EP1697783A1 - Optical components and production therof - Google Patents

Optical components and production therof

Info

Publication number
EP1697783A1
EP1697783A1 EP04816605A EP04816605A EP1697783A1 EP 1697783 A1 EP1697783 A1 EP 1697783A1 EP 04816605 A EP04816605 A EP 04816605A EP 04816605 A EP04816605 A EP 04816605A EP 1697783 A1 EP1697783 A1 EP 1697783A1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
membrane
studs
pads
substrate
μm
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
EP04816605A
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Claire Divoux
Marie-Hélène Vaudaine
Thierry Enot
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Commissariat a lEnergie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives
Original Assignee
Commissariat a lEnergie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to FR0351209A priority Critical patent/FR2864634B1/en
Application filed by Commissariat a lEnergie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives filed Critical Commissariat a lEnergie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives
Priority to PCT/FR2004/050758 priority patent/WO2005069057A1/en
Publication of EP1697783A1 publication Critical patent/EP1697783A1/en
Application status is Withdrawn legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B26/00Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating
    • G02B26/08Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating for controlling the direction of light
    • G02B26/0816Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating for controlling the direction of light by means of one or more reflecting elements
    • G02B26/0833Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating for controlling the direction of light by means of one or more reflecting elements the reflecting element being a micromechanical device, e.g. a MEMS mirror, DMD
    • G02B26/085Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating for controlling the direction of light by means of one or more reflecting elements the reflecting element being a micromechanical device, e.g. a MEMS mirror, DMD the reflecting means being moved or deformed by electromagnetic means
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B81MICROSTRUCTURAL TECHNOLOGY
    • B81CPROCESSES OR APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR THE MANUFACTURE OR TREATMENT OF MICROSTRUCTURAL DEVICES OR SYSTEMS
    • B81C1/00Manufacture or treatment of devices or systems in or on a substrate
    • B81C1/00436Shaping materials, i.e. techniques for structuring the substrate or the layers on the substrate
    • B81C1/00555Achieving a desired geometry, i.e. controlling etch rates, anisotropy or selectivity
    • B81C1/00626Processes for achieving a desired geometry not provided for in groups B81C1/00563 - B81C1/00619
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B26/00Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating
    • G02B26/08Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating for controlling the direction of light
    • G02B26/0816Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating for controlling the direction of light by means of one or more reflecting elements
    • G02B26/0833Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating for controlling the direction of light by means of one or more reflecting elements the reflecting element being a micromechanical device, e.g. a MEMS mirror, DMD
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B26/00Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating
    • G02B26/08Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating for controlling the direction of light
    • G02B26/0816Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating for controlling the direction of light by means of one or more reflecting elements
    • G02B26/0833Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating for controlling the direction of light by means of one or more reflecting elements the reflecting element being a micromechanical device, e.g. a MEMS mirror, DMD
    • G02B26/0841Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light, e.g. switching, gating, modulating for controlling the direction of light by means of one or more reflecting elements the reflecting element being a micromechanical device, e.g. a MEMS mirror, DMD the reflecting element being moved or deformed by electrostatic means
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B81MICROSTRUCTURAL TECHNOLOGY
    • B81BMICROSTRUCTURAL DEVICES OR SYSTEMS, e.g. MICROMECHANICAL DEVICES
    • B81B2201/00Specific applications of microelectromechanical systems
    • B81B2201/03Microengines and actuators
    • B81B2201/038Microengines and actuators not provided for in B81B2201/031 - B81B2201/037
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B81MICROSTRUCTURAL TECHNOLOGY
    • B81BMICROSTRUCTURAL DEVICES OR SYSTEMS, e.g. MICROMECHANICAL DEVICES
    • B81B2201/00Specific applications of microelectromechanical systems
    • B81B2201/04Optical MEMS
    • B81B2201/047Optical MEMS not provided for in B81B2201/042 - B81B2201/045
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B81MICROSTRUCTURAL TECHNOLOGY
    • B81BMICROSTRUCTURAL DEVICES OR SYSTEMS, e.g. MICROMECHANICAL DEVICES
    • B81B2203/00Basic microelectromechanical structures
    • B81B2203/01Suspended structures, i.e. structures allowing a movement
    • B81B2203/0127Diaphragms, i.e. structures separating two media that can control the passage from one medium to another; Membranes, i.e. diaphragms with filtering function
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B81MICROSTRUCTURAL TECHNOLOGY
    • B81BMICROSTRUCTURAL DEVICES OR SYSTEMS, e.g. MICROMECHANICAL DEVICES
    • B81B2203/00Basic microelectromechanical structures
    • B81B2203/03Static structures
    • B81B2203/0361Tips, pillars
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B81MICROSTRUCTURAL TECHNOLOGY
    • B81CPROCESSES OR APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR THE MANUFACTURE OR TREATMENT OF MICROSTRUCTURAL DEVICES OR SYSTEMS
    • B81C2201/00Manufacture or treatment of microstructural devices or systems
    • B81C2201/01Manufacture or treatment of microstructural devices or systems in or on a substrate
    • B81C2201/0101Shaping material; Structuring the bulk substrate or layers on the substrate; Film patterning
    • B81C2201/0128Processes for removing material
    • B81C2201/013Etching
    • B81C2201/0135Controlling etch progression
    • B81C2201/0136Controlling etch progression by doping limited material regions
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S29/00Metal working
    • Y10S29/016Method or apparatus with etching
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S438/00Semiconductor device manufacturing: process
    • Y10S438/914Doping
    • Y10S438/924To facilitate selective etching
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10TTECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER US CLASSIFICATION
    • Y10T29/00Metal working
    • Y10T29/42Piezoelectric device making

Abstract

The invention relates to a method for production of an operation system for an optical component, comprising the engraving of a first face of a component to form blocks thereon, the engraving of a second face of the component to release a membrane of the same material as the blocks and the production of operating means of the blocks and the membrane.

Description


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   OPTICAL COMPONENTS AND THEIR PRODUCTION METHOD
DESCRIPTION OF THE TECHNICAL FIELD AND PRIOR ART
The invention relates to the field of the production of optical components.



   In particular, it applies to adaptive optics, where reflective membranes are mechanically deformed to correct the phase of a light beam.



   It also relates to the production of mechanical actuation means for the production of reflective membranes or optical components.



   To deform an optical surface, an actuator matrix hung on a reflective membrane is used.



   There are known embodiments with a single mechanical and optical level, for example a reflective membrane free vis-à-vis an electrode array. Examples are given in document US-6108121 and in the article by G. Robert et al. the adaptive micro-mirror: a micro-component of adaptive optics, Second Forum Ademis, 1997, p. 161-165. This process at one level (both mechanical and optical) does not allow the actuation of the optical surface to be decoupled. For example, we often want both a very flexible optical surface to correct the beam and a very rigid actuator that can operate at frequencies above kHz

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 to work in real time. A single optical level requires an often difficult compromise.



   Also known are achievements at two levels, one level of which is optical, as described for example in the documents of R. Krishnamoorthy et al. Statistical performance evaluation of electrostatic micro-actuators for a deformable mirror, SPIE Vol. 2881, p. 35-44, and in the article by T. G. Bifano et al. Continuous-membrane surface- micromachined silicon deformable miror, Optical Engineering, Vol. 36, p. 1354 to 1360.1997. The actuator is produced in a first mechanical level and the second mechanical level is used for optical correction.



  The 2 levels are connected by mechanical pads, which can be made of the same material as that of the optical mechanical level (for example in poly silicon), by surface technology, for example by surface technology in silicon oxide / poly silicon MUMPS. This technology is a stack of conformal layers with, as the last layer, the optical layer, the flatness of which is degraded by the lower layers and by the fact of producing the pads in the same material.



   The pads can also be made of a material different from that of the optical mechanical level, by transferring a thin membrane onto actuators, as described for example in the documents of J. A. Hammer et al. Design and fabrication of a continuous membrane deformable mirror, Proc. Of SPIE, Vol. 4985, p. 259-270, through the use of SOI substrate and indium pads, or by postponing a

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 membrane already comprising studs, thanks to the use of double SOI substrate and sealing of these membranes on actuators (as described in C. Divoux et al. A novel electrostatic actuator for licro deformable mirrors: fabrication and test), or using a membrane bonded by an adhesive layer to the piezoelectric actuators.



   In all cases, problems of imprinting of studs are observed on the optical side of the membrane, which results in poor flatness or roughness.



   In addition, the areas of the studs can sometimes be large, which then affects the flexibility of the membrane.



   The problem therefore arises of finding new elements or means, in particular of mechanical activation, making it possible to produce new optical components, in particular of the type mentioned above.



   There is also the problem of producing components of the type mentioned above and having reduced pad imprints, and improved flatness and flexibility.



  STATEMENT OF THE INVENTION
The invention relates more precisely to a method of producing a system or means or an actuating device comprising: - the etching of a first face of a component, for example of a semiconductor substrate,

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 or of a thin layer formed on the surface of such a semiconductor substrate, to form pads, - the etching of a second face of the component, to produce or release or release a membrane in the same material as the pads, - The realization of the actuation means of the pads and the membrane.



   The fact of first etching one side of the initial component, then the other side, makes it possible to produce the studs, then a flexible or deformable membrane, in only a fraction of the initial thickness of the component. The studs and the membrane form a homogeneous whole.



   Thus, the membrane and the studs can have a small thickness, for example a total thickness of less than 30 μm, or between 5 μm and 15 μm.



   The invention therefore makes it possible to produce optical components at two levels integral with one another; it also makes it possible to achieve a very good optical level.



   The component may be made of a semiconductor material or of glass, and be provided with a surface layer of semiconductor material or of nitride in which the studs and the membrane are etched.



   It can also be of the SOI type, comprising a surface layer of silicon, an insulating layer and a substrate, the pads and the membrane being produced in the surface layer of silicon.

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   It may also be a silicon substrate covered with an insulating layer and a poly-silicon layer or a silicon substrate covered with a nitride layer, the pads and the membrane being produced respectively. in the insulator or poly-silicon or nitride layer.



   According to another variant, it may be a silicon substrate doped on two sides, the membrane and the pads being produced in portions doped differently from one another.



   The actuating means can be of the electrical, magnetic or thermal type.



   They can be partly formed directly on the pads, or they can be produced on a substrate or another substrate, which is then assembled with the actuation system.



   The invention also relates to a mechanical activation system, for an optical component, comprising: - a membrane provided on one of its faces with studs integrally formed with the membrane, - means for actuating the studs and the membrane.



   The membrane, flexible or deformable by the actuating means, and the studs can be made from a component as mentioned above.



   A system according to the invention can have the dimensions already mentioned above and be provided with reflecting means giving it optical properties.

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   Preferably, the studs have a height / width ratio of less than 20.



  BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES - Figures 1 to 3 and 12 represent a device according to the invention, or details of such a device, - Figures 4A to 4E represent steps in the production of a device according to the invention.



   - Figures 5A to 11E show alternative methods of producing a device according to the invention.



  DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION
A first embodiment of the invention is illustrated in Figures 1 and 2.



   In these figures, actuator means, forming a first level 10, are coupled to a second level 12 by studs 14 for connection.



   The actuator means make it possible to move the studs and, therefore, the elements of this second level 12 linked to the studs.



   These actuator means are, for example, mobile electrodes 16, which act in combination with fixed electrodes 17 formed under the first level 10. As a variant, the actuator can also be constituted by magnetic or thermal or piezoelectric means.

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   In the case of magnetic actuation means, the movable part of an actuator may be a magnet 30 or a coil bonded to a stud 14 with, opposite, respectively, a coil 32 or a fixed magnet, as illustrated in figure 3.



   In the case of thermal or piezoelectric actuating means, the movable part of an actuator can be a bimetallic structure produced with first and second layers, the second layer being at higher thermal expansion or at higher expansion than the first one. The fixed part can then only be a surface on which these structures can come to bear.



   In FIG. 1, the reference 20 designates a thin layer, for example a layer of silicon or germanium or of indium phosphide (InP), for example also of an SOI type substrate.



   The assembly rests on a substrate 18, for example made of silicon, or glass.



   The second mechanical level 12 and the connection pads 14 are produced in the same layer 20, without bonding or transfer. This layer has for example been previously manufactured (by deposition, epitaxy or any other method) on a substrate of very good flatness, for example a flatness of a few μm on a substrate diameter of 100 mm or 200 mm; the roughness is for example less than 5 nm.



   The starting substrate ensures good flatness of the reflecting surface, due to this very good flatness. The homogeneity of material between the studs 14 and the level 12 makes it possible not to degrade

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 the optical surface by differential expansion effects between the 2 materials. The absence of interface between the pads 14 and this level 12 further limits the damage due to the production process.



   Finally, as will be seen later, the small thickness of the membrane 12-stud assembly 14 makes it possible to produce a high-quality component, with defects, such as limited optical impressions.



   The invention therefore relates to a device with a deformable or flexible membrane, provided with actuator means formed in a homogeneous manner with the membrane and making it possible to deform this membrane.



   A method for producing a system according to the invention may include the steps illustrated diagrammatically in FIGS. 4A-4C.



   A starting component is a substrate 50 carrying a thin surface layer 60. The latter is of thin thickness, for example between 10 μm and 30 μm.



   The assembly may for example be an SOI substrate. An SOI structure (abbreviation of Silicon on Insulator, or Silicon on Insulator) typically comprises a layer of silicon, and under which is made a buried layer of silicon oxide, which itself rests on a silicon substrate, which plays the role of mechanical support. Such structures are for example described in FR-2 681 472.



   The substrate 50 can also be a silicon substrate covered with an insulator and with a poly-silicon layer; it can also be a silicon substrate covered with nitride, or a silicon substrate, or in a

 <Desc / Clms Page number 9>

 other semiconductor material, doped on two sides, or a glass substrate coated with nitride.



   One carries out an etching of studs 54 in the layer 60, by one face of the starting component called front face 51 (FIG. 4B).



   Then an etching on the rear face 53 makes it possible to release a membrane 52 (FIG. 4C) in the layer 60. These two steps can also be carried out in reverse order.



   A set of studs 54-membrane 52 is thus obtained in a single material, the studs and the membrane being formed integrally, therefore without assembly between them.



   The layer in which the pads and the membrane 52 are made has a thickness E for example of between 5 μm and 20 μm or 30 μm. The membrane 52 alone has a thickness e of approximately 1 μm to 5 μm, which ensures good flexibility with a view to its deformation.



   Successive tests make it possible to determine an etching time, in order to stop at the right depth. In the case of RIE etching or wet etching, a homogeneity of +/- 5% can be obtained with current technologies.



   A reflective deposit can then be produced on the external surface 55 of the membrane 52.



   The activation means, or a first part of these means, in this case a layer 56 of mobile electrodes, can then be produced directly on the substrate thus etched, for example using a sacrificial layer (FIG. 4D).



   The assembly is then assembled with a substrate 58 (FIG. 4E) on which fixed electrodes 57 have been produced. According to a variant, the

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 mobile electrodes, or the layer 56 of mobile electrodes, can also be produced on the same substrate as the fixed electrode.



   FIG. 5A illustrates the embodiment which has just been described in the case where the starting component is an SOI component provided comprising a thin layer 501 of silicon, a thin layer 502 of insulator (in general silicon dioxide) and a substrate 503 proper, made of silicon. This structure allows etching of the pads and of the surface 52 in the thin layer of silicon. As already explained above, there is first etching of the pads 54, then etching of the substrate 503 to release the membrane 52 (FIG. 5A).



   Then can be formed, directly on the layer 501, a layer 56 of mobile electrodes.



   The assembly obtained, illustrated in FIG. 5B, can be assembled with a substrate such as that of FIG. 4E.



   According to a variant illustrated in FIG. 6, the layer 56 of mobile electrodes is produced directly on a substrate 58, for example made of silicon or silicon nitride covered with a metal, on which, as explained above in conjunction with the FIG. 4E, fixed electrodes 57 have already been produced.



  The mobile electrodes are obtained by sealing a thin layer 56 (for example made of silicon or silicon nitride) on a substrate containing cavities; the vents 59 make it possible to balance the pressures during the process and thereafter.

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   The reference 61 designates a layer of the means forming electrical insulator, for example a layer of electrical insulator, which makes it possible to separate the two levels of electrodes.



   The structure of FIG. 5A can then be assembled with that of FIG. 6 to obtain the desired component.



   A detailed example of another embodiment will be described in connection with FIGS. 7A to 7J.



   An SOI 50 substrate is first used to produce part of the actuators (mobile electrode) as well as the optical membrane. This substrate 50 (FIG. 7A) comprises a layer of semiconductor material 501 (for example silicon with a thickness of 15 μm), a layer of insulator 502 (for example silicon dioxide with a thickness of 0.5 μm), and a substrate made of semiconductor material 503 (for example silicon with a thickness of 500 μm).



   It is oxidized on the surface (layers of insulation 60,61, FIG. 7B), to form an etching mask.



   The insulating layer 61 located on the rear face is locally etched (FIG. 7C) for the subsequent step of etching the substrate 503 which will make it possible to define or release the membrane.



   The thin layer 501 is partially etched (for example on 10 μm, in RIE etching) on the front face (FIG. 7D) to make the pads 54 for connection between activation means, for example mobile electrodes, and optical membrane.



   An oxide deposit 66, followed by a planarization of the oxide (for example by PMC,

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 chemical mechanical polishing), provides a flat surface for the rest of the process (Figure 7E).



   A layer 68 of poly-silicon (thickness of approximately 1 to 2 μm) is deposited (FIG. 7F) and etched on the front face to produce the actuators (FIG. 7G).



   The sacrificial layer is then removed by HF etching of the oxide (FIG. 7H).



   Then (FIG. 71) the substrate 503 is etched on the rear face, which releases the membrane 52 and the layer 502.



   For a membrane 52 of diameter greater than 10 mm, and of thickness less than 5 μm, it is preferable, prior to the step of FIG. 7I, to oxidize the actuators, produced on the front face, with the same thickness of oxide than that of layer 502, in order to balance the mechanical stresses on this membrane during etching on the rear face.



   Then the oxide is removed on the rear face (FIG. 7J) and on the front face.



   On the rear face, the dry etching of the membranes makes it possible to produce optical membranes; thus, the buried SOI oxide 502 is for example etched in HF (FIG. 7J). A metallic deposit on the rear face 505 of the membrane obtained by etching makes it possible to form a reflecting surface.



   As illustrated in FIG. 8, on another substrate 58 (for example made of silicon), provided with a layer 59 of insulation (lum of thermal oxide for example), electrodes 57 made of metal as well as tracks 70 and addressing pads (not shown in Figure 8). An insulation is then deposited everywhere,

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 then engraved at the level of the addressing pads. Stops 72 are made to support the optical membrane and the actuators.



   The 2 substrates or elements thus formed are then assembled to form a component.



  The assembly can be maintained mechanically, using adhesive dots at the periphery. The assembly can be made component against component or substrate against substrate: in other words, several components located on the same substrate can be assembled in one go or, beforehand, cut each component and assemble the components one by one.



   A device identical to that of FIG. 1 is then obtained.



   In the case where the semiconductor material of the layer 501, used to form the membrane 52 is monocrystalline silicon, we obtain both a very good mechanical behavior of this membrane, but also a low roughness (lower peak to peak imprints at 100 nm) and very good flatness. Fingerprint effects are limited.



   Electrical connections 74,75 can then be made laterally, as illustrated in FIG. 9, which represents a top view of the device.



   These fixed electrodes can then be connected to voltage supply means.



   The example which has just been described relates to an embodiment starting from an SOI substrate.

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   According to another embodiment, illustrated in FIG. 10A, a starting substrate 150 is made of silicon or AsGa.



   It is doped, so as to comprise two lateral zones 151, 153, of a first type of doping, which surround a zone or intermediate layer 152 doped using a second type of doping.



   The two layers or zones 153 and 152 together have a total thickness of approximately 10 μm to 30 μm, for example 20 μm.



   Advantageously, the difference in doping between the first and the second doping is of the order of magnitude of 107 cm-3.



   For example, the first doping is of the order of 102 to 1021 cm¯3 and the second doping is around 1019 cm-3.



   The different doping zones make it possible to carry out selective etching: a first etching step, in the layer 153, makes it possible to produce pads 154. Then an etching of the zone 151 makes it possible to release a membrane in the layer 152 (FIG. 10B ).



   Here again, a part of the component has been formed, on which a layer of activation means can be formed, or else which can be assembled with a substrate-activation means assembly, as illustrated in FIG. 6. pads 154 and the membrane formed in layer 152 are indeed made of the same material, even though the two zones are doped differently, and without any connecting element between the pads and the membrane. Again, we

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 thus avoids the problems posed by the techniques of the prior art, namely the problems of imprints of studs and poor flatness or roughness.



   FIGS. 11A to 11E give other steps of this embodiment.



   First of all (FIG. 11A) a silicon substrate 151 is produced, or selected. It is p ++ doped, for example at 1021 cm-3.



   Then (FIG. 11B) a first epitaxy of a layer 152, of thickness E close to 20 μm, for example between 10 μm and 30 μm, is carried out. This silicon layer 152 is p- doped. The dopant is for example boron.



   A second epitaxy step (FIG. 11C) makes it possible to grow a layer 153 of p ++ silicon, for example at 1021 cm-3.



   A structure similar to that described above was thus obtained in connection with FIG. 10A.



   Next, an etching of studs 154 is carried out in the layer 153, for example by a wet chemical process, in particular by a mixture of HNA (mixture of sulfuric acid H2SO4, hydrofluoric acid HF, and HNO3).



   Finally (FIGS. 11D and 11E) a protective layer 162 is deposited on the layer 153 and the pads 154, a mask 160 is positioned on the rear face, and the component is etched on the rear face by HNA wet etching, so as to release a membrane in layer 152.



   The component obtained is similar to that of FIG. 10B, and can therefore be assembled with,

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 for example, a substrate such as that of FIG. 6.



  According to a variant, a layer of mobile electrodes 156 is produced on the layer 153 and the pads 154, the assembly then being assembled with a substrate such as that of FIG. 4E.



   FIG. 12 represents an enlargement of two studs 154 and of a portion of the membrane 152.



  These studs are those of the previous embodiment, but the considerations which follow may apply to the other embodiments.



   According to the invention, whatever the embodiment envisaged, the thickness L of the studs + membrane assembly is for example between 10 μm and 30 μm, for example still around 20 μm. Due to the use of an etching technique, the ratio between the height B of the studs and their width A, as illustrated in FIG. 12, is less than 20. B being between 5 μm and approximately 15 μm, A could be quite low, for example of the order of lum, or between 0.5 and 1.5 μm. As a result, the flexibility of the membrane, of thickness between lum, or 5 μm, and 10 μm, is hardly affected by the presence of the pads on one of its sides.

   The pads are, for example, spaced about 500 µm apart.



   The invention therefore makes it possible to produce patterns of small size. The optical footprint of the device is therefore minimal, which gives it a high quality, unlike the patterns which can be obtained by etching in thick substrates, for example with a thickness close to 200 μm. According to the invention, L is much lower than 200um

 <Desc / Clms Page number 17>

 since it does not correspond to the total thickness of the substrate but only to a fraction of this substrate.



   The invention applies to the field of adaptive optics, or even to the production of micro-mirrors.



   In the case of a scanner or beam deflection or pointing micro-mirror, there is no need to produce a lot of force on the optical part, but it may be important to produce a significant angle.



   The optical mechanical part can also be chosen to be very rigid so as not to deform and the mobile part can then be chosen to be flexible to satisfy the requirements of the actuator.

Claims

 CLAIMS 1. Method for producing an actuation system for an optical component comprising: - the etching of a first face (51) of a component, to form studs (14, 54, 154), - the etching a second face (53) of the component, in order to release a flexible or deformable membrane (12, 52, 152), in the same material as the studs, - the production of the means (16, 17, 30, 32, 56, 57) for actuating the pads and the membrane.
 2. Method according to claim 1, the membrane and the studs having a total thickness of less than 30 µm, or between 5 µm and 15 µm.
 3. Method according to claim 1 or 2, the membrane having a thickness between 1 µm and 5 µm.
 4. Method according to one of claims 1 to 3, the component being of a semiconductor material or glass (51), and being provided with a surface layer (60) of semiconductor material or nitride in which the studs and the membrane are engraved.
 5. Method according to one of claims 1 to 4, the component being of the SOI type, comprising a surface layer of silicon (501), an insulating layer (502) and a substrate (503), the pads and the  <Desc / Clms Page number 19>  membrane being made in the surface layer of silicon.
 6. Method according to one of claims 1 to 3, the component being a silicon substrate covered with an insulating layer and a poly-silicon layer or a silicon substrate covered with a nitride layer, the pads and the membrane being produced respectively in the layer of insulator or of poly-silicon or of nitride.
 7. Method according to one of claims 1 to 3, the component being a silicon substrate doped on two sides (151,153), the membrane and the pads being made in portions (152,153) doped differently from each other.
 8. Method according to one of claims 1 to 7, the actuating means being of electric or magnetic or thermal or piezoelectric type.
 9. Method according to one of claims 1 to 7, the actuation means being of the electrical type and comprising one or more mobile electrodes (16,56), linked to the device pads, and one or more fixed electrodes (17, 57).
 10. Method according to one of claims 1 to 7, the actuating means being of magnetic type and comprising one or more coils (30)  <Desc / Clms Page number 20>  or mobile magnets, linked to the device pads, and one or more magnets (32) or fixed coils.
 11. Method according to one of claims 1 to 10, further comprising a step of producing, on the pads, a first part (56) of the actuating means.
 12. The method of claim 11, further comprising a step of assembling with a second substrate (58) on which a second part (57) of the actuation means is produced, which cooperates with the first part to actuate the pads and the membrane.
 13. Method according to one of claims 1 to 10, the actuating means (16,17, 30,32, 56, 57) being produced by a step of assembling the membrane and the pads with a second substrate ( 58) on which these means have been previously trained.
 14. Method according to one of claims 1 to 13, the studs having a width, or a base of width, less than 2 pm.
 15. Method according to one of claims 1 to 14, the studs having a height / width ratio of less than 20.
 16. Method for producing an optical component comprising the production of a system  <Desc / Clms Page number 21>  actuator according to one of claims 1 to 15, and the formation of reflecting means on the membrane.
 17. Mechanical activation system, for an optical component, comprising: - a membrane (12,52, 152) provided on one of its faces with studs (14,54, 154) integrally formed with the membrane, the studs or the membrane being produced: * in a surface layer (60) of semiconductor material or nitride, formed on a semiconductor material or in glass (50), or in the surface layer (501) of silicon of a component of SOI type, or in a surface layer of polysilicon or nitride resting either directly on a substrate, or on an insulating layer resting itself on a substrate, * or in zones (152,153) doped differently from a semi substrate -driver.
 - Means (16, 17, 30, 32, 56, 57) for actuating the studs and the membrane.
 18. The system of claim 17, the membrane and the studs having a total thickness less than 30um or between 5um and 30um.
 19. The system of claim 17 or 18, the flexible membrane having a thickness between 1 µm and 5 µm.  <Desc / Clms Page number 22>  
 20. System according to one of claims 17 to 19, the membrane being flexible.
 21. System according to one of claims 17 to 20, the actuating means being of electrical or magnetic or thermal type.
 22. System according to one of claims 17 to 20, the actuation means being of the electrical type and comprising one or more mobile electrodes (16, 56), linked to the device pads, and one or more fixed electrodes (17, 57).
 23. System according to one of claims 17 to 20, the actuating means being of magnetic type and comprising one or more coils or movable magnets (30), linked to the device pads, and one or more magnets or fixed coils (32).
 24. System according to one of claims 17 to 23, the studs having a width, or a base of width, less than 2 µm.
 25. System according to one of claims 17 to 24, the studs having a height / width ratio of less than 20.
 26. Optical component comprising an activation system according to one of claims 17 to 25, and reflecting means on the membrane.
EP04816605A 2003-12-26 2004-12-23 Optical components and production therof Withdrawn EP1697783A1 (en)

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FR2864634B1 (en) 2006-02-24
JP4558745B2 (en) 2010-10-06
US7794610B2 (en) 2010-09-14
US20070137989A1 (en) 2007-06-21
WO2005069057A1 (en) 2005-07-28
WO2005069057A9 (en) 2005-10-13
FR2864634A1 (en) 2005-07-01

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