EP1789994A1 - Layer arrangement for a light-emitting component - Google Patents

Layer arrangement for a light-emitting component

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Publication number
EP1789994A1
EP1789994A1 EP05766723A EP05766723A EP1789994A1 EP 1789994 A1 EP1789994 A1 EP 1789994A1 EP 05766723 A EP05766723 A EP 05766723A EP 05766723 A EP05766723 A EP 05766723A EP 1789994 A1 EP1789994 A1 EP 1789994A1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
material
electron
layer
m2
characterized
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
EP05766723A
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Gufeng He
Martin Pfeiffer
Jan Blochwitz-Nimoth
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Technische Universitaet Dresden
NovaLED GmbH
Original Assignee
Technische Universitaet Dresden
NovaLED GmbH
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to EP04019276 priority Critical
Priority to DE102004039594 priority
Application filed by Technische Universitaet Dresden, NovaLED GmbH filed Critical Technische Universitaet Dresden
Priority to EP05766723A priority patent/EP1789994A1/en
Priority to PCT/DE2005/001076 priority patent/WO2006015567A1/en
Publication of EP1789994A1 publication Critical patent/EP1789994A1/en
Application status is Withdrawn legal-status Critical

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L51/00Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof
    • H01L51/50Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof specially adapted for light emission, e.g. organic light emitting diodes [OLED] or polymer light emitting devices [PLED];
    • H01L51/5012Electroluminescent [EL] layer
    • H01L51/5016Triplet emission
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L51/00Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof
    • H01L51/0032Selection of organic semiconducting materials, e.g. organic light sensitive or organic light emitting materials
    • H01L51/005Macromolecular systems with low molecular weight, e.g. cyanine dyes, coumarine dyes, tetrathiafulvalene
    • H01L51/0062Macromolecular systems with low molecular weight, e.g. cyanine dyes, coumarine dyes, tetrathiafulvalene aromatic compounds comprising a hetero atom, e.g.: N,P,S
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L2251/00Indexing scheme relating to organic semiconductor devices covered by group H01L51/00
    • H01L2251/30Materials
    • H01L2251/301Inorganic materials
    • H01L2251/303Oxides, e.g. metal oxides
    • H01L2251/305Transparent conductive oxides [TCO]
    • H01L2251/308Transparent conductive oxides [TCO] composed of indium oxides, e.g. ITO
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L51/00Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof
    • H01L51/0032Selection of organic semiconducting materials, e.g. organic light sensitive or organic light emitting materials
    • H01L51/005Macromolecular systems with low molecular weight, e.g. cyanine dyes, coumarine dyes, tetrathiafulvalene
    • H01L51/0051Charge transfer complexes
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L51/00Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof
    • H01L51/0032Selection of organic semiconducting materials, e.g. organic light sensitive or organic light emitting materials
    • H01L51/005Macromolecular systems with low molecular weight, e.g. cyanine dyes, coumarine dyes, tetrathiafulvalene
    • H01L51/0052Polycyclic condensed aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g. anthracene
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L51/00Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof
    • H01L51/0032Selection of organic semiconducting materials, e.g. organic light sensitive or organic light emitting materials
    • H01L51/005Macromolecular systems with low molecular weight, e.g. cyanine dyes, coumarine dyes, tetrathiafulvalene
    • H01L51/0059Amine compounds having at least two aryl rest on at least one amine-nitrogen atom, e.g. triphenylamine
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L51/00Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof
    • H01L51/0032Selection of organic semiconducting materials, e.g. organic light sensitive or organic light emitting materials
    • H01L51/005Macromolecular systems with low molecular weight, e.g. cyanine dyes, coumarine dyes, tetrathiafulvalene
    • H01L51/0062Macromolecular systems with low molecular weight, e.g. cyanine dyes, coumarine dyes, tetrathiafulvalene aromatic compounds comprising a hetero atom, e.g.: N,P,S
    • H01L51/0071Polycyclic condensed heteroaromatic hydrocarbons
    • H01L51/0072Polycyclic condensed heteroaromatic hydrocarbons comprising only nitrogen in the heteroaromatic polycondensed ringsystem, e.g. phenanthroline, carbazole
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L51/00Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof
    • H01L51/0032Selection of organic semiconducting materials, e.g. organic light sensitive or organic light emitting materials
    • H01L51/0077Coordination compounds, e.g. porphyrin
    • H01L51/0079Metal complexes comprising a IIIB-metal (B, Al, Ga, In or TI), e.g. Tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) gallium (Gaq3)
    • H01L51/0081Metal complexes comprising a IIIB-metal (B, Al, Ga, In or TI), e.g. Tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) gallium (Gaq3) comprising aluminium, e.g. Alq3
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L51/00Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof
    • H01L51/0032Selection of organic semiconducting materials, e.g. organic light sensitive or organic light emitting materials
    • H01L51/0077Coordination compounds, e.g. porphyrin
    • H01L51/0084Transition metal complexes, e.g. Ru(II)polypyridine complexes
    • H01L51/0085Transition metal complexes, e.g. Ru(II)polypyridine complexes comprising Iridium
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L51/00Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof
    • H01L51/50Solid state devices using organic materials as the active part, or using a combination of organic materials with other materials as the active part; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of such devices, or of parts thereof specially adapted for light emission, e.g. organic light emitting diodes [OLED] or polymer light emitting devices [PLED];
    • H01L51/5048Carrier transporting layer
    • H01L51/5052Doped transporting layer

Abstract

The invention relates to a layer arrangement for a light-emitting component, especially a phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode, which comprises a hole-injecting contact and an electron-injecting contact, each linked with a light-emitting area. Said light-emitting area comprises a light-emitting layer from a material (M1) and another light-emitting layer from another material (M2), the material (M1) being ambipolar and preferably adapted to transport holes and the other material (M2) being ambipolar and adapted to transport electrons. A heterojunction is configured in the light-emitting area comprising the material (M1) and the other material (M2). A boundary surface between the material (M1) and the other material (M2) is of the staggered type II. The material (M1) and the other material (M2) contains admixed thereto one or more triplet emitter doping agents. An energy barrier for hole migration from the material (M1) to the other material (M2) and an energy barrier for electron migration from the other material (M2) to the material (M1) are each smaller than approximately 0.4 eV.

Description

Layer arrangement for a light emitting device

The invention relates to a layer arrangement for a light emitting device, more particularly sondere an organic phosphorescent light-emitting diode (OLED).

State of the art

A device comprising an arrangement of organic layers is kument for example, in WO 03/100880 Do¬ described.

Typical implementations of such devices, as described for example by Baldo et al. (Appl. Phys. Lett, 75 (1), 4-6 (1999)) or Ikai et al. (Appl. Phys. Lett, 79 (2), 156-158 (2001)) have been reported, based on a simple light-emitting layer (EML), consisting of a mixture of a matrix material and a Phosphorezenzdotanden. If this, as in the works of Baldo et al. (EML phenylpyridines (from CBP 4,4'-N, N'-dicarbazole-biphenyl or 4,4'-bis ((carbazol-9-yl-biphenyl)) doped (with Ir ppy) 3 (fac tris 2-) iridium) ) and Ikai et al. (EML (from TCTA 4,4 ', 4 "-tris (N-carbazolyl) - triphenylamine) doped with Ir (ppy) 3) described predominantly hole transporting Cha¬ has rakter is between the emission layer and an electron transport layer or the cathode of an so-called hole-blocking layer (HBL) of material requires very high ionization energy, namely in Baldo et al. BCP (bathocuproine, 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-l, 10-phenanthroline) and Ikai et al., a perfluorinated Starburst material.

If, however, the EML predominantly electron-conducting character, as in a realization of Adachi et al. (Appl. Phys., 90 (10), 5048-5051 (2001)), where the EML of the Elelctro- nentransportmaterial TAZ (a derivative of 1,2,4-triazole (for example, 3- 4-biphenylyl) -4 - phenyl-5-tert-butylphenyl-l, 2,4-triazoles), doped with an Ir complex exists as Emitterdotand, an electron blocking layer (EBL) with very low electron needs of a material tronenaffmität what Adachi et al. 4,4'-bis [N, N '- (3-tolyl) amino] -3,3'-dimethyl-biphenyl using (HM-TPD). In this way, the problem arises, however, that there is nenblockschicht especially at high luminance for accumulation of holes / electrons at the hole- / electrical, resulting in a decrease in the efficiency with increased luminous density. Another problem is that the charge carrier accumulation accelerated degradation of the OLED. In addition, good hole-blocking materials are often mixed elektroche¬ unstable. This applies for example to the use of the widely used materials bathocuproine (BCP), bathophenanthroline (BPhen) and 2,2'2 "(1, 3, 5 - benzenetriyl) tris - [1 - phenyl - IH - benzimidazole] (TPBI) as a hole-blocking materials (see Lett. Kwong et al., Appl. Phys., 81, 162 (2002))

In the document WO 03/100880 are in a layer arrangement for a phosphorescent organic light emitting diode ambipolar light-emitting layers (EML) and EMLl

EML2 used as follows: Anode = ITO / hole-transporting layer (HTL) 1 = F4

TCNQ doped with MeO-TPD / HTL 2 = Spiro-TAD / EMLl = TCTA: Ir (ppy) 3 / EML2 =

BPhen: Ir (ppy) 3 / elektronentransporierende layer (ETL) ETL2 = BPhen / ETLL =

BPheniCs doped / cathode = Al. The barrier for electron injection from EML2 in EMLl this case is about 0.5 eV.

An organic phosphorescent light-emitting diode is further disclosed in the document WO 02/071813 Al. In the known light-emitting diode a light-emitting area with two emission layers with hole transporter / electron transporter is provided, which are each doped with the same triplet emitter dopant.

In the known devices there is the problem that the energy barrier rule zwi¬ the hole transporting material and the electron transporting material is high, so that it comes in the light emitting region to a storage of carriers, as indicated by a high probability for the extinction of excitons charge carriers (triplet-polaron quenching) leads. In addition, the generation of excitons substantially at the interface between the hole-transporting and the electron-transporting part of the device takes place. Therefore, in this area a high local triplet exciton density occurs that has a high probability of triplet-triplet annihilation result. The triplet-polaron quenching and the triplet-triplet Annihi¬ lation lead to a drop in the quantum efficiency at higher current densities. The invention

The object of the invention is to provide a layer structure for a light emitting element Baule, in particular a phosphorescent organic light emitting device having improved properties Leuchtei-, in particular an improved quantum yield of phosphorescence at high luminances, and increased service life.

This object is inventively achieved by a layer structure for a light emitting device according to the independent claim. 1 Advantageous embodiments of the invention are subject matter of dependent claims.

The invention comprises the idea of ​​voltage in the light emitting region of the Schichtanord¬, also referred to as an emission zone, to provide at least two ambipolar layers, of which a preferred electron and another preferably holes transported.

The preferred transport of one type of charge carriers, namely electrons or holes, is formed in a layer of the light emitting area when the La¬ one type of charge carriers is carrier mobility for this in the layer is greater than the charge carrier carrier mobility for the other type of charge carriers and / or if the Injektions¬ is barrier for this one type of charge carriers is less than the injection barrier for re ande type of charge carriers.

As a staggered heterojunction which "staggered type II" also heterojunction type is called, between an organic material (Ml) and any other organic material (M2) is referred to a heterojunction, when the preferred holes transportie¬ Rende material (Ml) both a lower ionization energy and a smaller electron tronenaffmität than the preferred electron transporting other material (M2), which means that both the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest un- occupied molecular orbital (LUMO) for the material (Ml ) are closer to the vacuum level than that (for the other material M2) is the case. this creates an energy barrier for hole injection (of the material Ml) into the other material (M2), and an energy barrier for electron injection from the other material (M2) in the material (Ml). a layer based on an organic material is an ambipolar layer in the Si nne of the present which application if in the layer, the electron mobility and the Lö¬ cherbeweglichkeit located by less than two orders of magnitude and the organic material for the ambipolar layer can be reversibly reduced and oxidized, indicating elekrochemischer stability of the radical anion and the radical cation of the organic material is based.

The ambipolar characteristic may preferably be further characterized pronounced that a Lö¬ chertransportniveau (HOMO - "Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital") not more than about 0.4 eV, preferably not more than about 0.3 eV, is less than the hole transport level conventional hole transporting materials, to enable a hole injection. a typical Lö¬ chertransportmaterial is, for example, N, N'-Di (naphthalen-2-yl) -N, N'-diphenyl-benzidine (NPD). For the reference material NPD is an HOMO energy between about 5.5 eV and about 5,7eV shown below the vacuum level.

In addition or alternatively to the foregoing property in connection with the HOMO energy, the ambipolar characteristic is formed in that the electron transport level of the organic material for the ambipolar layer is not more than about 0.4 eV, vor¬ preferably no more than about 0, 3 eV, nentransportmaterialien over the electron transport level of standard electrical located, for example Alq 3. This criterion can based on Verfah ren for estimating the LUMO energy (LUMO - "Lowest Unoccupied Molecular orbital") are checked, which are known in the art as such ., in particular: a) the measurement of the ionization potential (IP), for example by means of spectroscopy Photoelektronenspek¬, and the optical Absoprtionskante e g opt and estimation of the LUMO energy relative to vacuum as IP-e g opt This result for Alq 3 LUMO. -

Energy positions between about 2,9eV and about 3, IEV below the vacuum level. b) Electrochemical determination of the potential for the first reduction. Here 3 is obtained for the potential of Alq 3 -2.3 V versus ferrocene / ferrocene 4 ", which corresponds to an electron affinity of about 2.5eV. C) Bestimmuung the LUMO energy situation of the organic material used for the ambipolar layer with respect to Alq means . investigation of the barrier to the Elektro¬ nentransport across an interface to Alq 3 an organic layer with Ambipolaritätseigenschaft example, ausge¬ as follows performs: i) It is a unipolar organic matrix material having a complementary transportie¬ leaders emitter material used for example, the emitter material. löchertranspor- tierend, when the matrix material is electron-transporting, or vice versa. in die¬ ser embodiment, the ratio between hole and electron mobility a matrix of a unipolar hole-transporting matrix material can be adjusted by means of the doping concentration of the emitter material. is called "hole-onl y "matrix referred to, whereas it is at a" is a matrix of a unipolar electron-transporting matrix material electron-only "matrix, ii) It can be used an ambipolar matrix material. iii) In a further embodiment a mixture of two matrix materials and an emitter material is used, wherein one of the matrix materials löchertransportie¬ rend and the other is electron-transporting matrix material. The ratio be- see hole and electron mobility is adjustable by means of mixing ratios.

The molecular mixing ratios are in the range between 1: 10 to 10: 1.

The invention has the advantage over the prior art, the advantage that the assembly of several layers having a self-balancing character for the required balance of electron and hole injection into the light emitting area. The Akku¬ mulation of charge carriers at interfaces is avoided, both at the interface to the adjacent block or transport layers, especially gegen¬ over the prior art light emitting device according to Adachi et al. (Appl. Phys., 90 (10), 5048-5051 (2001)) is an advantage, as well as at the inner interface between the Schich- th in the light emitting area, whereby there is an advantage in particular over the prior art from the WO 02/071813 Al is obtained. There are hereby widest possible area of ​​overlap of the injected electron and hole distributions in the light emitting region of the layer arrangement, and thus a wide-generation zone for the excitation states (excitons) is formed. In this way, both degradation processes due to high local carrier densities and effizienzreduzierende Aus¬ extinction processes between carriers and excitons and mized mini¬ between excitons. It can be provided that the light emitting region comprises more than two light-emitting layers, as is described in the document WO 03/100880, the content of which is incorporated by reference in the present application.

The triplet emitter dopant for the light emitting layers may be different or the same unter¬.

It can layer on the electron and / or hole side, the carrier-Transport¬ and / or the hole- or electron-blocking layer omitted, so that the light emitting layers in the light emitting area of ​​the layer arrangement directly to the contacts (anode, cathode) or gren¬ to the (doped) charge carrier transport layers zen. This is made possible by the self balancing nature of the layer system into the emission zone, otherwise deleted excitons at the metal contact or dopants wür¬ or the charge carriers to flow across the OLED and these could recombine radiationless at the other contact or of the doped transport layer.

embodiments

The invention will be explained in the following by means of embodiments with reference to figures of the drawing. show:

Figure 1 is a graphical representation of the current efficiency and the power efficiency in Ab¬ dependence of the luminance for a light emitting device according to a er¬ sten embodiment.

Fig. 2 is a graphical representation of the Leistungseffϊzienz a function of the light density for a light emitting device according to a second embodiment;

Fig. 3 is a graph showing the power efficiency as a function of Leucht¬ density for a light emitting device according to a fourth embodiment;

Fig. 4 is a dyad with a spiro-linked molecule of CBP and TAZ-unit (such molecules are referred to as DAD = donor-acceptor dyad loading records);

Fig. 5 is a schematic representation of the energy levels of a) a simple material with a continuous π-electron system (for b) subunits D (donor subunit) and A acceptor subunit) a DAD, wherein at least one of the energy differences between HOMO -Niveaus or LUMO levels of the subunits is so small that the lowest singlet excited state is a Fren- kel-exciton on one of the subunits, as well as c) subunits D and a a DAD, wherein at least one of the energy differences between HOMO -

Levels or LUMO levels of the subunits is so large that the lowest singlet excited state is a charge-transfer exciton of an electron on the A subunit and a hole on the subunit D;

Fig. 6 play a schematic representation of an energy level diagram for an exemplary embodiment in which a material (Ml), a bipolar, single-component material and another material for one of the layers EMLl in the emission zone (M2) for a an¬ particular the layers EML2 in the emission zone containing a "electron-only matrix" and ei¬ nen löchertransortierenden emitter dopant; the dashed lines reprä¬ sentieren the energy levels of the emitter dopant. Fig. 7 play a schematic representation of an energy level diagram for an exemplary embodiment, the material (ML) for one of the layers EMLl in the emission zone ei¬ ne mixture of a hole transporting material, an electron-transporting material and a triplet emitter dopant and another material containing a "electron-only ma- trix" (M2) for another of the layers EML2 in the emission zone;

Fig. 8 play a schematic representation of an energy level diagram for an example, in which the material (ML) for one of the layers EMLl in the emission zone comprises a "hole-only matrix", and an electron transport by hopping between dopant is executable, and the other material (M2) for another of the layers EML2 in the emission zone comprises an ambipolar, single-component material include;

Fig. 9 play a schematic representation of an energy level diagram for an example, in which the material (ML) for one of the layers EMLl in the emission zone comprises a "hole-only matrix", and an electron transport by hopping see be- dopant states is executable, and the other material (M2) for a particular an¬ the layers EML2 in the emission zone comprises a mixture of a löchertranspor- animal material, an electron transporting material and a triplet emitter dopant;

play Fig. 10 is a schematic representation of an energy level diagram for an example, in which the material (ML) for one of the layers EMLl in the emission zone and the other material (M2) for another of the layers EML2 in the Emissions¬ zone each comprise a component, ambipolar material or a mixture with a hole-transporting material and an electron-transporting material are formed;

Fig. 11 play a schematic representation of an energy level diagram for an exemplary embodiment in which the hole transport in the material (ML) for the layer in the EMLl

-Emitting region and the other material (M2) for the layer EML2 in the emission zone by hopping between states of the triplet emitter dopant takes place (the greater hole mobility in Ml versus M2 is here by the ge ringeren energetic distance to the hole transport level of is given matrix so that facilitates tunneling in Ml between dopant); and

Fig. 12 play a schematic representation of an energy level diagram for an example in which the electron transport in the material (ML) for the layer EMLl in the emission zone and the other material (M2) for the layer EML2 in the emission zone by hopping between states of the triplet emitter dopant takes place (the greater electron mobility in M2 as compared to Ml is here because of the lower energy gap of electron transport level of the matrix given, so that facilitated in M2 tunneling between dopant).

In the following description of embodiments of the genann¬ below th abbreviations are used: HTL - a hole-transporting layer, ETL - elektronenrans- transporting layer, EML - layer in the light-emitting region, EBL - Elektronenblock- layer and HBL - hole blocking layer.

Embodiment 1

In a first embodiment, the following layer arrangement is provided on a lichtemittie¬ rendes component: Anode = ITO /

HTLL = F4-TCNQ (tetra-fluoiO-tera-cyano-quinodimethanes) doped in N, N, N ', N'-tetrakis (4-methoxyphenyl) -benzidine (MeO-TPD), at a mixing ratio of 0, Imol. % to 10 mol.% and a layer thickness between about 30nm and about 500nm, preferably between about 50 nm to about 200 nm /

HTL2 = 2,2 ', 7,7'-tetrakis (N, N-diphenylamino) -9,9'-spirobifluorene (Spiro-TAD) with a layer thickness of between about lnm and about 30nm, preferably between 3 nm and 15 nm, wherein HTL2 is preferably thinner than HTLL / EMLl = TCTA:... Ir (ppy) 3 at a concentration of Ir (ppy) 3 is between about lmol% to about 50 mol%, preferably between about 3 and about 30 mol%, and a layer thickness between about 2 nm to about 30 nm, preferably between about 3 nm and about 15 nm / EML2 = TPBI: Ir (ppy) 3, having a concentration of Ir (ppy) 3 is between about lmol% to about 50 mol%, preferably between about 3 and about.. 30 mol.% and a layer thickness of between about 2 nm and about 30 nm, preferably between about 3 nm and about 15 nm / ETL2 = bis (2-methyl-8-quinolinolato) -4- (phenyl-phenolato) -aluminum (III) (BAlq 2) with a layer thickness of between about lnm and about 30nm, preferably between about 3 nm and about 15 nm, wherein ETL2 is preferably thinner than ETLL. Similar characteristics wer¬ been awarded the BPhen instead BAlq 2 as ETL2. ETLL = BPhen: Cs doped with a Cs concentration of between about 0 lmol% up to a molecular ratio of 1:. 1 and a layer thickness between about 30nm and about 500nm, preferably about 50 nm to about 200 nm / cathode = Al.

Optionally, the electron transport in EMLl can be supported if that layer of the three components TCTA, TPBI and Ir (ppy) 3 is mixed, for example with a mixture of 46% / 46% / 8%. The barrier for electron injection from EML2 in EMLl is less than about 0.3 eV here. The barrier for the hole injection of EMLl in EML2 is about Public transport and because of the hole transport in EMLl and EML2 as "hopping" in Ir (ppy) is statt¬ 3, or even negative, when a hole of a TCTA state to a Ir (ppy) 3 -. state in EML2 merges the addition of the redox dopant, for example acceptors such as F4-TCNQ or donors such as Cs, and the emitter dopant, namely Ir (ppy) 3 in the embodiment may be made of, for example, by means of mixing evaporation steuer¬ two separately cash thermal sublimation sources in vacuum or by means of other suitable ren procedural, such as the one after the application of the materials, for example by evaporation in vacuo, and the subsequent diffusing into each other gegebe¬, appropriate, supported by a special temporal temperature profile.

The ambipolarity the EML2 is in the first embodiment by means of the Löcher¬ 3-transport property of the Ir (ppy) in the electron-transporting materials and TPBI BPhen er¬ ranges. Optionally, the EML2 something TCTA can be added to support the Löchertrans¬ port, the TCTA concentration should always be less than in EML2 in EMLl.

Embodiment 2

A second embodiment has a structure as the above embodiment 1 on, with the difference that ETL2 is formed by Alq 3: Anode = ITO / HTL1 = F4-TCNQ doped MeO-TPD / HTL2 = Spiro-TAD / EMLl = TCTA: Ir (ppy) 3 / EML2 = TPBI: Ir (ppy) 3 / ETL2 = Alq 3 / ETLL = BPhen: Cs doped / cathode = Al. This Ausfüh¬ insurance for the self-supported balancierden aspect of the structure that allows either to refrain entirely from hole and / or electron blocking layers. Alq 3, has kei¬ ne holes blocking effect but is more stable than the typical hole-blocking materials such as BCP. Alq 3 helps in this exemplary embodiment in the electron injection from Bphen: Cs in EML2.

Embodiment 3

In a third embodiment, there arises a simplified structure in which neither an electron blocking layer or a hole blocking layer are provided but also the elimination of only one of the blocking layers is possible:

= Anode ITO / HTL1 = F4-TCNQ doped MeO-TPD / EMLl = TCTA: Ir (ppy) 3 / EML2 = TPBLIr (ppy) 3 / ETLL = BPhen: Cs doped / cathode = Al. Embodiment 4

A modified from the exemplary embodiment 3 embodiment provides the following structure: Anode = ITO / HTL1 = F4-TCNQ doped MeO-TPD / HTL2 = Spiro-TAD / EMLl = TCTA: Ir (ppy) 3 / EML2 = TPBI: Ir (ppy) 3 / ETLL = BPhen: Cs doped / cathode = Al.

Fig. 3 shows experimental results for the power efficiency as a function of the luminance for the fourth embodiments (triangles) as well as the fifth exemplary embodiment (circles).

The embodiments described above are so-called pin structures, which means that are mixed in the hole transport layer in the electron-transfer acceptors and donors port layer. If the donor layer in the electron transport ETLL, ETL2 be omitted, it is a so-called pii structure. If the acceptors in the hole transport layer HTLL, HTL2 be omitted, a lin- structure. When omitting donors and acceptors a iii- structure. All structures can be combined with the structures described above from EMLl and EML2 in the emission zone.

Embodiment 5

Another embodiment provides a light emitting device having a Schicht¬ arrangement before, wherein the layer arrangement comprises a hole-injecting contact, optionally one or more hole-injecting and hole-transporting layers, a lichtemittieren¬ the range, optionally one or more electron injecting and elektronentransportieren¬ de layers and a electron-injecting contact and wherein at least one layer is formed in the light emitting region of a mixture of a matrix material having a phosphorescence emitter-doping agent, - the matrix material is a covalently coupled dyad of a bipolar or elektronen¬ transporting structure and a bipolar or hole-transporting structure is and the dyad material comprises subunits having separate π-electron systems. This light emitting device according to the embodiment 5 is preferably formed so that one of the subunits of the dyad can accommodate additional holes preferred so that a HOMO wave function focused on the one of the subunits, and that another of the subunits of the dyad preferred additional electrons Transd ¬ men can, so that the LUMO-wave function in this concentrated (donor-acceptor dyad).

A ambipolarity transport in lichtemitteirenden area thus formed leads to an improvement, since in general, the generation zone is widened at ambipolarity and focused not only on the immediate vicinity of an interface. This is especially true when the charge carrier mobilities are set unab¬ pendently to a material to achieve balanced as possible conditions, and thus a preferred generating in the center of the EML. This is with the Verwen- fertil of donor-acceptor dyads (DADs) comprises two parts ensures character with complementary Transport¬, since the sub-units for the electron and hole transport may be optimized individually.

In addition, the use of dyads for the efficiency of phosphorescent OLEDs have the following advantages. Basically, a small Betriebsspan¬ is desirable voltage for OLEDs. The energy of a carrier pair in the transport material (matrix) of the emission zone should be as little greater than the triplet energy of the phosphorescence zenzdotanden. Simultaneously, the lowest triplet level of transport materials must have a higher energy in the emission zone than the triplet level of the emitter dopants, otherwise the triplet exciton of the emitter is cleared by the matrix material. This bei¬ the requirements contradict each other insofar as the triplet energy selwirkung by Austauschwech¬ generally is significantly lower than the singlet energy (optical energy gap) and the energy of the free charge carrier pair (electric energy gap). Here, the difference between the singlet and triplet energy scaled by the spatial overlap of HOMO and LUMO. The difference is thus for the dyads in which the HOMO limited to a different subunit than the LUMO, negligibly small. In a hinrei¬ accordingly large distance of both the HOMO and the LUMO energies of the subunits of the lowest singlet excited state of the DAD is a charge-transfer exciton, which has a lower exciton binding energy as a molecular Frenkel exciton, so that optical and back electric energy gap closer to each other. Overall, therefore, the difference between the electric energy gap of the matrix and the triplet energy of the Phosphoreszentdotanden when using DADs in comparison to materials with strongly overlapping HOMO and LUMO orbitals can be significantly reduced.

One possible implementation of such a DAD is a spiro-linked molecule of CBP and TAZ-unit, which is shown in Fig. 4. The electrical energy gap is given by the HOMO and LUMO of CBP of TAZ, while the lowest singlet and triplet excitations corresponding to the values ​​of the two components.

Energy level schemes

In the following 5 to 12 energy level diagrams for various embodiments with reference to the Fig. Described which comprise the Ausführungs¬ above-described examples, at least in part as well as further embodiments.

Fig. 5 shows a schematic representation of the energy levels of a) a simple material with a continuous π-electron system, for b) subunits D (donor subunit) and A (acceptor subunit) a DAD, wherein at least one of the Energeti ¬ rule distances between HOMO level and LUMO levels of the subunits is small, preferably less than about 0.5 eV, that the lowest singlet excited state is a Frenkel exciton on one of the subunits, as well as c) subunits D (donor subunit ) and a (acceptor subunit) a DAD, wherein at least one of the energy-Getian distances between HOMO level and LUMO levels of the subunits is large, preferably greater than about 0.4 eV, that the lowest singlet excited state, a charge- transfer is exciton of an electron on the a subunit and a hole on the D subunit.

The embodiment of Fig. 5 c) describes an energetically optimal situation, which leads to minimal operating voltages. For the efficiency of energy transfer or Ver¬ steer clear of erase processes of charge-transfer excitons that lead vibronic relaxation processes often significant, but it may be useful to go over to the energetically less optimal situation in Fig. 5b) is defined and wherein the lowest Anre¬ a Frenkel exciton supply state on one of the subunits is because one of the energy differences ( "offset") is smaller than the Frenkel exciton binding energy. an advantage be¬ to compared züglich the operating voltage simple materials with high spatial HOMO-LUMO overlap is nevertheless maintained: here, although the difference between the singlet and triplet excitation is not reduced, but optical and elektriche energy gap move closer together.

To avoid confusion between a single-particle levels and energies of excited states, the levels were referred to in Fig. 5 for electrons / holes with E s / E h. This corresponds essentially to the LUMO / HOMO energies of the subunits, especially the term LUMO is not used consistently in the literature, while the excitation energies are referred to depending on the spin multiplicity of S n or T n. CT refers to the energy of a charge-transfer excitons from an electron on the A subunit and a hole on the assembly D, which is largely independent of the spin multiplicity. In the case of b) and c) in Fig. 5, the matrix has a smaller electric energy gap (E g el), so that the phosphorescent Leucht¬ diode can work at a lower operating voltage for the same triplet energy.

Fig. 6 shows a schematic representation of an energy level diagram for an example, in which the material (ML) for one of the layers EMLl in the emission zone comprises an ambipolar, single-component material and the other material (M2) for another of the layers EML2 in the emission zone comprises a "electron-only matrix", and a hole transport is by hopping between dopant.

An upper line indicates the LUMO levels, ie the respective Elektronentransportni- veau. The lower line indicates the HOMO level, that is, the hole transport levels. Further, an anode A and a cathode K are shown, which are izes sym¬ means of its Fermi level. In the illustrated exemplary embodiment that HTLL p-doped and n-doped HTL2 are is assumed. The energy levels gestrichtelt in Fig. 6 shown in the emission layers and EMLl EML2 symbolize the levels of the emitter dopant. Arrows 60, 61 indicate the energy level takes place on the charge carrier transport. Arrows 62, 63 indicate the preferred type of transport of a material system. Of importance is the arrangement of the energy of the HOMO and LUMO energy levels in the EMLs, and the fact that the distance between HOMO and HTL2 EMLl and the distance between LUMO between ETL2 and EML2 is not too large. This distance is preferably klei¬ ner about 0.5eV, preferably less than about 0.3 eV.

Fig. 7 shows a schematic representation of an energy level diagram for an example, the material (ML) for one of the layers EMLl in the emission zone comprises a Mi¬ research of a hole transporting material, an electron transporting material and a triplet emitter dopant contains and for another of the layers EML2 in the emission zone contains other material (M2) is a "electron-only matrix", and a Lö¬ chertransport by hopping between dopant is executable. The dotted lines indicate the energy levels of the emitter dopant. The dash-dot line be¬ draws the energy level of an electron transport component in EMLl. Finally be¬ the solid line in EMLl records the energy level of the Löchertransportkompo- component.

Fig. 8 shows a schematic representation of an energy level diagram for an example, in which the material (ML) for one of the layers EMLl in the emission zone comprises a "hole-only matrix", denzuständen an electron transport by hopping between Dotan- executable and the other material (M2) in the emission zone contains, for another of the layers EML2 an ambipolar, single-component material.

Fig. 9 shows a schematic representation of an energy level diagram for an example, in which the material (ML) containing a for one of the layers EMLl in the emission zone "hole-only matrix", and an electron transport is denzuständen by hopping between Dotan¬ and the other material (M2) for another of the layers EML2 in the emission zone comprises a mixture of a hole transporting material, an electron transporting material and a triplet emitter dopant. The ge dashed lines again denote the energy level of the triplet emitter dopant. The dot-dash lines in FIG. 9 denote the energy levels of the Elektronentransportkompo¬ component in the layer EML2. Finally, the solid line in the layer EML2 indicates the energy level of the hole transport component. Fig. 10 shows a schematic representation of an energy level diagram for an Ausfuh¬ approximately example, in which the material (ML) for one of the layers EMLl in the emission zone and the other material (M2) for another of the layers EML2 in the emission zone in each case from are formed a single-component, ambipolar material or a mixture of a hole- transporting material and an electron transporting material. only the port important for transport energy levels are shown for the transport materials in the layers EMLl and EML2, but not the nonparticipating energy levels in the case of mixed materials.

Fig. 11 shows approximately example a schematic representation of an energy level diagram for an Ausfüh¬, wherein the hole transport in two materials (Ml) and (M2) for the layers EMLl, EML 2 in the emission zone by hopping between states of the triplet emitter dopants takes place, wherein in the material (Ml), a HOMO level of a matrix material is formed closer to a HOMO level of the triplet emitter dopant than the other material (M2) so that a tunnel barrier for hopping between the Tri¬ pletely emitter dopant in the material (Ml) is smaller in EMLl as a tunnel barrier for hopping between the dopants in the other material (M2) in EML2 and such that the effective hole mobility in the material (Ml) is higher than the effective Löcherbeweg ¬ friendliness is in the other material (M2).

only the port important for transport energy levels are shown for the transport materials in the layers EMLl and EML2, but not the nonparticipating energy levels in the case of mixed materials. The energy levels are similar to the energy levels in the Aus¬ exemplary implementation of FIG. 6 are arranged, the difference being that in the layer EMLl now a hole transport is taken an¬ by hopping between the triplet emitter dopant. Whether the transport by hopping between the triplet emitter dopant or as a transport on the matrix takes place with the dopants as adhesion points will depend on both the dopant concentration and by the Traptiefe, which is ference to the energy between the HOMO Dif¬ These energy level of the matrix and the HOMO energy level of the triplet emitter dopant.

Fig. 12 shows a schematic representation of an energy level diagram for an Ausfüh¬ approximately example in which the electron transport in the material (ML) for the layer EMLl in the emission zone and the other material (M2) for the layer EML2 in the Emissions¬ zone by hopping occurs between states of the triplet emitter dopant, in which the other material (M2) has a LUMO level of a matrix material closer to a LUMO-Ni veau of the triplet emitter dopant is formed as in the material (Ml), so that a tunnel barrier for hopping of electrons between the triplet emitter dopant in the other material (M2) smaller than a tunneling barrier for hopping between the dopants in the material (Ml), and so that the effective electron mobility in the other material (M2) is higher than the effective electron mobility in the material (Ml).

only the important for transporting energy levels are for the transport materials in the layers EMLl and EML2 in FIG. 12, but not the nonparticipating energy levels in the case of mixed materials. The energy levels are similar to the embodiment in Figure 9 is arranged., The difference being that in the layer EML2 now electron transport is carried out by direct hopping between the dopants.

Further material examples

Following more examples of materials are given which can be used in the various embodiments illustrated.

In the described embodiments, the following materials can be used as preferentially or exclusively hole-transporting matrix materials in the emission zone:

1) molecule triarylamines units comprising, in particular, derivatives of TPD, NPD or their spiro verkαüpften dyads (spiro linkage are for example in the document US 5,840,217 described above), derivatives of TDATA such as m-MTDATA, TNATA, etc. or derivatives of TDAB (see. Y. Shirota, J. Mater. Chem., 10 (I) 3 1-25 (2000)).

TDAB:

Starburst = TDAB 1, 3,5-tris (diphenylamino) benzene

Other aromatic amines are 2002/098379 in the documents US and US 6,406,804 described.

Comprises 2) molecule which thiophene units.

Includes 3) molecule which phenylene vinylene units.

As preferred or exclusively electron-transporting matrix materials, the following components can be used for the layers EML in the emission zone:

1) oxadiazoles

OXD:

\\ //

N - N

2) triazoles

TAZ:

ZI

-Y χ ^ / N V

\\ //

N - N

3) benzothiadiazoles

4) benzimidazole,

in particular N-arylbenzimidazoles as TPBI

5) bipyridines

6) molecules with cyanovinyl groups (see FIG. K. Naito, M. Sakurai, S. Egusa, J. Phys. Chem. A, 101, 2350 (1997)), in particular 7- or 8-cyano-para-phenylenevinylene derivatives

7) Quinoline

8) Quinoxaline (see FIG. M. Redecker, DDC Bradley, M. Jandke, P. Strohriegl, Appl. Phys. Lett., 75 (1), 109-111 (1999))

9) Triarylboryl derivatives (see. Y. Shirota, J. Mater. Chem., 10 (1), 1-25 (2000))

10) silole derivatives, in particular derivatives of silacyclopentadiene, for example 2,5-bis (2 ( ') 2 (') - bipyridine-6-yl) - 1, 1 -dimethyl-3, 4-diphenylsilacyclopentadiene (PyPySPyPy)

or

l, 2-bis (l-methyl-2,3,4,5-tetraphenylsilacyclopentadienyl) ethane

(2PSP)

(See. H. Murata, ZH Kafafi, M. Uchida, Appl. Phys. Lett., 80 (2), 189-191 (2002))

11) Cyclooctatetraenes (see. P. Lu, HP Hong, Cai GP, P. Djurovich, WP Weber, ME Thompson, J. Amer. Chem. Soc, 122 (31), 7480-7486 (2000))

12) quinoid structures, including quinoid thiophene derivatives

13) Pyrazolines

(See FIG. ZM Zhang, RF Zhang, F. Wu, YG Ma, GW Li, WJ. Tian, ​​JC Shen, Cliin. Phys. Lett., 17 (6), 454-456 (2000))

14) Other heterocyclic compounds having at least one nitrogen or a sour atom as a hetero atom. 15) Ketone

16) Zyclopentadienyl based radical electron transporter, in particular derivatives of Pentaaryl-cyclopentadiene (cf. US Pat. 5,811,833)

17) benzothiadiazoles (see. R. Pacios, DDC Bradley, Synth. Met., 127 (1-3), 261-265 (2002))

18) naphthalene dicarboxylic acid anhydrides,

19) Naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid imides

and Naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid-imidazoles

20) Perfluorinated oligo-para-phenyls (see. AJ. Campbell, DDC Bradley, H. Antoniadis, Appl. Phys. Lett, 79 (14), 2133-2135 (2001))

Further possible structural elements that promote electron transport are in the document management US 2002/098379 described.

In a further embodiment of the light-emitting device which is part bipola¬ acid, component material of the following material classes:

1) covalently coupled dyad of a bipolar or electron-transporting structure and a bipolar or hole-transporting structure, wherein Unterstruktu¬ ren have separate π-electron systems.

Such structures are, for example, realized as a spiro linkage of a donor moiety and an acceptor moiety (see. For example, DE 44 46 818 Al, R.

Pudzich, J. Salbeck, Synthet. Metal., 138, 21 (2003) and TP I Saragi, R. Pudzich, T. Fuhrmann, J. Salbeck, Appl. Phys. Lett., 84, 2334 (2004)). The focus of the work of Pudzich and Salbeck was on the Association of quadratic differentials of charge carrier transport and more efficient emission in a molecule and the achievement of lichtempfmdli- chen transistors. A possible a particularly advantageous use of such compounds as matrix for phosphorescent emitter dopants due to the favorable ratio of electrical band gap and the lowest triplet level is not mentioned by the authors.

Dyads of electron-conducting and hole-conducting structures are also in the

Document US 6,406,804 mentioned. They should serve as a matrix for fluores¬ ornamental emitter molecules according to this patent. 2) molecule hand, having more subunits by means of suitable structural elements that have a common π-electrical busbar system, on the one hand subunits which preferentially take up additional holes and to which, consequently concentrating the HOMO-wave function and ande, which preferably additional electrons aufneh- men, to which, consequently, the LUMO wave function is concentrated (see. eg Y. Shirota,

M. Kinoshita, T. Noda, K. Okumoto, T. Ohara, J. Amer. Chem. Soc, 122 (44), 11021- 11022 (2000) or R. Pudzich, J. Salbeck, Synthet. Metal., 138, 21 (2003)).

3) Push-pull-substituted molecule (molecule which de- by appropriate electron-withdrawing or having electron-donating substituents subunits which preferably include additional holes and to which, consequently concentrating the HOMO-wave function and other sub-units, which are preferably additional electrons aufneh¬ men to which therefore concentrates the LUMO wave function).

4) molecule containing carbazole units, in particular CBP.

5) molecule which contains fluorene units (see FIG. AJ. Campbell, DDC Bradley, H.

Antoniadis, Appl. Phys. Lett, 79 (14), 2133-2135 (2001)).

6) molecule which contains porphyrin or phthalocyanine units (see FIG. A. Ioannidis JP Dodelet, J. Phys. Chem. B, 101 (26), 5100-5107 (1997)).

7) molecule containing para-oligophenyl with more than three Coupled in para-position Phe nyl units.

contains 8) molecule that anthracene, tetracene or pentacene units.

Containing perylene 9) molecule.

10) molecule containing pyrene.

The features disclosed in the foregoing description and the claims of the Erfin dung can be both individually and in any desired combination for the realization of the invention in its various embodiments of importance.

Claims

claims
1st layer assembly for a light emitting device, in particular a phosphores¬ ornamental organic light emitting diode, are connected with a hole-injecting contact and a electron-injecting contact, the ver¬ each having a light-emitting region, wherein:
- a light emitting layer in the light emitting area of ​​material (Ml), and another light-emitting layer of another material (M2) ge forms are, wherein the material (Ml) holes is ambipolar and preferably formed transporting and the other material (M2 ) ambipolar and preferably electron trans¬ formed portierend;
- in the light-emitting region with the material (Ml) and the other material (M2), a heterojunction is formed;
- an interface between the material (Ml) and the other material (M2) of the type "staggered type II";
- the material (Ml) and the other material (M2) contain a respective admixture of one or more triplet emitter dopant; and
- is an energy barrier for a hole transfer of the material (Ml) into the other material (M2), and an energy barrier for electron transfer from the other material (M2) are each less than about 0.4 eV in the material (Ml).
2. The arrangement of claim 1, characterized geke nn zeic hn et that the Energiebar¬ centering for the hole transfer of the material (Ml) into the other material (M2) and / or the energy barrier for electron transfer from the other material (M2) in the material (Ml) are each less than about 0.3 eV are.
3. The arrangement of claim 1 or 2, characterized geke nn zeic hn et that the material (Ml) comprises an ambipolar, single-component material and that the other material (M2) contains an "electron-only matrix", and a hole transport by hopping is executable between states of the triplet emitter dopant.
4. The arrangement of claim 1 or 2, characterized geke nn zeic hn et that the Ma¬ TERIAL (Ml) comprises a mixture of a preferable hole transporting material, a preferable electron transporting material and the triplet emitter dopant and in that the other material (M2) contains an "electron-only matrix", and a Lö¬ chertransport by hopping between states of the triplet emitter dopant is ausführ¬ bar.
5. The arrangement of claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the material (Ml) contains a "hole-only matrix", and an electron transport is by hopping between states of the triplet emitter dopant, and in that the other material (M2 ) contains an ambipolar, single-component material.
6. The arrangement of claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the material (Ml) contains a "hole-only matrix", and an electron transport is by hopping between states of the triplet emitter dopant, and in that the other material (M2 ) a mixture of a preferable hole transporting material, a preferable electron transporting material and the triplet emitter
contains dopant.
7. The arrangement of claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the material (Ml) and the other material (M2) in each case of a single-component, ambipolar material or of a mixture formed with a preferred hole transporting Ma¬ TERIAL and a preferable electron transporting material are.
8. The arrangement of claim 7, characterized in that the animal lichtemit¬ layer of the material (Ml) and the other light-emitting layer of the other material (M2) of a preferably transporting holes from the same mixture
Material, a preferable electron transporting material and the triplet emitter dopant and that is adjusted by varying the mixing ratio, that the light emitting layer preferably has hole transporting light emitting layer and the other preferably is transporting electrons.
9. The arrangement of claim 8, characterized in that preferably transporting a smooth transition between the hole by means of a gradient of the mixture ratio and the preferred electron transporting property is formed in the light emitting region.
10. The arrangement of claim 1 or 2, characterized gekennzeic hn et that the solu- chertransport in the material (Ml) and the other material (M2) as hopping between
held states of the triplet emitter dopant, in which the material (Ml), a HOMO level of a matrix material is formed closer to a HOMO level of the triplet emitter dopant than the other material (M2), so that a Tunnelbar¬ centering smaller for hopping between the states of the triplet emitter dopant in the ma- TERIAL (Ml) as a tunnel barrier for hopping between the states of
is triplet emitter dopant in the other material (M2), and so that the Löcherbe¬ movability in the material (Ml) is higher than the hole mobility in the other material (M2).
11. The arrangement of claim 1 or 2, characterized geke nn zeic hn et that the electron transport in the two materials (Ml) and (M2) occurs as hopping between Zustän¬ to the triplet emitter dopant, in which (in the other material M2 ) has a LUMO level of a matrix material is formed closer to a LUMO level of the triplet emitter dopant than (in the material Ml), so that a tunnel barrier for hopping of electrons between the states of the triplet emitter dopant in the other is material (M2) smaller than a tunneling barrier for hopping between the states of the triplet emitter dopant in the material (Ml), and so that the Elek¬ tronenbeweglichkeit in the other material (M2) is higher than the electron mobility in the material (ml).
12. layer arrangement according to one of the preceding claims, characterized geke nn ¬ zeic hn et that a matrix material for the material (Ml) and / or the other Materi¬ al (M2) a covalently coupled dyad of an ambipolar or elektronentranspor¬ animal structural and is an ambipolar or hole transporting structure and wherein the dyad subunits having separate π-electron systems.
13. The arrangement of claim 12, characterized geke NNZ eic hn et, that one of the Un¬ tereinheiten the dyad preferably can accommodate additional holes, so that a HOMO wave function focused on the one of the subunits, and that a ande re subunit the dyad preferably can accommodate additional electrons, so that the LUMO wave function focused on the other of the subunits wo¬ is formed by a donor-acceptor dyad.
14. The arrangement of claim 12 or 13, characterized in that min¬ least one of the energy differences ( "offsets") is small between the HOMO level or the LUMO level of the subunits, preferably less than about 0.5 eV, so that the lowest singlet is excited state units a Frenkel exciton on one of the sub -.
15. The arrangement of claim 12 or 13, characterized in that the energetic distance ( "offset") is large sowhl for the HOMO levels and LUMO levels of the subunits, preferably greater than about 0.4 eV, so that the lowest singlet excited state is a charge-transfer exciton of an electron acceptor on a-subunit and a hole on a donor Unteremheit.
16. The arrangement of claim 13, characterized in that the tereinheit a Un¬, which receives additional holes preferably, contains a material from one or more of the following classes of materials:
- molecule triarylamines units comprising, in particular, derivatives of TPD, NPD and the spiro-linked dyads, derivatives of m-TDATA as MTDATA, TNATA, etc., or derivatives of TDAB;
- which thiophene units comprises molecule; and / or - the molecule, which comprises phenylene vinylene units.
17. The arrangement of claim 13, characterized in that the other subunit which accommodates preferred additional electrons, a material of one or more of the following classes of materials include: - oxadiazoles;
- triazoles;
- benzothiadiazoles;
- benzimidazoles, in particular N-Arylbenzimidazole as TPBI; - bipyridine;
- molecules having cyanovinyl groups, in particular 7- or 8-cyano-para-phenylene vinylene derivatives;
- Quinoline; - Quinoxaline;
- Triarylboryl derivatives;
- silole derivatives, in particular derivatives of silacyclopentadiene, for example 2,5-bis (2 ( ') 2 (') - bipyridine-6-yl) - 1, 1 -dimethyl-3, 4-diphenylsilacyclopentadiene or 1, 2- ethane bis (1-methyl-2,3, 4,5 -tetraphenylsilacyclopentadienyl); - cyclooctatetraenes;
- quinoid structures;
- pyrazolines;
- ketones;
- Zyclopentadienyl based radical electron transporter, in particular derivatives of Pentaaryl-cyclopentadiene;
- benzothiadiazoles;
- naphthalene dicarboxylic acid anhydrides, Naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid imides and Naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid imidazoles;
- perfluorinated oligo-para-phenyls; - materials from K. Naito, M. Sakurai, S. Egusa, J. Phys. Chem. A, 101, 2350 (1997); and
- materials from LS Hung, CH. Chen, Mater. Be. Engineering Reports, 39, 143-222 (2002
18th layer arrangement according to one of claims 12 to 17, characterized in that the sub-units of dyad are linked by a spiro compound ge Ind eic hn et.
19th layer arrangement according to one of the preceding claims, characterized geke nn ¬ zeic HNET that a pin construction is formed.
20th layer arrangement according to one of claims 1 to 18, characterized characterized geke nn that a PII construction is formed.
21, layer arrangement according to one of claims 1 to 18, characterized in that a iin-construction is formed.
22, layer arrangement according to one of claims 4, 6 or 7, characterized geke NNZ eic hn et that the mixture of the preferred hole-transporting material, the preferred elek¬ tronentransportierenden material and the triplet emitter dopant as preferred lö¬ chertransportierende component a material selected from one or more of the following classes of materials includes:
- molecule comprises which triarylamines units, in particular derivatives of TPD, NPD and the spiro-linked dyads, derivatives of m-TDATA as MTDATA,
TNATA, etc., or derivatives of TDAB;
- which thiophene units comprises molecule; and or
- molecule comprises which phenylene vinylene units.
23, layer arrangement according to one of claims 4, 6 or 7, characterized ge Ind eic hn et that the mixture of the preferred hole-transporting material, the preferred elek¬ tronentransportierenden material and the triplet emitter dopant as preferred elek¬ tronentransportierende component a material selected from contains one or more of the following classes of materials: - oxadiazoles;
- triazoles;
- benzothiadiazoles;
- benzimidazoles, in particular N-Arylbenzimidazole as TPBI;
- bipyridine; - molecules having cyanovinyl groups, in particular 7- or 8-cyano-para-
Phenylenevinylene derivatives;
- Quinoline;
- Quinoxaline;
- Triarylboryl derivatives; - silole derivatives, in particular derivatives of silacyclopentadiene, for example 2,5-bis (2 ( ') 2 (') - bipyridine-6-yl) - 1, 1 -dimethyl-3, 4-diphenylsilacyclopentadiene or 1, 2- ethane bis (l-methyl-2,3,4,5-tetraphenylsilacyclopentadienyl);
- cyclooctatetraenes; - quinoid structures;
- pyrazolines;
- ketones;
- Zyclopentadienyl based radical electron transporter, in particular derivatives of Pentaaryl-cyclopentadiene;
- benzothiadiazoles;
- naphthalene dicarboxylic acid anhydrides, Naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid imides and Naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid imidazoles;
- perfluorinated oligo-para-phenyls; - materials from K. Naito, M. Sakurai, S. Egusa, J. Phys. Chem. A, 101, 2350 (1997); and
- materials from LS Hung, CH. Chen, Mater. Be. Engineering Reports, 39, 143-222 (2002).
24, layer arrangement according to one of claims 3, 5 or 7, characterized geke nn zeic hn et that the ambipolar material component one of the following material classes is one an¬:
- covalently coupled dyad of a bipolar or electron-transporting structure and a bipolar or hole-transporting structure, said sub-structures comprise separate π-electron systems;
- molecule by suitable structural members, which have a common pi- electron system, having subunits of which receive preferred additional holes and to which, consequently concentrating the HOMO-wave function and other sub-units which preferably include additional electrons, on which consequently the LUMO - concentrated wave function;
- Push-pull substituted molecule;
- molecule containing carbazole units, in particular CBP;
- molecule containing fluorene units;
- molecule containing porphyrin or phthalocyanine units; - molecule coupled para oligophenyl with more than three in the para position
Phenyl moieties contains;
- containing molecule that anthracene, tetracene or pentacene units;
- containing perylene molecule; and - molecule containing pyrene.
25, layer arrangement according to one of the preceding claims, characterized gekenn¬ characterized in that the light-emitting layer and the other light emitting layer each have a layer thickness of less than about 30 nm.
26, layer arrangement according to one of the preceding claims, characterized gekenn¬ characterized in that in the light-emitting region at least one further lichtemittie¬ Rende layer is formed.
27, layer arrangement according to one of the preceding claims, gekenn¬ characterized characterized in that one or all of the following layers half of the light emitting area between the hole-injecting contact and the electron-injecting contact are formed singly or multiply außer¬: an electron transport layer, a hole transport layer, an electron block layer, and a hole blocking layer.
28. The arrangement of claim 27, characterized in that a Energie¬ barrier for hole injection from an effective hole transport level of the other light-emitting layer is smaller in an effective hole transport level of an adjacent electron transport layer than about 0.4 eV, so that the adjacent electron transport layer, a non- is efficient hole blocking layer.
29. The arrangement of claim 27 or 28, characterized in that an energy barrier for electron injection from an effective electron transport level of the light emitting layer is less than about 0.4 eV in an effective electron transport level of an¬ adjacent hole transport layer so that the adjacent hole transport layer, a is not efficient electron-blocking layer.
30, layer arrangement according to one of the preceding claims, marked thereby characterized that a p-doped hole transport layer is formed and a Schichtbe¬ is rich rich free of one or more undoped intermediate layers between the p-doped hole transport layer and the light emitting Be¬.
31, layer arrangement according to one of claims 1 to 29, characterized in that the light emitting region adjacent to the hole-injecting contact.
32. layer arrangement according to one of the preceding claims, marked thereby characterized, that an n-doped electron transport layer is formed and a Schicht¬ is free of one or more undoped interlayers region between the n-doped electron transport layer and the light emitting area.
33. layer arrangement according to one of claims 1 to 32, characterized in that the other light-emitting layer is directly adjacent electron-injecting contact.
34. A light emitting device, characterized by a layer arrangement according to one of the preceding claims.
EP05766723A 2004-08-13 2005-06-16 Layer arrangement for a light-emitting component Withdrawn EP1789994A1 (en)

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