EP1877755A1 - Method and device for evaluating flowing and electric parameters of a porous medium - Google Patents

Method and device for evaluating flowing and electric parameters of a porous medium

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Publication number
EP1877755A1
EP1877755A1 EP06743730A EP06743730A EP1877755A1 EP 1877755 A1 EP1877755 A1 EP 1877755A1 EP 06743730 A EP06743730 A EP 06743730A EP 06743730 A EP06743730 A EP 06743730A EP 1877755 A1 EP1877755 A1 EP 1877755A1
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EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
sample
fluid
displaced
pressure
volume
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
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Application number
EP06743730A
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German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Philippe Poulain
Marc Fleury
Patrick Egermann
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IFP Energies Nouvelles IFPEN
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IFP Energies Nouvelles IFPEN
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Publication date
Priority to FR0504272A priority Critical patent/FR2884923B1/en
Application filed by IFP Energies Nouvelles IFPEN filed Critical IFP Energies Nouvelles IFPEN
Priority to PCT/FR2006/000911 priority patent/WO2006114509A1/en
Publication of EP1877755A1 publication Critical patent/EP1877755A1/en
Withdrawn legal-status Critical Current

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N33/00Investigating or analysing materials by specific methods not covered by groups G01N1/00 - G01N31/00
    • G01N33/24Earth materials
    • G01N33/241Earth materials for hydrocarbon content
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N15/00Investigating characteristics of particles; Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface-area of porous materials
    • G01N15/08Investigating permeability, pore-volume, or surface area of porous materials
    • G01N15/082Investigating permeability by forcing a fluid through a sample
    • G01N15/0826Investigating permeability by forcing a fluid through a sample and measuring fluid flow rate, i.e. permeation rate or pressure change

Abstract

The invention relates to a method and device for simultaneously and with the same equipment evaluating the electric resistivity and flowing parameters of a porous medium according to experimental measurements obtainable from at least one multi-flow displacement experiment. The inventive method consists in continuously measuring over time a differential pressure between two ends of said sample, the electric resistivity thereof, at least two values of a displaced fluid production volume for each stabilisation step and in subsequently calculating the production volume continuous curve which is used for evaluating flowing parameters with the aid of a digital flow simulator. Said invention can be used, for example, in oil field operation.

Description

METHOD AND DEVICE FOR EVALUATING FLOW PARAMETERS AND ELECTRICAL PARAMETERS OF A POROUS MEDIUM

The present invention relates to a method and a device for evaluating flow parameters and electrical parameters of a porous medium, with the same apparatus, the same experiment and from the same sample of rock taken from this medium. This may be for example rocks of an area of an underground reservoir of fluids (hydrocarbon deposits, aquifer, etc.).

More particularly, the invention relates to measuring the relative permeability and electrical parameters (resistivity) of a porous medium by subjecting a sample of this medium successively to one or more phases of drainage or imbibition.

The method and device can find applications in many fields, especially in the study of oilfields. The invention then relates to the measurement of the relative permeability curves that control the dynamic behavior of the oil tanks and the electrical measurements used to calibrate the logging tools to evaluate the amount of hydrocarbon in the tank. The evaluation of the richness and the productivity of an underground deposit is obtained for example by numerical simulations starting from values, measured or determined, of certain parameters of the rocks such as the capillary pressure and their relative permeability for the fluids which are present. These parameters are usually measured in the laboratory from rock samples taken in situ by coring.

State of the art The start of production of an oil field therefore requires a precise study of hydrocarbon recovery conditions. It is a question of determining, on the one hand, the quantity of hydrocarbon in place, and on the other hand, of determining the multiphase flow parameters in the rock which constitutes the reservoir, and in particular during the injection phase of water or oil. The rocks that constitute a reservoir may be of a different nature in terms of petrophysical properties and it is common to make groupings, called "rock types", to work on samples belonging to the same family ("rock type"). For each family, it is thus necessary to perform all the petrophysical measurements to set up the simulator, calculate the quantities in place ... because these different parameters vary from one family to another. For a given "rock type", it is thus common to carefully select several samples, one being used for the determination of the capillary pressure curves (Pc), the other for the relative permeability curves (krs), another for resistivity curves, etc.

The determination of multiphasic flow parameters such as relative permeabilities and capillary pressure is also a major issue in oil exploration, whether in the evaluation phase of the deposit or in production. Relative permeabilities (krs) are used in numerical simulators to describe multiphase flows in rock, particularly when water or gas is injected to maintain pressure and recover more oil. It is these curves which, typically, allow the control of the production profile in the deposits. Laboratory experiments, conducted under pressure and reservoir temperature conditions, are commonly conducted to determine these parameters in a representative manner. In particular, the relative permeabilities are conventionally obtained by means of displacement experiments as described in the document FR 2 708 742 (US 5 679 885). These multi-flow displacement experiments consist in injecting a fluid (called injected fluid) into a sample of rock initially saturated with predominantly another fluid (called displaced fluid). The injected fluid then drains a portion of the saturating fluid out of the sample. The amount of displaced fluid thus produced by the sample is measured as a volume. This volume is called the displaced fluid production volume. As the injection proceeds, the amount of displaced fluid produced increases, that is, the volume of production of the displaced fluid increases. Then, we reach a stabilization of this volume, that is to say, that the volume does not increase anymore. This corresponds to a stop of the production of the displaced fluid out of the sample. The injection flow rate is then increased to drain a portion of the saturating fluid still in place in the sample, until a new stabilization stage is obtained. The injection flow rate is thus increased several times (after each stabilization stage), and for each of these stages, the evolution of the following parameters, which constitute the experimental data, is measured: the differential pressure, for one of the fluids , on both sides of the sample, denoted AP '(t), the displaced fluid production volume, denoted V (tj), and the local saturation for one of the two fluids (injected or displaced) and for each injection stage, denoted S (t λ ), S (t 2 ), ... The injected fluid may, for example, be water and the fluid displaced from the oil. The relative permeabilities are then obtained by a step of interpreting the experimental data analytically, but also numerically using a flow simulator, so as to take into account all the physical phenomena (capillary pressure, gravity) that influence the experimental data obtained. Such an interpretation is described for example in FR 2,708,742 (US 5,679,885).

Also known by this document, a device for performing this type of multi-flow displacement experiments.

With regard to the determination of electrical parameters, the most common approach is also to perform fixed flow or pressure displacement experiments. The resistivity of a solid sample can be measured by means of electrodes which are placed in contact with its surface at selected locations between which an electric current is passed. The measurement of the difference of potential appearing between the locations of the electrodes, gives directly the measurement of resistivity. For the measurements to be representative, it is important that the contact of the electrodes with the surface is the best possible. A known method consists, for example, in placing the test sample in an elastic flexible sheath. The electrodes are placed between the sample and the sheath and connected thereto by electrical conductors to a system for measuring the electrical conductivity. The sheath is placed in a containment. A fluid under pressure is admitted into the chamber which has the effect of pressing the sheath and therefore the electrodes against the sample. Such a method using a fluid under pressure to press a sheath against a sample is used for example in the petrophysical tools described in documents FR 2 708 742 (US 5 679 885) and FR 2 724 460 (US 5 610 524) or in US 5 105 154.

A device making it possible to carry out such fixed displacement displacement experiments is described, for example, in document FR 2 708 742 (US Pat. No. 5,679,885), or else at pressure imposed by centrifugation in document FR 2 758 881 (GB 2 322 942). ). Also known from document FR 2 778 449 a device for performing such resistivity measurements in reservoir conditions while measuring and monitoring the capillary pressure levels in the rock during the drainage phases. This makes it possible to trace the evolution of the resistivity index as a function of the saturation in brine of the sample. A ceramic placed at the outlet of the sample makes it possible to descend to extremely low levels of saturation, which is particularly useful for covering the saturation range of a large number of reservoirs. The resistivity data are then used directly by the loggers to estimate the initial oil saturations and thus the quantities of oil in place. Moreover, this device is also used to obtain the same type of results during the imbibition phases (spontaneous and forced). The brine is then injected into the forced flow sample through the ceramic. Several phases with increasing injection rates are generally carried out so as to reduce the oil saturation in the sample to its residual value. The amount of hydrocarbon is then determined from these electrical resistivity measurements. The principle rests on the fact that the resistivity of a saturated sample with brine or oil depends on the saturation in water because the oil is not a conducting fluid. The evaluation of flow parameters (krs) and electrical parameters therefore requires different equipment, and therefore different samples for each device. However, the evaluation of the richness and the productivity of an underground deposit requires a coherence between the measurements carried out on these different samples.

The method and the device according to the invention allow the evaluation of the multiphase flow parameters with a complete and precise taking into account of the capillary effects as well as the electrical parameters of a porous medium, with only one type of apparatus, a same experiment and from the same sample of rock taken from this medium.

The method and the device according to the invention

The invention relates to a method for jointly evaluating the electrical resistivity and flow parameters of a porous medium from at least one. displacement experience of multi-flow type. This type of experiment consists in injecting a first fluid, called an injected fluid, into a sample of the initially saturated medium with a second fluid, called a displaced fluid, in which the injected fluid injection flow rate is increased at least once after a stabilization stage of the volume of the displaced fluid production. The method according to the invention comprises the following steps: the differential pressure between two ends of said sample (AP '(t)) and the electrical resistivity of said sample (R (t)) are continuously measured as a function of time; the volume of production of the fluid displaced at each stabilization step (V (t λ ), V (t 2 )) is measured;

a relationship is estimated between the electrical resistivity of the sample and the volume of fluid production displaced from said resistivity measurements (R (t)) and said displaced fluid production volume values (V Xt 1 ), V (t 2 )); a continuous curve of production volume of the fluid displaced as a function of time (FJf ^) is established from said relation; flow parameters are estimated from said continuous differential pressure measurement (AP '(t)) and said continuous curve (V (t)) using a digital flow simulator.

The relation between the electrical resistivity and the volume of the displaced fluid production can be further estimated from a curve of the resistivity as a function of the saturation of the sample at the end of the plateau.

According to the invention, in order to measure the electrical resistivity, it is possible to dispose radially of the electrodes for measuring the electrical resistivity around the sample and to use a sample of short length, typically of the order of 3 cm.

The invention also relates to a device for producing on a porous solid sample (S) multi-flow displacement experiments. This device comprises a confinement cell (1) for containing said sample (S) saturated with a first fluid, called displaced fluid, and closed at one end by a first cylindrical nozzle (16) connected to pressurized injection means ( 5a, 5b) of a second fluid, called injected fluid, and closed at the other end by a second cylindrical nozzle (15) having a fluid circulation system (4a, 4b, 4c). The device according to the invention is characterized in that it comprises:

a semi-permeable porous plate (C) placed between said sample and said first end-piece;

means (6) for continuous measurements of electrical resistivity of said sample; means (3) for measuring the production volume of the displaced fluid for each stabilization stage; means (23, 22) for continuously measuring the differential pressure of one of the fluids on either side of the sample, between the sample and the semi-permeable porous plate. According to the invention, the first cylindrical nozzle may comprise a first cylinder placed (18) in a second concentric cylinder (17).

The means for continuous measurement of the differential pressure may comprise at least one pressure-taking duct (22) connected to a differential pressure sensor (23), this duct possibly comprising a set of longitudinal grooves (27) machined on the internal surface. said second cylinder (17) or on the outer surface of said first cylinder (18).

Finally, according to the invention, the pressure tapping duct may be adapted to prevent entrapment of air during the installation of the first nozzle.

Other characteristics and advantages of the method according to the invention will appear on reading the following description of nonlimiting examples of embodiments, with reference to the appended figures and described below.

Brief presentation of the figures

Figure 1 schematically shows a device for performing multi-flow displacement experiments.

FIG. 2 illustrates in detail the confinement cell (1) of the device according to the invention. - Figure 3 illustrates in detail the injection nozzle (16) of the device according to the invention.

- Figure 4 illustrates an embodiment of the device according to the invention wherein the second cylinder (18) has grooves and channels (24-27) for making a pressure measurement between the ceramic and the sample. FIG. 5 shows the saturation points (M) obtained at the end of the injection period as a function of the corresponding resistance measurements (Re), as well as the resistance curve (CE) as a function of the saturation in brine (Sw) .

Figure 6 illustrates, for each of the three flow rates, the production volume (OP) and the differential pressure (PD) curves as a function of time. FIG. 7 shows three analytically obtained capillary pressure points (PCA) as a function of saturation (S n ) and an analytical law (PCHM) of capillary pressure of the power type.

FIG. 8A shows three experimental pairs (CE) of injection flow (q) and differential pressure (DP) values as well as the result of an exponential analytical expression (LA).

FIG. 8B illustrates the results obtained in terms of analytic kr inJ (I <ra jnJ ) as a function of saturation (S w .

FIG. 9 illustrates the calibration of the experimental data by presenting, for each of the three flow rates, simulated production volume curves (OPS) as a function of time and simulated differential pressure curves (PDS).

FIG. 10 illustrates the relative permeability curves (krs) obtained after simulation.

Figure 11 illustrates the saturation profiles obtained by simulation.

Detailed description of the device and the method

1. The device

The device according to the invention makes it possible to produce, on the same sample from a porous medium, multi-flow displacement experiments during which it is possible to carry out petrophysical measurements (resistivity, saturation, differential pressure, etc.). .) to jointly evaluate the parameters of multiphase flows (relative permeabilities) and the resistivity curve.

This device is shown schematically in FIG. 1. This device comprises an elongate confinement cell 1, which may be cylindrical, and which contains the sample to be tested S. This cell is placed inside a thermostatically controlled enclosure 2 of which the temperature can generally rise up to 150 ° C. The upper face of the cell 1 is equipped with a system for producing a fluid flow leading to a sweep of the upper face of the sample. Indeed, for the sake of precision, the output face of the sample is scanned at high speed by the brine in a closed circuit so as to rapidly circulate the integrity of the oil produced from the sample to a system 3 for determining the volume of fluid expelled and comprising a system for separating and detecting the oil level as graduated burettes. This circulation system consists of a High Flow Rate (HFR) pump 4a which injects brine towards the upper surface of the sample through a channel 4b, as well as a channel 4c which evacuates brine and oil from the face of the sample to the oil level separation and detection system 3. At the opposite side, the device includes a low flow rate (LFR) pump 5a which injects brine to the bottom surface of the sample through a channel 5b. The device also comprises a resistivity measuring device of a known type ("RLC meter" impedance meter) 6, an "isolator" 8 as well as electrodes 9 in direct contact with the sample S.

Figure 2 illustrates in more detail the device at the level of the containment cell. The sample to be tested S is placed inside a deformable sheath 10, and the assembly is placed in the chamber 1. The annular space 11 around the sheath 10 is placed in communication with a source of pressurized fluid 12 delivering fluid through an opening 13 formed in the outer wall of the chamber 1, and a pipe 14 connected to this opening. It can be a compressed gas cylinder, a cylinder or a hydraulic pump. The application of this fluid makes it possible to put the sample to be tested under a specific pressure.

A porous semi-permeable plate C (impervious to the displaced fluid contained in the sample but permeable to the injected fluid), for example a ceramic, is placed at the base of the sample S, that is to say at the level of the injection face, to obtain extremely low levels of saturation as described in the French patent application 03 / 15.199 of the applicant.

The device according to the invention comprises two cylindrical tips 15 and 16 for closing the confinement cell: an upper nozzle 15 (sweep tip) located at the top of the sample, the fluid circulation side, and a lower nozzle 16 (injection nozzle) located at the base of the sample, on the side of the fluid injection. The sweep tip 15 is made of a very stainless steel cylinder such as hastelloy. Through this cylinder, the two channels 4b and 4c are oriented parallel to the axis of the enclosure.

The injection nozzle comprises two concentric cylinders 17, 18. The first cylinder 17, hollow, is permanently placed in contact with the sheath. It allows to withdraw the second cylinder 18, full, without changing the pressure conditions exerted by the sheath on the sample. This first cylinder therefore has a diameter substantially equivalent to that of the sample. The size of its wall must be large enough not to deform under the effect of the pressure exerted by the sheath, but sufficiently reduced so that the second cylinder, whose base surface is greater than that of the ceramic, can be embedded. This second cylinder 18 is described in detail in Figure 3. It is also very stainless steel such as hastelloy. It has a channel 19, parallel to its axis, passing through both sides, and in which a fluid can be injected. On the side in contact with the sample, the cylinder has a cavity 20 for containing the ceramic plate C, while ensuring contact between the plate and the sample.

The seal between the two cylinders of the injection nozzle 16 is provided by "O-Ring" seals 21 arranged between the two cylinders.

The presence of the semi-permeable ceramic makes it possible to obtain extremely low levels of saturation. But on the other hand, it constitutes a major disadvantage for the determination of the relative permeabilities. Indeed, because of its low permeability, the differential pressure generated on the set "ceramic + sample" is so strong that the measurement of the overall differential pressure does not detect the response of the sample. The differential pressure produced on the sample itself is very low in comparison. This makes the correction of a global measurement (ceramic and sample) of differential pressure difficult and imprecise in practice.

This is why the device according to the invention has, at the level of the injection nozzle, a pressure tap 22 (FIG. 2) between the sample and the ceramic, allowing, using a differential sensor pressure 23, to measure the pressure differential produced on the sample itself and not on the set "ceramic + sample".

According to a first embodiment, the second cylinder comprises this pressure tap 22 between the sample and the ceramic for measuring the differential pressure produced on the sample itself.

According to a second embodiment (FIG. 4), this second cylinder also has a circular groove 24 perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder. This groove is placed at a height between the ceramic C and the seals 21. This second cylinder has at least a second channel 25 parallel to its axis, passing from its base to a height between the circular groove 24 and the joints 21. This second channel 25 is in communication with the circular groove 24. Finally, inside this cylinder at the level where this second channel stops, at least a third channel 26, perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder, allows to connect the second channel 25 to the periphery of the cylinder, between the sample and the seal. At least one duct comprising vertical grooves 27 (parallel to the axis of the cylinder) leaving the sample (at the periphery of the porous plate) and stopping at the height of the third channel 26, is arranged between the two cylinders. At least one of these grooves is in communication with the third channel. According to the embodiment of Figure 4, these branches are 4 in number and are arranged regularly around the periphery of the cylinders. According to the embodiments, these vertical grooves are either on the surface (necessarily external because the cylinder is solid) of the central cylinder 18, or on the inner surface of the peripheral cylinder 17.

In this second embodiment (FIG. 4), the pressure tap 22 consists of the duct comprising vertical grooves 27. In fact, this duct makes it possible to take a pressure tap between the ceramic and the sample, which pressure can be measured at the output of channel 25.

Moreover, thanks to this injection nozzle 16 having grooves 27, it is possible to mount the movable cylinder 18 without trapping air.

This device also makes it possible to measure the differential pressure on the sample during the experiment without taking into account the ceramic, using the pressure measuring means -23 disposed at the outlet of the second channel 25 parallel to the axis of the cylinder.

Thus, the device makes it possible to perform multi-flow displacement experiments in reservoir conditions while performing:

continuous measurements of electrical resistivity of the sample, denoted R (t) using the apparatus 6;

- Spot measurements of the volume of the fluid production displaced for each injection stage, denoted V (t ι ), V (t 2 ), ...), using the system 3;

continuous measurements of the differential pressure, for one of the fluids, on either side of the sample, denoted ΔP '(t), by means of the differential pressure sensor 23 and the pressure tap 22 placed between the ceramic and the sample.

This device operates as follows: Consider the case of a sample initially saturated with oil for example, which is placed in the chamber 1 and pressurized by injection of fluid into the annular space 11 around the sheath 10 By means of the pump 5a, via the channel 5b, water is injected under pressure with a flow rate fixed at a first end of the sample. At the opposite end, a circulation of water (4a, 4b, 4c) is established at a constant low pressure (atmospheric pressure for example or a fixed pressure imposed by a fluid reservoir at a reference pressure) and with low flow This water is taken by the system 3. The water is injected by the pump 4a into the channel 4b, and it leaves through the channel 4c driving the fluids (water and oil) as they are expelled out of In this way, the continuity between the circulating fluid and the oil expelled from the sample is ensured at all times.

2. The method of interpretation of the measures

The method according to the invention makes it possible to use this device to evaluate relative permeability curves despite the presence of the ceramic and the length short sample used (typically of the order of 3 cm) and with a full and accurate consideration of capillary effects. The method allows at the same time to determine the amount of fluid displaced in place in the medium.

In the context of the description, we will place in a particular application which consists of injecting brine in a sample saturated mainly in oil with a reduced saturation in brine. This method is applied in the context of oil exploration to determine lcr curves or to vary the water saturation in a sample. It would not be departing from the scope of the invention, if the fluids were inverted or if any two immiscible fluids were used.

Stage 1: Multi-flow type displacement experiment and petrophysical measurements

First of all, a multi-flow type displacement experiment, well known to those skilled in the art and described for example in Egermann P. and Lenormand R., is carried out. A new methodology to evaluate the impact of local heterogeneity petrophysical parameters ' (1st, Pc): application on carbonate rocks, SCA No. 2004-18, Sciety of Core Analyst, Abu Dhabi, 2004.

The method essentially consists in placing a solid sample (S) saturated with a first fluid (of oil for example) in a closed containment cell (1), injecting at a rate fixed by pressure means (5a, 5b) another fluid under pressure (a brine for example) at a first end of the chamber and sweeping the opposite end with a low pressure fluid circulated by pumping means (4a, 4b, 4c), which drives outside the drained fluid.

Then, a new injection is performed with a different flow. The number of injection is a function of the quality and the time required to obtain the measurements.

During this experiment, we realize:

continuous measurements of electrical resistivity of the sample, denoted R (t);

- Spot measurements of the volume of fluid production displaced for each injection stage, denoted V (t λ ), V (t 2 ), ...); continuous measurements of the differential pressure, for one of the fluids, on either side of the sample, denoted AP '(t).

Step 2: Determination of a continuous curve of the production volume of the displaced fluid as a function of time

A continuous curve of the production volume of the fluid displaced as a function of time V (t) is established. The device according to the invention makes it possible to take spot measurements of the volume of displaced fluid production V (t x ), V (t 2 ), ... It would then be possible to estimate directly from these point measurements. a continuous curve V (t). However, there is no prior information on the shape of the curve V (t). Moreover, having only few measuring points of the volume of the production of displaced fluid V (t ι ), V (t 2 ), ... the estimation of a complex curve is not conceivable. This is why the method according to the invention takes advantage of continuous measurements of the electrical resistivity of the sample which gives the "shape" of the curve V (t). From pairs known for these two types of values, it is possible to determine a law connecting the resistivity to the volume of displaced fluid production. This determination can be done, for example, using a regression because this relation is linear or quasi-linear, which makes it possible to commit less error on this estimate than on the direct estimation of the curve V (t ). Then, this law is applied to transform the continuous resistivity measurements into a continuous curve of production volume of the fluid displaced as a function of time V (t).

It is conventional in the petrophysical field to express the various parameters as a function of the saturation of one of the fluids. Thus, whether it is to represent capillary pressures, relative permeabilities, resistivity measurements, these quantities are represented as a function of saturation because it is a quantity that does not depend on the pore volume. This makes it easy to compare the results obtained on different samples whose macroscopic properties are never exactly the same. This is why, according to one embodiment, the curve of the volume of production of the fluid displaced as a function of time V (t) is first determined by a curve of the resistivity as a function of saturation.

To do this, from the displaced fluid production volume values VCt 1 ), V (t 2 ), ... measured at the end of each injection period, and from the injected fluid volume (V w (t ι ), V w (t 2 ), ...), we deduce mean saturation values in injected fluid (S w ) and displaced fluid (S 0 ):

with: S w! the initial saturation in injected fluid

VP the pore volume of the sample (measured beforehand, for example by an NMR technique)

From known pairs of saturation and resistivity it is possible to determine a law connecting the resistivity to saturation. This determination can be done, for example, using a linear regression or a nonlinear regression. Then, this law is applied to transform the continuous resistivity measurements into a continuous saturation curve as a function of time.

Then from this curve, one logically deduces the continuous curve of production volume of the displaced fluid as a function of time.

It should be noted that in order to establish such curves, it is necessary that the point value of electrical resistivity used be the least sensitive possible to the saturation profiles of the sample. This is why these relations are obtained preferentially with a radial geometry of measuring electrodes and a short sample.

Step 3: Estimation of the polyphasic flow parameters

Multiphase flow parameters are estimated from the continuous differential pressure measurements and from the continuous curve of production volume of the displaced fluid as a function of time. Many techniques, well known those skilled in the art, allow this step to be carried out. For example, the method described by Egermann and Lenormand can be used:

Egermann P. and Lenormand R., "A New Methodology to Evaluate the Impact of Local Heterogeneity on Petrophysical Parameters (Ia ', Pc): Application on Carbonate Roclcs", SCA No. 2004-18, Sciety of Core Analysts, Abu Dhabi , 2004.

However, in terms of the interpretation of the measurements obtained from the device according to the invention, the delicate point relates to the short length of the sample. The samples conventionally used to determine the parameters of multiphase flows are generally longer (6 - 10 cm). This short length requires a complete consideration of the capillary effects to obtain consistent and representative results in terms of relative permeabilities and to take into account the non-uniformity of the saturation profile. The most suitable injection procedure is based on a multi-flow injection with the expectation of stabilization of the volumes of displaced fluid production, which makes it possible to collect information on the capillary pressure and the relative permeabilities of the injected phase analytically before passage on digital simulator.

Analytical interpretation of the results:

The step of analytical interpretation of the experimental data is described in the applicant's patent application 04 / 09,273. The stabilization state (of the production volume of the fluid displaced) corresponding to a balance between the viscous forces and the capillary forces, it becomes possible to evaluate, for a given saturation value, both the mean value of the pressure. capillary on the scale of the sample analyzed, denoted Pc, the average value of the permeability relative to the injected fluid, denoted kr inj , as well as the average value of the permeability relative to the displaced fluid, denoted kr dep . To do this, one can for example use the expressions developed in the context of the semi-dynamic method described in FR 2,708,742 (US 5,679,885).

In this method, the input saturation of the sample [S 1 ] is determined using the following formula:

where: - Is the saturation at the entrance

q is the flow rate of the fluid injected into the sample

- ΔP ι is the differential pressure measured at the inlet of the sample

- S is the average saturation of one of the two fluids. S can be calculated from the volume of production of displaced fluid measured at the sample outlet (V (J x ), V (t 2 ), ...).

At the end of each injection period, when stabilization. is reached, it is important to note that the pressure at the displaced fluid is uniform and equal to the outlet pressure (P t ° ep ). Thus, the local pressure of the injected fluid corresponds directly to the capillary pressure plus the outlet pressure. In the case where the stabilization of the volume of production of the displaced fluid is not quite achieved (pressure in the displaced non-uniform fluid), it should be noted that the pressure profiles in the two fluids are smooth and that It is also possible to directly use simulated capillary pressure profiles to derive local properties. Thus, at the outlet of the sample, it is considered that the pressure of the injected fluid is equal to the pressure of the fluid displaced. Insofar as the capillary pressure is defined as the difference between these two pressures, the capillary pressure at the outlet (P °) is zero: P ° = 0.

At the inlet of the sample, if the displaced fluid pressure is zero (P k ° p = 0), the differential pressure at the inlet, which corresponds to the inlet pressure of the injected fluid, is equal to the pressure input capillary {P c '): P ^ = AP' (P ^ = ΔP '+ PJ ep if

Thus, at each stage, an input saturation S 'is calculated, and the input differential pressure which corresponds to the input capillary pressure is measured. In this way we obtain a set of pairs, one for each level, (S '; P ^). We determine kr inj using the following formula, for a given input saturation and therefore a given AP '(for each level):

where: μ is the viscosity of the injected fluid

L is the length of the sample

K is the permeability A is the injection surface

To determine kr dep , one can use an interpretation of JBN type well known to those skilled in the art, and described for example in the following document:

Johnson E. F., Bossler D.P. and Naumann V.O .: "Calculation of relative permeability from displacement experiments", Tr ans. AIME, 216, 370-372, 1959 ..

This method requires measuring the saturation output S 0 .

For each injection stage, a saturation <S ", Pc [S '], kr ! NJ [S' j and kr dep \ S °) are thus obtained. The set of permeabilities relative to the fluid displaced and to the injected fluid. will be noted krs.

Numerical interpretation of the results:

After evaluating at each step, both a saturation value (S '), a mean value of capillary pressure (P 0 [S' J), a value of permeability relative to the injected fluid (kr inJ [S 'j)). and a relative fluid permeability value displaced

(kr dep [S ° J], a step of numerical interpretation of the experimental measurements is carried out.

We then proceed as follows: for example, using centrifugation experiments well known to those skilled in the art, a curve of mean capillary pressure values as a function of saturation is determined on a sample which is close to the sample studied and of properties Similar. We denote by P ^ (S) this curve;

the curve P ^ (S) is refined. A first method is to take into account variations in permeability, porosity and interfacial tension through the Leverett function. This function is described in the following documents:

- Leverett M.C .: "Capillary behavior in porous solids", Trans. AIME, 142, 152-168, 1941. - Leverett M.C, Lewis W.B. and True M.E .: "Dimensional Model Studies of

Oil-field behavior ", AIME Trans., 146, 175-193, 1942.

A second method is to use the results of the analytical interpretation step of the multi-flow displacement experiment. Indeed, this step for calculating capillary pressure values (P c '\ S' j) for a certain saturation number (input capillary pressure and input saturation for each injection stage), it is possible to normalize the capillary pressure curve P c κ (S) from these points. That is, the curve Pc (S) is deformed so that it passes through these precisely calculated points on the sample studied. This normalized curve is noted Pc (S) -

- Then, using P C (S) and the initial set of krs resulting from the analytical interpretation of the experimental data, a flow simulator is used to calibrate the experimental data (AP '(t) and V ( t)) by deforming the curves of krs until reaching the minimum of an objective function.

At the end of this digital interpretation phase, we thus have a set of krs corresponding to the calibration of the differential pressure (AP '(t)), production volume curves (V (φ) and which takes into account account the end capillary effects. Example of application to a real case

General data

The treated example was conducted on a carbonate rock of low permeability under reservoir conditions (101 ° C.). The characteristics of the sample and fluids (oil and brine) are summarized in Table 1.

Table 1: Sample and fluid characteristics Step 1: Multi-flow type displacement experiment and electrical measurements

Three periods with distinct brine injection rates were considered during the experiment: 0.1, 0.2 and 1 cm 3 / h. These rather low flow rates were chosen so as to progressively increase in pressure so as to gradually explore the capillary properties of the sample.

Step 2: determination of a continuous curve of production volume of the displaced fluid as a function of time

In this example, the continuous curve of production volume of the fluid displaced as a function of time was obtained from a curve of the resistance R e (resulting from the resistivity measurements) as a function of saturation. FIG. 5 shows a comparison between the saturation points (deduced from the volume of the production of displaced fluid) obtained at the end of the injection period for a given flow rate as well as the corresponding resistance measurements (M). A very good correlation between these two measurements is observed which makes it possible to propose a power-type law for the curve of the resistance R e as a function of saturation:

R e = 33.74 S, 3

FIG. 5 represents the resistance (R e ) as a function of the saturation in brine (Sw). The circles represent the measurement points (M) and the continuous line represents the power type law chosen for the resistance curve R e as a function of the saturation (CE).

The continuous measurement of the resistance then makes it possible to calculate the evolution of the average saturation over time which is then converted in terms of volume of production to obtain a more standard representation in terms of relative permeability. FIG. 6 illustrates, for each of the three flows, the production volume curves (OP) as a function of time (T) thus obtained and the differential pressure curves (PD) obtained by continuous measurements. The spot measurements of the volume of displaced fluid production V (t- i ), V (t 2 ) are also indicated at the level of the first two stabilization stages.

The curves obtained are quite typical of a multi-rate injection experiment with additional oil production at each rate increment ("bumps"). After an increase at the time of the flow change, the differential pressure then gradually decreases as the oil is produced. The slight fluctuations in the differential pressure are due to temperature variation effects in the laboratory that have been identified and corrected. Step 3: Estimation of the polyphasic flow parameters

1- Analytical interpretation

At each stage, an average saturation in brine S w is calculated, and the differential pressure at the inlet which corresponds to the input capillary pressure (P 0 1 ) is measured. In this way we obtain a set of pairs, one for each level, (S w , P c ι ). In the framework of this experiment, we thus obtain three analytical points corresponding to the three flows of the forced part of the imbibition. Figure 7 shows these three capillary pressure points obtained analytically (PCA) versus saturation (S w ). The rounding suggested by the analytical points shows that the sample has at least partial wettability to the oil. The points served as the basis for calibrating a power type capillary pressure analytic (PCHM) to introduce a continuous curve into a flow simulator to drive the simulation. This curve is also illustrated in FIG.

The calculation of kr inJ analytically (kra htJ ) requires the values of the derivative of the injection rate q with respect to the differential pressure. Figure 8A shows the three experimental pairs (EC) of injection flow (q) and differential pressure (DP) values as well as the result of an exponential analytical (LA) to avoid carrying out manual calculations of the derivative. The results obtained in terms of analytical data ( hr in .) Show in FIG. 8B that the limit point of kra inj at Sorw (residual oil saturation) remains low, less than 0.1.

2- Numerical interpretation

All of the preceding parts have been used as a basis to complete a data set for the flow simulator for a reversal of relative permeabilities (krs). Inversion gives a simulated relative permeability set

(krs) in good agreement with the experimental data. Figure 9 illustrates this calibration of the experimental data. This figure shows FIG. 6 on which simulated production volume curves (OPS) as a function of time and simulated differential pressure curves have been represented for each of the three flow rates.

(PDS).

The relative permeability curves (krs) obtained after simulation have a quite classic appearance as can be seen in FIG. 10. The initial point of the curve of krs d is quite low (0.14) because of the presence of a significant saturation in brine at the beginning of the experiment (0.46). Otherwise there is a good coherence with the krs inj points calculated analytically (kra inj) ^ Validation

The simulated saturation profiles (PO1, O2 and P1) are represented to evaluate the importance of the calculation error on the average saturation in the sample from the resistance measurement. Indeed, everything is based on a calibration RI (Sw); gold curve

RI (Sw) is established from the measurement of the average resistance and the average saturation in the presence of a saturation profile. It is desired to evaluate whether the presence of this saturation profile, which changes shape according to the injection rate, plays a lot on the calibration. These profiles obtained by simulation are represented in FIG. 11, where L represents the distance with respect to the injection face of the sample, and PO1 represents the profile simulated for a flow rate of 0.1 cm 3 / h, P02 represents the simulated profile for a flow rate of 0.2 cm 3 / h and P 1 represents the simulated profile for a flow rate of 1 cm 3 / h.

Table 2 below shows the comparison between the average saturations measured experimentally at the end of each flow rate period and the saturation values obtained by averaging the simulated profile with a parallel system, that is to say such that the see the electrodes placed in radial. So we compare what is measured in the burette output (total variation of saturation) with what actually measured electrodes in the middle of the sample (between the first and second centimeter). It is noted that the difference between the two measurements does not exceed 1%, which remains quite acceptable compared to the accuracy of the calibration and which validates the approach adopted to evaluate the curve of production volume from the resistance measurement.

Table 2: Evaluation of the relevance of the resistance curve as a function of the saturation used

Claims

1) Method for jointly evaluating the electrical resistivity and flow parameters of a porous medium, from at least one multi-flow type displacement experiment of injecting a first fluid, called an injected fluid, into a sample said medium initially saturated with a second fluid, called displaced fluid, in which the injection rate of the injected fluid is increased at least once after a stabilization step of the volume of production of the displaced fluid, said method comprises the following steps: the pressure differential between two ends of said sample (AP '(t)) and the electrical resistivity of said sample (Rft) are continuously measured as a function of time; the volume of production of the fluid displaced at each stabilization step (V {tx), V (t2)) is measured;
a relationship is estimated between the electrical resistivity of the sample and the volume of fluid production displaced from said resistivity measurements (R (t)) and said displaced fluid production volume values (V (tx), V (t2));
a continuous curve of production volume of the fluid displaced as a function of time (V (t)) is established from said relation; flow parameters are estimated from said continuous differential pressure measurement (AP '(t)) and said continuous curve (V (t)) by means of a digital flow simulator.
2) The method of claim 1 wherein said relationship is further estimated from a plot of resistivity versus saturation of the sample at the end of the plateau.
3) Method according to one of the preceding claims, wherein is disposed radially electrodes for measuring the electrical resistivity around said sample and using a sample of short length, typically of the order of 3 cm, to measure said electrical resistivity.
  4) Device for producing on a porous solid sample (S) multi-flow displacement experiments, comprising a confinement cell (1) for containing said sample (S) saturated with a first fluid, called displaced fluid, and closed at a end by a first cylindrical nozzle (16) connected to means for injection under pressure (5a, 5b) of a second fluid, called injected fluid, and closed at the other end by a second cylindrical nozzle (15) comprising a fluid circulation system (4a, 4b, 4c), said device also comprising a semi-permeable porous plate (C) placed between said sample and said first nozzle, means (6) for continuous measurements of electrical resistivity of said sample, means (3) for measuring the production volume of the fluid displaced for each stabilization stage,
 said device being characterized in that it comprises means (23, 22) for continuous measurements of the differential pressure of one of the fluids on either side of the sample, between the sample and the semi-porous plate. permeable.
5) Device according to claim 4, wherein said first cylindrical nozzle comprises a first cylinder placed (18) in a second concentric cylinder (17).
6) Device according to one of claims 4 and 5, wherein said means for continuous measurements of the differential pressure comprises at least one pressure-taking duct (22) connected to a differential pressure sensor (23). 7) Device according to claim 6, wherein said conduit comprises a set of longitudinal grooves (27).
8) Device according to claim 7, wherein said set of longitudinal grooves (27) is machined on the outer surface of said first cylinder (18).
9) Device according to claim 7, wherein said set of longitudinal grooves (27) is machined on the inner surface of said second cylinder (17).
10) Device according to one of claims 6 and 7, wherein said pressure tapping duct is adapted to prevent air trapping during the installation of said first nozzle.
EP06743730A 2005-04-26 2006-04-24 Method and device for evaluating flowing and electric parameters of a porous medium Withdrawn EP1877755A1 (en)

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