EP1843044B1 - Axial compressor for a gas turbine mechanism - Google Patents

Axial compressor for a gas turbine mechanism Download PDF

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Publication number
EP1843044B1
EP1843044B1 EP07090067A EP07090067A EP1843044B1 EP 1843044 B1 EP1843044 B1 EP 1843044B1 EP 07090067 A EP07090067 A EP 07090067A EP 07090067 A EP07090067 A EP 07090067A EP 1843044 B1 EP1843044 B1 EP 1843044B1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
rotor
fiber
rotor drum
wound
axial
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Active
Application number
EP07090067A
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
EP1843044A1 (en
Inventor
Karl Schreiber
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Rolls Royce Deutschland Ltd and Co KG
Original Assignee
Rolls Royce Deutschland Ltd and Co KG
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE102006015838A priority Critical patent/DE102006015838A1/en
Application filed by Rolls Royce Deutschland Ltd and Co KG filed Critical Rolls Royce Deutschland Ltd and Co KG
Publication of EP1843044A1 publication Critical patent/EP1843044A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP1843044B1 publication Critical patent/EP1843044B1/en
Active legal-status Critical Current
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE - DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04DNON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
    • F04D29/00Details, component parts, or accessories
    • F04D29/26Rotors specially for elastic fluids
    • F04D29/32Rotors specially for elastic fluids for axial flow pumps
    • F04D29/321Rotors specially for elastic fluids for axial flow pumps for axial flow compressors
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01DNON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, e.g. STEAM TURBINES
    • F01D5/00Blades; Blade-carrying members; Heating, heat-insulating, cooling or antivibration means on the blades or the members
    • F01D5/02Blade-carrying members, e.g. rotors
    • F01D5/06Rotors for more than one axial stage, e.g. of drum or multiple disc type; Details thereof, e.g. shafts, shaft connections
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01DNON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, e.g. STEAM TURBINES
    • F01D5/00Blades; Blade-carrying members; Heating, heat-insulating, cooling or antivibration means on the blades or the members
    • F01D5/30Fixing blades to rotors; Blade roots ; Blade spacers
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01DNON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, e.g. STEAM TURBINES
    • F01D5/00Blades; Blade-carrying members; Heating, heat-insulating, cooling or antivibration means on the blades or the members
    • F01D5/30Fixing blades to rotors; Blade roots ; Blade spacers
    • F01D5/3092Protective layers between blade root and rotor disc surfaces, e.g. anti-friction layers
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE - DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04DNON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
    • F04D29/00Details, component parts, or accessories
    • F04D29/02Selection of particular materials
    • F04D29/023Selection of particular materials especially adapted for elastic fluid pumps
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE - DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04DNON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
    • F04D29/00Details, component parts, or accessories
    • F04D29/26Rotors specially for elastic fluids
    • F04D29/32Rotors specially for elastic fluids for axial flow pumps
    • F04D29/321Rotors specially for elastic fluids for axial flow pumps for axial flow compressors
    • F04D29/322Blade mountings
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05DINDEXING SCHEME FOR ASPECTS RELATING TO NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, GAS-TURBINES OR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F05D2300/00Materials; Properties thereof
    • F05D2300/40Organic materials
    • F05D2300/43Synthetic polymers, e.g. plastics; Rubber
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05DINDEXING SCHEME FOR ASPECTS RELATING TO NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, GAS-TURBINES OR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F05D2300/00Materials; Properties thereof
    • F05D2300/40Organic materials
    • F05D2300/43Synthetic polymers, e.g. plastics; Rubber
    • F05D2300/433Polyamides, e.g. NYLON
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05DINDEXING SCHEME FOR ASPECTS RELATING TO NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, GAS-TURBINES OR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F05D2300/00Materials; Properties thereof
    • F05D2300/60Properties or characteristics given to material by treatment or manufacturing
    • F05D2300/603Composites; e.g. fibre-reinforced

Description

  • The invention relates to an axial compressor, in particular a high-pressure compressor for a gas turbine engine, according to the features of the preamble of claim 1. Herein is understood by a one-piece component, a rotor drum, which is made of a single part or a plurality of rigidly connected parts.
  • An axial compressor comprises at least one rotor consisting of rotor blades mounted on the periphery of a shaft driven by the turbine, and a stator blade ring following the rotor in each compressor stage. In one of a plurality of - each consisting of a rotor blade ring and a stationary vane - stages existing compressor, the successive rotors are connected by welding to a drum. Apart from a "blisk", in which the blades are integrally formed on the rotor shaft, the rotor blades are usually mounted either in a common, circumferential on the circumference of the rotor shaft groove or in individual, juxtaposed axially arranged grooves. High centrifugal forces act on the rotor blades which are arranged on a hollow rotor shaft and thus at a distance from the central axis of the compressor, rotating at high speed. The loading of the blades by centrifugal forces is counteracted by the formation of the rotor shaft as a rotor disk whose largest mass fraction is close to the compressor axis. A plurality of successive rotor disks are connected to a drum by welding, at the periphery.
  • An axial compressor of the generic type is from the EP-A1-1 406 019 previously known. To compensate for the centrifugal load due to the arrangement of the rotor disks, which have a significant share of the total weight of the compressor and ultimately the engine and also take up much space, which is not available for other purposes, fiber straps are located in the areas of highest centrifugal load, the consist of wound on the rotor drum, embedded in a high temperature resistant polymer matrix fibers. To accommodate the fiber straps special annular, axial projections are attached to the rotor drum. As a result, it is increased by material and manufacturing costs and thus the cost.
  • From the GB-A-1 173 834 It is known to secure specially trained, fixed to the rotor drum feet of the rotor blades by means of cross-wound fiber straps.
  • From the FR -A-2 143 561 It is known to introduce on the outer circumference of the drum formed in between the rotor blades ring grooves a fiber material for reinforcement.
  • The invention has for its object to produce the rotor drum of the axial compressor of a gas turbine engine with low weight with increased strength and reduced cost.
  • The solution of this problem arises from the characterizing features of claim 1, Advantageous developments of the invention will become apparent from the dependent claims.
  • To compensate for the high centrifugal force load, fiber straps made of different fiber material are wound on the bottom of the annular grooves provided for rotor blade attachment and below the blade roots held in them, the elasticity of the fiber material in the fiber straps increasing to the bearing surface in the annular grooves of the rotor drum.
  • The fiber straps preferably consist of carbon fibers incorporated in a high-temperature-resistant polymer matrix, high temperature meaning the respective prevailing component temperature.
  • In an embodiment of the invention, the polymer matrix consists of an epoxy resin into which an ester cyanide or a polybismaimide or a polyamideimide or another high-temperature-resistant resin which simultaneously prevents corrosion of the carbon fibers is incorporated.
  • The fiber straps, which can be used both in rotor blades held in annular grooves or in axial grooves and also in rotor blades integrally formed on the rotor drum, are placed in a belt receiving groove formed below the axial grooves or in a recessed annular groove or in the case of integrally formed rotor blades near the blade neck on the rotor ring or wrapped in a groove formed in this.
  • In addition to the fiber straps in the annular groove, further fiber straps can be wound onto the rotor ring near the blade neck.
  • At the inner surface of the rotor drum or the rotor ring can be integrally formed below the blade attachment a bearing surface exhibiting extension piece.
  • On this recording surface more fiber straps can be wound.
  • In a further embodiment of the invention, an additional fiber belt can also be wound on the area of the rotor drum following the rotor blade ring in which the stator blades of the compressor are located. The centrifugal absorption straps can simultaneously act as a seal against the guide vanes.
  • The carbon fibers are wound after previous wetting with the polymer matrix on the outer surface or in the grooves. They can also be wound up dry, with a polymer then being infiltrated into the winding material. The polymeric matrix materials can be both thermosets and thermoplastics.
  • In a compressor for an engine, the fiber straps are preferably arranged in the first four compressor stages, in which the polymer matrix of the fiber straps is resistant to the temperatures prevailing there. With availability of matrix materials that are resistant to higher temperatures, it is also possible to carry out further stages in this type of construction. In a further embodiment of the invention, the fibers have over the height of the fiber belt to the rotor drum gradually increasing elasticity, so as to compensate for the prevailing forces and stresses best.
  • A higher polymer content near the rotor surface serves to compensate for the forces acting on the fibers during operation as a result of the thermal expansion of the rotor drum. However, the fibers can also be wound onto a heated rotor drum and / or under reduced pretension.
  • For the so-called "health monitoring", that is to say the monitoring of the state of the rotor, piezo fibers connected to a sensor for resistance measurement can be integrated in the fiber belt.
  • An embodiment of the invention will be explained in more detail with reference to the drawing, in the single figure a partial view of a fictitious rotor drum with different blade and fiber belt variants of a four-stage compressor is shown in section.
  • In the drawing, with reference to one and the same, driven by a turbine and rotating about a central axis 1 - here fictitious for four different blade arrangements - rotor drum 2 in four stages of a compressor, but without vane rings, different embodiments of Fasergurtversteifungen shown.
  • The individual compressor stages 3 to 6 of the rotor drum 2, which each comprise a forged rotor ring 7 to 10 with rotor blades 11 to 14 arranged on its circumference, can be connected by a welded seam 15 - shown only between the rotor rings 9 and 10. Preferably, however, as shown in the drawing, a plurality of rotor rings may be 7 to 9 forged from one piece, so that costly and failure-prone screw or welded connections omitted and the life of the rotor drum 2 so executed is increased.
  • In a first embodiment variant, the rotor blades 11 of the first compressor stage 3 are each held in axial grooves 16 formed on the circumference of the rotor ring 7. Below the Axialnuten 16 is in the rotor ring 7 a circumferential Gurtaufnahmenut 17 molded, in which a fiber belt 18, consisting of embedded in a high-temperature polymer carbon fibers, is located.
  • In the second embodiment, the rotor ring 8 and the rotor blade 12 in the second compressor stage 4 form a one-piece - integrally manufactured according to a blisk - rotor. In this example, 12 fiber straps 18 are provided on the rotor ring 8 on both sides of the blade root of the rotor blades, which may be wound directly on the rotor ring 8 or in a circumferential groove of the rotor ring 8.
  • In the rotor ring 9 according to the third embodiment of a rotor of the third compressor stage 5, a recessed annular groove 19 receiving the blade root 13a of the rotor blade 13 is formed, in the lower part of which, in addition to the blade root 13a, a circumferential fiber belt 18 embedded in a polymer matrix Carbon fibers is inserted.
  • A fourth embodiment of a rotor in the fourth compressor stage 6 embodies the rotor ring 10, which also has a recessed annular groove 19 according to the third embodiment, but in addition to a T-shaped extension piece 20 has applied fiber straps 18. Further, as in the second embodiment, 10 more fiber straps 18 are mounted on the rotor ring.
  • A fifth embodiment is shown in the following on the rotor blades 11 and 12 part of the rotor drum 2, in which the vane ring (not shown) of the first and the second compressor stage is located. In this area the rotor drum 2, that is, the rotor rings 7/8 and 8/9, another fiber belt 21 is flush or slightly protruding over the peripheral surface, which can additionally serve as an inlet seal between the rotor drum 2 and the top edge of the guide vane. In addition, the fiber straps 21 may also be designed as slip rings and be used for information transmission.
  • The fiber straps 18, 21 consist of in the Gurtaufnahmenuten 17 and the recessed annular grooves 19 and / or on the rotor rings 7 to 10 applied in a winding process carbon fibers - matched to the temperature in the first four stages of a high-pressure compressor - in one to 350th ° C heat-resistant polymer matrix, here an ester cyanide, are involved. The carbon fibers can - after a polymer wetting - either wet wound, or they are wound up dry and the polymer is infiltrated into the winding material after the winding process. In a high pressure compressor for a gas turbine engine, the application of the fiber straps is limited to the first stages where the temperature prevailing there does not exceed the temperature allowed for the maximum heat load of the polymer matrix.
  • The fiber straps 18 are arranged in the region of the blade root, and thus at the place of origin of the forces and the greatest stresses. The forces can - be absorbed directly by the fiber straps - without the usual necessary discs.
  • Corresponding to the greater voltage input on the inside of the rotor rings 7 to 10 or the rotor drum 2, a gradual fiber structure in the stiffening fiber straps 18, 21 is provided with regard to the mechanical properties. That means, for example, the carbon fibers become gradually inward towards the smaller winding radius, gradually more elastic or outward towards the larger winding radius, gradually stiffer, so as to compensate for the different voltage input.
  • The thermal expansion of the metallic rotor rings 7 to 10 or the rotor drum 2 occurring in the operation of the compressor is taken into account in the formation of the stiffening belts 18, 21 insofar as the fibers are wound either under reduced pretension or on a heated rotor drum. Furthermore, it is also conceivable to use a high degree of thermoplastic to create a first, white, winding layer as a placeholder for the thermal expansion of the metallic rotor rings. The metallic rotor ring can thereby exploit its strength potential and the reinforcing belt made of fiber material must not absorb the stresses in full.
  • In connection with the so-called "health monitoring", piezofibers connected to a sensor (not shown) may be wrapped in the fiber straps 18, 21. Due to a detected by the sensor resistance change of the piezo fibers with elastic elongation of the quality state of the rotor rings can be monitored.
  • LIST OF REFERENCE NUMBERS
  • 1
    central axis
    2
    rotor drum
    3 to 6
    compressor stage
    7 to 10
    rotor ring
    11 to 14
    rotor blade
    13a
    blade
    15
    Weld
    16
    axial grooves
    17
    Gurtaufnahmenut
    18
    Fasergurt
    19
    ring groove
    20
    T-shaped extension piece
    21
    Fasergurt

Claims (6)

  1. Axial-flow compressor, more particularly a high-pressure compressor for a gas turbine engine, consisting of a rotor drum (2) driven by the turbine, with rotor blades (11 to 14) disposed in annular slots (19) on the outer circumference of the rotor drum (2) in the respective compressor stage, which are followed by stator vanes, with the rotor drum (2) being made of rotor rings (7 to 10) forming a one-piece annular component, with fiber belts (18) arranged on these rings in the areas of max. centrifugal load, consisting of fibers wound onto the rotor drum (2) and embedded in a high-temperature resistant polymer matrix, characterized in that the fiber belts (18) are arranged at the bottom of the annular slots (19) provided for blade retention beneath the blade roots held in these slots and that the fiber belts (18) are wound of different fiber materials, with the elasticity of the fiber material in the fiber belts (18) increasing towards the location surface on the rotor drum (2).
  2. Axial-flow compressor in accordance with Claim 1, with the fiber belts (18) being made of carbon fibers, characterized in that the polymer matrix consists of epoxy resin with a heat resistance of up to 350° centigrade, applied by wet winding or subsequent infiltration of dry-wound carbon fibers.
  3. Axial-flow compressor in accordance with Claim 1, characterized in that piezo fibers are wound into the fiber belts (18, 21), which are connected to a sensor to detect resistance changes caused by changes in length of the piezo fibers, which are symptomatic for the condition of the rotor drum (2).
  4. Axial-flow compressor in accordance with Claim 1, characterized in that the fibers - to compensate heat expansion of the rotor drum (2) during operation - feature a reduced pre-load when winding the fiber belt (18, 21), or are wound onto a heated rotor drum, or in that an inner layer of the fiber belt consists of a thermoplastic material, acting as compensator for the thermal expansion of the rotor drum.
  5. Axial-flow compressor in accordance with Claim 1, characterized in that a Tee-shaped extension (20) with fiber belts (18) wound onto the free location surfaces is formed onto the inner side of the rotor drum (2) beneath the rotor blades (11 to 14).
  6. Axial-flow compressor in accordance with Claim 1, characterized in that a fiber belt (21) also serving as an abradable seal is wound in a groove or on the rotor drum (2) in the area downstream of the rotor blades (11 to 14) opposite the stator vanes.
EP07090067A 2006-04-03 2007-03-29 Axial compressor for a gas turbine mechanism Active EP1843044B1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE102006015838A DE102006015838A1 (en) 2006-04-03 2006-04-03 Axial compressor e.g. high pressure compressor, for gas turbine engine, has rotor drum that is formed from rotor rings with fiber belts and is made from high temperature resistant fibers that are bedded with polymer e.g. polyamide

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP1843044A1 EP1843044A1 (en) 2007-10-10
EP1843044B1 true EP1843044B1 (en) 2008-10-08

Family

ID=38192434

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP07090067A Active EP1843044B1 (en) 2006-04-03 2007-03-29 Axial compressor for a gas turbine mechanism

Country Status (3)

Country Link
US (1) US7918644B2 (en)
EP (1) EP1843044B1 (en)
DE (2) DE102006015838A1 (en)

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US8011877B2 (en) * 2008-11-24 2011-09-06 General Electric Company Fiber composite reinforced aircraft gas turbine engine drums with radially inwardly extending blades
EP2287445A1 (en) 2009-07-16 2011-02-23 Techspace Aero S.A. Axial compressor rotor drum with composite web
DE102009034025A1 (en) * 2009-07-21 2011-01-27 Mtu Aero Engines Gmbh Inlet lining for arrangement on a gas turbine component
US20110052376A1 (en) * 2009-08-28 2011-03-03 General Electric Company Inter-stage seal ring
DE102010039796A1 (en) 2010-06-14 2011-12-15 Max Bögl Bauunternehmung GmbH & Co. KG Tower with an adapter piece and method of making a tower with an adapter piece
US9169849B2 (en) 2012-05-08 2015-10-27 United Technologies Corporation Gas turbine engine compressor stator seal
US20140030084A1 (en) * 2012-07-24 2014-01-30 General Electric Company Article of manufacture for turbomachine
DE102012110029A1 (en) * 2012-10-19 2014-04-24 Atlas Copco Energas Gmbh Turbomachine for compressing a gaseous or vaporous fluid
WO2014143237A1 (en) 2013-03-12 2014-09-18 Dierksmeier Douglas D Active seal system and method of operating a turbomachine
EP2818635B1 (en) * 2013-06-25 2019-04-10 Safran Aero Boosters SA Drum of axial turbomachine compressor with mixed fixation of blades
US10557352B2 (en) 2014-09-09 2020-02-11 Rolls-Royce Corporation Piezoelectric damping rings
US10370971B2 (en) 2014-11-17 2019-08-06 United Technologies Corporation Reinforced gas turbine engine rotor disk
US9777593B2 (en) 2015-02-23 2017-10-03 General Electric Company Hybrid metal and composite spool for rotating machinery
US9976429B2 (en) 2015-06-09 2018-05-22 General Electric Company Composite disk
US10047763B2 (en) 2015-12-14 2018-08-14 General Electric Company Rotor assembly for use in a turbofan engine and method of assembling
FR3057905B1 (en) * 2016-10-25 2020-06-12 Safran Aircraft Engines TURBOMACHINE TURNING PART

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Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
EP1843044A1 (en) 2007-10-10
US20070231144A1 (en) 2007-10-04
DE102006015838A1 (en) 2007-10-04
US7918644B2 (en) 2011-04-05
DE502007000155D1 (en) 2008-11-20

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