EP1662052B1 - Apparatus for locking a cover on a frame - Google Patents

Apparatus for locking a cover on a frame Download PDF

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Publication number
EP1662052B1
EP1662052B1 EP05292418A EP05292418A EP1662052B1 EP 1662052 B1 EP1662052 B1 EP 1662052B1 EP 05292418 A EP05292418 A EP 05292418A EP 05292418 A EP05292418 A EP 05292418A EP 1662052 B1 EP1662052 B1 EP 1662052B1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
frame
cover
housing
screw
washer
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Fee Related
Application number
EP05292418A
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German (de)
French (fr)
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EP1662052A1 (en
Inventor
Philippe Tievant
Philippe Dutilleul
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Norinco SA
Original Assignee
Norinco SA
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Filing date
Publication date
Priority to FR0412686A priority Critical patent/FR2878539B1/en
Application filed by Norinco SA filed Critical Norinco SA
Publication of EP1662052A1 publication Critical patent/EP1662052A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP1662052B1 publication Critical patent/EP1662052B1/en
Expired - Fee Related legal-status Critical Current
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D29/00Independent underground or underwater structures; Retaining walls
    • E02D29/12Manhole shafts; Other inspection or access chambers; Accessories therefor
    • E02D29/14Covers for manholes or the like; Frames for covers
    • E02D29/1427Locking devices
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S411/00Expanded, threaded, driven, headed, tool-deformed, or locked-threaded fastener
    • Y10S411/91Antitamper means

Description

  • La présente invention concerne un dispositif permettant de verrouiller amoviblement un tampon ou un couvercle sur un cadre.The present invention relates to a device for removably locking a pad or cover on a frame.
  • On connaît un tel dispositif comprenant des vis de fixation traversant des perçages correspondants du tampon et ayant leurs parties d'extrémités filetées ancrées dans des trous taraudés du cadre. Chaque vis de fixation a sa tête noyée dans un logement débouchant du tampon en étant en appui sur une face plane au fond de ce logement, de manière à bloquer le tampon sur le cadre par serrage des vis. Le document US-2 057 866 en présente un exemple. Une rondelle d'étanchéité en matériau élastomère, tel que caoutchouc, et une rondelle métallique sont successivement interposées entre la face plane de fond du logement et la tête de vis.Such a device is known comprising fixing screws passing through corresponding bores of the pad and having their threaded end portions anchored in threaded holes in the frame. Each fixing screw has its head embedded in a housing issuing from the pad while being supported on a flat face at the bottom of this housing, so as to block the pad on the frame by tightening the screws. The document US-2,057,866 presents an example. A sealing washer of elastomeric material, such as rubber, and a metal washer are successively interposed between the flat bottom face of the housing and the screw head.
  • Cependant, ce dispositif de verrouillage connu souffre des inconvénients suivants.However, this known locking device suffers from the following disadvantages.
  • Tout d'abord, pendant le serrage de chaque vis de fixation du tampon au cadre, la rondelle métallique a tendance à être entraînée en rotation par contact avec la tête de vis à cause du couple de serrage exercé sur cette dernière, provoquant un écrouissage de la rondelle d'étanchéité en matériau élastomère. En outre, l'utilisation de trous taraudés du cadre pour la fixation des vis de fixation est onéreuse puisqu'il faut tarauder ces trous dans le cadre et, à la longue, les taraudages peuvent être abîmés lors des opérations répétées de déverrouillage du tampon du cadre et de verrouillage de ce tampon au cadre, ce qui pose des problèmes de maintenance allant dans le sens d'augmentation des coûts d'un tel dispositif.Firstly, during the tightening of each screw fixing the buffer to the frame, the metal washer tends to be rotated by contact with the screw head because of the torque exerted on the latter, causing strain hardening. the sealing washer made of elastomeric material. In addition, the use of tapped holes in the frame for fixing the fixing screws is expensive since these holes have to be tapped in the frame and, in the long run, the tappings can be damaged during repeated unlocking operations of the buffer. frame and locking this buffer to the frame, which poses maintenance problems in the direction of increased costs of such a device.
  • La présente invention a pour but d'éliminer les inconvénients ci-dessus en proposant un dispositif comprenant un tampon ou couvercle et un cadre, notamment d'un regard de chaussée, et permettant de verrouiller amoviblement un tampon ou un couvercle sur un cadre, comprenant au moins une vis de fixation traversant un perçage du tampon et ayant sa partie filetée ancrée au cadre et sa tête noyée dans un logement débouchant du tampon en étant en appui sur une face plane au fond du logement de manière à bloquer le tampon sur le cadre par serrage de la vis, caractérisé en ce qu'il comprend une rondelle d'étanchéité et une rondelle métallique étant successivement interposées entre la face plane et la tête de vis, et qui est tel que la rondelle métallique est pourvue d'au moins un moyen coopérant avec des parties internes du logement permettant d'empêcher une rotation de la rondelle métallique lors du serrage de la vis de fixation.The present invention aims to eliminate the above disadvantages by providing a device comprising a buffer or cover and a frame, including a manhole, and for releasably locking a buffer or cover on a frame, comprising at least one fixing screw passing through a hole of the pad and having its threaded portion anchored to the frame and its head embedded in a housing opening out of the pad while being supported on a plane face at the bottom of the housing so as to lock the pad on the frame by tightening the screw, characterized in that it comprises a sealing washer and a metal washer being successively interposed between the flat face and the screw head, and which is such that the metal washer is provided with at least one means cooperating with internal parts of the housing for preventing rotation of the metal washer during tightening of the fixing screw.
  • Le moyen anti-rotation de la rondelle métallique comprend une ailette radiale.The anti-rotation means of the metal washer comprises a radial fin.
  • De préférence, la rondelle métallique comprend deux ailettes radiales diamétralement opposées.Preferably, the metal washer comprises two diametrically opposed radial fins.
  • L'extrémité filetée de la vis de fixation traverse un perçage d'une paroi interne du cadre et est vissée dans un écrou emprisonné dans un logement du cadre et délimité en partie supérieure par la paroi interne du cadre de manière que l'écrou soit bloqué en appui sous cette paroi après serrage de la vis de fixation.The threaded end of the fixing screw passes through a bore of an inner wall of the frame and is screwed into a nut imprisoned in a housing of the frame and delimited in the upper part by the inner wall of the frame so that the nut is blocked. in support under this wall after tightening the fixing screw.
  • Avantageusement, les parties internes formant butées de chaque ailette de la rondelle métallique sont constituées par des faces internes du logement de forme conjuguée à l'ailette.Advantageously, the internal portions forming stops of each fin of the metal washer are constituted by internal faces of the housing of form conjugated to the fin.
  • Le tampon est fixé dans une feuillure d'assise périphérique du cadre en étant en appui de contact métal sur métal sans aucun jeu avec les parois de la feuillure du cadre par usinage des faces de contact des parois du cadre et du tampon.The pad is fixed in a circumferential base of the frame while being in support of metal-to-metal contact without any play with the walls of the rabbet of the frame by machining the contact faces of the walls of the frame and the buffer.
  • Le dispositif comprend quatre vis de fixation verrouillant respectivement quatre coins du tampon au cadre.The device comprises four fixing screws respectively locking four corners of the buffer to the frame.
  • Avantageusement, le cadre et le tampon sont fixés l'un à l'autre par les vis de fixation avant scellage du cadre, par du béton, dans une feuillure bordant une ouverture à obturer du sol.Advantageously, the frame and the buffer are fixed to each other by the fixing screws before sealing the frame, by concrete, in a rebate bordering an opening to be closed off the ground.
  • L'invention sera mieux comprise, et d'autres buts, caractéristiques, détails et avantages de celle-ci apparaîtront plus clairement dans la description explicative qui va suivre faite en référence aux dessins schématiques annexés donnés uniquement à titre d'exemple illustrant un mode de réalisation de l'invention et dans lesquels :
    • la figure 1 est une vue de dessus d'un tampon ou couvercle verrouillé à un cadre de support ;
    • la figure 2 est une vue en coupe suivant la ligne II-II de la figure 1 et représentant le dispositif de l'invention assurant le verrouillage du tampon au cadre ;
    • la figure 3 est une vue suivant la flèche III de la figure 2 sans le tampon ;
    • la figure 4 est une vue en coupe suivant la ligne IV-IV de la figure 1 ; et
    • la figure 5 est une vue de dessus suivant la flèche V de la figure 1.
    The invention will be better understood, and other purposes, features, details and advantages thereof will appear more clearly in the following explanatory description made with reference to the accompanying schematic drawings given solely by way of example illustrating an embodiment of the invention and in which:
    • Figure 1 is a top view of a buffer or lid locked to a support frame;
    • Figure 2 is a sectional view along the line II-II of Figure 1 and showing the device of the invention ensuring the locking of the frame buffer;
    • Figure 3 is a view along the arrow III of Figure 2 without the buffer;
    • Figure 4 is a sectional view along the line IV-IV of Figure 1; and
    • Figure 5 is a top view along the arrow V of Figure 1.
  • En se reportant aux figures, la référence 1 désigne un cadre de forme générale rectangulaire pouvant être noyé dans la chaussée pour affleurer avec elle et sur lequel est monté un tampon ou couvercle 2. De manière non limitative, le cadre 1 et le couvercle 2 peuvent faire partie d'un regard de chaussée. En outre, le cadre 1 peut avoir une forme circulaire, au lieu d'être rectangulaire.Referring to the figures, the reference numeral 1 designates a frame of generally rectangular shape that can be embedded in the roadway to be flush with it and on which is mounted a buffer or cover 2. Without limitation, the frame 1 and the cover 2 can be part of a look of roadway. In addition, the frame 1 may have a circular shape, instead of being rectangular.
  • Le couvercle 2 est amoviblement fixé au cadre 1 par des vis de fixation 3 par exemple au nombre de quatre en étant situées respectivement aux quatre coins du couvercle 2.The lid 2 is removably attached to the frame 1 by fastening screws 3, for example four in number, being located respectively at the four corners of the lid 2.
  • Chaque vis de fixation 3 a sa tête 4 noyée dans un logement 5 débouchant à la face plane extérieure 6a de la paroi supérieure 6 du couvercle 2 qui, de préférence, est en affleurement avec le cadre en position verrouillée du couvercle 2 au cadre 1.Each fastening screw 3 has its head 4 embedded in a housing 5 opening to the outer flat face 6a of the upper wall 6 of the cover 2, which preferably is flush with the frame in the locked position of the cover 2 to the frame 1.
  • En position de verrouillage du couvercle 2 au cadre 1, chaque tête de vis 4 est en appui sur une face plane 7 du fond du logement 5 du couvercle 2 par l'intermédiaire d'une rondelle d'étanchéité en matériau élastomère 8, tel que du caoutchouc, en appui sur la face plane 7 et d'une rondelle métallique 9 située entre la rondelle 8 et la tête de vis 4.In the locking position of the cover 2 to the frame 1, each screw head 4 is supported on a flat face 7 of the bottom of the housing 5 of the cover 2 by means of a sealing washer of material elastomer 8, such as rubber, bearing on the flat face 7 and a metal washer 9 located between the washer 8 and the screw head 4.
  • La tige 10 de chaque vis de fixation 3 traverse un perçage 11 du couvercle 2 et s'étendant perpendiculairement à la paroi supérieure 6 du couvercle 2. La partie d'extrémité filetée 10a de la tige 10 de chaque vis de fixation 3 est ancrée au cadre 1 de manière à permettre à chaque vis 3 d'être serrée pour bloquer le couvercle 2 au cadre 1. Comme cela ressort mieux de la figure 2, le couvercle 2 est fixé dans une feuillure d'assise périphérique 12 du cadre 1 en étant en appui, métal sur métal sans pratiquement aucun jeu avec les faces internes 12a1, 12b1 des parois 12a, 12b de la feuillure 12 par usinage des faces de contact. Plus précisément, la figure 2 montre que la paroi latérale 12a de la feuillure 12 du cadre 1 est inclinée vers l'extérieur par rapport à la verticale si l'on considère le cadre 1 noyé dans la chaussée tandis que sa paroi interne 12b est horizontale de manière à recevoir respectivement la face externe inclinée 6b1 de la paroi latérale 6b du couvercle 2 et la face en bout 6b2 de la paroi 6b du couvercle 2 en position verrouillée du couvercle 2 au cadre 1, les faces obliques 12a1, 6b1 et horizontales 12b1 et 6b2 du cadre 1 et du couvercle 2 étant usinées afin que le contact métal sur métal entre elles soit obtenu avec une tolérance extrêmement faible, par exemple d'environ 0,2 mm.The rod 10 of each fixing screw 3 passes through a bore 11 of the cover 2 and extends perpendicularly to the upper wall 6 of the cover 2. The threaded end portion 10a of the rod 10 of each fixing screw 3 is anchored to the frame 1 so as to allow each screw 3 to be tightened to lock the cover 2 to the frame 1. As best shown in Figure 2, the cover 2 is fixed in a peripheral seat rebate 12 of the frame 1 being in support, metal on metal with virtually no clearance with the inner faces 12a 1 , 12b 1 of the walls 12a, 12b of the rabbet 12 by machining the contact faces. More specifically, Figure 2 shows that the side wall 12a of the rebate 12 of the frame 1 is inclined outwardly relative to the vertical if we consider the frame 1 embedded in the floor while its inner wall 12b is horizontal so as to respectively receive the inclined outer face 6b 1 of the side wall 6b of the cover 2 and the end face 6b 2 of the wall 6b of the cover 2 in the locked position of the cover 2 to the frame 1, the oblique faces 12a 1 , 6b 1 and horizontal 12b 1 and 6b 2 of the frame 1 and the cover 2 being machined so that the metal to metal contact between them is obtained with an extremely low tolerance, for example about 0.2 mm.
  • Selon l'invention, la rondelle métallique 9 comprend deux ailettes radiales diamétralement opposées 9a pouvant coopérer avec des parties internes formant butées du logement 5 pour empêcher une rotation de la rondelle métallique 9 lors du serrage de la vis de fixation 3.According to the invention, the metal washer 9 comprises two diametrically opposed radial fins 9a that can cooperate with internal portions forming abutments of the housing 5 to prevent rotation of the metal washer 9 during tightening of the fixing screw 3.
  • Selon un mode de réalisation, les parties internes formant butées de chaque ailette 9a de la rondelle métallique 9 sont constituées par au moins des faces internes parallèles 13 du logement 5, situées de chaque côté de l'ailette 9a à proximité de cette dernière et de préférence, le logement 5 présente en section transversale une forme conjuguée à celle de la rondelle 9 pourvue de ses deux ailettes 9a.According to one embodiment, the internal portions forming stops of each fin 9a of the metal washer 9 are constituted by at least faces internal parallel 13 of the housing 5, located on each side of the fin 9a close to the latter and preferably, the housing 5 has a cross section of a shape conjugate to that of the washer 9 provided with its two fins 9a.
  • En variante, l'anti-rotation de la rondelle métallique 9 peut être assurée par une seule ailette 9a s'étendant radialement à l'axe longitudinal de la tige de vis 10 traversant cette rondelle et coopérant avec deux faces internes opposées 13 du logement 5.Alternatively, the anti-rotation of the metal washer 9 can be provided by a single fin 9a extending radially to the longitudinal axis of the screw rod 10 passing through the washer and cooperating with two opposite inner faces 13 of the housing 5 .
  • La tige 10 de chaque vis de fixation 3 traverse un perçage 14 d'une paroi interne 15 du cadre 1 s'étendant horizontalement. Le perçage 14 est disposé coaxialement au perçage 11 du couvercle 2 lorsque ce dernier est verrouillé au cadre 1. La paroi interne 15 du cadre 1 a une longueur déterminée en direction parallèle à la paroi latérale 12a du cadre 1 et constitue un prolongement de la paroi périphérique horizontale 12b et sur lesquelles est en appui le couvercle 2.The rod 10 of each fixing screw 3 passes through a bore 14 of an inner wall 15 of the frame 1 extending horizontally. The bore 14 is disposed coaxially with the bore 11 of the lid 2 when the latter is locked to the frame 1. The inner wall 15 of the frame 1 has a length determined in a direction parallel to the side wall 12a of the frame 1 and constitutes an extension of the wall horizontal device 12b and on which is supported the lid 2.
  • La partie d'extrémité filetée 10a de chaque vis de fixation 3 débouche dans une cavité ou logement 16 défini sous la paroi interne 15 et est vissée dans un écrou 17 emprisonné dans le logement 16. En position serrée de la vis 3, l'écrou 17 est en appui sous la paroi 15. Les dimensions du logement 16 défini dans le cadre 1 sont telles que l'écrou 17 est emprisonné à faible jeu dans ce logement de manière à permettre l'introduction en aveugle dans cet écrou de la partie d'extrémité filetée 10a de la vis de fixation 3. Le logement 16 débouche à l'intérieur du cadre 1 par une fenêtre rectangulaire 18 réalisée à travers la paroi frontale 19 du cadre 1 délimitant le logement 16, de manière à permettre, avant montage, l'introduction de l'écrou 17 dans le logement 16.The threaded end portion 10a of each fixing screw 3 opens into a cavity or housing 16 defined under the inner wall 15 and is screwed into a nut 17 trapped in the housing 16. In the tightened position of the screw 3, the nut 17 is supported under the wall 15. The dimensions of the housing 16 defined in the frame 1 are such that the nut 17 is trapped with little play in this housing so as to allow the introduction in this nut of the blind part of the threaded end 10a of the fixing screw 3. The housing 16 opens into the frame 1 through a rectangular window 18 formed through the front wall 19 of the frame 1 delimiting the housing 16, so as to allow, before assembly, the introduction of the nut 17 into the housing 16.
  • Lors du serrage de chaque vis de fixation 3, la rondelle métallique 9, par ses ailettes venant en appui sur les faces correspondantes 13 du logement 5, est bloquée en rotation, empêchant par conséquent l'écrouissage de la rondelle d'étanchéité 8. En outre, le blocage de chaque vis de fixation 3 par ledit écrou 17 emprisonné dans la chambre 16 réduit les coûts de fabrication par rapport à la réalisation d'un trou taraudé du cadre 1 et si le taraudage de l'écrou 17 devait s'abîmer au cours d'opérations répétées de démontage du couvercle 2 du cadre 1 et de montage du couvercle 2 au cadre 1, il suffira alors de changer tout simplement l'écrou 17 par un autre.When tightening each fixing screw 3, the metal washer 9, by its fins bearing on the corresponding faces 13 of the housing 5, is locked in rotation, thereby preventing the work hardening of the sealing washer 8. In addition, the locking of each fastening screw 3 by said nut 17 trapped in the chamber 16 reduces manufacturing costs compared to the production of a tapped hole in the frame 1 and if the tapping of the nut 17 was to deteriorate during repeated operations of disassembling the cover 2 of the frame 1 and mounting the cover 2 to the frame 1, then simply simply change the nut 17 by another .
  • Avant de sceller, par du béton, le cadre dans une feuillure bordant une ouverture à obturer du sol par le couvercle 2, ce dernier est fixé par les vis de fixation 3 au cadre 1, ce qui permet d'assurer un parallélisme parfait entre faces en contact métal sur métal du cadre 1 et du couvercle 2 et simplifie la pose de cet ensemble dans la chaussée. Des capuchons en matière plastique, non représentés, peuvent être introduits respectivement au moins dans les logements débouchants 5 pour les boucher et assurer une étanchéité aux impuretés de ces derniers. Pour assurer un maintien efficace de chaque capuchon dans le logement correspondant, chaque tête de vis 4 peut comporter des méplats 4a s'introduisant dans une partie conjuguée du capuchon.Before sealing, by concrete, the frame in a rabbet bordering an opening to be closed off the ground by the cover 2, the latter is fixed by the fixing screws 3 to the frame 1, which ensures a perfect parallelism between faces in metal-on-metal contact of the frame 1 and the cover 2 and simplifies the installation of this assembly in the pavement. Plastic caps, not shown, can be introduced respectively into at least the through housing 5 for sealing and impervious sealing of the latter. To ensure effective maintenance of each cap in the corresponding housing, each screw head 4 may comprise flats 4a being introduced into a conjugate portion of the cap.

Claims (8)

  1. Apparatus comprising a cover or cap (2) and a frame (1), particularly for a manhole, with at least one screw (3), which allows the cover (2) to be detachably locked to the frame (1) by passing through a hole (11) in the cover (2) and the threaded part (10a) of which is attached to the frame (1) and the head (4) of which is embedded in a housing (5) emerging from the cover (2) and which is supported on a flat face (7) at the bottom of the housing (5) so as to lock the cover (2) on the frame (1) by tightening the screw (3), characterised in that it comprises a sealing washer (8) and a metal washer (9) inserted between the flat face (7) and the head of the screw (4) successively such that the metal washer (9) is provided with at least one means (9a) working together with the internal parts (13) of the housing (5) forming stops to prevent rotation of the metal washer (9) when the fixing screw (3) is tightened.
  2. Device according to claim 1, characterised in that the anti-rotation means of the washer (9) comprises a radial fin (9a).
  3. Device according to claim 2, characterised in that the metal washer (9) comprises two diametrically opposed radial fins (9a).
  4. Device according to one of the previous claims, characterised in that the threaded end (10a) of the fixing screw (3) passes through a hole (14) in an internal wall (15) of the frame (1) and is screwed into a nut (17) gripped in a housing (16) of the frame (1) delimited at the top by the wall (15) so that the nut (17) is locked supported under this wall after the fixing screw (3) has been tightened.
  5. Device according to one of the previous claims, characterised in that the internal parts forming stops for each fin (9a) of the metal washer (9) are made of two internal faces of the housing (5) combined with the fin.
  6. Device according to one of the previous claims, characterised in that the cover (2) is fixed in a peripheral seating rebate (12) of the frame (1), which is supported in metal on metal contact without a gap with the combined walls (12a, 12b) of the rebate of the frame (1).
  7. Device according to one of the previous claims, characterised in that it comprises four fixing screws (3) locking four corners of the cover (2) to the frame (1) respectively.
  8. Device according to one of the previous claims, characterised in that the frame (1) is sealed by concrete in a rebate bordering an opening in the ground to be closed and the cover (2) is fixed by fixing screws (3) to the sealed frame (1).
EP05292418A 2004-11-30 2005-11-15 Apparatus for locking a cover on a frame Expired - Fee Related EP1662052B1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FR0412686A FR2878539B1 (en) 2004-11-30 2004-11-30 Device for removable locking of a buffer or cover on a frame

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP1662052A1 EP1662052A1 (en) 2006-05-31
EP1662052B1 true EP1662052B1 (en) 2008-01-09

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US (1) US7455474B2 (en)
EP (1) EP1662052B1 (en)
CN (1) CN1783349A (en)
AT (1) AT383472T (en)
AU (1) AU2005237104B2 (en)
CA (1) CA2527610C (en)
DE (1) DE602005004245T2 (en)
FR (1) FR2878539B1 (en)
SG (1) SG122934A1 (en)

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CN101484644B (en) * 2006-07-05 2011-06-29 诺林科公司 Device for blocking an articulation axis in the housing of a crown member, such as a grid or a buffer, in a road porthole

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US20060134999A1 (en) 2006-06-22
CA2527610C (en) 2010-08-10
FR2878539B1 (en) 2008-10-10
FR2878539A1 (en) 2006-06-02
SG122934A1 (en) 2006-06-29
CA2527610A1 (en) 2006-05-30
AU2005237104B2 (en) 2010-10-21
DE602005004245D1 (en) 2008-02-21
AU2005237104A1 (en) 2006-06-15
AT383472T (en) 2008-01-15
CN1783349A (en) 2006-06-07
DE602005004245T2 (en) 2009-01-08
EP1662052A1 (en) 2006-05-31
US7455474B2 (en) 2008-11-25

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