EP1468739A1 - Agitator ball mill - Google Patents

Agitator ball mill Download PDF

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Publication number
EP1468739A1
EP1468739A1 EP04405182A EP04405182A EP1468739A1 EP 1468739 A1 EP1468739 A1 EP 1468739A1 EP 04405182 A EP04405182 A EP 04405182A EP 04405182 A EP04405182 A EP 04405182A EP 1468739 A1 EP1468739 A1 EP 1468739A1
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EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
grinding
ball mill
good
interior
chamber
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
EP04405182A
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German (de)
French (fr)
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EP1468739B1 (en
Inventor
Martin Heinzelmann
Stefan Spornberger
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Willy A Bachofen AG
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Willy A Bachofen AG
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Publication date
Family has litigation
Priority to CH6782003 priority Critical
Priority to CH6782003 priority
Application filed by Willy A Bachofen AG filed Critical Willy A Bachofen AG
Publication of EP1468739A1 publication Critical patent/EP1468739A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP1468739B1 publication Critical patent/EP1468739B1/en
First worldwide family litigation filed litigation Critical https://patents.darts-ip.com/?family=32873502&utm_source=google_patent&utm_medium=platform_link&utm_campaign=public_patent_search&patent=EP1468739(A1) "Global patent litigation dataset” by Darts-ip is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Application status is Revoked legal-status Critical
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B02CRUSHING, PULVERISING, OR DISINTEGRATING; PREPARATORY TREATMENT OF GRAIN FOR MILLING
    • B02CCRUSHING, PULVERISING, OR DISINTEGRATING IN GENERAL; MILLING GRAIN
    • B02C17/00Disintegrating by tumbling mills, i.e. mills having a container charged with the material to be disintegrated with or without special disintegrating members such as pebbles or balls
    • B02C17/16Mills in which a fixed container houses stirring means tumbling the charge
    • B02C17/163Stirring means
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B02CRUSHING, PULVERISING, OR DISINTEGRATING; PREPARATORY TREATMENT OF GRAIN FOR MILLING
    • B02CCRUSHING, PULVERISING, OR DISINTEGRATING IN GENERAL; MILLING GRAIN
    • B02C17/00Disintegrating by tumbling mills, i.e. mills having a container charged with the material to be disintegrated with or without special disintegrating members such as pebbles or balls
    • B02C17/16Mills in which a fixed container houses stirring means tumbling the charge
    • B02C17/161Arrangements for separating milling media and ground material

Abstract

The horizontally operating agitator ball mill has a cylindrical, for receiving Mahlkörper serving grinding chamber (50), one at the end of the grinding chamber (50) and in the interior (3) of the grinding chamber (50) opening Good inlet (37), one on the other End of the grinding chamber arranged and from the interior (3) leading out Good outlet (38), a plurality of stirrers (2) exhibiting and to the chamber axis (60) coaxial agitator (1) and located in front of the Good outlet (38) Abtrennsystem, consisting of a separating member (80) and a driving this driving member which separates the grinding media from the ground Good and back into the interior (3) of the grinding chamber (50) promotes. The separating member (80) has two coaxial with the chamber axis (61) arranged circular discs (5, 7), between which a plurality of symmetrically distributed around the disk center point and from the disk edge inwardly leading conveyor or wing elements (12) are arranged in the Operation of the agitator ball mill generate a back pressure on the good-grinding media mixture, so that due to the centrifugal force and the different specific gravity, the grinding media separated from the product and transported back into the interior (3). <IMAGE>

Description

The invention relates to a stirred ball mill with a Separator for separation of Kleinstmahlkörpern with a Diameter D ≤ 0,1mm from the product.

Agitator ball mills, for example, for crushing and dispersing solids in a liquid phase or used for the digestion of microorganisms.

Known in the market and for continuous operation provided agitator ball mills have a cylindrical, horizontal or vertical axis grinding chamber with various types Separators for separating the grinding media from Product in the product outlet area.

The housing of the grinding chamber of a stirred ball mill consists from one longitudinal wall and two at the two ends of the Longitudinal wall arranged end walls. It has a Feeding the ground good serving inlet and a for Discharge of the good serving good outlet. In the Milling chamber is also a rotatable about the chamber axis Agitator arranged to be located in the mill To convey grinding media radially to the stirring shaft and thereby the continuously passed through the grinding chamber Good crushed by impact and shear forces or zu disperse.

In the continuous flow through an agitator ball mill occurs depending on the flow velocity and the viscosity of the meal stock suspension has a drag force on, which acts on the grinding media. This will be the Mahlkörper with the material to be ground from the entrance to the grinding zone until entrained to the separating element in the region of the good outlet. This can lead to a compression of the grinding media before Separating lead, which with increased wear and increased risk of clogging is connected. at Kleinstmahlkörpern with a diameter D ≤ 0,1mm takes the Entrainment of the product many times and is in Feinstmahlungen and -dispergierungen in particular at high throughput rates critical.

Agitator ball mills are known which are used to solve this problem Problems have a variety of constructions, in the Way that the entrained Mahlkörpern a circulation in the mill with return to the grinding zone is made possible. However, the known solutions are for grinding media D ≤ 0,1mm very often insufficient.

In other known separation systems, such as in the use of so-called slotted screen cartridges designed the production with small gap widths of ≤ 0.05mm as very difficult, which also hardly usable in practice are. In addition, in these cases, the probability that the sieve is clogged, very high, if grinding media with D ≤ 0.1mm, which is used in nanotechnology and thus also in the production of nanoparticles is necessary.

Another problem arises from the high Pressure loss due to the accumulation of grinding media on the sieve. In the so-called Reibspaltausführung is a exceptionally high manufacturing precision required to have the small friction gaps of ≤ 0.05mm in throughout the production process.

It is from the disclosure document DE 44 12 408 A1 known, in a horizontal mill, the grinding media though through a Vorlassierscheibe and a rotating cage from Partially keep outlet body, but still can by the Near-axis holes in the separator through which the Product must flow through, Mahlkörper be entrained and thus reach the outlet body. Because the Entrainment effect of the ground material with the decrease of the Mahlkörperdurchmessers increases by a multiple, is for Such applications require the use of an appropriate Separator, which makes the grinding media effective and Reliably separates from the product, thus inevitable.

A blockage of the outlet, possibly caused Due to the tight tolerances at the good outlet, can be a striking Increase in pressure and the actual grinding and Prevent dispersing process. In case of failure of the separation function In addition, grinding media will come out of the mill and the grinding agent Dispersion process increasingly deteriorates. moreover In this case, the millbase is contaminated with grinding media.

Other proposals to avoid clogging the Separator are mainly used for vertical Agitator ball mills described. Such an invention will in patent EP 0 771 591 A1. It refers to a vertical agitator ball mill, in which the ground material one of Mahlkörpern loaded grinding container and a the stirrer sitting in front of the outlet separator from below flows through the top. Since the separator no sieve, filter or other Mahlkörperrückhaltesystem, can be this invention not in a horizontal axis mill use, as when filling with grinding media or when Emptying the ground material after completion of the grinding process with Mahlkörperaustritt is expected at the outlet, which is the Ground material contaminated with grinding media. Also is the Centrifugal acceleration of the grinding media of the Speed of the stirring discs dependent and therefore also of the property of the product, what for example shear sensitive products and thus low speeds too low a centrifugal acceleration of the grinding media can lead or to the exit of the grinding media. vertical Agitator ball mills also have the disadvantage of inhomogeneous Mahlkörperverteilung in the grinding chamber on, resulting in a poor grinding or dispersing performance results.

The invention is based on the object, a horizontal axis Agitator ball mill with a novel Separating member to create, not the aforementioned disadvantages and with which a good gently and evenly can be ground with Kleinstmahlkörpern, the one Have diameter D ≤ 0.1 mm, without this the grinding chamber leave.

This object is achieved by an agitator ball mill with the Characteristics of claim 1 solved.

Advantageous embodiments of the invention are the subject the dependent claims.

Hereinafter, embodiments of the invention will be described with reference to the drawings. In the drawing shows
1 shows a longitudinal section through a part of a horizontal grinding chamber with a separating element of the inventive type,
FIG. 2 a shows a cross section through the separating element shown in FIG. 1,
FIG. 2b shows a section along the line IIb of FIG. 2a,
3 shows a longitudinal section through a second embodiment of the invention,
Figure 4 is a plan view of an alternative embodiment of a separating member of the inventive type.

The only partially shown in Figure 1 and as a whole designated 50 grinding chamber of a stirred ball mill has a housing 40 with a horizontal axis 60. The Housing 40 has an elongated, substantially cylindrical Longitudinal wall 30 and two at both ends of the longitudinal wall 30 arranged end walls 35 and 36, of which the End wall 36 serving for feeding the ground material Good inlet 37 and the end wall 35 a for discharging the good serving outlet 38 has.

In the interior 3, a stirrer 1 is arranged, the several, for example two, distributed along the axis 60, Paddle wheel-like impellers 2 has. The axis 60th Coaxial shaft 4 of the agitator 1 is with her the end wall 36 piercing end to one in the drawing not shown drive device connected.

In the end wall 35 of the grinding chamber 50 is located a coaxial with the axis 60 arranged separating member 80, which with an external drive 18 is connected. This external Drive 18 displaces the separating member 80 in one of the agitator. 1 independent rotary motion. The regrind outlet 38 leads coaxial with the axis 60 from the separator 80 for rotary feedthrough 17th

In the end wall 35, a seal 45 is provided, which ensures that no regrind with grinding media the annular gap between separating device 80 and End wall 35 penetrates through to the outside. This seal 45 complies with the requirements for grinding media size ≤ 0.1mm.

As can be seen from FIGS. 1, 2a and 2b the separating member 80 a sitting on the shaft 9 and on this releasably secured circular disc 5 and one of the end wall 35 facing circular disc 7 with a coaxial to the axis 60 arranged, tubular Good outlet 38, in the end wall 35 protrudes and in the rotary feedthrough 17th ends.

The two disks 5 arranged parallel to one another and 7 of the separating member 80 are at a predetermined distance from each other. This is done by several, around the disk center symmetrically distributed, from the disk edge inwards leading, in plan view arcuate conveyor or Wing elements 12 determined. In the preferred embodiment According to the figures 2a, 2b, the circular disc 7 sits on the wing elements 12 and is about this with the disc. 5 detachably or permanently connected.

In a circular cavity 8 between the discs. 5 and Figure 7 may further include a ring cage 10 with one at its end Be located outer surface mesh screen ring 6 inserted. Of the Ring cage 10 is preferably with O-rings 11th pressed and sealed and can be either with or without Screen plate ring 6 to be mounted. The choice of the use of the Siebblechringes 6 can on the respective Product properties are adjusted.

During operation of the grinding chamber 50 having agitator ball mill is through the inlet 37 and in the direction of the arrow 71 to be pulverized or dispersed in a liquid Good in liquid form continuously in the interior 3 of the grinding chamber 50 out and in this to the grinding stock outlet 38 transported. This can be for example primarily products from nanotechnology, but also um Dye suspension, enamel paints, printing inks, Agrochemicals, filler suspension, video tape Coating, cosmetics, food, pharmaceutical or Act microorganisms. The in the interior 3 of the grinding chamber 50th grind and / or disperse existing grinding media during operation of the agitator ball mill that continuously Good passed through the grinding chamber 50, whereupon the product produced in the grinding chamber this - in a continuous stream of liquid - through the Separator 80 leaves in the direction of arrow 72. The use of Smaller grinding media D ≤ 0.1 mm is mainly used to Break up agglomerates and aggregates without the Primary particles are destroyed.

The driven by the drive 18 in the direction of arrow 81 (Fig. 2a) rotating separator 80 is now formed and measure that from the grinding media and the ground and / or dispersed Good formed mixture in the interspace between the two disks 5 and 7 flows, whereupon due to the centrifugal force and the different specific Density the grinding media serving for grinding the conveying elements 12 separated from the material to be ground and back into the Interior 3 of the grinding chamber 50 are conveyed. The regrind itself passes through the circular cavity 8 of the Separator 80 through the Gutauslauf 38 where it Grinding chamber 50 leaves. By the rotation of the separating member 80th the product must pass through this separator overcome relative to the centrifugal force a relative pressure. This pressure, depending on the operating condition between 0.5 and 3bar, is by the feed pump, not shown applied. According to this load, the housing must the separating member 80 and also the seal 45 on the Drive shaft 9 to be executed pressure-resistant, for the latter is doing so in most cases the use of a double Mechanical seal required.

To separate grinding media are the determining Operating variables, the peripheral speed of the separating member 80th and the radial flow velocity in the Flow channels. The peripheral speed is determined by the Speed determined. The radial flow velocity results from the free cross section and the volume flow of the product through the pump.

The grinding chamber 51 shown in FIG. 3 corresponds essentially the grinding chamber according to FIG. 1. That is, The separating element designated here by 82 is located opposite the agitator 22 on a separate drive shaft and it carries the regrind outlet 39 coaxial with the axis 61 of Separator 82 for rotary feedthrough 17. The drive 28 is in arranged in this case parallel to the axis 61 and offset the the separating member 83 bearing shaft via a sub / translation in a direction independent of the agitator 22 rotational movement. additionally If a sieve scraper 65 is provided in this variant, which serves, if necessary, stuck on the sieve 6 Strip off grinding media, so that no adverse Pressure increase takes place and all grinding media through the Rotational movement of the separating member 82 of the grinding chamber returned can be.

The illustrated in Figure 4 in the form of a paddle wheel-like Separator 85 differs from the above described separating members 80 and 82 in that between the arcuate wing elements 12 additionally straight or slightly curved conveying elements 86 are provided, the extend inwards from the edge of the disc. This forms inside a secondary flow.

At this point it should be noted that at one opposite to the direction of rotation of the agitator shaft Rotation of the separating element, the conveying elements opposite to in Figures 2 and 4 drawn elements 12 and 86, of course mirrored trained or arranged are.

The separation system according to the invention of an agitator ball mill for very small grinding media with a diameter D ≦ 0.1 mm has the following advantages over the known separation systems:

  • The retention of the smallest grinding media in the grinding chamber is ensured by the regulated and independent of the stirring shaft speed setting the speed of the separating member.
  • The manufacturing problem of the components has been defused.
  • The clogging problem on the slotted screen and screen plate has been defused by the use of simple thin fabrics or eliminated in the omission of the screens.
  • The burden of the separation parts is insignificant.
  • Wear on the friction gap is nonexistent.
  • The manufacturing problems of a very tight and accurate friction gap design are eliminated.

It should be noted at this point that the basis 1 to 3 described grinding chambers, stirring and Separators only a selection of several possible embodiments represent the invention and in various Respects can be changed.

For example, the separating members 80 and 82 optionally provided with or without straight conveying elements 86 be the conveying elements 12 and 86 either to the Slices 5 or 7 may be attached and it may be the parting organs optionally equipped with or without screen plate ring 6 his. Also, the sizes of the separating elements of the zu depending on peripheral speeds and can of Vary greatly from case to case.

Furthermore, the stirring elements described above numerically arbitrary with each other and / or with others Known stirrers are combined and it can the grinding chamber additionally with pressure relief valves or the like be designed to withstand any pressure fluctuations, especially to compensate for pressure increases. Finally, can the longitudinal wall of the grinding chamber in addition of a cylindrical Sheath be wrapped, which together with her in the Cross-section circular, space bounded in the to Cooling or heating of the existing in the interior of a good Cooling or heating fluid can be introduced.

Claims (7)

  1. For fine and fine grinding a good serving, continuously operating horizontal agitator ball mill with a cylindrical or conical, for receiving Mahlkörpern serving grinding chamber (50, 51) one at the end of the grinding chamber (50, 51) arranged and in the interior (3) of the grinding chamber (50, 51) opening Good inlet (37), arranged at the other end of the grinding chamber and out of the interior (3) leading out Good-outlet (38, 39) and a plurality of stirring elements (2) and the chamber axis (60) coaxial agitator (1, 22) and one before the Good outlet (38, 39) arranged separately driven separation system that separates the grinding media from the ground Good and back into the interior (3) of the grinding chamber (50, 51) promotes, characterized in that the separation system is formed by a separating element (80, 82) which has two circular disks (5, 7) arranged coaxially with the chamber axis (61), between which a plurality of disks distributed symmetrically around the disk center point and the disk edge inwardly leading conveying or wing elements (12, 86) are arranged, which generate a back pressure on the material-grinding media mixture during operation of the separating device, so that due to the centrifugal force and the different specific gravity, the grinding media separated from the product and transported back into the interior (3).
  2. Agitator ball mill according to claim 1, characterized in that the conveyor or wing elements are arcuate.
  3. Agitator ball mill according to claim 2, characterized in that in addition to the arcuate conveying or wing elements (12) also straight or approximately straight conveyor or wing elements (86) are provided which extend inwardly from the edge of the disc.
  4. Agitator ball mill according to claim 1, characterized in that the two circular discs (5, 7) are detachably or permanently connected to each other.
  5. Agitator ball mill according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that between the two circular discs (5, 7) a co-rotating ring cage (10) is provided, which encloses a circular cavity (8).
  6. Agitator ball mill according to claim 3, characterized in that in the ring cage (10) a screen plate ring (6) is inserted.
  7. Agitator ball mill according to claim 6, characterized in that on the end wall (35) a Siebabstreifer (65) is provided, which serves at most to strip on the sieve fixed grinding media and ground material or to keep in motion.
EP04405182A 2003-04-15 2004-03-24 Agitator ball mill Revoked EP1468739B1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CH6782003 2003-04-15
CH6782003 2003-04-15

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
PL04405182T PL1468739T3 (en) 2003-04-15 2004-03-24 Agitator ball mill

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP1468739A1 true EP1468739A1 (en) 2004-10-20
EP1468739B1 EP1468739B1 (en) 2008-03-19

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EP04405182A Revoked EP1468739B1 (en) 2003-04-15 2004-03-24 Agitator ball mill

Country Status (8)

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US (1) US7014134B2 (en)
EP (1) EP1468739B1 (en)
JP (1) JP4205620B2 (en)
AT (1) AT389456T (en)
DE (1) DE502004006541D1 (en)
DK (1) DK1468739T3 (en)
ES (1) ES2304157T3 (en)
PL (1) PL1468739T3 (en)

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EP2036613A2 (en) 2007-09-13 2009-03-18 Netzsch-Feinmahltechnik GmbH Stirring ball mill
CN102069025A (en) * 2009-11-25 2011-05-25 威利A.巴霍芬股份公司 Agitator ball mill
US8118247B2 (en) 2009-07-06 2012-02-21 Willy A. Bachofen Ag Agitator ball mill
DE102010053484A1 (en) 2010-12-04 2012-06-06 Netzsch-Feinmahltechnik Gmbh Dynamic element for the separator of a stirred ball mill
WO2012055388A3 (en) * 2010-10-27 2012-06-28 Netzsch-Feinmahltechnik Gmbh Stirring ball mill
CN102794215A (en) * 2012-08-21 2012-11-28 向小月 Multi-circulation grinding system
CN102814216A (en) * 2012-08-26 2012-12-12 向小月 Double-shaft grinding system
CN103056011A (en) * 2013-01-24 2013-04-24 陈波 Forced bi-directional vertical circulation grinding system
CN103657801A (en) * 2013-12-19 2014-03-26 占天义 Stirring type grinding separator and grinding device
EP2106859A3 (en) * 2008-03-31 2014-05-07 Ashizawa Finetech Ltd Media mixing mill
CN101869863B (en) * 2009-04-22 2014-08-13 芦泽精美技术股份有限公司 Media-agitation type pulverizer
DE102013111762A1 (en) 2013-07-08 2015-01-08 Netzsch-Feinmahltechnik Gmbh Agitator ball mill with axial channels
EP2886198A1 (en) * 2013-12-20 2015-06-24 NETZSCH Trockenmahltechnik GmbH Operating method for a ball mill and ball mill therefor
FR3018807A1 (en) * 2014-03-20 2015-09-25 Herakles Process for obtaining submicron monomodal granulometry hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane crystal (cl20) charges, the same charges and their use as seeding loads
WO2017000757A1 (en) * 2015-06-29 2017-01-05 广东派勒智能纳米科技股份有限公司 Advanced ball mill having dual separation system

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US20090212141A1 (en) * 2005-06-08 2009-08-27 Alan Taylor Milling apparatus
US20070040055A1 (en) * 2005-08-17 2007-02-22 Riendeau Robert D Method and apparatus for pulverizing solid materials
JP4918272B2 (en) * 2006-04-11 2012-04-18 アシザワ・ファインテック株式会社 Circulation type media stirring mill
JP5046546B2 (en) * 2006-04-24 2012-10-10 日本コークス工業株式会社 Media stirring type wet disperser and fine particle dispersion method
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US8246831B2 (en) * 2009-02-05 2012-08-21 Mcfarland Martin Allen Digesting and continuously self-cleaning aquarium filter
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WO2013015237A1 (en) * 2011-07-28 2013-01-31 アシザワ・ファインテック株式会社 Medium-stirring pulverizer
CN102553687B (en) * 2012-01-09 2013-08-28 山东理工大学 Ballstone group dynamic distribution detection system and method
DE102012013279A1 (en) * 2012-07-05 2014-01-09 Roland Nied Method for operating a stirred ball mill and agitator ball mill therefor
CN102921512B (en) * 2012-11-16 2015-06-03 广西大学 Horizontal reinforced polysaccharide polymer modification agitating ball mill reactor
CN102974432B (en) * 2012-12-26 2015-12-02 广州派勒机械设备有限公司 A kind of Dynamic Separation discharging formula grinder
DE102015105103A1 (en) * 2015-04-02 2016-10-06 Netzsch-Feinmahltechnik Gmbh Closure system for the grinding container of a comminution device and grinding container with such a closure system and comminution device with a grinding container
CN105214790B (en) * 2015-09-22 2018-06-08 广东派勒智能纳米科技股份有限公司 Intelligent nano dynamic centrifugal rotating separation device
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DE19510807A1 (en) * 1994-03-24 1995-09-28 Netzsch Erich Holding Stirrer grinder with grinding chamber
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TWI410281B (en) * 2007-09-13 2013-10-01 Netzsch Feinmahltechnik Agitating ball mill
DE102007043670A1 (en) 2007-09-13 2009-04-02 Netzsch-Feinmahltechnik Gmbh Stirred ball mill
EP2036613A3 (en) * 2007-09-13 2009-11-25 Netzsch-Feinmahltechnik GmbH Stirring ball mill
US7845589B2 (en) 2007-09-13 2010-12-07 Netzsch-Feinmahltechnik Gmbh Agitating ball mill
EP2036613A2 (en) 2007-09-13 2009-03-18 Netzsch-Feinmahltechnik GmbH Stirring ball mill
EP2106859A3 (en) * 2008-03-31 2014-05-07 Ashizawa Finetech Ltd Media mixing mill
CN101869863B (en) * 2009-04-22 2014-08-13 芦泽精美技术股份有限公司 Media-agitation type pulverizer
US8118247B2 (en) 2009-07-06 2012-02-21 Willy A. Bachofen Ag Agitator ball mill
CN102069025A (en) * 2009-11-25 2011-05-25 威利A.巴霍芬股份公司 Agitator ball mill
CN102069025B (en) * 2009-11-25 2014-08-20 威利A.巴霍芬股份公司 Agitator ball mill
EP2327479A1 (en) 2009-11-25 2011-06-01 Willy A. Bachofen AG Stirring ball mill
EP2327480A1 (en) 2009-11-25 2011-06-01 Willy A. Bachofen AG Stirring ball mill
WO2012055388A3 (en) * 2010-10-27 2012-06-28 Netzsch-Feinmahltechnik Gmbh Stirring ball mill
US8702023B2 (en) 2010-10-27 2014-04-22 Netzch-Feinmahltechnik GmbH Stirring ball mill
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CN104815726B (en) * 2013-12-20 2017-05-31 耐驰干法研磨技术有限公司 Grinder and its Ginding process
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EP1468739B1 (en) 2008-03-19
DK1468739T3 (en) 2008-07-21
JP2004314066A (en) 2004-11-11
AT389456T (en) 2008-04-15
PL1468739T3 (en) 2008-10-31
DE502004006541D1 (en) 2008-04-30
JP4205620B2 (en) 2009-01-07
US20050224612A1 (en) 2005-10-13
US7014134B2 (en) 2006-03-21

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