EP1698852A1 - Penetrator - Google Patents

Penetrator Download PDF

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Publication number
EP1698852A1
EP1698852A1 EP20060004455 EP06004455A EP1698852A1 EP 1698852 A1 EP1698852 A1 EP 1698852A1 EP 20060004455 EP20060004455 EP 20060004455 EP 06004455 A EP06004455 A EP 06004455A EP 1698852 A1 EP1698852 A1 EP 1698852A1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
penetrator
damping
jacket
characterized
layer
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
EP20060004455
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
EP1698852B1 (en
Inventor
Werner Dr. Arnold
Helmut Dr. Muthig
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
TDW Ges Fuer Verteidigungstechnische Wirksysteme mbH
Original Assignee
TDW Ges Fuer Verteidigungstechnische Wirksysteme mbH
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Publication date
Priority to DE200510009931 priority Critical patent/DE102005009931B3/en
Application filed by TDW Ges Fuer Verteidigungstechnische Wirksysteme mbH filed Critical TDW Ges Fuer Verteidigungstechnische Wirksysteme mbH
Publication of EP1698852A1 publication Critical patent/EP1698852A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP1698852B1 publication Critical patent/EP1698852B1/en
Active legal-status Critical Current
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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B12/00Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material
    • F42B12/72Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material characterised by the material
    • F42B12/76Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material characterised by the material of the casing
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C06EXPLOSIVES; MATCHES
    • C06BEXPLOSIVES OR THERMIC COMPOSITIONS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF; USE OF SINGLE SUBSTANCES AS EXPLOSIVES
    • C06B45/00Compositions or products which are defined by structure or arrangement of component of product
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B12/00Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material
    • F42B12/02Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material characterised by the warhead or the intended effect
    • F42B12/04Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material characterised by the warhead or the intended effect of armour-piercing type
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B12/00Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material
    • F42B12/72Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material characterised by the material
    • F42B12/76Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material characterised by the material of the casing
    • F42B12/80Coatings

Abstract

The sections are separated from several centimeters from each other by a damping layer. A part of the explosive charge exists in the form of spheres of different size. Cavities between the spheres are present with a damping medium. The absorbing layer (4) or the damping medium consists of porous metal, pore containing plastic, rubber metal foam, ceramic foam or powder. The materials of the absorbing layer or the damping medium deviate from each other in its impedance (product of density and shock wave speed).

Description

  • The invention relates to a penetrator consisting of a high-strength shell and arranged in the interior of the shell explosive charge, comprising a voltage applied to the inside of the shell, against external influences protective layer, which starting from the tip of the penetrator at least over a part of the rear extending jacket of the penetrator extends.
  • Penetrators are known active ingredients which are used in particular for the neutralization of so-called high-value targets. These include strongly hardened structures or objects, such as command centers or communication centers. The penetrators are capable of penetrating the target, optionally using a drive for further acceleration. The initiation takes place with the help of intelligent ignition devices inside the target, whereby the destruction of the target can be brought about.
  • The demands on such penetrators are increasingly higher. For example, high-strength concrete is used to construct modern bunkers. In addition, there are positions in natural environment such as caves in rocks. This rock is usually even harder than the high-strength concrete. To meet the resulting requirements, you reduce the caliber size and increases the speed even further. The increase in speed, however, has undesirable effects. Upon penetration of the outer layers of a target, the structure of the penetrator is more heavily loaded. Upon impact, very strong loads are exerted on the jacket of the penetrator and the resulting shock waves are conducted into the interior of the penetrator. Upon impact in a deviating angle from the solder to the target surface, even the jacket of the penetrator can be curved.
  • These processes have a significant effect on the stored inside the shell explosive charge, as it is exposed to different loads.
  • On the one hand, there is a stationary load due to the delay experienced by the penetrator. Furthermore, a shock wave occurs, which passes through the penetrator. In addition, there is a vibration load due to the natural vibration and the structural vibration of the penetrator. Finally, compression or elongation of all materials present in a penetrator must be considered.
  • There have been known various designs of warheads containing shock wave attenuating elements, which, however, are always called in connection with the power control of the explosive charge contained in the warhead. On the one hand, DE 100 25 055 C2 describes a fragment-generating warhead, in which a displaceable damping layer is provided for the local reduction in performance of the initiated explosive charge, which is a part of the inner shell in the region of that part of the warhead jacket which serves for splinter generation. An indication of the attenuation of materials in the region of the shell of a penetrator is not given to the expert, since there is another direction in the application of damping material.
  • Another application of a damping layer in a warhead results from DE 101 25 226 C2. Here it is proposed to divide the explosive charge and to arrange in the intermediate layers another explosive, which is bounded laterally by thin separating layers. These separating layers can also consist of shock-absorbing insulating material. The actual purpose of the separation layers is the thermal insulation, which prevents explosive charge components which are adjacent to already charged for deflagration explosive charge portions are not themselves excited to deflagration. Again, this description gives no immediate indication of the use of damping measures under those conditions imposed on a penetrator described above.
  • From US-A 5,939,662 a penetrator has become known, which has on the inside of its shell a thin layer which is suitable to reduce an unexpectedly occurring heat due to a fire so far that the explosive charge is not initiated. The requirements of such a thermally insulating layer, however, are different due to the properties of fire than to a layer which is intended to reduce acting shock waves. Fire usually occurs flat, while the amplitude maxima of shockwaves have a very limited local effect.
  • It is therefore an object of the invention to design a penetrator so that the aforementioned effects of the mechanical stress are substantially reduced by shock waves or at least reduced to an order that does not affect the explosive charge harmful, and that the coupling of two or more described Effects is suppressed.
  • This object is achieved in a simple manner in that the layer is embodied as a layer which dampens shock waves acting on the jacket by means of deformation, the wall thickness of which decreases starting from the tip or remains constant. With the help of this arrangement of a damping layer, the power of the penetrator is not significantly reduced and at the same time the very strong loads occurring on impact are reduced to the jacket of the penetrator and the resulting shock waves are no longer directed into the interior of the penetrator.
  • Helpful in this case is the fixed mechanical connection between the damping material and the jacket, whereby the damping properties are noticeably improved.
  • As a further damping measure, it is advisable to arrange one or more damping layers with a respective thickness of several centimeters transversely to the longitudinal axis of the penetrator in the explosive, this measure, in combination with that already described, along the Inner side of the shell extending damping layer, or has proven to be excellent as a sole damping layer in the case of oblique impact of a penetrator on a target.
  • A further advantageous embodiment of the damping measure is to bring the explosive or at least the part thereof, which is heavily loaded, in the form of balls of different sizes (a few centimeters to a few 10 cm, depending on the size of the penetrator) in the interior of the penetrator , The penetrator jacket can already be provided on the inside with a damping layer. Here, an arbitrarily dense sphere packing is to be sought, which can be adjusted to the desired size with the help of the ball size distribution. This measure can be matched to the expected bending loads of the penetrator. The cavities are filled with the said damping means, in which the explosive balls are embedded. Bending motions and associated compressions and strains are thus captured by the damping matrix and kept away from the macroscopic explosive spheres altogether.
  • Of particular use is the use of porous material for the cushioning layer or damping means which, by deformation due to the introduced shock wave energy and its conversion to heat, largely assists the cushioning effect. Suitable materials are plastics, ceramics or metals also in the form of foams, powders or hollow spheres. This effect can be further increased by skillful combination of at least two different damping materials or damping means. The greatest effect can be achieved by the clever choice of the impedances of the damping layers or damping means among themselves by the adjustment between the two impedances is set as bad as possible. This leads to reflections of the shock waves within the damping material, in which a essential part of the energy is consumed. If the material is still porous, energy is dissipated as desired in each pass.
  • Embodiments of the invention are shown in simplified form in the drawing and will be described in more detail below with reference to FIGS. Show it:
    • 1: a penetrator of conventional design in the vertical impact on a hard target,
    • 2 shows a penetrator of conventional design when obliquely impacting on a target,
    • 3 shows a penetrator with a damping layer adjacent to the jacket,
    • 4 shows a penetrator with further damping layers within the explosive charge,
    • 5 shows a penetrator equipped with damping layers when obliquely impacting a hard target,
    • Fig. 6: a penetrator with explosive in spherical form with interposed damping means.
  • In the figure 1 is illustrated by means of a penetrator P according to the prior art, which problems occur when the impact of the penetrator on a hard target 7 , for example, a concrete target. Starting from the tip 5 of the penetrator, shock waves 8 propagate in the interior 2 of the penetrator. since the interior is usually completely filled with explosive 3, the shock waves act directly on this. While in an uncovered explosive charge axially coupled shock wave pressures are immediately reduced by laterally incoming dilution waves and thus the dynamic pressure load is reduced, run in the case of the penetrator, the shock waves 8 even in the shell 1, so that no laterally incoming dilution waves can enter the explosive charge. In the explosive, the initiation threshold is lowered by up to a factor of 4 due to this effect, thus significantly increasing the detonation sensitivity. This greatly increases the risk of premature detonation.
  • However, the described shock waves 8 entering axially into the explosive charge 3 are not the only problem which can occur when a penetrator impacts on a hard target. FIG. 2 shows the penetration of the penetrator into a target 7 at an angle to the solder on the target surface. This case is most common in practice, so that the consequences for the concept of a penetrator are relevant. With oblique impact and asymmetric penetration, the penetrator can be bent. As a result, locally both compressions 9 and dilutions 10 occur in the explosive. The latter have an unpleasant side effect as a result that in the micro range separation phenomena between the explosive grain and the binder matrix lead to pore formation and to the production of small voids, which are shown schematically in the region of the dilution 10 in FIG. Such pores act at shock wave loading of the penetrator as so-called germ cells (hot spots) for the unwanted charge initiation.
  • Already one of the effects shock load, amplification of the shock wave effect on the mantle and the pore, Lunkerbildung can already significantly restrict the function of the penetrator. In the case of a high-speed pentrator, the superposition of said effects also occurs. This leads to the potentiation of the risk of premature detonation and thus the failure of the penetrator.
  • FIG. 3 shows a proposed solution with the aid of which the mentioned effects can be avoided or at least reduced to an order of magnitude which is no longer harmful to the explosive charge. The proposed measure involves the integration of damping means within the shell 1 of the Penetrators P. These can be designed as circumferentially disposed within the shell 1 damping layer 4. The wall thickness of this layer can be constant or, as shown in the exemplary embodiment, be most pronounced in the region of the tip 5 and decrease in the direction of the tail 6. A compound of the shell with the damping layer 4 by means of an adhesive supports their effect.
  • The damping layer is made with the aid of suitable materials which have a damping effect against the shock waves. On the other hand, these materials should be porous in order to convert kinetic energy into heat when exposed to shock waves by closing the pores (energy dissipation). This process is indicated in FIG. The shock wave 11 penetrating from the tip of the penetrator is considerably reduced in intensity as compared with the situation illustrated in FIG. 1 with the aid of the region 4a of the damping layer. Since this takes place by means of compression of the damping layer, no pores are shown in the damping layer for clarification in this area.
  • As useful materials may be mentioned representative of porous plastics and rubber materials. Porous ceramics, foams and metals as well as metal powders or metal or glass spheres are also suitable. Through skillful combination, the skilled person receives a wide selection of possible damping layers, which can be matched in their porosity and impedance to their needs.
  • FIG. 4 shows a further possibility of attaching further compressible damping layers 12 in the interior of the penetrator in order to support the damping layer 4 arranged along the inside of the jacket 1. These damping layers are transverse to the longitudinal axis of the penetrator and divide the interior 2 into several spaces that are completely filled with explosives.
  • As can be readily seen from FIG. 5, the damping layers 12, 13 in the case compensate for the deformation of the penetrator jacket in the event of an oblique impact on a target 7 . The damping layers 13 are already compressed in the embodiment by the deformation so far that the available pores are already closed. These damping layers must therefore have a certain minimum thickness D in order to compensate for the paths required for compensation and at the same time to dissipate energy by deformation. According to the invention, therefore, a thickness D of a few centimeters for the damping layers 12, 13 is provided. Substitution of the damping layers by thin separation layers does not bring the desired success. With the help of the proposed thickness of the damping layers deformations of the explosive charge and the associated pore formation in the explosive are avoided from the outset. At the same time the further transport of shock waves in the respective adjacent segment of the explosive charge 3 is avoided.
  • Finally, FIG. 6 shows a further variant of the invention. Part of the explosive, which is in the area of the penetrator which is subjected to the greatest load, is arranged in the form of spheres of different sizes (a few centimeters to a few 10 cm, depending on the size of the penetrator) in the interior of the penetrator. The jacket of the penetrator can already be provided on the inside with a damping layer 4. It is desirable to have any density ball packing, which can be adjusted to the desired size with the help of the ball size distribution. This measure can be matched to the expected bending loads of the penetrator. The cavities are filled with a damping means 14, in which the explosive balls 15 are embedded. Bending motions and associated compressions and strains are thus captured by this damping matrix and kept away from the macroscopic explosive spheres 15 entirely. The lateral boundary of the described part can be done by means of partitions 16, which in turn can also consist of damping material. It is equally possible to have parts of the explosive in others Arrangement to accommodate as shown in the embodiment in the penetrator or to make the entire explosive in the proposed form.

Claims (9)

  1. Penetrator P consisting of a high - strength jacket (1) and an explosive charge (3) arranged in the interior ( 2 ) of the jacket, comprising a layer (4) resting on the inside of the jacket (1) and protecting against external influences Extending tip (5) of the penetrator P starting at least over part of the jacket (1) extending to the rear (6) of the penetrator, characterized in that the layer (4) as a means of deformation acting on the jacket (1) shock waves damping layer (4) is executed, the wall thickness of which decreases from the tip (5) or remains constant.
  2. Penetrator according to claim 1, characterized in that the damping layer (4) with the jacket (1) is firmly connected.
  3. Penetrator consisting of a high-strength jacket (1) and a disposed in the interior ( 2 ) of the shell explosive charge (3), characterized in that the explosive charge is divided transversely to the longitudinal axis into a plurality of sections from each other by a respective damping layer (12, 13) separated by a thickness (D) of several centimeters.
  4. Penetrator consisting of a high-strength jacket (1) and an explosive charge (3) arranged in the interior ( 2 ) of the jacket, characterized in that at least part of the explosive charge (3) is in the form of spheres (15) of different sizes and the cavities between the balls are filled with a damping means (14).
  5. Penetrator according to one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the damping layer (4) or the damping means (14) consists of a porous material.
  6. Penetrator according to one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the damping layer (4) or the damping means (14) consists of pore-containing plastic or rubber or porous metal.
  7. Penetrator according to one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the damping layer (4) or the damping means (14) consists of a metal or ceramic foam or a powder or of hollow spheres of a corresponding material.
  8. Penetrator according to one of claims 1 to 7, characterized in that the damping layer (4) or the damping means (14) consists of at least two different materials, which are arranged distributed locally.
  9. Penetrator according to claim 8, characterized in that the materials of the damping layer (4) or of the damping means (14) differ greatly in their impedance (product of density and shockwave velocity) from each other.
EP20060004455 2005-03-04 2006-03-06 Penetrator Active EP1698852B1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

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DE200510009931 DE102005009931B3 (en) 2005-03-04 2005-03-04 penetrator

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EP1698852A1 true EP1698852A1 (en) 2006-09-06
EP1698852B1 EP1698852B1 (en) 2008-04-23

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2007048521A1 (en) * 2005-10-25 2007-05-03 Rheinmetall Waffe Munition Gmbh Explosive projectile
CN102192690A (en) * 2011-04-23 2011-09-21 中北大学 Overload test and detection device of gas gun
WO2015187232A1 (en) * 2014-03-20 2015-12-10 Aerojet Rocketdyne, Inc. Lightweight munition

Families Citing this family (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE102009050162A1 (en) 2009-10-21 2011-04-28 TDW Gesellschaft für verteidigungstechnische Wirksysteme mbH Damping device for mounting parts in penetrators
DE102013021030A1 (en) * 2013-12-17 2015-06-18 Rheinmetall Waffe Munition Gmbh Warhead and explosive charge module for such a warhead

Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3992998A (en) * 1975-02-10 1976-11-23 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Warhead, penetrating nose shape
US4615272A (en) * 1984-09-12 1986-10-07 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Bomb and bomb liner
US5054399A (en) * 1988-07-05 1991-10-08 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Bomb or ordnance with internal shock attenuation barrier
EP0718590A1 (en) * 1994-12-20 1996-06-26 Loral Vought Systems Corporation Fragmentation warhead having low velocity radial deployment with predetermined pattern
US5852256A (en) * 1979-03-16 1998-12-22 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Non-focusing active warhead
US5939662A (en) 1997-12-03 1999-08-17 Raytheon Company Missile warhead design
DE10125226A1 (en) * 2001-05-23 2002-12-05 Tdw Ges Fuer Wehrtechnische Wi Warhead comprises intermediate layer comprising separating layers and explosive filling in intermediate chamber between separating layers
DE10025055C2 (en) 2000-05-23 2003-12-24 Eads Deutschland Gmbh Splinter-producing warhead to combat semi-hard technical targets

Family Cites Families (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US2682224A (en) * 1950-08-12 1954-06-29 Braverman Shelley Bullet
SG99362A1 (en) * 2001-04-30 2003-10-27 Chartered Ammunition Ind Pte L Small caliber projectile and method for manufacturing the projectile

Patent Citations (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3992998A (en) * 1975-02-10 1976-11-23 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy Warhead, penetrating nose shape
US5852256A (en) * 1979-03-16 1998-12-22 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Non-focusing active warhead
US4615272A (en) * 1984-09-12 1986-10-07 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Bomb and bomb liner
US5054399A (en) * 1988-07-05 1991-10-08 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force Bomb or ordnance with internal shock attenuation barrier
EP0718590A1 (en) * 1994-12-20 1996-06-26 Loral Vought Systems Corporation Fragmentation warhead having low velocity radial deployment with predetermined pattern
US5939662A (en) 1997-12-03 1999-08-17 Raytheon Company Missile warhead design
DE10025055C2 (en) 2000-05-23 2003-12-24 Eads Deutschland Gmbh Splinter-producing warhead to combat semi-hard technical targets
DE10125226A1 (en) * 2001-05-23 2002-12-05 Tdw Ges Fuer Wehrtechnische Wi Warhead comprises intermediate layer comprising separating layers and explosive filling in intermediate chamber between separating layers
DE10125226C2 (en) 2001-05-23 2003-11-27 Tdw Verteidigungstech Wirksys Explosive charge for a warhead

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2007048521A1 (en) * 2005-10-25 2007-05-03 Rheinmetall Waffe Munition Gmbh Explosive projectile
CN102192690A (en) * 2011-04-23 2011-09-21 中北大学 Overload test and detection device of gas gun
CN102192690B (en) * 2011-04-23 2012-04-11 中北大学 Overload test and detection device of gas gun
WO2015187232A1 (en) * 2014-03-20 2015-12-10 Aerojet Rocketdyne, Inc. Lightweight munition
US10132602B2 (en) 2014-03-20 2018-11-20 Aerojet Rocketdyne, Inc. Lightweight munition

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
EP1698852B1 (en) 2008-04-23
DE102005009931B3 (en) 2006-09-28
DE502006000665D1 (en) 2008-06-05

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