path of the actuating element, the delay times between the switching times of the main contact and the auxiliary contact.
  • As a mechanical locking device for securing the at least one electrical contact then, for example, the switch can be designed so that the actuating element of the switch shields the at least one electrical contact with the main contact closed and / or fixed and so the electrical contact can not be disconnected or connected. The at least one electrical contact is conveniently formed as a plug and / or screw in the manner and held by the actuator of the switch, that a separation of the contact is prevented by a train on a cable connected to the contact.
  • It is advantageous if a resistor is arranged in series with the semiconductor switching element. This resistance acts in addition to the electrical resistance of the semiconductor switching element and prevents current flows through the semiconductor switching element when the main contact is closed.
  • In order to prevent a failure (eg, alloying out) of the semiconductor switching element that continues to flow through the electrical contact to be separated current, it is advantageous if an electrical fuse is arranged in series with the semiconductor switching element. This fuse is designed as a slow fuse that only triggers when the load current flows longer than the time provided for switching off the semiconductor switching element delay time. As polarity reversal protection, it is also advantageous if a diode is arranged in series with the semiconductor switching element. As a result, the blocking diode prevents current flowing to an electrical device in the case of a current source connected with reversed poles.
  • Due to the low losses in connected electrical contact and closed main contact, the load disconnect circuit according to the invention is advantageously suitable for systems in which the DC power source is designed as a DC generator, in particular as a photovoltaic generator and the electrical device as an inverter. Such systems require a solution for load separation without arcing when exposed to sunlight illuminated solar panels must be disconnected from the inverter. In addition, a high degree of efficiency is required for economical operation of photovoltaic systems. This is ensured by the intended for continuous operation contacting the main contact, whose electrical resistance is much lower than that of the semiconductor switch.
  • The invention will now be described by way of example with reference to the accompanying drawings. In a schematic representation:
  • Fig. 1:
    Electroless load disconnecting circuit when connecting electrical contacts
    Fig. 2:
    Load disconnecting circuit with current during the switch-on
    3:
    Load-disconnecting circuit with current profile in continuous operation
    4:
    Load disconnecting circuit with current during the first switch-off step
    Fig. 5:
    Load separation circuit with current during the second Ausschaltungsvorgang step
    Fig. 6:
    Load disconnecting circuit with switched off current
    Fig. 7:
    Load isolation circuit with additional diode as polarity reversal protection and additional relay for galvanic isolation
    Fig. 8:
    Time course of current and control signal when switching on
    Fig. 9:
    Time course of current and control signal when switching off
  • In FIG. 1 a possible circuit variant for a load-disconnecting circuit according to the invention for connecting a photovoltaic generator 9 to an inverter 10 is shown. The electrical contacts 1 are connected in such a way that the positive pole are connected directly to the inverter 10 and the negative pole to the inverter 10 via the elements of the load-disconnecting circuit.
  • The elements of the load disconnecting circuit form a switch 3 with a main contact 4 and an auxiliary contact 5 coupled thereto and a semiconductor switching element 2 arranged parallel thereto. In series with the semiconductor switching element 2, a resistor 7 and an electrical fuse 8 can be arranged. In addition, a controller 6 is provided which reads out the switching state of the auxiliary contact 5 via a control circuit. The switch 3 may for example be designed so that the main contact 4 acts as a make contact and the auxiliary contact 5 as an opener. When the main contact 4 is fully open, the auxiliary contact 5 is then closed, as in FIG FIG. 1 shown. Upon actuation of the switch 3 opens the auxiliary contact 5 and after a delay time resulting from the switching path of the switch 3, the main contact closes 4. The control circuit with the auxiliary contact 5 is then, for example, switched so that when open auxiliary contact 5, a control voltage U K is applied to the controller 6. At the output of the controller, the gate voltage U G of the semiconductor switching element 2 is applied, which is designed for example as an N-channel MOSFET with freewheeling diode. As soon as the electrical contacts 1 of the photovoltaic generator 9 are connected, a voltage U T is applied to the semiconductor switching element 2.
  • In FIG. 2 the same circuit with actuated switch 3 is shown. The switch 3 is in a middle position, in which the auxiliary contact 5 is already open, but the main contact 4 is not yet closed. The current then passes through the semiconductor switching element 2, which is switched on from the opening time of the auxiliary contact 5.
  • Upon further actuation of the switch 3, the main contact 4 closes, as in FIG. 3 shown. Due to the comparison with the semiconductor switching element 2 lower electrical resistance of the current now runs exclusively on this closed main contact. 4 Thus the condition of the continuous operation is reached. The semiconductor switching element 2 remains switched on during this time.
  • In the case of a separation of the photovoltaic generator 9 from the inverter 10, the switch 3 must first be actuated again before the electrical contacts 1 can be released. Compliance with this condition can be achieved either by a clear marking or advantageously by a corresponding mechanical safety device, for example by the shielding and fixing of the electrical contacts 1 by means of an actuating element of the switch 3. As in FIG. 4 shown, so the switch 3 is first operated. The main contact 4 opens and during the switching time are thus both contacts 4, 5 of the switch 3 open. The load current commutates from the load-free open main contact 4 to the still switched semiconductor switching element 2. The load-free opening of the main contact while the formation of an arc is excluded.
  • Upon further actuation of the switch 3 closes the auxiliary contact 5, as in FIG. 5 shown. Thereafter, the controller 6 turns off the semiconductor switching element 2. Depending on the design of the switch 3, the shutdown of the semiconductor switching element 2 can also be done in other ways. If, for example, the auxiliary contact 5 is formed as a changeover switch (dotted lines), the controller 6 can be given a time period after which the semiconductor switching element 2 is switched off when the changeover switch is actuated.
  • In FIG. 6 the load-disconnecting circuit is shown with switched off semiconductor switching element 2, in which now the electrical contacts 1 can be disconnected without arcing without current.
  • In the FIG. 7 shown load-separation circuit is formed with additional protection elements. In series with the semiconductor switching element 2, a diode D is provided as polarity reversal protection. A relay 11 is arranged in the manner for electrical isolation, that the coil is connected to the controller 6. Of the two contacts of the relay 11, one is arranged in series with the semiconductor switching element 2 and one in the connecting line of the positive pole of the photovoltaic generator 9 and the inverter 10. Depending on the safety requirements, a relay 11 with only one contact can also be provided. The operation of the relay 11 is effected by means of control 6 in a connection operation before switching on the semiconductor switching element 2 and in a separation process after switching off the semiconductor switching element. 2
  • In FIG. 8 the course of the currents and voltages during a connection operation of electrical contacts 1 is shown. First, the main contact 4 of the switch 3 is open and the semiconductor switching element 2 is turned off, as in FIG. 1 shown. The auxiliary contact 5 of the switch 3 is closed, so that no control voltage U K and no gate voltage U G are present.
  • The first step of the connection process consists in the currentless connection of the electrical contacts 1. During the connection time a, the voltage U T at the semiconductor switching element 2 increases. It then elapses a period of time b until the switch 3 is actuated.
  • Upon actuation of the switch 3, the auxiliary contact 5 opens first and the control voltage U K builds up on the control 6, which is switched by the controller 6 as a gate voltage U G to the semiconductor switching element 2. Thus, the semiconductor switching element 2 is turned on and it begins to flow a current I T , while the voltage U T on the semiconductor switching element 2 goes to zero.
  • Until the closing of the main contact 4, the delay time c, which is defined by the switching path of the switch 3, elapses. During the closing time d, the current I T through the semiconductor switching element 2 decreases and the current I S through the main contact 4 of the switch 3 increases until the load current flows only through the main contact 4. Thus, the steady state condition is reached.
  • A separation process of the electrical contacts 1 is initiated with the actuation of the switch 3. The corresponding curves of the currents and voltages are in FIG. 9 shown.
  • The main contact 4 of the switch 3 opens. The current I S through the main contact 4 decreases during an opening time e and the current I T through the semiconductor switching element 2 increases until the load current only flows through the semiconductor switching element 2. After the elapse of the switching time f of the switch 3, the auxiliary contact 5 closes and the control voltage U K decreases to zero. This begins to run a dead time g, after the expiration of the gate voltage U G is switched off by means of control 6.
  • The dead time g is set so that an in-series with the semiconductor switching element 2 arranged sluggish electrical fuse 8 does not trigger. Only when the load current longer than the dead time g, for example due to a Durchlegierens of the semiconductor switching element 2, flows through the electrical fuse 8, triggers this and interrupts the flow of current.
  • With the switching off of the gate voltage U G , the semiconductor switching element 2 is blocked and the electrical contacts 1 are de-energized. On the semiconductor switching element 2, a voltage U T is present for a period of time h until the electrical contacts 1 are separated with a separation time i.

Claims (7)

  1. Load isolation circuit which, for the deenergised connection and isolation of an electrical device (10) and a DC source (9), comprises a plug-in connection having at least one electrical contact (1), wherein a semiconductor switching element (2) is arranged in series with the at least one electrical contact (1), characterised in that
    - a switch (3), which comprises a main contact (4) and an auxiliary contact (5), is arranged in parallel with the semiconductor switching element (2),
    - the main contact (4) and the auxiliary contact (5) are coupled in such a way that the switching state of the auxiliary contact (5) changes before closing and after opening of the main contact (4),
    - a controller (6) is provided which switches the semiconductor switching element (2) on as a function of the switching state of the auxiliary contact (5) before the main contact (4) closes and switches it off after the main contact (4) opens,
    in that the at least one electrical contact (1) is secured by a mechanical locking device and in that the mechanical locking device is coupled to the switch (3) in such a way that isolation of the at least one electrical contact (1) is possible only after the main contact (4) opens, and in that connection of the at least one electrical contact (1) is possible only when the main contact (4) is open, and in that, furthermore, the contact of a relay (11) is arranged in series with the semiconductor switching element (2), and in that the coil of the relay (11) is connected to the controller (6) so the contact of the relay is closed before the semiconductor switching element (2) is switched on and is opened after the semiconductor switching element (2) is switched off.
  2. Load isolation circuit according to claim 1, characterised in that a contact element of the main contact (4) and a contact element of the auxiliary contact (5) are coupled to an actuating element of the switch (3).
  3. Load isolation circuit according to claim 1 or 2, characterised in that the actuating element of the switch (3) shields and/or fixes the at least one electrical contact (1) when the main contact (4) of the switch (3) is closed.
  4. Load isolation circuit according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterised in that a resistor (7) is arranged in series with the semiconductor switching element (2).
  5. Load isolation circuit according to any one of claims 1 to 5, characterised in that an electric fuse (8) is arranged in series with the semiconductor switching element (2).
  6. Load isolation circuit according to any one of claims 1 to 5, characterised in that a diode (D) is arranged in series with the semiconductor switching element (2).
  7. Load isolation circuit according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterised in that the DC source (9) is designed as a DC generator, in particular as a photovoltaic generator, and the electrical device (10) is designed as an inverter.
EP20060793300 2005-12-22 2006-09-07 Load isolation circuit for the deenergized connection and isolation of electrical contacts Expired - Fee Related EP1964140B1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE200510061532 DE102005061532B4 (en) 2005-12-22 2005-12-22 Load disconnecting circuit for the currentless connection and disconnection of electrical contacts
PCT/EP2006/066102 WO2007073951A1 (en) 2005-12-22 2006-09-07 Load isolation circuit for the deenergized connection and isolation of electrical contacts

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP1964140A1 EP1964140A1 (en) 2008-09-03
EP1964140B1 true EP1964140B1 (en) 2012-10-31

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Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP20060793300 Expired - Fee Related EP1964140B1 (en) 2005-12-22 2006-09-07 Load isolation circuit for the deenergized connection and isolation of electrical contacts

Country Status (3)

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EP (1) EP1964140B1 (en)
DE (1) DE102005061532B4 (en)
WO (1) WO2007073951A1 (en)

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Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
EP1964140A1 (en) 2008-09-03
DE102005061532A1 (en) 2007-07-05
WO2007073951A1 (en) 2007-07-05
DE102005061532B4 (en) 2008-05-29

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