EP1683262B1 - Braking method for a synchronous machine - Google Patents

Braking method for a synchronous machine Download PDF

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Publication number
EP1683262B1
EP1683262B1 EP04796946A EP04796946A EP1683262B1 EP 1683262 B1 EP1683262 B1 EP 1683262B1 EP 04796946 A EP04796946 A EP 04796946A EP 04796946 A EP04796946 A EP 04796946A EP 1683262 B1 EP1683262 B1 EP 1683262B1
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EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
braking
short
circuit
synchronous machine
torque
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EP04796946A
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German (de)
French (fr)
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EP1683262A1 (en
Inventor
Josef Rainer
Erwin Bernecker
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B&R Industrial Automation GmbH
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Bernecker und Rainer Industrie Elektronik GmbH
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Priority to AT0183403A priority Critical patent/AT504808B1/en
Application filed by Bernecker und Rainer Industrie Elektronik GmbH filed Critical Bernecker und Rainer Industrie Elektronik GmbH
Priority to PCT/AT2004/000401 priority patent/WO2005048446A1/en
Publication of EP1683262A1 publication Critical patent/EP1683262A1/en
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02PCONTROL OR REGULATION OF ELECTRIC MOTORS, ELECTRIC GENERATORS OR DYNAMO-ELECTRIC CONVERTERS; CONTROLLING TRANSFORMERS, REACTORS OR CHOKE COILS
    • H02P6/00Arrangements for controlling synchronous motors or other dynamo-electric motors using electronic commutation dependent on the rotor position; Electronic commutators therefor
    • H02P6/24Arrangements for stopping
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02PCONTROL OR REGULATION OF ELECTRIC MOTORS, ELECTRIC GENERATORS OR DYNAMO-ELECTRIC CONVERTERS; CONTROLLING TRANSFORMERS, REACTORS OR CHOKE COILS
    • H02P21/00Arrangements or methods for the control of electric machines by vector control, e.g. by control of field orientation
    • H02P21/36Arrangements for braking or slowing; Four quadrant control
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02PCONTROL OR REGULATION OF ELECTRIC MOTORS, ELECTRIC GENERATORS OR DYNAMO-ELECTRIC CONVERTERS; CONTROLLING TRANSFORMERS, REACTORS OR CHOKE COILS
    • H02P23/00Arrangements or methods for the control of AC motors characterised by a control method other than vector control
    • H02P23/20Controlling the acceleration or deceleration
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02PCONTROL OR REGULATION OF ELECTRIC MOTORS, ELECTRIC GENERATORS OR DYNAMO-ELECTRIC CONVERTERS; CONTROLLING TRANSFORMERS, REACTORS OR CHOKE COILS
    • H02P3/00Arrangements for stopping or slowing electric motors, generators, or dynamo-electric converters
    • H02P3/06Arrangements for stopping or slowing electric motors, generators, or dynamo-electric converters for stopping or slowing an individual dynamo-electric motor or dynamo-electric converter
    • H02P3/18Arrangements for stopping or slowing electric motors, generators, or dynamo-electric converters for stopping or slowing an individual dynamo-electric motor or dynamo-electric converter for stopping or slowing an ac motor
    • H02P3/22Arrangements for stopping or slowing electric motors, generators, or dynamo-electric converters for stopping or slowing an individual dynamo-electric motor or dynamo-electric converter for stopping or slowing an ac motor by short-circuit or resistive braking

Description

  • Die Erfindung bezieht sich auf eine Synchronmaschine mit einem Rotor und mit einer kurzschließbaren Ankerwicklung, die an einen Stromrichter angeschlossenen ist, der je eine über Leistungsschalter schaltbare Halbbrücke für positive und negative Halbwellen des Stromes aufweist.The invention relates to a synchronous machine with a rotor and a short-circuitable armature winding which is connected to a power converter, each having a circuit breaker switchable half-bridge for positive and negative half-waves of the current.
  • Bei Überbelastungen, Netzspannungsausfall, Zwischenkreisüberspannung, Verlust der Positions- bzw. Geschwindigkeitsinformation kann es für Synchronmaschinen notwendig sein, einen sofortigen Notstop einzuleiten. Dieser Notstop kann entweder durch Energietrennung der Ankerwicklungen vom Netz oder durch eine aktive Bremsung erfolgen. Eine besonders einfach Möglichkeit einer aktiven Bremsung für Synchronmotoren ist die Kurzschlußbremsung, bei der die Klemmen der Ankerwicklungen über einen Leistungsschalter, gegebenenfalls unter Zwischenschaltung von Bremswiderständen, kurzgeschlossen werden. Der erzielbare Bremsmomentverlauf über der Drehzahl entspricht in diesem Fall ungefähr dem des Drehmomentenverlaufes einer Asynchronmaschine. Soll eine Bremsung einer Synchronmaschine eingeleitet werden, muß zuvor der Wechselrichter deaktiviert werden, um eine Zwischenkreiskurzschluß zu vermeiden, wonach der Leistungsschalter die Ankerwicklungen, gegebenenfalls unter Zwischenschaltung von Bremswiderständen, kurzschließt. Werden im Kurzschlußkreis keine zusätzlichen Bremswiderstände vorgesehen, variiert das Bremsmoment während des Abbremsvorganges besonders stark über der Drehzahl. So steigt das zu Beginn der Bremsung verhältnismäßig geringe Bremsmoment erst verhältnismäßig spät zu seinem Maximalwert an, um gleich danach steil gegen Null abzufallen. Der Nachteil liegt somit in dem verhältnismäßig kleinen Anfangbremsmoment und im nicht über den gesamten Drehzahlbereich konstanten Bremsmoment. Soll der Anfangswert des Bremsmomentes angehoben werden, ist im Kurzschlußkreis ein zusätzlicher Bremswiderstand vorzusehen, wodurch das Bremsmoment ähnlich der Momentkennlinie des Asynchronmotors verschoben und die Gleichförmigkeit des Bremsmomentes verbessert werden kann. Ein wesentlicher Nachteil bei der Verwendung von Bremswiderständen liegt darin, daß zusätzliche Komponenten vorgesehen werden müssen, die zudem einer starken thermischen Belastung unterliegen, was es in Abhängigkeit der Dimensionierung der Bremswiderstände nicht immer ermöglicht, sofort nach einer durchgeführten Kurzschlußbremsung eine erneute Kurzschlußbremsung einzuleiten. Zwischen zwei Kurzschlußbremsungen muß somit eine vorbestimmte Zeit abgewartet werden, bis sich die Bremswiderstände wieder abgekühlt haben. Ein weiterer wesentlicher Nachteil der Kurzschlußbremsung liegt darin, daß der Kurzschlußstrom hohe Spitzenwerte erreichen kann, was gegebenenfalls eine dauerhafte Schädigung des Motors, insbesondere eine Entmagnetisierung von Permanentmagneten einer permanenterregten Synchronmaschine, zur Folge hat, wenn ein maximal zulässiger Strom überschritten wird.Overloading, mains voltage failure, DC link overvoltage, loss of position or velocity information may make it necessary for synchronous machines to initiate an immediate emergency stop. This emergency stop can be done either by energy separation of the armature windings from the network or by active braking. A particularly simple possibility of active braking for synchronous motors is the short-circuit braking, in which the terminals of the armature windings via a circuit breaker, possibly with the interposition of braking resistors, short-circuited. The achievable braking torque curve over the speed in this case corresponds approximately to the torque curve of an asynchronous machine. If a braking of a synchronous machine to be initiated, the inverter must first be disabled to avoid a DC link short circuit, after which the circuit breaker short-circuits the armature windings, optionally with the interposition of braking resistors. If no additional braking resistors are provided in the short-circuit, the braking torque during the braking process varies greatly over the speed. Thus, the braking torque which is comparatively low at the beginning of the braking increases only relatively late to its maximum value, and then drops steeply to zero immediately thereafter. The disadvantage is thus in the relatively small initial braking torque and in not over the entire speed range constant braking torque. If the initial value of the braking torque to be raised, an additional braking resistor is provided in the short circuit, whereby the braking torque can be moved similar to the torque characteristic of the induction motor and the uniformity of the braking torque can be improved. A major disadvantage in the use of braking resistors is that additional components must be provided, which are also subject to a strong thermal load, which does not always allow depending on the dimensioning of the braking resistors, immediately after a short-circuit braking to initiate a renewed short-circuit braking. Between two short-circuit brakes thus a predetermined time must be waited until the braking resistors have cooled down again. Another major disadvantage of the short-circuit braking is that the short-circuit current can reach high peak values, which may result in permanent damage to the motor, in particular demagnetization of permanent magnets of a permanent magnet synchronous machine, when a maximum allowable current is exceeded.
  • Eine elektrische Maschine mit einem Rotor und einem über einen Bremswiderstand kurzschließbaren Ankerwicklung ist aus der EP 1 162 726 A1 bekannt, wobei die Ankerwicklungen an eine über einen Leistungsschalter kurzschließbare Gleichrichterschaltung ausgeschlossen sind. Dabei handelt es sich um eine herkömmliche Widerstandsbremse mit den vorgenannten Nachteilen. Um die Zwischenkreisspannung im Bremsfall einer Windkraftanlage stabil halten zu können, wurde bereits vorgeschlagen Bremswiderstände vorzusehen, die pulsweitenmoduliert zuschaltbar sind ( DE 102 06 828 A1 ).An electric machine with a rotor and a short-circuitable via a braking resistor armature winding is from the EP 1 162 726 A1 The armature windings are excluded from a rectifier circuit which can be short-circuited via a power switch. This is a conventional resistance brake with the aforementioned disadvantages. In order to be able to keep the DC link voltage stable in the case of braking of a wind turbine, it has already been proposed to provide braking resistors which can be connected in a pulse width modulated manner ( DE 102 06 828 A1 ).
  • Der Erfindung liegt somit die Aufgabe zugrunde eine Synchronmaschine der eingangs geschilderten Art anzugeben, mit der der Kurzschlußstrom sicher begrenzt und das zu erzielende Bremsmoment möglichst über das gesamte Drehzahlband auf einem nahezu konstanten Wert geregelt werden können soll und die dabei über eine möglichst einfache Bremseinrichtung verfügt.The invention is therefore an object of the invention to provide a synchronous machine of the type described, with the short-circuit current safely limited and the braking torque to be achieved as possible over the entire speed range can be controlled at a nearly constant value and has the simplest possible braking device.
  • Die Erfindung löst diese Aufgabe dadurch, daß die die Ankerwicklungen kurzschließenden Leistungsschalter zweier Halbbrücken des Stromrichters abwechselnd über eine Regeleinrichtung in Abhängigkeit von der Differenz zwischen dem dem Sollwert des Bremsmomentes entsprechenden Sollwert und dem Istwert des Kurzschlußstromes ansteuerbar sind.The invention solves this problem in that the armature windings short circuiting circuit breakers of two half-bridges of the power converter are alternately controlled via a control device in response to the difference between the setpoint of the braking torque corresponding setpoint and the actual value of the short-circuit current.
  • Erfindungsgemäß wird der Kurzschlußstrom in den Ankerwicklungen pulsweitenmoduliert geregelt, was beispielsweise dadurch erreicht wird, daß Leistungsschalter die Ankerwicklungen in Abhängigkeit der jeweils von der Regelung vorgegebenen Kurzschlußdauer kurzschließen. Mit Hilfe der Pulsweitenmodulation kann der Kurzschlußstrom derart vorgegeben werden, daß sich das gewünschte Bremsmoment auf besonders einfache Weise einstellt. Damit ist es nicht nur möglich das Bremsmoment über den gesamten Drehzahlbereich nahezu konstant zu halten, sondern ergibt sich auch die Möglichkeit auf besonders einfache Weise mit jedem kleineren, als dem maximalen Drehmoment abzubremsen, da es bei manchen Anwendungen durch eine zu starke Abbremsungen zu Schäden in der über die Motorwelle der Synchronmaschine angekoppelten Mechanik kommen kann. Ein übermäßig starkes Ansteigen des Kurzschlußstromes kann mit der erfindungsgemäßen Regelung ebenfalls elegant behoben werden, wodurch ein Überschreiten des zulässigen Kurzschlußstromes und somit beispielsweise ein entmagnetisieren von Permanentmagneten sicher verhindert werden kann. Ein weiterer Vorteil der erfindungsgemäßen Regelung liegt darin, daß nach einer erfolgten Kurzschlußbremsung unmittelbar wieder eine Kurzschlußbremsung eingeleitet werden kann und keine Auskühlzeit abgewartet werden muß, wie dies bei einer Widerstandsbremsung gemäß dem Stand der Technik der Fall ist.According to the short-circuit current in the armature windings is controlled pulse width modulated, which is achieved, for example, that circuit breakers short-circuit the armature windings depending on the short-circuit duration specified by the regulation. With the help of the pulse width modulation of the short-circuit current can be specified such that adjusts the desired braking torque in a particularly simple manner. Thus, it is not only possible to keep the braking torque almost constant over the entire speed range, but also gives the possibility in a particularly simple manner with each smaller than the maximum torque decelerate, as it in some applications by excessive braking to damage in which can be coupled via the motor shaft of the synchronous machine coupled mechanism. An excessively large increase in the short-circuit current can also be corrected elegantly with the control according to the invention, whereby exceeding the permissible short-circuit current and thus, for example, a demagnetization of permanent magnets can be reliably prevented. Another advantage of the scheme according to the invention is that after a successful short-circuit braking again a short-circuit braking can be initiated and no cooling time must be awaited, as is the case with a resistor braking according to the prior art.
  • Bei der erfindungsgemäßen Synchronmaschine wird der Kurzschluß in den Ankerwicklungen über den Wechselrichter erzeugt, so daß keine zusätzlichen Leistungshalbleiterbauteile notwendig sind. Zum Abbremsen der Synchronmaschine werden die Schaltzeiten für die Leistungsschalter nicht mehr von einer den Betrieb der Synchronmaschine steuernden Vektorregelung, sondern von einem Momentenregler bestimmt, der die Ankerwicklungen in Abhängigkeit des zu erzielenden Kurzschlußstromes ansteuert.In the synchronous machine according to the invention, the short circuit is generated in the armature windings via the inverter, so that no additional power semiconductor components are necessary. For braking the synchronous machine, the switching times for the power switches are no longer dependent on a vector control controlling the operation of the synchronous machine, but determined by a torque controller which controls the armature windings in response to the short-circuit current to be achieved.
  • Dadurch, daß die die Ankerwicklungen kurzschließenden Leistungsschalter zweier Halbbrücken des Stromrichters abwechselnd über eine Regeleinrichtung in Abhängigkeit von der Differenz zwischen dem dem Sollwert des Bremsmomentes entsprechenden Sollwert des Kurzschlußstromes und dem Istwert des Kurzschlußstromes ansteuerbar sind, können sowohl die Halbbrücke für positive Halbwellen als auch die Halbbrücke für negative Halbwellen des Stromrichters als Kurzschlußelemente verwendet werden wodurch eine bessere thermische Auslastung der Leistungsschalter gewährleistet ist. Die Bremsleistung wird somit in besonders einfacher Weise über den im allgemeinen thermisch hochbelastbaren Stromrichter, die Ankerwicklung und einen gegebenenfalls vorgesehenen Bremswiderstand abgeführt, wodurch der Bauaufwand minimiert wird und nur geringe zusätzliche Maßnahmen für den Bremsbetrieb einer erfindungsgemäßen Synchronmaschine vorgesehen werden müssen.Characterized in that the armature windings short circuiting circuit breakers of two half-bridges of the power converter are alternately controlled via a control device in response to the difference between the setpoint of the braking torque corresponding setpoint of the short-circuit current and the actual value of the short-circuit current, both the half-bridge for positive half-waves and the half-bridge be used for negative half-waves of the power converter as short-circuit elements whereby a better thermal utilization of the circuit breaker is ensured. The braking power is thus dissipated in a particularly simple manner over the generally thermally highly resilient power converter, the armature winding and an optionally provided braking resistor, whereby the construction cost is minimized and only small additional measures for the braking operation of a synchronous machine according to the invention must be provided.
  • In der Zeichnung ist die Erfindung anhend eines Ausführungsbeispiels schematisch dargestellt. Es zeigen:
  • Fig. 1
    je eine Ausgestaltungsvariante einer erfindungsgemäßen Synchronmaschine,
    Fig. 2 und 3
    zwei Regelkonzept für die Kurzschlußbremsung
    Fig. 4 und 6
    Diagramme bezgl. des Drehmomenten bzw. Drehzahlverlaufes einer Kurzschlußbremsung gemäß des Standes der Technik und
    Fig. 5 und 7
    Diagramme bezgl. Drehmomenten und Drehzahlverlaufes einer erfindungsgemäßen Kurzschlußbremsung.
    In the drawing, the invention is shown anhend an embodiment schematically. Show it:
    Fig. 1
    one embodiment variant of a synchronous machine according to the invention,
    FIGS. 2 and 3
    two control concept for short-circuit braking
    4 and 6
    Diagrams bezgl. The torque or speed curve of a short-circuit braking according to the prior art and
    FIGS. 5 and 7
    Diagrams bezgl. Torques and speed curve of a short-circuit braking according to the invention.
  • Eine permanenterregte Synchronmaschine 1 umfaßt Ankerwicklungen u, v, w, die über eine Bremseinrichtung 2 zwei kurzschließbar sind. Für den normalen Betrieb der Synchronmaschine 1 ist ein Stromrichter 3 vorgesehen der über eine Ansteuereinheit 4 in üblicher Weise angesteuert wird.A permanent-magnet synchronous machine 1 comprises armature windings u, v, w, which can be short-circuited via a brake device 2. For normal operation of the synchronous machine 1, a power converter 3 is provided which is controlled via a drive unit 4 in a conventional manner.
  • Die Ansteuereinheit 4 umfaßt unter anderem einen Drehwinkel und Drehgeschwindigkeitsgeber 5, einen Positionsregler 6, einen Geschwindigkeitsregler 7, einen Stromregler 8 sowie Wandler für mathematische Transformationen 9, eine Raumzeigermodulation 10 und einen zwei aus drei Wandler 20.The drive unit 4 comprises, inter alia, a rotation angle and rotation speed sensor 5, a position controller 6, a speed controller 7, a current controller 8 and converter for mathematical transformations 9, a space vector modulation 10 and a two of three transducers 20th
  • Gemäß dem Ausführungsbeispiel nach Fig. 1 gehört der Bremseinrichtung 2 ein Drehmomentregler 11 zu, der die Leistungsschaltelemente 12 und 13 in Fall einer Bremsung vorzugsweise abwechselnd kurzschließt. Zuvor muß allerdings eine Ansteuerung der Leistungsschalter 12 und 13 durch die Ansteuereinheit 4 unterbunden werden, wozu die Schalter 14 in diesem Fall geöffnet werden. Zum Abbremsen der Synchronmaschine 1 werden die die Ankerwicklungen u, v, w kurzschließenden Leistungsschalter 12, 13 zumindest einer Halbbrücke 15, 16 des Stromrichters 3 abwechselnd über den Regler 11 in Abhängigkeit von der Differenz zwischen dem dem Sollwert des Bremsmomentes entsprechenden Sollwert des Kurzschlußstromes und dem Istwert des Kurzschlußstromes angesteuert.According to the embodiment according to Fig. 1 belongs to the braking device 2, a torque controller 11, which preferably short-circuits the power switching elements 12 and 13 in the event of braking. Beforehand, however, activation of the power switches 12 and 13 by the drive unit 4 must be prevented, for which purpose the switches 14 are opened in this case. To brake the synchronous machine 1, the armature windings u, v, w shorting circuit breaker 12, 13 at least one half-bridge 15, 16 of the power converter 3 alternately via the controller 11 in response to the difference between the setpoint of the braking torque corresponding setpoint of the short-circuit current and the Actual value of the short-circuit current activated.
  • Den Fig. 2 und 3 sind Regelkonzepte für die Kurzschlußbremsung zu entnehmen, wobei der Kurzschlußstrom ik der Ankerwicklungen u, v, w und das Sollbremsmoment Mbr, soll stets als Eingangsgröße für die Regelung dient und die Regeleinrichtung am Ausgang Schaltzeiten Tk,on (Schalter ein) und Tk,off (Schalter aus) für die Leistungschalter 12, 13, 17 liefert.The FIGS. 2 and 3 are control concepts for the short-circuit braking refer to the short-circuit current i k of the armature windings u, v, w and the target braking torque M br, should always serve as an input to the control and the control device at the output switching times T k, on (switch on ) and T k, off (switch off) for the power switches 12, 13, 17 supplies.
  • Fig. 4 und 5 zeigen einen Bremsmomentenverlauf über der Drehzahl bei einer Kurzschlußbremsung mit Bremswiderstand gemäß dem Stand der Technik (Fig. 4) und mit einer erfindungsgemäßen Bremsvorrichtung (Fig. 5). Die Fig. 6 und 7 zeigen die den Fig. 4 und 5 zugehörigen Drehzahlverläufe über der Zeit. 4 and 5 show a braking torque curve over the speed in a short-circuit braking with braking resistor according to the prior art ( Fig. 4 ) and with a braking device according to the invention ( Fig. 5 ). The 6 and 7 show the the 4 and 5 associated speed curves over time.

Claims (1)

  1. Synchronous machine having a rotor and having an armature winding which can be short-circuited and which is attached to a static power converter which comprises a respective half bridge, which can be switched by power switches, for positive and negative half waves of the current, characterised in that the power switches (12, 13), short-circuiting the armature windings (u, v, w), of two half bridges (15, 16) of the static power converter (3) can be controlled in alternation by means of a control device (11) in dependence upon the difference between the setpoint value corresponding [to the] setpoint value of the braking moment and the real value of the short-circuit current.
EP04796946A 2003-11-14 2004-11-12 Braking method for a synchronous machine Active EP1683262B1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
AT0183403A AT504808B1 (en) 2003-11-14 2003-11-14 Synchronous machine
PCT/AT2004/000401 WO2005048446A1 (en) 2003-11-14 2004-11-12 Braking method for a synchronous machine

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP1683262A1 EP1683262A1 (en) 2006-07-26
EP1683262B1 true EP1683262B1 (en) 2008-09-03

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US (1) US7372227B2 (en)
EP (1) EP1683262B1 (en)
AT (2) AT504808B1 (en)
DE (1) DE502004008000D1 (en)
ES (1) ES2313097T3 (en)
WO (1) WO2005048446A1 (en)

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AT407474T (en) 2008-09-15
US7372227B2 (en) 2008-05-13
AT504808B1 (en) 2009-08-15
AT504808A2 (en) 2008-08-15
DE502004008000D1 (en) 2008-10-16
EP1683262A1 (en) 2006-07-26
WO2005048446A1 (en) 2005-05-26
US20070090783A1 (en) 2007-04-26
ES2313097T3 (en) 2009-03-01
AT504808A3 (en) 2009-05-15

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