EP1652599A1 - Process of upsetting a billet by hot working, method for preparing a billet to a forging operation according to said process and apparatus for carrying out said process - Google Patents

Process of upsetting a billet by hot working, method for preparing a billet to a forging operation according to said process and apparatus for carrying out said process Download PDF

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Publication number
EP1652599A1
EP1652599A1 EP20050110155 EP05110155A EP1652599A1 EP 1652599 A1 EP1652599 A1 EP 1652599A1 EP 20050110155 EP20050110155 EP 20050110155 EP 05110155 A EP05110155 A EP 05110155A EP 1652599 A1 EP1652599 A1 EP 1652599A1
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EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
billet
housing
upsetting
punch
slenderness
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
EP20050110155
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
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EP1652599B1 (en
Inventor
Jean-Pierre Serge Bergue
Michel Breton
Philippe François Christian Sagot
Patrice René Sagne
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Safran Aircraft Engines SAS
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Safran Aircraft Engines SAS
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Publication date
Priority to FR0452483A priority Critical patent/FR2877244B1/en
Application filed by Safran Aircraft Engines SAS filed Critical Safran Aircraft Engines SAS
Publication of EP1652599A1 publication Critical patent/EP1652599A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP1652599B1 publication Critical patent/EP1652599B1/en
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21JFORGING; HAMMERING; PRESSING METAL; RIVETING; FORGE FURNACES
    • B21J5/00Methods for forging, hammering, or pressing; Special equipment or accessories therefor
    • B21J5/06Methods for forging, hammering, or pressing; Special equipment or accessories therefor for performing particular operations
    • B21J5/08Upsetting
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21JFORGING; HAMMERING; PRESSING METAL; RIVETING; FORGE FURNACES
    • B21J5/00Methods for forging, hammering, or pressing; Special equipment or accessories therefor
    • B21J5/008Incremental forging

Abstract

The invention relates to a back-up method for the machining of a metal slug (14), having a determined slenderness, characterized in that the slug (14) is arranged, in the direction of its length, at least partially, in a recessing pot (2), in a cylindrical housing (3) provided for this purpose, and pressing the billet (14) in the direction of its length by means of a punch (10), until the billet (14) fills the whole section of the housing, so as to reduce its slenderness and to obtain a cylindrical billet of section equal to that of the housing, in preparation for a forging operation. With this method, it is possible to drive back slats (14) of great slenderness.

Description

  • The invention relates to a back-up process for roughing a metal billet, a method for preparing a billet to a forging operation according to the method and a device for implementing the method.
  • Forged metal parts are generally obtained by forging slugs, or billets, which are rough blanks of semi-finished, generally bar-like metal parts, used as base elements for forging formation of the part to be obtained. their volume corresponding to the volume of the latter, plus the volume lost during forging. For example, in a turbojet, the fan disks or the compressor drums are obtained by forging metal slugs.
  • In the field of aeronautics, the safety criteria are binding and require controls at all stages of manufacture. The slugs must in particular be checked, for example by ultrasound, in order to detect the presence of inclusions or defects in the metal, which are at the origin of cracks during forging and possibly breaks in the finished part. In order to ensure satisfactory ultrasonic testing, recent standards impose a relatively small section for plots, in this case in the aeronautical field, of the order of 150 to 330 mm for nickel-base metal slugs or titanium. If the finished parts of the turbojet engine are of large volume, the slugs must therefore be of great slenderness, to compensate for their small section.
  • These slugs, whose ratio length to diameter of the section, that is to say the slenderness, can be initially of the order of 12 to 1, must therefore be wrought a plurality of times, to obtain slugs whose slenderness is in this case substantially equal to 3 to 1 ratio for which it is possible to forge them, without them being contained laterally, without risk of buckling and creation of imperfections in the metal fibers. The values given here correspond to nickel or titanium-based metal slugs, with the rheology used for the manufacture of parts of a turbojet engine. Milling refers to the hot deformation of a metal part to obtain an increase in its diameter and a decrease in length, at equal volume. The wrought is here obtained by upsetting, that is to say by pressurizing the metal slug.
  • The prior art proposes upsetting devices for the machining of metal slugs comprising two half-shells, each comprising a frustoconical-shaped housing. A billet is placed in the lower half-shell, the two half-shells being pressed against one another by a press, to ensure the upset of the billet, which thus takes the form, here of hexagonal longitudinal section, corresponding to the housing between the two half-hulls. Several upsetting operations are necessary to obtain the piece used in forging.
  • The primary plots, that is to say the plots as they are provided before the first crushing, being of great slenderness, there is a risk of buckling during the crushing. It is therefore necessary to carry out a large number of upsetting operations, the slenderness being only slightly reduced at each operation, to obtain a slug, to reduce the risk of buckling, without this being canceled for all that. The geometry of the hulls being fixed, it is necessary to have as many devices for upsetting that there are geometries of plots, both in terms of their section and their length; the number of devices required is therefore very large because, on the one hand, different geometries and volumes of parts of a turbojet, on the other hand, the need to perform a large number of upsetting operations. The dimensions of the devices of the prior art are also large, because of the presence of two half-shells. The slugs obtained are already in the form of blanks, since they follow the shape of the two half-shells, which can be inconvenient for their forging; it is also necessary to remove, by machining, the metal burrs formed at the contact between the two half-shells. Finally, the heat losses during the upsetting operation are large, since the billet extends between the two half-shells distant from each other and is therefore in contact with the air.
  • The invention aims to overcome these disadvantages.
  • To this end, the invention relates to a crushing method for the roughing of a metal slug, having a determined slenderness, characterized in that the slug is arranged, in the direction of its length, at least partially, in a crushing pot, in a cylindrical housing provided for this purpose, and is pressed on the billet in the direction of its length by means of a punch, until the billet fills the entire section of the housing, so to reduce its slenderness and to obtain a cylindrical piece of section equal to that of the housing, in preparation for a forging operation.
  • Thanks to the invention, the Applicant has observed that it was possible to obtain a degree of wrought, namely the ratio of the length of the billet before wrought on the length of the piece after wrought, greater than 30%, the wrought piece showing neither buckling nor fibering anomalies. It is thus possible to reduce the number of upsetting operations. Furthermore, the piece obtained is cylindrical in shape, easier to forge then in any form. The punch may be smaller than those of a half-shell of the prior art, the size of the device can be reduced. The piece extending at least partially in the cylindrical housing, the heat losses are reduced and the burrs, requiring machining, eliminated, if the piece extends completely into its housing at the end of creasing. The method may, in addition, be arranged to stop the upsetting operation when a certain force of the punch is reached, which ensures better control of the operation compared to the prior art where the operation was stopped when the two half-hulls were in contact, independently of the piece they contained. Furthermore, in such a process of upsetting that is done at closed volume (that is to say that only the air, but not the metal, can escape the enclosure formed by the housing and the punch) at the end of the process, a billet of cylindrical shape is obtained, the fibers of which are all substantially parallel to the axis of the cylinder; this characteristic is advantageous for aeronautical applications.
  • Advantageously, the housing has a diameter up to 1.35 times the diameter of the section of the billet.
  • The invention also relates to a method for preparing a slug, whose initial slenderness is greater than 12 to 1, in a forging operation, in which the slug is pushed back a plurality of times according to the method presented above, until a slenderness substantially equal to 3 to 1.
  • Finally, the invention relates to a device for implementing the above method, characterized in that it comprises a crushing pot, with a cylindrical housing for receiving the billet, and a punch for pressurizing the billet.
  • Advantageously, the punch is driven by a press table.
  • Preferably, the depth of the housing is adjustable according to the dimensions of the billet.
  • In this case, it is possible to use only one device for slugs of different slenderness, which reduces the number of devices needed and therefore the production costs and the size.
  • The invention will be better understood with the aid of the following description of the preferred embodiment of the invention, with reference to the single appended figure, which represents a schematic cross-sectional view of the device of the invention, with the punch in the upper position, for the left half of the figure, and the punch in the lower position, for the right half of the figure.
  • The upsetting device 1 comprises a crushing pot 2, in this case of cylindrical shape, made of steel. The pot 2 comprises a housing 3, or sleeve 3, of cylindrical shape, here central with respect to the section of the pot 2, and which comprises a bottom 4. The pot 2 is disposed on a support table 5, also made of steel, which comprises a flange 6 for centering the pot 2. The table 5 is supported by a lower press table 7, fixed, made of steel, which comprises a flange 8 for centering the support table 5 of the pot 2.
  • The bottom 4 of the housing 3 is here pierced with a bore 4 'for passage of a jack 9, which also extends through bores 5', 7 'made in the support table 5 of the pot 2 and the table lower press 7, respectively. During an upsetting operation, the upper surface of the jack 9, perfectly fitted into the bore 4 'of the bottom 4, can here provide the bottom function of the housing 3.
  • The upsetting device 1 comprises, above the pot 2, a punch 10, of cylindrical shape, supported at its upper end by a punch holder 11, itself secured to an upper press table 12, which comprises a flange 13 centering punch holder 11. These elements are here steel. The upper press table 12 is movable in vertical translation along the axis of the punch 10. The section of the punch 10 corresponds to the section of the housing 3 of the pot 2.
  • The housing 3 is arranged to receive a metal billet 14. It is arranged to also receive, on its bottom 4, in this case on the upper surface of the cylinder 9, shims 15, 16, here steel. They are on the figure two in number and arranged one on the other. These wedges 15, 16, whose section corresponds to the section of the housing 3 of the pot 2, allow to adjust the depth of the housing 3 according to the length of the billet 14 to be discharged. It is therefore the upper surface of the upper wedge 16 which acts as a bottom for the piece 14.
  • The bottom of the housing 3, whether it is the upper surface of the cylinder 9 or the upper surface of a shim 16, here comprises a cavity 17 of centering and preforming the billet 14. This cavity 17 comprises a small flange at its circumference, forming a shoulder whose distance to the axis of the cylinder, formed by the housing 3, is equal to the radius of the billet 14 before wrought. Thus, when the billet 14 is placed in the housing 3, it is centered by the shoulder of the cavity 17. Furthermore, this cavity 17 may be arranged to preform the end of the billet 14 according to the shape which will be given to the final piece, by forging the billet 14, once the upsetting operations are completed.
  • The lower surface of the punch 10, intended to come into contact with the upper surface of the billet 14 to press it and ensure its upset, also comprises a footprint 18 of centering and preforming the billet 14, shaped according to the same criteria as the footprint 17 from the bottom of the dwelling 3.
  • An operation, or process, repressing for the milling of the billet 14 will now be explained in more detail.
  • The piece 14 may be a primary piece, which has not yet been repressed, or a piece that has already undergone one or more upsetting operations. It has a section of a certain diameter, preferably here between 150 and 500 mm. The upsetting device 1 is chosen as a function of the diameter of the billet 14; the diameter of the housing 3 of the device 1 is greater than the diameter of the billet 14, preferably up to 1.35 times the diameter of the billet 14, in this case equal to 1.3 times the diameter of the billet 14. depending on the length of the billet 14, the wedges 15, 16 may be placed beforehand on the bottom of the housing 3, to adjust the depth.
  • The billet 14 is preheated, for example between 985 and 1100 ° C if it is a nickel-based metal, between 920 and 950 ° C if it is a titanium-based metal. It is put in classic rheological conditions of upsetting. The pot 2, steel, is itself also preheated, for example between 400 and 500 ° C, so that the steel is not in its fragile zone of resistance. The pot 2 has been dimensioned in a massive way, in this case more massive than the mechanical criteria require, so that it retains the heat better.
  • The billet 14 is disposed in the housing 3, in which it is centered by the impression 17 of the upper wedge 16. In order to ensure an optimal centering of the billet 14 and to prevent its walls from touching those of the housing 3, which could subsequently generate forging defects, an operator, or a clamp of a machine, can also maintain the billet 14 centered, by its side walls to near its upper end. The billet 14 can be coated, by vitrification, with an enamel layer, which makes it possible to ensure the lubrication of the device 1. This lubrication can be obtained by greasing.
  • The upper press table 12, initially in the upper position as on the left half of the figure, is then lowered, thanks to a conventional hydraulic press mechanism, driving the punch 10 towards the upper end of the billet 14. The upsetting then, the punch 10 exerts, through the action of the upper press table 12, a pressure on the billet 14, which is repressed, since it is contained, in this case initially for about three quarters of its height, in the housing 3. The punch 10 is here lowered, during the upsetting operation, at a speed of 10 to 20 mm / sec. The extrusion of the billet 14 results in a decrease in its length and an increase in its section.
  • The pushing operation is stopped when a certain effort is reached on the billet 14. The billet 14 then fills substantially the entire section of the housing, its section having increased by 30% here, its length having decreased accordingly, since there is no change in volume. In this situation, the punch is in the lower position, as seen on the right half of the figure. The piece 14 was well wrought by pushing back.
  • The punch 10 is then raised out of the housing 3. The jack 9, driven by an appropriate device, is actuated upwards and pushes the wedges 15, 16 and the billet 14 in this direction, in order to bring out the billet 14 of the housing 3. The billet 14 can therefore be removed and either pushed back or, if the ratio of its length to its diameter has reached an acceptable value, in this case 3 to 1, be forged to manufacture the final piece, here a fan disk or a turbojet compressor drum.
  • The cylinder 9 can be lowered. The shims 15, 16 can be removed or replaced by lifting the pot 2, which has the effect of releasing them and making them accessible.
  • Thus, it is possible to prepare a slug, whose initial slenderness is greater than 12 to 1, for a forging operation, by driving the slug a plurality of times according to the method which has just been presented, until a slenderness substantially equal to 3 to 1 is obtained.
  • With the upsetting device 1 of the invention, it is possible to drive back a slug 14 of great slenderness, typically with a ratio of more than 12 to 1, without risk of buckling, since the slug 14 is contained, in whole or in part, in the cylindrical housing 3. In addition, at the end of the process, a cylindrical corrugated billet 14 is obtained which is easy to forge in any shape, the forging being facilitated by the preforming of the ends of the slug 14 by the cavities 17, 18 of the bottom of the housing 3 and the lower surface of the punch 10.
  • Due to the contention of the billet 14 in the housing 3, the thermal losses at its periphery are low, which improves the performance of the upsetting operation. Moreover, in the event of an incident that causes a loss of time during the upsetting operation, it is not necessarily necessary to return the billet 14 and the pot 2 in an oven to reheat them, since the heat losses are low. In order to further reduce the heat losses, a heating device may be provided in the walls of the housing 3, for example, resistors cast in the steel, which ensures a constant and / or flexible temperature of the housing 3.
  • Thanks to the possibility of putting shims 15, 16 in the bottom of the housing 3, a same crushing pot 3 makes it possible to perform upsetting operations for pieces 14 of different lengths, which reduces the number of upsetting devices 1 necessary in a factory producing metal parts obtained by forging slugs 14.

Claims (12)

  1. Method for upsetting a metal billet (14) with a defined slenderness, characterized in that the piece (14) is arranged at least partially in a pot (2) in the direction of its length. ), in a cylindrical housing (3) provided for this purpose, and is pressed on the billet (14) in the direction of its length by means of a punch (10), until the lopin (14) fills the whole section of the housing, so as to reduce its slenderness and to obtain a cylindrical billet of section equal to that of the housing, in preparation for a forging operation.
  2. The method of claim 1, wherein the housing (3) has a diameter of up to 1.35 times the diameter of the section of the billet (14).
  3. A process for preparing a slug (14), whose slenderness is greater than 12 to 1, in a forging operation, wherein the slug (14) is pressed a plurality of times according to the method of one of the claims 1 and 2, until a slenderness substantially equal to 3 to 1.
  4. Pressing device for roughing a metal billet (14) according to the method of one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that it comprises a pot (2) for upsetting, with a cylindrical housing (3) receiving the billet (14), and a punch (10) for pressurizing the billet (14).
  5. Device according to claim 4, wherein the punch (10) is driven by a press table (12).
  6. Device according to one of claims 5 or 6, wherein the depth of the housing (3) is adjustable depending on the dimensions of the billet (14).
  7. Device according to claim 6, wherein the bottom of the housing (3) is arranged to receive at least one shim (15, 16) for adjusting the depth of the housing (3).
  8. Device according to one of claims 4 to 7, wherein the upsetting pot (2) is at least partially made of steel.
  9. Device according to one of claims 4 to 8, wherein the diameter of the cylindrical housing (3) is between 150 and 500 mm.
  10. Device according to one of claims 4 to 9, comprising a cylinder (9) for moving the billet (14) repressed.
  11. Device according to one of claims 4 to 10, wherein the bottom of the cylindrical housing (3) comprises a footprint (17) for centering and preforming the billet (14).
  12. Device according to one of claims 4 to 11, wherein the surface of the punch (10) for putting the billet (14) under pressure comprises a footprint (18) for centering and preforming the billet (14).
EP20050110155 2004-10-29 2005-10-28 Process of upsetting a billet by hot working, method for preparing a billet to a forging operation according to said process and apparatus for carrying out said process Active EP1652599B1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FR0452483A FR2877244B1 (en) 2004-10-29 2004-10-29 Method of refouling for corrosion of a metal lopin process for preparing a lopin for a forging operation according to the method and device for implementing the method

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP1652599A1 true EP1652599A1 (en) 2006-05-03
EP1652599B1 EP1652599B1 (en) 2007-07-11

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EP20050110155 Active EP1652599B1 (en) 2004-10-29 2005-10-28 Process of upsetting a billet by hot working, method for preparing a billet to a forging operation according to said process and apparatus for carrying out said process

Country Status (7)

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US (1) US7454941B2 (en)
EP (1) EP1652599B1 (en)
JP (1) JP5010824B2 (en)
CN (1) CN1830596A (en)
DE (1) DE602005001600T2 (en)
FR (1) FR2877244B1 (en)
RU (1) RU2383407C2 (en)

Families Citing this family (14)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
KR101233307B1 (en) * 2004-09-08 2013-02-14 후꾸이 뵤라 가부시끼가이샤 Method of producing shaft member for fluid bearing device
FR2882282B1 (en) * 2005-02-21 2008-10-17 Snecma Moteurs Sa Method for corrocing a metal lopin, shaped for implementing the method and assembly of a shirt and a cover for implementing the method
EP1927413B1 (en) * 2006-12-01 2009-08-19 Topy Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha Press forging method
CN101947618B (en) * 2010-09-08 2012-03-14 上海运良企业发展有限公司 Ultra-long cylindrical blank upsetting mould
CN104066530A (en) * 2012-01-23 2014-09-24 日立金属株式会社 Hot upset forging method
RU2501624C2 (en) * 2012-03-30 2013-12-20 Федеральное государственное бюджетное учреждение науки Ордена Трудового Красного Знамени Институт физики металлов Уральского отделения Российской академии наук (ИФМ УрО РАН) Method of upsetting fragile and low-plasticity cylindrical blanks
CN102728756B (en) * 2012-06-27 2014-12-17 江苏金源锻造股份有限公司 Wind power spindle flange upsetting process
JP5981884B2 (en) * 2013-06-11 2016-08-31 株式会社神戸製鋼所 Hot upsetting forging apparatus and hot upsetting forging method
CN103706743B (en) * 2013-12-12 2017-02-01 无锡透平叶片有限公司 Die-forging forming process of titanium-alloy forged drum piece
CN103801938A (en) * 2014-01-15 2014-05-21 大连雨林灌溉设备有限公司 Hot upsetting machine
CN106607534A (en) * 2015-10-27 2017-05-03 陕西宏远航空锻造有限责任公司 Upsetting method of cylindrical ingot blank or bar with large height to diameter ratio
DE102016121021B3 (en) * 2016-11-03 2018-01-25 Thiele Gmbh & Co. Kg Method for producing a flat link chain
CN107552700B (en) * 2017-09-13 2019-08-16 中北大学 An a kind of upsetting formation method of the big specification slab of larger ratio of height to diameter
CN110523900A (en) * 2019-09-05 2019-12-03 成都宏明双新科技股份有限公司 A kind of molding mode of stainless steel pier die pressing product

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US4312210A (en) * 1979-03-17 1982-01-26 Kobe Steel Limited Warm forging method for cup-shaped pieces
DE19911118A1 (en) * 1998-03-23 1999-09-30 Soc D Mecanique Et De Plastiqu Process for manufacturing shaft fitted with drive wheel forming part of drive train

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JP3835941B2 (en) * 1998-11-12 2006-10-18 アイシン機工株式会社 Manufacturing method of coarse gear
FR2882282B1 (en) * 2005-02-21 2008-10-17 Snecma Moteurs Sa Method for corrocing a metal lopin, shaped for implementing the method and assembly of a shirt and a cover for implementing the method

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DE2161543A1 (en) * 1970-12-18 1972-07-06
US4312210A (en) * 1979-03-17 1982-01-26 Kobe Steel Limited Warm forging method for cup-shaped pieces
DE19911118A1 (en) * 1998-03-23 1999-09-30 Soc D Mecanique Et De Plastiqu Process for manufacturing shaft fitted with drive wheel forming part of drive train

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
RU2005133389A (en) 2007-05-10
FR2877244A1 (en) 2006-05-05
CN1830596A (en) 2006-09-13
US20060090535A1 (en) 2006-05-04
DE602005001600T2 (en) 2008-03-13
DE602005001600D1 (en) 2007-08-23
EP1652599B1 (en) 2007-07-11
RU2383407C2 (en) 2010-03-10
FR2877244B1 (en) 2008-05-30
JP2006123007A (en) 2006-05-18
US7454941B2 (en) 2008-11-25
JP5010824B2 (en) 2012-08-29

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