EP1888803A1 - Apparatus for gas-dynamic applying coatings an method of coating - Google Patents

Apparatus for gas-dynamic applying coatings an method of coating

Info

Publication number
EP1888803A1
EP1888803A1 EP20060733241 EP06733241A EP1888803A1 EP 1888803 A1 EP1888803 A1 EP 1888803A1 EP 20060733241 EP20060733241 EP 20060733241 EP 06733241 A EP06733241 A EP 06733241A EP 1888803 A1 EP1888803 A1 EP 1888803A1
Authority
EP
Grant status
Application
Patent type
Prior art keywords
nozzle
powder
gas
flow
particles
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
EP20060733241
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
EP1888803B1 (en )
EP1888803A4 (en )
Inventor
Alexandr Ivanovich Kashirin
Oleg Fedorovich Klyuev
Alexandr Viktorovich Shkodkin
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
OBSCHESTVO S OGRANICHENNOI OTVETSTVENOSTIJU OBNINS
Original Assignee
OBSCHESTVO S ORGANICHENNOI OTVETSTVENOCTIJU OBNINSKY TSENTR POROSHKOVOGO NAPLYLENIYA
OBSCHESTVO S ORGANICHENNOI OTV
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date

Links

Classifications

    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C24/00Coating starting from inorganic powder
    • C23C24/02Coating starting from inorganic powder by application of pressure only
    • C23C24/04Impact or kinetic deposition of particles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B05SPRAYING OR ATOMISING IN GENERAL; APPLYING LIQUIDS OR OTHER FLUENT MATERIALS TO SURFACES, IN GENERAL
    • B05BSPRAYING APPARATUS; ATOMISING APPARATUS; NOZZLES
    • B05B7/00Spraying apparatus for discharge of liquids or other fluent materials from two or more sources, e.g. of liquid and air, of powder and gas
    • B05B7/14Spraying apparatus for discharge of liquids or other fluent materials from two or more sources, e.g. of liquid and air, of powder and gas designed for spraying particulate materials
    • B05B7/1481Spray pistols or apparatus for discharging particulate material
    • B05B7/1486Spray pistols or apparatus for discharging particulate material for spraying particulate material in dry state

Abstract

The invention relates to the technology of applying coatings to the surfaces of articles, and in particular, to gas-dynamic methods of applying coatings with the use of an inorganic powder, and it can be used in different branches of mechanical engineering. A compressed gas is delivered to the heater (1) to be heated to the required temperature that keeps the particles from sticking to the nozzle walls. The heated gas enters the supersonic nozzle (2) wherein it sequentially passes through a converging portion, the throat (3) and a diverging portion of the nozzle and acpelerates up to supersonic velocity. The powders to be sprayed are introduced into said supersonic gas flow through powder injection components (5). The powder particles are accelerated by a high-velocity gas flow in the acceleration portion (7) of the nozzle and then they are directed to the substrate surface. The gist of the invention is the disclosure of the parameters of a nozzle portion, positioned downstream of the powder injection point and intended for the acceleration of the powder, providing the increase of sprayed powder deposition efficiency and the retention of the possibility to use an elevated temperature of the compressed gas and to use the powders having hard particles.

Description

APPARATUS FOR GAS-DYNAMIC APPLYING COATINGS AND METHOD OF COATING

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to the technology of applying coatings to the surfaces, and in particular, to gas-dynamic methods of applying coatings with the use of an inorganic powder. It can be used in different branches of mechanical engineering, particularly for the restoration of the shape and dimension of metal parts, for the manufacturing and repair of metal parts to improve their impermeability or corrosion resistance or heat resistance or other property.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Gas-dynamic spray methods are the effective techniques for producing metal and mixed metal — ceramic coatings by the treating the substrate by a high - velocity jet of fine solid particles. In these methods the particles are accelerated in the high velocity gas stream by the drag effect. Only compressed gases, predominantly air, are used for particle acceleration without using any combustible.

Known in the art is a method and apparatus for applying coatings [U.S. Pat. No. 5,302,414 issued 1994]. With this method, a coating is applied by introducing metal powders into a compressed gas flow, accelerating the gas- powder mixture in a supersonic nozzle (a de Laval type nozzle) and directing the accelerated powder particles to the substrate. The accelerated particles impinge on the substrate while having kinetic energy sufficient for adhering to the substrate surface. The coatings are produced with powder particles having a particle size of from 1 to 50 microns. The powder particles neither melt nor begin to soften prior to impingement on the substrate and adhere to the substrate when their kinetic energy is transformed to a sufficient mechanical deformation.

The improvement of this method and apparatus [U.S. Pat. No. 6,139,913 issued 2000 and U.S. Pat. No. 6,283,386 issued 2001] includes the proper choice of the gas flow cross-section to allow for the formation of coatings by particles having a particle size up to 106 microns.

The main disadvantages of these methods are due to a powder is injected into the heated compressed gas flow prior to passage through the de Laval nozzle throat. Because the heated main gas flow (gas stream) is under high pressure, an injection of the powder requires expensive and complicated high pressure powder delivery (powder supply) systems. The powder particles and heated main gas both must pass through the throat of the nozzle, and the particles often stick to the walls of a diverging portion and a throat of the nozzle and clog the nozzle. This requires a complete shutdown of the system and cleaning of the nozzle. As a result, the gas temperature must be sufficiently low - such that no softening and sticking of the particles to the nozzle walls take place. That temperature often turns out to be insufficient for effective coating. Besides, when using the powders with hard particles, a considerable wear of the nozzle throat occurs, causing the early destroying of the nozzle.

The further prior art methods of coating [U.S. Pat. No. 6,756,073 issued 2004; RU 2205897, 2001; RU 2100474, 1997; U.S. Pat. No. 6,402,050 issued 2002] are free ,©f these drawbacks. These inventions use a supersonic nozzle, and a preheated compressed gas is supplied to this nozzle. The gas, when passing through a converging portion, a throat and a diverging portion of the nozzle, accelerates and forms a supersonic flow in the nozzle. At the point following the nozzle throat (downstream of the throat), the powder particles are introduced into said flow. They are accelerated by the supersonic gas flow and directed to a surface of the base (substrate). In these methods the powder particles do not pass through the nozzle throat. This aljtaws the gas temperature to be increased with no fear that the particles will stick to the walls of the nozzle and clog or plug the nozzle throat. Since the velocity of the gas flow accelerating the powder particles is roughly proportional to the square root of the gas temperature, an increase of the gas temperature results in an increase of the velocity gained by the powder particles in the nozzle, and so, in an increase of the probability of their adherence to the substrate surface upon impingement. Thus, it has been possible to increase the efficiency of particle deposition.

But, due to the fact that the powder is introduced only downstream of the nozzle throat, the entire length of the nozzle portion available for the powder partiple acceleration is considerably reduced. The reduced accelerating distance diminishes the growth of coating deposition efficiency which could be achieved owing to the increase in the gas temperature.

The most similar to the claimed solution is an apparatus and method reported in CA 2270260, 2004. The apparatus comprises a compressed gas heater; a supersonic nozzle (the de Laval nozzle) directly connected to the compressed gas heater and comprising a throat positioned between a converging portion and a diverging portion of the nozzle; a unit for supplying powders into the nozzle, the powder being introduced (injected) into the nozzle downstream of the nozzle throat.

In this apparatus, the powder particles do not pass through the nozzle throat, and hence, they do not wear its walls. This allows the use of the powders with hard ceramic particles. Moreover, since in the supersonic portion (positioned downstream of the throat), the gas temperature is 85 significantly lower than in the subsonic portion (positioned in front of the throat) and in the nozzle throat, the apparatus allows to increase the compressed gas temperature without nozzle clogging by the particle sticking to the nozzle walls.

Nevertheless, due to the shift of the powder injection point downstream

90 of the nozzle throat (i.e. powder introduction inside the nozzle rather than in front of it), the length of the nozzle portion available for particle acceleration is reduced. As a result, the final powder particle velocity reduces followed by the decrease of sprayed powder deposition efficiency.

95 SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The object of present invention is an increase of sprayed powder deposition efficiency with the retention of the possibility to increase the compressed gas temperature and to use powders with hard particles.

100 The given object is accomplished by the fact that in the prior art apparatus for gas-dynamic applying coatings, comprising a compressed gas heater, a supersonic nozzle (the de Laval nozzle), directly connected to the gas heater and having a throat positioned between a converging portion and a diverging portion, a unit for supplying powders into the nozzle, wherein the

105 powder injection components are placed downstream of the nozzle throat, the unit for supplying powders into the nozzle has one or more powder feeders connected through conduits to the components for injection of one or more powders into the nozzle, and a nozzle portion positioned downstream of the powder injection components and intended for acceleration of the powders is

110 made having parameters to suit the following relation: 0.015 < B ( Sout / Sinj - 1) / L < 0.03 where Sout - the area of the nozzle cross-section at the outlet;

Sinj - the area of the nozzle cross-section at the location of the powder 115 injection components;

L - the length of the nozzle portion intended for acceleration of the powders;

B - the minimal dimension of the nozzle cross-section at the location of the powder injection components.

120 Depending on a shape and composition of the surface being treated and on the task to be accomplished upon coating, the nozzle can have a round or rectangular cross-section.

For the convenience during practical application of the apparatus, the nozzle portion intended for powder acceleration (acceleration portion) can be

125 made as a replaceable element, hi this case, it can be continuously divergent or have one or more cylindrical sections. The components for injection powders into ψe nozzle can be made as an orifice (orifices) in the nozzle wall or in the form of the tubes passing through the nozzle throat with the outlets being positioned downstream of (behind) the throat; with this, two or more

130 components for injection powders can be made so as to ensure the powder supply equidistant from the nozzle throat

To provide an easy change in the composition of a powder being sprayed, each feeder can be connected to its component for injection the powder into the nozzle. To simplify the construction, two or more feeders can 135 be connected to the same component for injection the powder into the nozzle. For the convenience of apparatus practical use the compressed gas heating can be provide^ by electric heater.

The comparative analysis has shown that the claimed solution is distinguished from the prototype by the fact that a nozzle portion positioned 140 downstream of the powder injection components and intended for acceleration of the powders has parameters to suit the following relation: 0.015 < B ( Sout / Sinj - 1) / L < 0.03 where

Sout - the area of the nozzle cross-section at the outlet;

145 Sinj - the area of the nozzle cross-section at the location of the powder injection components;

L - the length of the nozzle portion intended for acceleration of the powders;

B - the minimal dimension of the nozzle cross-section at the location 150 of the powder injection components, which makes it possible to judge the conformity of the invention to the criterion of novelty.

The given object can also be accomplished if in the prior art method of gas-dynamic applying coatings, comprising heating a compressed gas;

155 supplying it into a supersonic nozzle (the de Laval nozzle) having a throat positioned between a converging portion and a diverging portion; forming a supersonic gas flow in the nozzle; injection a powder into the supersonic gas flow downstream of the nozzle throat (behind the throat); accelerating the powder by the gas flow in the nozzle; directing said accelerated powder to the

160 substrate surface; and forming a coating, the powder is injected into the supersonic gas flow downstream of the throat, said powder comprising the particles of one or more substances, one of which being a metal and/or an alloy, the gas flow downstream of the nozzle throat being formed to suit the following relation:

165 0.015 < B (Sout/Sinj - 1) / L < 0.03, where

Sout - the area of the gas flow cross-section at the nozzle outlet; Sinj - the area of the gas flow cross-section at the point of powder injection;

170 L - the length of the gas flow in the nozzle from the powder injection point to the nozzle outlet;

B - the minimal dimension of the gas flow cross-section at the point of powder injection.

Depending on the coating properties required, a metal powder, and/or a

175 mechanical mixture of ceramic and metal powders is employed as a powder for forming the coating, or several powders of different hardness are injected into the supersonic flow at the same time, a ceramic powder being employed as one of the powders. The particle size of the powders used, both metal and ceramic ones, ranges from 1 to 100 micrometers.

180 The gist of the present invention resides in the following.

Upon gas-dynamic spraying of powder materials, a coating is formed by the separate particles, which upon impingement on the base are adhered to its surface basically due to the transformation of their kinetic energy to bonding energy.

185 Therefore, the possibility of the particle adherence to the surface depends mainly on their velocity. The higher is the velocity of each particular particle, the higher is the possibility of its adherence to the substrate surface, and hence, the higher is powder spraying efficiency (deposition efficiency) as a whole.

190 In all apparatuses for gas-dynamic applying coatings of powder materials the particles are accelerated in the high velocity gas flow by the drag effect. Accelerating Stokes force is proportional to the difference of the velocity of gas flow and that of the particles. For a limited acceleration time the particles never run up to the velocity of a gas flow and always lag behind 195 it. The longer the particle is in the gas flow, the less is its lag, i.e. a velocity of the particle approaches that of gas.

It would seem obvious that one should elongate, as far as possible, a nozzle portion intended for acceleration of powder particles (an acceleration portion which is a nozzle portion extending from the point of powder

200 injection up to the nozzle outlet). In that case, the particles move in the gas flow longer, and hence, they are accelerated to higher velocity.

In practice, it turned out to be not nearly so. A gradual increase in the length of the nozzle acceleration portion initially results in an increase in the particle velocity and greater efficiency of spraying the powder onto the

205 substrate. However, on further increase in the length of the acceleration portion, the decrease of particle deposition efficiency is observed.

At first sight, this could be attributed to retardation of the gas flow due to the gas flow friction on the nozzle walls. In fact, in the apparatuses for gas- dynamic spraying, highly extended nozzles are commonly used whose length

210 is dozens of times greater than the nozzle cross-sectional dimensions. In this case, retardation of gas in the nozzle can be sufficient, and under gas deceleration below the particle velocity, the particles start to be retarded instead of being accelerated.

However, in actual practice it has been found that with increasing the

215 length of the nozzle acceleration portion, the decrease of the deposition efficiency begins well before sufficient deceleration of gas in the nozzle. That is, with some extension of the nozzle acceleration portion, the velocity of gas in the nozzle remains much above that of the particles. So with such extension of the nozzle acceleration portion the powder particles in the nozzle must

220 acquire higher velocity. But in practice, the actual spraying efficiency unexpectedly decreases.

This effect can be explained by the following. The powder particles injected into a gas flow necessarily have a velocity component directed across the flow. This velocity component arises

225 both straight on introduction of the particles into the flow and in subsequent stages of particle trajectory evolution in the flow due to collision of the particles and tjieir scattering by discontinuities of the flow. The acceleration of the particles in the nozzle is effected by a high-velocity gas flow directed along the nozzle axis. Therefore, practically straight after introduction of the

230 powder particles into the accelerated gas flow, a transverse component of powders velocity becomes much less than the longitudinal one (directed along the gas flow). However, it exists and is assumed by the authors to be of considerable importance. The point is that the particles whose velocity is not directed strictly along the nozzle axis can impinge on the nozzle walls, and

235 naturally, lose some of their longitudinal velocity. Besides, near the nozzle walls there is always a boundary gas layer the velocity of which is sufficiently lower than that of the main gas flow. The particles having a transverse velocity component can get into this boundary layer and slow down therein.

At the same statistical dispersion of transverse velocities of the

240 particles, a probability that the particles get into a near-wall area of the nozzle increases with reducing the nozzle cross-section and increasing its length. As a consequence, the observed effect turned out to be connected not only with the nozzle length but with the cross section of its acceleration portion and with the degree of its divergence (increase of cross-sectional area of the

245 nozzle in the direction of the gas flow).

Thus, with extending the nozzle acceleration portion, two processes take place at pne time. Firstly, there is an increase in the velocity of the particles that have not impinged on the nozzle walls. Secondly, there is an increase in the number of the particles that have reached the near- wall area 250 and partially lost the velocity upon the impingement on the nozzle walls or upon deceleration in the gas boundary layer.

As a result, with increasing the length of the nozzle, the maximal velocity of the particles in the nozzle increases, whereas the ratio of these high-velocity particles in the overall flow of the particles goes down.

255 Consequently, as the nozzle is made longer, first, an average velocity of the particles increases and then it slows down.

In practice, this effect manifests itself through a variation in powder deposition efficiency. In the process, the powder deposition efficiency varies only slightly over a definite range of the nozzle acceleration portion length. In 260 this range, the processes of the particle acceleration by the gas flow and deceleration in the near-wall area of the nozzle are approximately equalized, and so, there is only slight variation in the powder deposition efficiency.

Numerous experiments have shown that this effect of equalizing the particle acceleration and deceleration processes is achieved by the choice of a 265 definite geometric parameters of the nozzle acceleration portion, and namely, Numerous experiments have shown that this effect of equalizing the particle acceleration and deceleration processes is achieved if a definite relation between the basic geometric parameters of the nozzle acceleration portion is ensured, and namely, 270 0.pl5 < B (Sout/Sinj - 1) / L < 0.03, where .

Sout - the area of the gas flow cross-section at the nozzle outlet; Sinj - the area of the gas flow cross-section at the point of powder injection;

275 L - the length of the gas flow in the nozzle from the powder injection point to the nozzle outlet; B - the minimal dimension of the gas flow cross-section at the point of powder injection.

When the nozzle's parameters were beyond the bounds of the said

280 limits, the decrease of the deposition efficiency was observed. In particular, with fixed values of the minimal cross-sectional dimension and cross- sectional area of the nozzle, excessively short and excessively long nozzles offered lower Reposition efficiency than those whose length was kept within the said range.

285 The indicated features have not been revealed in other engineering solutions on studying the prior art. Thus, the claimed solution meets the inventive criterion and inventive step.

290

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The invention is illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which Fig.l is a structural arrangement of the claimed apparatus and Fig.2 is a

295 schematic illustration of the supersonic nozzle. The apparatus comprises a compressed gas heater 1, a nozzle 2 with a nozzle throat 3, a powder supply unit comprising powder feeders 4 and powder injection components 5 connected to the feeders by means of pipes 6, a nozzle acceleration portion 7 positioned downstream of the powder injection components up to the nozzle

300 outlet and made, for instance, as a replaceable element 8 (Fig.2) also comprising a cylindrical section 9 (Fig.2).

In operation, a compressed gas is delivered to the heater 1 to be heated to the required temperature. The heated gas enters the supersonic nozzle 2, wherein it sequentially passes through a converging portion, the throat 3 and a 305 diverging portion of the nozzle, and accelerates up to a supersonic velocity.

The powders to be sprayed are introduced into this supersonic gas flow through the powder injection components 5. The powder particles are accelerated by a high-velocity gas flow at the nozzle acceleration portion 7 and then they are directed to the substrate surface. 310 Depending on a shape and composition of the surface being treated and on the task to ,be accomplished upon coating, the nozzle can have a round or rectangular cross-section.

For the use of the powders of hard substances (in particular, ceramic particles), the nozzle acceleration portion can be made, in full or in part, as a 315 replaceable element 8 (Fig.2). In this case, the nozzle portion worn by the hard particles can be easily replaced.

To compensate for retardation of the gas flow against the nozzle walls, the nozzle acceleration portion can be made, in full or in part, divergent.

For simplification of the nozzle construction, its acceleration portion 320 can have one or more cylindrical sections 9 (Fig.2).

Depending on the particular structure of the nozzle, one or more components for powder injection can be made as orifices (Fig.l) in the nozzle wall or as the tubes passing through the nozzle throat (Fig.2). Two or more powder injection components can be made so as to ensure the powder supply 325 equidistant from the nozzle throat (Fig.1 ).

To provide an easy change of the powder being sprayed, each feeder can be connected to separate powder injection component. Two or more powder feeders can be connected to the same powder injection component to simplify the apparatus structure (Fig.l). 330 For the convenience of apparatus practical use the compressed gas heater can be electrical. SPECIFIC EXAMPLES OF THE INVENTION

335 The present invention is illustrated by the following specific examples given in Table 1 and Table2 below.

Table 1 presents the results of coating weights measurements. The coatings were sprayed with the round nozzles of different length at constant values of B=3.6 mm, Siηj = 10 mm" and Sout = 18 mm2. The temperature of 340 compressed air was 3700C. In all the cases, the same quantity of the powder was used, comprising: a) aluminum (60%, wt.) and aluminum oxide (40%, wt.) particles, b) copper (70%, wt.) and aluminum oxide (30%, wt.) 345 particles, c) zinc (60%, wt.) and aluminum oxide (40%, wt.) particles.

Table 1

350 Table 2 presents other results of coating weights measurements. The coatings were sprayed with rectangular nozzles of different length with constant values of B = 3.6 mm, Sinj = 15 mm2 and Sout = 30 mm2. In all the cases, the same quantity of the powder was used, comprising the particles of aluminum (60%, wt.) and aluminum oxide (40%, wt). The temperature of compressed gas was as follows: a) 37O0C, b) 4500C, and c) 5200C.

Table 2

In both cases compressed gas was an air under pressure of 7 bars.

Both tables demonstrate that as the dimensions relation approaches the limiting values, the coating mass diminishes, indicating the decrease of the powder deposition efficiency.

Claims

CLAIMS:
1. An apparatus for gas-dynamic applying coatings comprising a 370 compressed gas heater; a supersonic nozzle (the de Laval nozzle) directly connected to the gas heater and having a throat positioned between a converging portion and a diverging portion; a unit for supplying powders into the nozzle, wherein powder injection components are placed downstream of the nozzle throat, characterized in that the unit for supplying powders into the 375 nozzle comprises one or more powder feeders connected through conduits to the components for injection of one or more powders into the nozzle, and a nozzle portion positioned downstream of the powder injection components and intended for acceleration of the powders is made having parameters to suit the following relation:
380 0.015 < B ( Sout / Sinj - 1) / L < 0.03 where
Sout - the area of the nozzle cross-section at the outlet; Sinj - the area of the nozzle cross-section at the location of the powder injection components;
385 L - the length of the nozzle portion intended for acceleration of the powders;
B - the minimal dimension of the nozzle cross-section at the location of the powder injection components.
2. An apparatus according to claim 1 characterized in that the 390 supersonic nozzle has a round cross-section.
3. An apparatus according to claim 1 characterized in that the supersonic nozzle has a rectangular cross-section.
4. An apparatus according to claim 1 characterized in that the nozzle portion positioned downstream of the powder injection components and intended for acceleration of the powders is made in the form of a 390 replaceable element.
5. An apparatus according to claim 1 characterized in that the nozzle portion positioned downstream of the powder injection components and intended for acceleration of the powders is made divergent.
6. An apparatus according to claim 1 characterized in that the 395 nozzle portion positioned downstream of the powder injection components and intended for acceleration of the powders has one or more cylindrical sections.
7. An apparatus according to claim 1 characterized in that the powder injection components are made as orifices in the nozzle wall.
400 8. An apparatus according to claim 1 characterized in that one or more powder injection components are made in the form of the tube passing through the nozzle throat with the outlets being positioned downstream of the throat.
9. An apparatus according to claim 1 characterized in that two or 405 more powder injection components are made so as to ensure the powder injection equidistant from the nozzle throat.
10. An apparatus according to claim 1 characterized in that each powder feeder is connected to its component for injection of the powder into the nozzle.
410 11. An apparatus according to claim 1 characterized in that two or more powder feeders are connected to one component for injection of the powder into the nozzle.
12. An apparatus according to claim 1 characterized in that the gas heater is made electrical.
415 13. A method for gas-dynamic applying coatings, comprising heating of a compressed gas; supplying it into a supersonic nozzle (the de Laval nozzle) having a throat positioned between a converging portion and a diverging portion; forming a supersonic gas flow in the nozzle; injection a powder into the supersonic gas flow downstream of the nozzle
425 throat; accelerating it by the gas flow in the nozzle; directing said accelerated powder to the substrate surface; and forming a coating, characterized in that the powder, having the particles of one or more substances, one of which being a metal and/or an alloy, is injected into the supersonic gas flow downstream of the throat, the gas flow downstream of the nozzle throat is
430 formed to suit the following relation:
0.015 < B (Sout/Sinj - 1) / L < 0.03, where
Sout - the area of the gas flow cross-section at the nozzle outlet; Sinj - the area of the gas flow cross-section at the point of powder 435 injection;
L - the length of the gas flow in the nozzle from the powder injection point to the nozzle outlet;
B - the minimal dimension of the gas flow cross-section at the point of powder injection.
440 14. A method according to claim 13 characterized in that a mechanical mixture of ceramic and metal powders is employed as the powder sprayed.
15. A method according to claim 13 characterized in that several powders having particles of different hardness are injected into the supersonic flow at the same time.
445 16. A method according to claim 13 characterized in that a ceramic powder is employed as one of the powders.
17. A method according to claim 14 characterized in that metal powders with the particle size from 1 to 100 microns are employed as the metal powder.
450 18. A method according to claim 16 characterized in that the powders of a particle size from 1 to 100 microns are employed as the ceramic powder.
EP20060733241 2005-05-20 2006-03-15 Apparatus for gas-dynamic applying coatings and method of coating Active EP1888803B1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
RU2005115327A RU2288970C1 (en) 2005-05-20 2005-05-20 Device for the gas-dynamic deposition of the coatings and the method for the gas-dynamic deposition of the coatings
PCT/RU2006/000116 WO2006123965A1 (en) 2005-05-20 2006-03-15 Apparatus for gas-dynamic applying coatings an method of coating

Publications (3)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP1888803A1 true true EP1888803A1 (en) 2008-02-20
EP1888803A4 true EP1888803A4 (en) 2011-03-09
EP1888803B1 EP1888803B1 (en) 2014-12-17

Family

ID=37431485

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP20060733241 Active EP1888803B1 (en) 2005-05-20 2006-03-15 Apparatus for gas-dynamic applying coatings and method of coating

Country Status (5)

Country Link
EP (1) EP1888803B1 (en)
JP (1) JP5184347B2 (en)
CN (1) CN100572584C (en)
RU (1) RU2288970C1 (en)
WO (1) WO2006123965A1 (en)

Families Citing this family (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20060275554A1 (en) * 2004-08-23 2006-12-07 Zhibo Zhao High performance kinetic spray nozzle
RU2353705C2 (en) * 2006-11-27 2009-04-27 Институт теоретической и прикладной механики им. С.А. Христиановича СО РАН (ИТПМ СО РАН) Method ofgas-dynamic sputtering of powder materials and facility for its realisation
BE1017673A3 (en) * 2007-07-05 2009-03-03 Fib Services Internat Method and powdered material spraying device in a carrier gas.
US9168546B2 (en) 2008-12-12 2015-10-27 National Research Council Of Canada Cold gas dynamic spray apparatus, system and method
RU2399694C1 (en) 2008-12-29 2010-09-20 Учреждение Российской академии наук Институт теоретической и прикладной механики им. С.А. Христиановича Сибирского отделения РАН (ИТПМ СО РАН) Procedure for surface gas-dynamic processing with powder material and facility for its implementation
CA2782698C (en) * 2009-12-04 2018-02-13 The Regents Of The University Of Michigan Coaxial laser assisted cold spray nozzle
JP2011240314A (en) * 2010-05-21 2011-12-01 Kobe Steel Ltd Cold spray apparatus
CN102748332B (en) * 2012-06-28 2015-05-06 北京工业大学 Pressure reducing device with temperature recovery function
CN102744173B (en) * 2012-07-05 2015-05-27 西安交通大学 Solid particle pre-whirl mixing pneumatic acceleration device and method
KR101346238B1 (en) 2012-10-19 2014-01-03 국방과학연구소 Method for manufacturing graded porous multiple layered reactive shaped charge liner by using kinetic spray coating, and graded porous multiple layered reactive shaped charge liner manufactured by the same
RU2532653C2 (en) * 2012-10-29 2014-11-10 Открытое акционерное общество "558 Авиационный ремонтный завод" (ОАО "558 АРЗ") Method for manufacturing of antifriction recovery coating at steel product (versions)
US20160230500A1 (en) * 2013-09-18 2016-08-11 Ga Drilling, A.S. Method and device for the formation of borehole casing by application of material layers by means of kinetic sputtering
RU2572953C1 (en) * 2014-06-20 2016-01-20 Российская Федерация, от имени которой выступает Государственная корпорация по атомной энергии "Росатом" Aluminium element of current distributor and method for its production

Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6139913A (en) * 1999-06-29 2000-10-31 National Center For Manufacturing Sciences Kinetic spray coating method and apparatus
US6402050B1 (en) * 1996-11-13 2002-06-11 Alexandr Ivanovich Kashirin Apparatus for gas-dynamic coating
DE10126100A1 (en) * 2001-05-29 2002-12-05 Linde Ag Production of a coating or a molded part comprises injecting powdered particles in a gas stream only in the divergent section of a Laval nozzle, and applying the particles at a specified speed
EP1369498A1 (en) * 2002-05-22 2003-12-10 Linde Aktiengesellschaft Method and apparatus for high-speed flame spraying
EP1445033A1 (en) * 2003-02-07 2004-08-11 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Kinetic spray tin coating method
DE10319481A1 (en) * 2003-04-30 2004-11-18 Linde Ag Laval nozzle use for cold gas spraying, includes convergent section and divergent section such that portion of divergent section of nozzle has bell-shaped contour

Family Cites Families (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR2575678B1 (en) * 1985-01-04 1988-06-03 Saint Gobain Vitrage pneumatic ejector powder
JPH074523B2 (en) * 1986-09-25 1995-01-25 キヤノン株式会社 Reactor
RU4700U1 (en) * 1995-11-29 1997-08-16 Войсковая часть 34416 An apparatus for gas-dynamic spraying of coatings
RU2181788C1 (en) * 2000-08-08 2002-04-27 Дикун Юрий Вениаминович Method of producing composite materials and coats made from powders and device for realization of this method
JP4628578B2 (en) * 2001-04-12 2011-02-09 トーカロ株式会社 Cold sprayed coating covering member and a manufacturing method thereof
CN1161188C (en) 2001-09-05 2004-08-11 中国科学院金属研究所 Cold air driven spray painter
JP3612568B2 (en) * 2001-10-09 2005-01-19 独立行政法人物質・材料研究機構 Metal coating forming method and spraying device according Hvof spray gun
RU2247174C2 (en) 2003-04-30 2005-02-27 Институт теоретической и прикладной механики СО РАН Apparatus for gasodynamic deposition of powder materials

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6402050B1 (en) * 1996-11-13 2002-06-11 Alexandr Ivanovich Kashirin Apparatus for gas-dynamic coating
US6139913A (en) * 1999-06-29 2000-10-31 National Center For Manufacturing Sciences Kinetic spray coating method and apparatus
DE10126100A1 (en) * 2001-05-29 2002-12-05 Linde Ag Production of a coating or a molded part comprises injecting powdered particles in a gas stream only in the divergent section of a Laval nozzle, and applying the particles at a specified speed
EP1369498A1 (en) * 2002-05-22 2003-12-10 Linde Aktiengesellschaft Method and apparatus for high-speed flame spraying
EP1445033A1 (en) * 2003-02-07 2004-08-11 Delphi Technologies, Inc. Kinetic spray tin coating method
DE10319481A1 (en) * 2003-04-30 2004-11-18 Linde Ag Laval nozzle use for cold gas spraying, includes convergent section and divergent section such that portion of divergent section of nozzle has bell-shaped contour

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
See also references of WO2006123965A1 *

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date Type
CN101208447A (en) 2008-06-25 application
EP1888803B1 (en) 2014-12-17 grant
CN100572584C (en) 2009-12-23 grant
EP1888803A4 (en) 2011-03-09 application
WO2006123965A1 (en) 2006-11-23 application
JP5184347B2 (en) 2013-04-17 grant
RU2288970C1 (en) 2006-12-10 grant
JP2008540115A (en) 2008-11-20 application

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US3521815A (en) Guns for the electrostatic spray coating of objects with a powder
US6283833B1 (en) Method and apparatus for producing a high-velocity particle stream
US4866240A (en) Nozzle for plasma torch and method for introducing powder into the plasma plume of a plasma torch
JP5049625B2 (en) Preparation device manufacturing method and structure using the same structure
US6402050B1 (en) Apparatus for gas-dynamic coating
EP0484533A1 (en) Method and device for coating
US4715535A (en) Powder spray gun
Morgan et al. Analysis of cold gas dynamically sprayed aluminium deposits
US20060121187A1 (en) Vacuum cold spray process
Tokarev Structure of aluminum powder coatings prepared by cold gasdynamic spraying
US4595637A (en) Plasma coatings comprised of sprayed fibers
Fukumoto et al. Effect of substrate temperature on deposition behavior of copper particles on substrate surfaces in the cold spray process
Gilmore et al. Particle velocity and deposition efficiency in the cold spray process
US4580727A (en) Atomizer for coating with powder
US3970249A (en) Spraying atomized particles
US20060275554A1 (en) High performance kinetic spray nozzle
US20030175559A1 (en) Kinetically sprayed aluminum metal matrix composites for thermal management
US6986471B1 (en) Rotary plasma spray method and apparatus for applying a coating utilizing particle kinetics
US20050120957A1 (en) Plasma spray method and apparatus for applying a coating utilizing particle kinetics
EP0361710A1 (en) High-velocity flame spray apparatus
Sakaki et al. Effect of the increase in the entrance convergent section length of the gun nozzle on the high-velocity oxygen fuel and cold spray process
US20030178511A1 (en) High efficiency nozzle for thermal spray of high quality, low oxide content coatings
US6743468B2 (en) Method of coating with combined kinetic spray and thermal spray
US20070221746A1 (en) Cold gas spray gun
US20020071906A1 (en) Method and device for applying a coating

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
AK Designated contracting states:

Kind code of ref document: A1

Designated state(s): AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC NL PL PT RO SE SI SK TR

17P Request for examination filed

Effective date: 20071220

DAX Request for extension of the european patent (to any country) deleted
A4 Despatch of supplementary search report

Effective date: 20110204

17Q First examination report

Effective date: 20130328

REG Reference to a national code

Ref country code: DE

Ref legal event code: R079

Ref document number: 602006044019

Country of ref document: DE

Free format text: PREVIOUS MAIN CLASS: C23C0002040000

Ipc: H05H0001420000

RIC1 Classification (correction)

Ipc: H05H 1/34 20060101ALI20140618BHEP

Ipc: H05H 1/42 20060101AFI20140618BHEP

Ipc: C23C 16/513 20060101ALI20140618BHEP

RAP1 Transfer of rights of an ep published application

Owner name: OBSCHESTVO S OGRANICHENNOI OTVETSTVENOSTIJU OBNINS

INTG Announcement of intention to grant

Effective date: 20140707

REG Reference to a national code

Ref country code: GB

Ref legal event code: FG4D

AK Designated contracting states:

Kind code of ref document: B1

Designated state(s): AT BE BG CH CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GB GR HU IE IS IT LI LT LU LV MC NL PL PT RO SE SI SK TR

REG Reference to a national code

Ref country code: CH

Ref legal event code: EP

REG Reference to a national code

Ref country code: IE

Ref legal event code: FG4D

REG Reference to a national code

Ref country code: AT

Ref legal event code: REF

Ref document number: 702625

Country of ref document: AT

Kind code of ref document: T

Effective date: 20150115

REG Reference to a national code

Ref country code: DE

Ref legal event code: R096

Ref document number: 602006044019

Country of ref document: DE

Effective date: 20150129

REG Reference to a national code

Ref country code: NL

Ref legal event code: T3

PG25 Lapsed in a contracting state announced via postgrant inform. from nat. office to epo

Ref country code: LT

Free format text: LAPSE BECAUSE OF FAILURE TO SUBMIT A TRANSLATION OF THE DESCRIPTION OR TO PAY THE FEE WITHIN THE PRESCRIBED TIME-LIMIT

Effective date: 20141217

Ref country code: FI

Free format text: LAPSE BECAUSE OF FAILURE TO SUBMIT A TRANSLATION OF THE DESCRIPTION OR TO PAY THE FEE WITHIN THE PRESCRIBED TIME-LIMIT

Effective date: 20141217

REG Reference to a national code

Ref country code: LT

Ref legal event code: MG4D

PG25 Lapsed in a contracting state announced via postgrant inform. from nat. office to epo

Ref country code: LV

Free format text: LAPSE BECAUSE OF FAILURE TO SUBMIT A TRANSLATION OF THE DESCRIPTION OR TO PAY THE FEE WITHIN THE PRESCRIBED TIME-LIMIT

Effective date: 20141217

Ref country code: SE

Free format text: LAPSE BECAUSE OF FAILURE TO SUBMIT A TRANSLATION OF THE DESCRIPTION OR TO PAY THE FEE WITHIN THE PRESCRIBED TIME-LIMIT

Effective date: 20141217

Ref country code: GR

Free format text: LAPSE BECAUSE OF FAILURE TO SUBMIT A TRANSLATION OF THE DESCRIPTION OR TO PAY THE FEE WITHIN THE PRESCRIBED TIME-LIMIT

Effective date: 20150318

REG Reference to a national code

Ref country code: AT

Ref legal event code: MK05

Ref document number: 702625

Country of ref document: AT

Kind code of ref document: T

Effective date: 20141217

PG25 Lapsed in a contracting state announced via postgrant inform. from nat. office to epo

Ref country code: RO

Free format text: LAPSE BECAUSE OF FAILURE TO SUBMIT A TRANSLATION OF THE DESCRIPTION OR TO PAY THE FEE WITHIN THE PRESCRIBED TIME-LIMIT

Effective date: 20141217

Ref country code: ES

Free format text: LAPSE BECAUSE OF FAILURE TO SUBMIT A TRANSLATION OF THE DESCRIPTION OR TO PAY THE FEE WITHIN THE PRESCRIBED TIME-LIMIT

Effective date: 20141217

Ref country code: SK

Free format text: LAPSE BECAUSE OF FAILURE TO SUBMIT A TRANSLATION OF THE DESCRIPTION OR TO PAY THE FEE WITHIN THE PRESCRIBED TIME-LIMIT

Effective date: 20141217

Ref country code: EE

Free format text: LAPSE BECAUSE OF FAILURE TO SUBMIT A TRANSLATION OF THE DESCRIPTION OR TO PAY THE FEE WITHIN THE PRESCRIBED TIME-LIMIT

Effective date: 20141217

Ref country code: CZ

Free format text: LAPSE BECAUSE OF FAILURE TO SUBMIT A TRANSLATION OF THE DESCRIPTION OR TO PAY THE FEE WITHIN THE PRESCRIBED TIME-LIMIT

Effective date: 20141217

PG25 Lapsed in a contracting state announced via postgrant inform. from nat. office to epo

Ref country code: AT

Free format text: LAPSE BECAUSE OF FAILURE TO SUBMIT A TRANSLATION OF THE DESCRIPTION OR TO PAY THE FEE WITHIN THE PRESCRIBED TIME-LIMIT

Effective date: 20141217

Ref country code: PL

Free format text: LAPSE BECAUSE OF FAILURE TO SUBMIT A TRANSLATION OF THE DESCRIPTION OR TO PAY THE FEE WITHIN THE PRESCRIBED TIME-LIMIT

Effective date: 20141217

Ref country code: IS

Free format text: LAPSE BECAUSE OF FAILURE TO SUBMIT A TRANSLATION OF THE DESCRIPTION OR TO PAY THE FEE WITHIN THE PRESCRIBED TIME-LIMIT

Effective date: 20150417

REG Reference to a national code

Ref country code: DE

Ref legal event code: R097

Ref document number: 602006044019

Country of ref document: DE

REG Reference to a national code

Ref country code: CH

Ref legal event code: PL

PG25 Lapsed in a contracting state announced via postgrant inform. from nat. office to epo

Ref country code: LU

Free format text: LAPSE BECAUSE OF FAILURE TO SUBMIT A TRANSLATION OF THE DESCRIPTION OR TO PAY THE FEE WITHIN THE PRESCRIBED TIME-LIMIT

Effective date: 20150315

Ref country code: MC

Free format text: LAPSE BECAUSE OF FAILURE TO SUBMIT A TRANSLATION OF THE DESCRIPTION OR TO PAY THE FEE WITHIN THE PRESCRIBED TIME-LIMIT

Effective date: 20141217

Ref country code: DK

Free format text: LAPSE BECAUSE OF FAILURE TO SUBMIT A TRANSLATION OF THE DESCRIPTION OR TO PAY THE FEE WITHIN THE PRESCRIBED TIME-LIMIT

Effective date: 20141217

26N No opposition filed

Effective date: 20150918

PG25 Lapsed in a contracting state announced via postgrant inform. from nat. office to epo

Ref country code: IT

Free format text: LAPSE BECAUSE OF FAILURE TO SUBMIT A TRANSLATION OF THE DESCRIPTION OR TO PAY THE FEE WITHIN THE PRESCRIBED TIME-LIMIT

Effective date: 20141217

REG Reference to a national code

Ref country code: IE

Ref legal event code: MM4A

PG25 Lapsed in a contracting state announced via postgrant inform. from nat. office to epo

Ref country code: LI

Free format text: LAPSE BECAUSE OF NON-PAYMENT OF DUE FEES

Effective date: 20150331

Ref country code: IE

Free format text: LAPSE BECAUSE OF NON-PAYMENT OF DUE FEES

Effective date: 20150315

Ref country code: CH

Free format text: LAPSE BECAUSE OF NON-PAYMENT OF DUE FEES

Effective date: 20150331

PG25 Lapsed in a contracting state announced via postgrant inform. from nat. office to epo

Ref country code: SI

Free format text: LAPSE BECAUSE OF FAILURE TO SUBMIT A TRANSLATION OF THE DESCRIPTION OR TO PAY THE FEE WITHIN THE PRESCRIBED TIME-LIMIT

Effective date: 20141217

REG Reference to a national code

Ref country code: FR

Ref legal event code: PLFP

Year of fee payment: 11

PG25 Lapsed in a contracting state announced via postgrant inform. from nat. office to epo

Ref country code: BE

Free format text: LAPSE BECAUSE OF FAILURE TO SUBMIT A TRANSLATION OF THE DESCRIPTION OR TO PAY THE FEE WITHIN THE PRESCRIBED TIME-LIMIT

Effective date: 20141217

REG Reference to a national code

Ref country code: FR

Ref legal event code: PLFP

Year of fee payment: 12

PG25 Lapsed in a contracting state announced via postgrant inform. from nat. office to epo

Ref country code: HU

Free format text: LAPSE BECAUSE OF FAILURE TO SUBMIT A TRANSLATION OF THE DESCRIPTION OR TO PAY THE FEE WITHIN THE PRESCRIBED TIME-LIMIT; INVALID AB INITIO

Effective date: 20060315

Ref country code: BG

Free format text: LAPSE BECAUSE OF FAILURE TO SUBMIT A TRANSLATION OF THE DESCRIPTION OR TO PAY THE FEE WITHIN THE PRESCRIBED TIME-LIMIT

Effective date: 20141217

PG25 Lapsed in a contracting state announced via postgrant inform. from nat. office to epo

Ref country code: CY

Free format text: LAPSE BECAUSE OF FAILURE TO SUBMIT A TRANSLATION OF THE DESCRIPTION OR TO PAY THE FEE WITHIN THE PRESCRIBED TIME-LIMIT

Effective date: 20141217

PG25 Lapsed in a contracting state announced via postgrant inform. from nat. office to epo

Ref country code: PT

Free format text: LAPSE BECAUSE OF FAILURE TO SUBMIT A TRANSLATION OF THE DESCRIPTION OR TO PAY THE FEE WITHIN THE PRESCRIBED TIME-LIMIT

Effective date: 20150417

PG25 Lapsed in a contracting state announced via postgrant inform. from nat. office to epo

Ref country code: TR

Free format text: LAPSE BECAUSE OF FAILURE TO SUBMIT A TRANSLATION OF THE DESCRIPTION OR TO PAY THE FEE WITHIN THE PRESCRIBED TIME-LIMIT

Effective date: 20141217

REG Reference to a national code

Ref country code: FR

Ref legal event code: PLFP

Year of fee payment: 13

PGFP Postgrant: annual fees paid to national office

Ref country code: NL

Payment date: 20180321

Year of fee payment: 13

Ref country code: DE

Payment date: 20180322

Year of fee payment: 13

Ref country code: GB

Payment date: 20180321

Year of fee payment: 13

PGFP Postgrant: annual fees paid to national office

Ref country code: FR

Payment date: 20180330

Year of fee payment: 13