EP1797539B1 - Security document with transparent windows - Google Patents

Security document with transparent windows Download PDF

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Publication number
EP1797539B1
EP1797539B1 EP05783032.5A EP05783032A EP1797539B1 EP 1797539 B1 EP1797539 B1 EP 1797539B1 EP 05783032 A EP05783032 A EP 05783032A EP 1797539 B1 EP1797539 B1 EP 1797539B1
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EP
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Prior art keywords
microlenses
microlens
security document
characterised
microlens field
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EP05783032.5A
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German (de)
French (fr)
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EP1797539A1 (en
Inventor
Andreas Schilling
Wayne Robert Tompkin
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OVD Kinegram AG
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OVD Kinegram AG
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Publication date
Priority to DE102004044459A priority Critical patent/DE102004044459B4/en
Application filed by OVD Kinegram AG filed Critical OVD Kinegram AG
Priority to PCT/EP2005/009584 priority patent/WO2006029745A1/en
Publication of EP1797539A1 publication Critical patent/EP1797539A1/en
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Publication of EP1797539B1 publication Critical patent/EP1797539B1/en
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B42BOOKBINDING; ALBUMS; FILES; SPECIAL PRINTED MATTER
    • B42DBOOKS; BOOK COVERS; LOOSE LEAVES; PRINTED MATTER CHARACTERISED BY IDENTIFICATION OR SECURITY FEATURES; PRINTED MATTER OF SPECIAL FORMAT OR STYLE NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; DEVICES FOR USE THEREWITH AND NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; MOVABLE-STRIP WRITING OR READING APPARATUS
    • B42D25/00Information-bearing cards or sheet-like structures characterised by identification or security features; Manufacture thereof
    • B42D25/30Identification or security features, e.g. for preventing forgery
    • B42D25/324Reliefs
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B42BOOKBINDING; ALBUMS; FILES; SPECIAL PRINTED MATTER
    • B42DBOOKS; BOOK COVERS; LOOSE LEAVES; PRINTED MATTER CHARACTERISED BY IDENTIFICATION OR SECURITY FEATURES; PRINTED MATTER OF SPECIAL FORMAT OR STYLE NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; DEVICES FOR USE THEREWITH AND NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; MOVABLE-STRIP WRITING OR READING APPARATUS
    • B42D25/00Information-bearing cards or sheet-like structures characterised by identification or security features; Manufacture thereof
    • B42D25/20Information-bearing cards or sheet-like structures characterised by identification or security features; Manufacture thereof characterised by a particular use or purpose
    • B42D25/29Securities; Bank notes
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B42BOOKBINDING; ALBUMS; FILES; SPECIAL PRINTED MATTER
    • B42DBOOKS; BOOK COVERS; LOOSE LEAVES; PRINTED MATTER CHARACTERISED BY IDENTIFICATION OR SECURITY FEATURES; PRINTED MATTER OF SPECIAL FORMAT OR STYLE NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; DEVICES FOR USE THEREWITH AND NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; MOVABLE-STRIP WRITING OR READING APPARATUS
    • B42D25/00Information-bearing cards or sheet-like structures characterised by identification or security features; Manufacture thereof
    • B42D25/30Identification or security features, e.g. for preventing forgery
    • B42D25/328Diffraction gratings; Holograms
    • GPHYSICS
    • G07CHECKING-DEVICES
    • G07DHANDLING OF COINS OR VALUABLE PAPERS, e.g. TESTING, SORTING BY DENOMINATIONS, COUNTING, DISPENSING, CHANGING OR DEPOSITING
    • G07D7/00Testing specially adapted to determine the identity or genuineness of valuable papers or for segregating those which are unacceptable, e.g. banknotes that are alien to a currency
    • G07D7/003Testing specially adapted to determine the identity or genuineness of valuable papers or for segregating those which are unacceptable, e.g. banknotes that are alien to a currency using security elements
    • G07D7/0032Testing specially adapted to determine the identity or genuineness of valuable papers or for segregating those which are unacceptable, e.g. banknotes that are alien to a currency using security elements using holograms
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B42BOOKBINDING; ALBUMS; FILES; SPECIAL PRINTED MATTER
    • B42DBOOKS; BOOK COVERS; LOOSE LEAVES; PRINTED MATTER CHARACTERISED BY IDENTIFICATION OR SECURITY FEATURES; PRINTED MATTER OF SPECIAL FORMAT OR STYLE NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; DEVICES FOR USE THEREWITH AND NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; MOVABLE-STRIP WRITING OR READING APPARATUS
    • B42D2033/00Structure or construction of identity, credit, cheque or like information-bearing cards
    • B42D2033/24Reliefs or indentations
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S283/00Printed matter
    • Y10S283/901Concealed data

Description

  • The invention relates to a security document, in particular a banknote or identity card, having a first optical element and a transparent window, in which a second optical element is arranged, wherein the first and the second optical element so spaced apart on a support of the security document are that the first and the second optical element can be brought into coincidence with each other.
  • That's how it is EP 0 930 979 B1 a self-checking banknote is known, which consists of a flexible plastic carrier. The flexible plastic support is made of a transparent material and is provided with a clouded sheath, leaving a clear transparent surface as a window.
  • In the window, an enlarging lens is arranged as a verification means. Furthermore, a microprint area is provided on the banknote, which shows a small character, a fine line or a filigree pattern. To check or inspect the banknote, the banknote is then folded, thus bringing the transparent window and the micro-printing area into coincidence. The magnifying lens can now be used to make the micro-pressure visible to the viewer and thus to verify the banknote.
  • Alternatively, in EP 0 930 979 B1 proposed to arrange in the transparent window, a distorting lens, an optical filter or a polarizing filter.
  • In WO 02/101669 A2 and US 5,995,638 the generation of special moiré patterns is described by the superimposition of two "dot screens". Here, in contrast to conventional moiré patterns, the hidden information is coded into the form of the "dots" of the "dot screens". In this case, "black-and-white patterns" or "hole patterns" are used as "dot screens".
  • EP 1 127 712 A1 describes a security element in which a lens grid consisting of cylindrical lenses with a distance of 200 microns is superimposed with an embossing to achieve a tilting effect.
  • The US 2003/0193184 A1 describes inserting into a banknote a window with a lens by means of which a micro-typeface can be read.
  • The WO 03/086775 A1 describes a security document in which a perforation pattern is introduced. If a mask with marking in coincidence with the perforation pattern brought, so an optically recognizable effect is generated.
  • The U.S. 4,498,736 and US Pat. No. 6,381,071 B1 describe optical devices in which lenses are arranged on both sides of a carrier substrate.
  • The invention is based on the object of specifying an improved security document.
  • This object is achieved by a security document according to claim 1,
  • If the first and the second microlens field are overlapped, striking, memorable optical effects, which are very difficult to imitate with other technologies, are also strongly dependent on the spacing between the overlapping first and second microlens fields. Due to these properties of the first optical effect exhibiting overlapping of the first and second microlens arrays, the possibility of verifying the authenticity of the security document by means of clear and distinctive security features results when the microlens arrays are arranged in the transparent windows of a security document. This makes it possible by means of the invention to produce easily verifiable and difficult to imitate security documents.
  • Advantageous embodiments of the invention are designated in the subclaims.
  • According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the lens spacing of the microlenses of the first microlens field and the lens spacing of the microlenses of the second microlens array are selected such that the individual light beams of the light beam split by the overlapping microlens fields meet in a common pixel. Lens spacing of the microlenses is understood to be the lateral spacing of the microlenses of the respective microlens field. This will achieve that the overlapping of the two microlens fields produces an integral image, and thus the overall system behaves more or less like a single macroscopic lens, the properties of which however differ significantly from those of a conventional macroscopic lens. With such a system, both real and virtual images can be generated, single images but also multiple images.
  • In order for a macroscopic lens-like effect to occur when the first and second microlens fields are superimposed, the lens spacing of the microlenses of the two microlens arrays is preferably selected such that the change in the offset of the mutually associated lenses of the first and second microlens arrays is constant from the optical axis of the virtual macroscopic lens. This is achieved according to a preferred embodiment of the invention by two microlens fields, in which the microlenses each spaced according to a periodic grid with a constant lens spacing and in this case the lens pitch of the microlenses of the first microlens field of the lens pitch of the microlenses of the second Microlens field distinguishes. Such microlens fields are particularly easy to manufacture. In this case, the lens spacing of the microlenses of the first microlens field is preferably an integer multiple of the lens spacing of the microlenses of the second microlens field.
  • In order to achieve an integral image of high resolution by covering the microlens fields, it is advantageous here to choose the diameter of the microlenses smaller than the resolution of the human eye, so that the lens pitch of the microlenses of the first and second microlens fields according to the invention smaller than 300 microns is to choose. Furthermore, the focal length of the microlenses is small compared to the image and object width.
  • It is possible here to construct the first microlens array of a plurality of positive focus microlenses and the second microlens array of a plurality of positive focus microlenses, the Kepler telescope type in imaging the plurality of split light bundles interact. In such an embodiment of the microlens fields, a macroscopic lens system similar optical effect can be achieved, however, which exhibits properties that are significantly different from those of a conventional lens system. It can be so particularly striking and thus memorable optical effects.
  • Further, it is also possible to construct the first microlens array of a plurality of positive-focus microlenses and the second microlens array of a plurality of negative-focus microlenses which cooperate in the manner of a Gallileo telescope. In this case as well, superimposing the first and second microlens fields produces effects similar to those of a macroscopic lens, but different from a conventional macroscopic lens system.
  • According to a further preferred embodiment of the invention, the two microlens fields are not homogeneous and have locally different parameters such as lens spacing, diameter of the lenses or focal length of the lenses. As a result of a lateral displacement, different microlens combinations and thus different optical functions can be generated, as a result of which novel and memorable additional security features can be integrated into the security document.
  • One or more parameters of the first and / or the second microlens field preferably change periodically according to a (common) raster. Furthermore, parameters of the microlens fields can also vary virtually continuously in a predefined manner.
  • Thus, according to the invention, it is possible to introduce information at least in a microlens field, in that the microlens field has two or more regions with different lens spacing of the microlenses and / or with different focal lengths of the microlenses. When the microlens fields are masked, the resulting imaging function differs in first and second areas, thereby making the information encoded in the change in parameters of the microlens fields visible to the viewer.
  • Furthermore, it is also possible to encode hidden information in one or more microlens fields in the manner of a moiré pattern by phase shifting the lens spacing of microlenses relative to a periodic basic grid and to make this information visible when the first and second microlens fields are superimposed.
  • The measures described above for coding additional information into the first and second microlens field further improve the security against forgery of the security document.
  • According to a further preferred embodiment of the invention, the security element has an opaque third optical element, wherein, when the first and / or the second microlens field is covered with the third optical element, one or more further optical effects are exhibited. In addition to the primary security feature generated by the overlap of the two microlens fields, additional security features can thus be achieved by covering the microlens fields, e.g. be generated with a reflective optically variable element or with a high-resolution pressure, the microlens field can serve as a moire analyzer, for example.
  • According to a further preferred embodiment of the invention, the first and / or the second optical element each consist of two partial microlens fields, which are arranged one above the other in the first and second optical element. The two partial microlens fields are thus arranged, for example, on opposite sides of a film and thus form superimposed microlens surfaces of a film. For example, the one surface of the first optical element is determined by the geometry of one partial microlens field and the surface of the first optical element opposite this surface is determined by the geometry of the other partial microlens field. If the geometry of a partial microlens field of one optical element now extinguishes the geometry of a partial microlens field of the second optical element, the optical effect generated when the first and second optical elements are superimposed depends on the geometry Orientation of the first and second optical element, that is, depending on whether the security document is folded or bent in one direction or the other in order to bring the transparent window in the cover.
  • A similar effect can also be achieved by arranging the microlens fields in the transparent windows of the security document in such a way that the distance between the lenses of the two microlens fields changes depending on the folding or bending direction.
  • The first and / or the second optical element preferably has a replication lacquer layer into which a relief structure is formed, which forms the first or the second microlens field. Furthermore, an encapsulation of the relief structure by means of an additional optical separation layer and / or an impression of the relief structure by means of UV replication has proved to be advantageous.
  • In this case, the microlenses of the first and / or second microlens field are preferably formed by a diffraction-optically effective relief structure which generates the effect of a microlens field by diffractive optical means. Such "diffractive lenses" can be formed by a diffractive binary relief structure whose profile depth is smaller than the wavelength of the visible light (binary, thin diffractive lens), formed by a continuous diffractive relief profile with a profile depth smaller than the wavelength of the visible light ( thin diffractive lens with continuous profile) and a diffractive continuous relief profile with a tread depth greater than the wavelength of the visible light (thick diffractive lens with continuous relief profile) are formed. However, it is also possible to mold the microlens field as a refractive macrostructure in the replication lacquer layer, which has a continuous, continuous surface profile without discontinuities. The profile depth of this macrostructure is in this case many times greater than the wavelength of the visible light.
  • Preferably, the first and / or the second optical element is formed by the transfer layer of a transfer film. This makes it possible to To meet the requirements of the quality of the microlens fields and the tolerances in terms of distances, flatness, etc.
  • In the following, the invention will be explained by way of example with reference to several embodiments with the aid of the accompanying drawings.
  • Fig. 1
    shows a representation of a security document according to the invention.
    Fig. 2
    shows a schematic, not true-to-scale sectional representation of the security document after Fig. 1 in a viewing situation in which the security document is folded to cover the transparent windows.
    Fig. 3a
    shows a schematic representation of two overlapping microlens fields of the security document Fig. 1 ,
    Fig. 3b
    shows a sketch to illustrate the case of the coverage of the microlens fields after Fig. 3a occurring optical effects.
    Fig. 3c
    shows a schematic plan view of a microlens field after Fig. 3a ,
    Fig. 4
    shows a sectional view of a section of the security document after Fig. 1 ,
    Fig. 5
    shows a schematic representation of another inventive security document.
    Fig. 6
    shows a schematic representation of another inventive security document.
    Fig. 7a to Fig. 7c
    schematically show the representation of another inventive security document in different viewing situations.
  • Fig. 1 shows a value document 1, for example a banknote or a check. However, it is also possible for the value document 1 to represent an identification document, for example an identity card.
  • The security document 1 consists of a flexible carrier 11 with transparent windows 12 and 13. The carrier 11 is preferably a carrier made of paper material which is provided with an imprint and in which further security features, for example watermarks or security threads, are introduced. In this paper carrier window-shaped openings are then introduced, for example, by punching or by means of a laser, so that the in Fig. 1 shown transparent window 12 and 13 arise. The transparent windows 12 and 13 are then resealed by optical elements having a transmissive microlens array. Thus, in the region of the transparent window 12, a first transmissive microlens field 15 and in the region of the transparent window 13 a second transmissive microlens field 16 are arranged.
  • However, it is also possible that the carrier 11 is a plastic film or a laminate consisting of one or more paper and plastic layers. Thus, it is also possible that a transparent or partially transparent material is already used as the material for the carrier 11, and thus the carrier need not be partially removed by punching or cutting to generate the transparent windows 12 and 13. This is the case, for example, if the carrier 11 consists of a transparent plastic film which is not provided with a haze layer in the region of the transparent windows 12 and 13. Furthermore, it is also possible to produce the transparent windows 12 and 13 already in papermaking and to introduce the optical elements with the transparent microlens fields 15 and 16 in the manner of a security thread in the carrier 11.
  • Further, it is also possible that the carrier 11 - for example in the case of a passport - consists of two connected by stitching or gluing pages.
  • As in Fig. 1 is shown, a strip-shaped patch 14 is further applied to the carrier 11, which covers the region of the transparent window 13. The transparent microlens array 16 is inserted in the patch 14. The patch 14 is preferably the transfer layer of a transfer film, for example a hot stamping foil, which is bonded to the carrier 11 under the action of pressure and heat by means of an adhesive layer. As in Fig. 1 In addition to the transmissive microlens field 16, which is arranged in the region of the transparent window 13, the patch 14 may also have one or more further optical elements, for example the one shown in FIG Fig. 1 further optical element shown 17. The optical element 17 is, for example, a diffraction grating, a hologram, a Kinegram ®, a partial metallisation, an HRI layer (HRI = high refraction index), an interference layer system, a cross-linked liquid crystal layer or a printed with effect pigment.
  • Further, it is also possible that the transparent window 12 is not on the in Fig. 1 shown position is introduced into the carrier 11, but also in the region of the strip-shaped patch 14 is incorporated into the carrier 11 and the strip-like patch so covers both transparent window 12 and 13. Both microlens fields 15 and 16 can thus be introduced into a common film element, which significantly reduces the production of the value document 1.
  • The security document 1 can also have further security features, for example applied by means of a transfer film, which can be brought into overlap with the transparent windows 12 and 13 by bending, folding or twisting the carrier 11. So shows Fig. 1 an example another optical element 18, which is preferably a reflective, optically variable element or a security imprint.
  • For verification of the security document 1, the transparent windows 12 and 13 of the carrier 11 are brought into the overlap, for example by folding the carrier 11, so that the microlens fields 15 and 16, as in FIG Fig. 2 shown, cover. Then the optical effect which results when viewed through the two superimposed microlens fields 15 and 16 is checked. Thus, for example, an object 2 lying in the viewing direction 2, any desired graphic representation or a special verification pattern by the transmissive microlens fields 15 and 16 is considered. Furthermore, it is also possible that, by further folding of the security document 1, an optical element of the security document 1 is placed in the viewing direction and viewed through the transparent microlens fields 15 and 16.
  • The optical effects resulting from the observation of an object by the transmissive microlens fields 15 and 16 will now be described with reference to FIGS Fig. 3a and Fig. 3b explained.
  • Fig. 3a shows a section of the microlens fields 15 and 16, the distance from each other at a distance d according to the viewing situation after Fig. 2 are arranged to each other.
  • The microlens array 15 consists of a plurality of microlenses 21, which - as in Fig. 3c indicated - are arranged side by side. The microlens array 16 consists of a multiplicity of microlenses 22. If now two mutually associated lenses 21 and 22, which are at a distance r from an imaginary optical axis of the system formed by the microlens fields 15, 16, are considered have their parallel optical axes a deviation Δ r . Assuming that the distance of the two microlens fields corresponds to the sum of the focal lengths of the microlenses 21 and 22, the parallel light rays incident at an angle α become one dot f 1 α is away from the axis of the lens 21, where f 1 is the focal length of the lens 21. Due to the offset Δ r between the lenses 21 and 22, the light beam then passes through the lens 22 at an angle β β = f 1 α - Δ f 2
    Figure imgb0001
    and f 2 is the focal length of the lens 22. Considering now the case that the source of a light beam has a distance u from the microlens array 15 and the lens 21 has the radial position r, the lateral position y of the light beam at a distance x from the microlens 22 is r -β x, which results from the above equation and by replacing the angle α by α = r / u: y = r - x f 2 r u f 1 - Δ r = r 1 - x f 1 uf 2 + x Δ r f 2
    Figure imgb0002
  • In order that all of the sub-beams split by the microlens field 15 and 16 be focused on the same point after passing through the microlens fields 15 and 16, it is necessary that y be independent of r. Assuming that the object width is infinite and the image width corresponds to the focal length, the result for the focal length F is the in Fig. 3a shown arrangement of the two microlens fields 15 and 16: F = f 2 Δ r / r
    Figure imgb0003
  • This means that the focal length F of the imaging system formed by the microlens fields 15 and 16 is constant, if the derivative ∂Δ r l∂r is constant, which is the case for example when the microlenses of the microlens fields 15 and 16 with a constant, differing lens spacing are spaced from each other. This is for example in the in Fig. 3a the example shown, where the microlenses 21 and 22 each with a constant lens pitch p 1 and p 2 are spaced from each other and, as in Fig. 3c shown aligned to each other according to a periodic grid.
  • If this condition is met, an integral image is generated and the mapping function of the in Fig. 3a The system shown corresponds approximately to that of a conventional lens system consisting of two macroscopic lenses.
  • If this special case, in which the microlenses of the microlens array 15 are spaced apart from one another by the constant lens spacing p 1 and the lenses of the microlens array 16 are spaced apart from one another by the constant lens spacing p 2 , then results from this in Fig. 3b Scenario shown the following relationships:
    • Fig. 3b Figure 3 shows the microlens arrays 15 and 16, a point on the optical axis spaced at a distance g from the microlens array 16, which is imaged by the first microlens array on a set of points spaced from the microlens array s 1 are removed and have a lateral distance y n . These points are removed from the microlens array 16 a distance s 2 and are imaged at a distance b to a point on the optical axis.
  • So that in Fig. 3b situation occurs, the condition must np 1 G - s 1 G = np 2 b - s 2 b
    Figure imgb0004
    be fulfilled. If the system of the microlens fields 15 and 16 is considered to be a thin-lens system, the focal length of the system will be one focal length when the microlens field 15 is incident on the light F = f 2 p 1 p 2 - p 1
    Figure imgb0005
    and at a light incidence from the side of the microlens array 16, a focal length F ' = f 1 p 2 p 1 - p 2 ,
    Figure imgb0006
  • Thus, the imaging function in the case of incidence of light from the side of the microlens array 15 can be described as follows: 1 F = f 1 f 2 1 f 1 + G + p 2 p 1 1 b - f 2 ,
    Figure imgb0007
  • In contrast to a normal lens, the imaging function generated by the microlens fields 15 and 16 thus has the following features in the case of the use of microlenses of positive focal length for the microlens fields 15 and 16 (Kepler telescope) compared with a "conventional" lens system:
    • When looking at an object from the side of the microlens array 15, a different image is displayed than when looking at the object from the side of the microlens array 16. Depending on the viewing direction, the sign of the focal length changes. Furthermore, if the focal length is negative, a real image for object distances s with | s | <F f 1 / f 2 . The image width is always smaller than the focal length with a positive focal length. Next, an upright image is generated.
  • In the case where the microlenses of the microlens array 15 have a positive focal length and the microlenses of the microlens array 16 have a negative focal length (Gallileo telescope), the following differences arise compared to the imaging function of a conventional lens:
    • The sign of the focal length of the system does not change - as in a conventional lens - when the system is rotated. However, the focal length still depends on the viewing direction. The system behaves like a conventional lens in which the object is in a medium with a refractive index f 1 / f 2 .
  • Instead of using microlens fields for the microlens fields 15 and 16, which fulfill the conditions described above and thus their By cooperating to generate an optical function similar to a conventional lens, it is also possible to use microlens fields which do not fulfill the above-mentioned conditions. It is thus possible, for example, for the lens spacing of the microlenses of one or both microlens fields to change continuously in some areas, resulting in interesting and impressive distorting effects. It is likewise possible for the focal length of the microlenses of a microlens field to be changed continuously at least in a region of the microlens field, as a result of which such distorting effects can likewise be achieved. If the refractive index of the microlens and thus the effective focal length of the microlens or the spacing of the microlenses in both microlens fields 15 and 16 changed at least in regions, then the resulting imaging function changes with lateral displacement of the two microlens fields 15 and 16 to each other , which can serve as another security feature in the verification of the security document 1.
  • Furthermore, it is also possible to provide areas in the microlens arrays 15 and 16, in which the focal length of the microlenses and the spacing of the microlenses is constant but different from adjacent areas. If only one of the two microlens fields 15 and 16 is configured in this way, the result is an imaging function which corresponds to the several juxtaposed different conventional lenses. The optical mapping function valid in the individual sections is defined here by the relationships described above. If both microlens fields 15 and 16 are configured in this way, the optical imaging function changes with lateral displacement of the two microlens fields 15 and 16 relative to one another, which can be used as a further security feature for verification of the security document.
  • The lens spacing of the microlens fields 15 and 16 is preferably selected so that the partial beams generated by the splitting of the incident light beam have a diameter which is below the resolution of the human eye. The distance of the microlens fields 15 and 16 is therefore preferably in a range between 250 μm and 25 μm. This ensures that the integral image generated by the microlens fields 15 and 16 has a good resolution. If small demands are placed on the optical quality of the imaging function generated by the microlens fields 15 and 16, then it is also possible to increase the lens spacing of the microlenses of the microlens fields 15 and 16.
  • The detailed structure of the arranged in the region of the transparent window 12 optical element with the microlens array 15 will now be with reference to FIGS Fig. 3c and Fig. 4 explained.
  • Fig. 4 shows the carrier 11, which consists of a paper material of a thickness of about 100 microns and in the region of the transparent window 12 has an opening produced by means of a punching or cutting operation. A film element 20 is preferably applied under heat and pressure to the paper material of the carrier 11 by an adhesive layer of the film element 20 is activated by heat and pressure. Due to the pressure exerted at the same time in the region of the optical element 20 in Fig. 4 created depression created.
  • The film element 20 consists of a carrier film 22, an adhesion promoter layer 23, a replication lacquer layer 24, an optical separation layer 25 and an adhesive layer 26.
  • The carrier film 22 consists of a PET or BOPP film with a layer thickness of 10 to 200 μm. The function of the carrier film 22 is to provide the necessary stability for bridging the opening of the carrier 11. The adhesion promoter layer 23 has a thickness of 0.2 to 2 μm and is applied to the carrier film 22 by means of a printing process. The replication lacquer layer 24 consists of a thermoplastic or crosslinked polymer in which a relief structure 27 is replicated by means of a replication tool under the action of heat and pressure or by UV replication. The optical separation layer 25 consists of a material whose refractive index differs significantly from the refractive index of the replication lacquer layer 24. In this case, the optical separation layer 25 preferably consists of an HRI or LRI layer (HRI = High Refraction Index, LRI = Low Refraction Index), so that the refractive index difference between Repliierlackschicht 24 and the optical separation layer 25 is particularly high. Furthermore, it is possible to achieve the highest possible refractive index of the replication lacquer layer 24 by doping the polymers of the replicating laughter layer with nanoparticles or by using a polymer with a high refractive index, for example a photopolymer, for the replication lacquer layer 24. Furthermore, it is advantageous to design the optical separating layer as thick as possible. This makes it possible to reduce the relief depth of the relief structure 27, which is particularly advantageous if the microlenses of the microlens array 1 are manufactured as refractive lenses defined by a macroscopic structure.
  • However, it is also possible not to perform the microlens array 15 in such an encapsulated structure, and thus to dispense with the optical separation layer 25. Furthermore, it is also possible for the adhesive layer 26 to be omitted in the area of the relief structure 27 so that the relief structure 27 comes into direct contact with the air.
  • The relief structure 27 is a relief structure that surrounds the microlens array 15 by means of a plurality of adjacent macroscopic lenses in the in Fig. 3c implied form implemented. However, it is also possible for the relief structure 27 to be a diffractive relief structure which produces the effect of a diffractive optical microlens field consisting of convex or concave microlenses.
  • In this case, the effect of a convex or concave lens can be generated by a diffractive relief structure which continuously changes with respect to its grating frequencies and possibly further grating constants over a surface area. For example, the effect of a convex lens can be generated by diffractive optics, starting from a paraboloidal central portion in the center of the lens a plurality of annularly arranged to this central portion furrows is provided, the grid frequency increases continuously, starting from the central portion. The effect of a concave lens can be made diffractive by an inverse structure. Around optical diffraction to produce the effect of a microlens field with a plurality of juxtaposed microlenses, a plurality of such relief structures are arranged chequerboard side by side. Further, it is also possible that these relief structure are arranged hexagonal side by side. In addition, with regard to the design of such " diffractive lenses "to the chapter ... of the book" Micro-optics ", Hans Peter Herzig, Taylor and Francis-Verlag, London, 1997 directed.
  • The use of such a "diffractive" microlens field has the advantage that the relief depth of the relief structure 27 necessary for the generation of the microlens field can be reduced, which is advantageous especially with a larger lens spacing of the microlenses of the microlens field 15, especially with short focal lengths ,
  • The in Fig. 4 The structure shown and the arrangement of the optical element 20 has the advantage that the microlens field generating surface structure is largely protected from damage or tampering.
  • Based on Fig. 5 Now further embodiments of the invention will be clarified.
  • Fig. 5 shows a schematic representation of a viewing situation of a security document 3, in which two arranged in transparent windows of the security document 3 microlens arrays 31 and 32 are kept in review for checking the security document 3. The microlens array 31 has a region 33 with microlenses arranged according to a periodic grid with a positive focal length. Further, the optical element implementing the microlens array 31 is configured in the region 33 such that the microlens array has a distance d 1 from the underside of the security document 3.
  • The microlens array 32 has a region 34 in which a plurality of microlenses with a positive focal length are arranged according to a first grid and further has a region 35 surrounding this region in which a plurality of negative focal length microlenses are arranged according to a second periodic raster. Due to the design of the optical element implemented in the microlens field 32, the microlenses of the region 34 are here spaced from the underside of the security document 3 by a distance d 2 .
  • The optical element in which the microlens arrays 31 and 32 are implemented consists of a thermoplastic film body, for example a PET or BOPP film having a layer thickness of 10 to 50 μm, into which the micro lens arrays 31 and 32 generate Surface structures as in Fig. 5 represented by means of a replication tool by heat and pressure are introduced. Under certain circumstances, this film body is then coated with further layers, for example with an optical separating layer or a protective lacquer layer, and then applied to the support of the security document 3 in the region of the transparent optical window. However, it is also possible that the optical elements after Fig. 5 as the optical element 20 after Fig. 4 are constructed.
  • If now the security document 3 is folded and the microlens fields 31 and 32 brought into coincidence, so in the area in which the area 33 and the area 34 of the microlens fields cover 31 and 32, a first optical imaging function generated and in the area in which cover the areas 33 and 35 of the microlens array 31 and 32, respectively, generates a second optical imaging function. The first optical imaging function here has the properties (Kepler telescope) discussed above, depending on the focal lengths of the microlenses of the region 33 and 34 and the spacing of the microlenses of the regions 33 and 34, whereas the second optical imaging function of FIG the focal lengths of the microlenses of the regions 33 and 35 and the spacing of the microlenses in the areas 33 and 35 is determined, of which has very different properties (Gallileo telescope). The distances d 1 and d 2 are in this case preferably selected such that, when the lower sides of the security document 3 lie directly on one another, the sum of the distances d 1 and d 2 corresponds to the sum of the focal lengths of the microlenses in the region 33 and 34 and the distance d 1 the sum of the focal lengths of the microlenses in the areas 33 and 35 corresponds. For example, the distances d 1 and d 2 and, for the focal lengths of the microlenses in the regions 33, 34 and 35, the following values can be selected for this: d 1 = d 2 = 1 mm, f33 = 0.125 mm, f34 = 0.075 mm, f35 = -0.025 mm, where f33 denotes the focal length of the microlenses in the region 33, f34 the focal length of the microlenses in the region 34, and f35 the focal length of the microlenses in the region 35.
  • Further, the mapping function generated by the overlapping microlens arrays 31 and 32 is still determined by the spacing of the transparent window covering it, this change in the optical imaging function by altering the spacing of the optical windows from each other as an additional distinctive optical security feature , By the above-described choice of the distances d 1 and d 2 in this case it is ensured that clearly defined and matched first and second mapping functions are generated when the optical elements lie directly on top of one another.
  • In this case, the region 34 preferably forms a pattern region shaped in the form of a pattern, for example a graphic representation or a lettering, so that regions with different imaging functions receive additional coded information. Such a juxtaposition of patterned areas with different imaging functions is not imitated by a conventional lens system, so that can be generated by the invention memorable and difficult to imitate other technologies optical effects.
  • Furthermore, it is also possible that, as already indicated above, not only the microlens field 32 has two regions in which the spacing and / or the focal length of the microlenses differs. It is also possible for the microlens array 31 to be designed in this way. In this case, the region-wise resulting optical imaging functions also depend on the lateral position of the microlens arrays 31 and 32 relative to each other, so that the optical imaging function with lateral displacement of the microlens fields 31 and 32 changed each other and the viewer different, coded in the mapping function information is made visible depending on the lateral position.
  • Fig. 6 FIG. 12 shows a viewing situation of a security document 4 in which two microlens arrays 41 and 42 arranged in transparent optical windows of the security document 4 are kept in registration for verification of the security document. In this case, the microlens field 41 has in a region 46 a multiplicity of microlenses of constant focal length aligned on a periodic grid. The microlens array 42 has areas 48 and 47 in which the focal length of the microlenses and the lens spacing of the microlenses differ. This will already be based on Fig. 5 described optical effects at coverage of the microlens fields 41 and 42 generated. In addition, the security document 4 has further optical elements 45 and 44 which, as in FIG Fig. 6 represented on the support of the security document 4 are applied.
  • The optical element 45 is preferably an imprint in the form of a moiré pattern. In this case, the moiré pattern is matched to the microlens field 41 in such a way that the region 46 of the microlens field 41 can function as a moiré analyzer and, thus, when the optical element 45 overlaps the microlens field 41, a moire is formed in the moire. Pattern of the optical element 45 coded moiré image shows. The microlenses of the microlens array 41 in this case form a moiré magnifier and moire magnified coded (repititive small) information, whereby hidden (for example phase-coded) information is made visible.
  • Further, it is also possible that the optical element 45 is an imprint in the form of a moire analyzer and the microlens array 41 forms a moiré pattern into which a hidden (e.g., phase encoded) moiré image is encoded.
  • In this case, a moiré pattern is to be understood as meaning a pattern formed from repetitive structures which, when superposed with or in consideration another pattern formed by repetitive structures acting as a moiré analyzer shows a new pattern, namely a moiré image, hidden in the moiré pattern. In the simplest case, this moiré effect results from the superimposition of two line grids, wherein one line grating is phase-shifted in regions to produce the moiré image. In addition to a linear line grid, it is also possible that the lines of the line grid have curved areas, for example, are arranged wave-like or circular. Furthermore, it is also possible to use a moire pattern built up on two or more mutually twisted or overlapping line grids. The decoding of the moiré image in such a line grid also takes place by a region-wise phase shift of the line grid, whereby two or more different moiré images can be coded in such a moiré pattern. Furthermore, the use of moiré patterns and moiré analyzers is also possible, called on. "Scrambled Indica ® 'technology or on a hole pattern (round, oval, square holes of various design) are based.
  • The optical element 44 is a reflective optical element, such as a partial metallization in the form of a moiré pattern, or a partially metallized diffractive structure. In this case, the optical element 44 can also have a field of reflective microlenses, which, when covered by the microlens field arranged in the region 46, show interesting optical effects in reflection.
  • Fig. 7a to Fig. 7c show different viewing situations of a security document 5. In the viewing situation Fig. 7a the security document 5 is folded so that transparent windows with microlens fields 51 and 52 of the security document 5 overlap. As in Fig. 7b is indicated, the security document 5 is now folded in the other direction, so that, in the viewing situation after Fig. 7c , not the undersides of the microlens fields 51 and 52, as in Fig. 7a shown, lie on top of each other, but now the tops of the microlens fields 51 and 52 are on top of each other.
  • As in the figures Fig. 7a to Fig. 7c indicated, the microlens fields 51 and 52 each have a lens body of thickness d 1 and d 2 and are structured on both sides, so that the optical function of the microlens field 51 from the interaction of two overlapping partial microlens fields 53 and 54 in accordance with Fig. 3a to Fig. 3c explained relationships. Accordingly, the microlens array 52 is formed by two juxtaposed partial microlens arrays 55 and 56. As in further Fig. 7a to Fig. 7c indicated, the lens body of the microlens fields 51 and 52 is encapsulated and thus coated on both sides with an optical separating layer or a protective layer.
  • The partial microlens fields 54 and 55 here have, as in Fig. 7a indicated an inverse geometry, so that cancel out of the partial microlens fields 54 and 55 generated optical imaging functions. At the in Fig. 7a drawn viewing situation, therefore, an optical imaging function is generated as an optical effect, which results from the superposition of the partial microlens fields 53 and 56, ie from the lens distance and the focal length of these microlens fields. This is in the viewing situation Fig. 7c not the case, so that in this viewing situation, not a conventional lens similar effect is generated.

Claims (15)

  1. Security document (1, 3, 4, 5), in particular a bank note or identification card, having a first transparent window (12) in which a first optical element (15) is arranged, and having a second transparent window (13) in which a second optical element (16) is arranged, wherein the first transparent window (12) and the second transparent window (13) are arranged on a carrier (11) of the security document, spaced apart from each other in such a way that the first and the second optical element (15, 16) are able to be brought to overlap each other,
    characterised in that,
    the first optical element (15) has a first transmissive microlens field (15, 31, 41, 51) and the second optical element (16) has a second transmissive microlens field (16, 32, 42, 52), wherein the lens spacing of the microlenses of the first and second microlens fields is smaller than 300µm and, when the secondmicrolens field is overlapped by the firstmicrolens field, a first optical effect is shown, where the first microlens field has a region (33, 46, 53, 54) in which the optical axes of the microlenses of the first microlens field are spaced apart in parallel to one another with a constant lens spacing according to a first periodic grid, and the second microlens field has a region (35, 34, 48, 47, 55, 56) in which the optical axes of the microlenses of the second microlens field are spaced apart in parallel to one another with a constant lens spacing according to a second periodic grid, wherein the constant lens spacing of the lenses of the first microlens field differs from the constant lens spacing of the microlenses of the second microlens field, and in that the first and/or the second microlens field has two or more regions with different lens spacing and/or different focal length of the microlenses.
  2. Security document according to claim 1,
    characterised in that,
    the first and the second transmissive microlens field (15, 16, 31, 32, 41, 42, 51, 52) are defined by the parameters of lens spacing (P1, P2) of the microlenses (21) and focal length of the microlenses (21).
  3. Security document according to one of the preceding claims,
    characterised in that,
    the lens spacing of the microlenses of the first microlens field is an integral multiple of the lens spacing of the microlenses of the second microlens field.
  4. Security document according to one of the preceding claims,
    characterised in that,
    the first microlens field (15, 31, 41, 51) has a plurality of microlenses with a positive focal length and the second microlens field (16, 32, 42, 52) has a plurality of microlenses with a positive focal length.
  5. Security document according to one of the preceding claims,
    characterised in that,
    the first microlens field (15, 31, 41, 51) has a plurality of microlenses with a positive focal length and the second microlens field (16, 32, 42, 52) has a plurality of microlenses with a negative focal length.
  6. Security document according to one of the preceding claims,
    characterised in that,
    the focal length of the microlenses of the first and second microlens fields is selected in such a way that the microlenses of the first and second microlens fields are spaced apart from one another according to the sum of their focal lengths when the first and second transparent windows lie one on top of the other.
  7. Security document according to one of the preceding claims,
    characterised in that,
    the first and/or the second microlens field has one or more regions in which the lens spacing of the microlenses is phase-shifted relative to a periodic basic grid.
  8. Security document according to claim 2,
    characterised in that,
    the first and/or the second microlens field has a region in which the lens spacing of the microlenses constantly changes.
  9. Security document according to claim 1 or claim 8,
    characterised in that,
    the first and/or the second microlens field has a region in which the focal length of the microlenses constantly changes.
  10. Security document according to one of the preceding claims,
    characterised in that,
    the security document (4) has an opaque third optical element (45, 44), wherein a second optical effect is shown when the first or the second optical element is overlapped by the third optical element.
  11. Security document according to claim 10,
    characterised in that,
    the third optical element (45) has a concealed Moiré pattern.
  12. Security document according to one of the preceding claims,
    characterised in that,
    the first and/or the second optical element has a replicating lacquer layer (24), into which a relief structure (27) is moulded which forms the first or the second microlens field.
  13. Security document according to one of the preceding claims,
    characterised in that,
    the microlenses of the first and/or the second microlens field are formed by an optically diffractive, active relief structure (27) which generates the effect of a microlens field in an optically diffractive manner and whose structural depth is 10µm at most.
  14. Security document according to one of the preceding claims,
    characterised in that,
    the first and/or the second optical element (15, 16) consists of the transfer layer (20) of a transfer film, in particular a hot embossing film.
  15. Security document according to one of the preceding claims,
    characterised in that,
    the carrier (11) of the security document consists of a paper material, into which the transparent windows (12, 13) are introduced.
EP05783032.5A 2004-09-15 2005-09-07 Security document with transparent windows Active EP1797539B1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE102004044459A DE102004044459B4 (en) 2004-09-15 2004-09-15 Security document with transparent windows
PCT/EP2005/009584 WO2006029745A1 (en) 2004-09-15 2005-09-07 Security document with transparent windows

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP1797539A1 EP1797539A1 (en) 2007-06-20
EP1797539B1 true EP1797539B1 (en) 2015-07-29

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US (1) US7931305B2 (en)
EP (1) EP1797539B1 (en)
JP (1) JP4939419B2 (en)
CN (1) CN101019154B (en)
CA (1) CA2580288C (en)
DE (1) DE102004044459B4 (en)
ES (1) ES2551689T3 (en)
RU (1) RU2376642C2 (en)
TW (1) TWI383340B (en)
WO (1) WO2006029745A1 (en)

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Publication number Publication date
CA2580288A1 (en) 2006-03-23
CN101019154A (en) 2007-08-15
ES2551689T3 (en) 2015-11-23
TW200614099A (en) 2006-05-01
US20080106091A1 (en) 2008-05-08
CA2580288C (en) 2013-01-15
JP2008513817A (en) 2008-05-01
TWI383340B (en) 2013-01-21
DE102004044459A1 (en) 2006-03-30
DE102004044459B4 (en) 2009-07-09
JP4939419B2 (en) 2012-05-23
CN101019154B (en) 2010-07-28
RU2007114066A (en) 2008-10-27
WO2006029745A1 (en) 2006-03-23
RU2376642C2 (en) 2009-12-20
EP1797539A1 (en) 2007-06-20
US7931305B2 (en) 2011-04-26

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