EP1448874B1 - Joint system for reducing a sealing space in a rotary gas turbine - Google Patents

Joint system for reducing a sealing space in a rotary gas turbine Download PDF

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Publication number
EP1448874B1
EP1448874B1 EP20020767798 EP02767798A EP1448874B1 EP 1448874 B1 EP1448874 B1 EP 1448874B1 EP 20020767798 EP20020767798 EP 20020767798 EP 02767798 A EP02767798 A EP 02767798A EP 1448874 B1 EP1448874 B1 EP 1448874B1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
platform
sealing
seal arrangement
blade
platforms
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Fee Related
Application number
EP20020767798
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
EP1448874A1 (en
Inventor
Erhard Kreis
Markus Oehl
Ulrich Rathmann
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
General Electric Technology GmbH
Original Assignee
General Electric Technology GmbH
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to CH176601 priority Critical
Priority to CH17662001 priority
Application filed by General Electric Technology GmbH filed Critical General Electric Technology GmbH
Priority to PCT/IB2002/003862 priority patent/WO2003027445A1/en
Publication of EP1448874A1 publication Critical patent/EP1448874A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP1448874B1 publication Critical patent/EP1448874B1/en
Expired - Fee Related legal-status Critical Current
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01DNON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, e.g. STEAM TURBINES
    • F01D5/00Blades; Blade-carrying members; Heating, heat-insulating, cooling or antivibration means on the blades or the members
    • F01D5/12Blades
    • F01D5/22Blade-to-blade connections, e.g. for damping vibrations
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01DNON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, e.g. STEAM TURBINES
    • F01D11/00Preventing or minimising internal leakage of working-fluid, e.g. between stages
    • F01D11/005Sealing means between non relatively rotating elements
    • F01D11/006Sealing the gap between rotor blades or blades and rotor
    • F01D11/008Sealing the gap between rotor blades or blades and rotor by spacer elements between the blades, e.g. independent interblade platforms
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S277/00Seal for a joint or juncture
    • Y10S277/935Seal made of a particular material
    • Y10S277/939Containing metal
    • Y10S277/941Aluminum or copper

Description

    Technical area
  • The invention relates to a sealing arrangement for sealing gap reduction within a flow rotating machine, preferably an axial turbomachine according to the preamble of claim 1. Such an arrangement is for example DE-A1-198 48 103 known.
  • State of the art
  • Generic sealing arrangements are well known and serve a largely gas-tight connection between two fixed longitudinally in a row of blades juxtaposed running or vanes, which are used in turbo rotation machines for compression or expansion of gaseous media, depending on whether it is a compressor or a gas turbine unit. Running and guide vanes adjoin one another via platforms arranged directly on the blade root area, separating the area of the working medium from a plant area to be cooled, be it the rotor arrangement or housing areas of the turbo-rotation machine. Also spacers can be introduced as spacers between two blade roots along a row of blades, which also adjoin each other via corresponding Seitenftanken with the platforms of the blade roots. Exactly those abutting surfaces of adjoining platforms of two adjacent blade roots or blade roots and spacer elements are to be sealed against each other as effectively as possible in order to avoid leakage flows. For the sake of simplicity, in the further from Contiguous boundaries of the blade roots and the associated sealing gaps the speech, which, however, the above relationships are meant.
  • DE-A-198 48 103 describes a seal assembly for reducing leakage currents within a flow rotating machine, preferably an axial turbomachine, with blades and vanes; which are each arranged in at least one row of blades or guide vanes and have blade roots via which the individual blades and vanes are connected to fastening contours. The embodiment is characterized in that between at least two adjacent blade roots within a guide or blade row or between guide and / or moving blades and adjacent components of the turbomachine, a felt-like material exhibiting sealing element is provided.
  • EP-A-1 076 157 refers to the equipment of a turbine blade of a gas turbine with an intermetallic felt. By occupying the tip of the turbine blade with the intermetallic felt and a coating of a ceramic material, improved protection against thermal and mechanical effects and improved oxidation resistance can be achieved. It is also an arrangement of the intermetallic felt on the turbine blade opposite rotor or stator or on the platform of the turbine blade conceivable.
  • DE-A-198 58 031 relates to an abradable seal between a wall portion and the blade tips of a gas turbine, which consists entirely of a foamed, metallic, corrosion-resistant high-temperature alloy. After a first manufacturing process prefabricated metal foam segments are connected by high-temperature soldering to the wall sections. Alternatively, the non-foamed starting material. The squeal seal is first connected to the wall sections and then foamed at it. Such metal foam seals have an optimal sealing behavior, while improving the insulation of the housing structure against the hot gas. By influencing the foaming parameters, the cell structure of the rubbing seal can be influenced within certain limits, so that the inlet properties, the flow obstruction and the insulating effect are determined in this way.
  • From the EP 0 501 700 A1 For this purpose, a turbine vane construction emerges whose vane foot and headband are fixed by means of spring-sealing elements against corresponding contours of the housing components. The disadvantage of provided with spring elements seals is, inter alia, that can not be ruled out that the spring material due to the very high material stresses in terms of prevailing in gas turbines temperature and pressure conditions, tire very quickly, so that they lose their spring force and thus their sealing function.
  • Furthermore, goes from the DE 195 20 268 A1 a surface seal having two sealing surfaces, each including an elastic corrugated surface. In one embodiment, the U-shaped surface seal extends along the inner contour of a hammerhead-shaped vane root and serves to seal cooling air blown into the vane and to protect the vane root from hot gases. However, the sealing arrangement to be formed in different surface shapes requires flat, contoured surfaces to be sealed against which they can rest flatly. When it comes to the sealing of intermediate gaps which are enclosed by curved surfaces, the known sealing arrangement reaches its limits.
  • In the DE 33 03 482 A1 there is described a rotor assembly within which the blades abut each other via their respective shrouds or platforms. In order to substantially completely seal leakage currents between remaining intermediate gaps that set up between the adjacent blade platforms, it is proposed to provide silicone rubber strips which are attached to the underside of the blade platforms to close the intermediate gap at least at the bottom of the adjacent ones
  • To seal blade platforms. For this purpose, the silicone rubber strip is glued to the underside of a blade platform and thereby overlaps the surface of the adjacent blade. By gluing, as well as by the centrifugal force acting on the silicone rubber strip by rotation, the intermediate gap between the adjacent blade platforms can be largely sealed. A disadvantage of the use of silicone gaskets is their limited temperature resistance, which makes their use in high-performance gas turbines, in which temperatures of up to 1200 ° C. prevail, appear questionable.
  • The examples given above of the prior art for reducing the sealing gap between two runners or guide vanes arranged along a row of blades make it clear that despite the large number of known solution concepts, inadequacies in circumferential gap reduction remain in blade rows. The difficulties encountered here are associated with the extremely high operating temperatures, especially in the operation of gas turbine plants, can be significantly affected by the known sealing aids for reducing the individual sealing gaps and finally lose their initial sealing function.
  • Moreover, further difficulties arise from the fact that the different thermal expansion properties of the individual system components, in particular that of the rotor blades and vanes in their blade root areas, depend very much on the temperatures prevailing there. If, for example, two blade feet adjacently arranged within a blade row are pressed together with a minimally small sealing gap and fixed in this position, such high compressive forces in the circumferential direction of the blade row between adjacent blade roots occur during nominal load operation of the flow rotation machine due to thermally induced material expansion In the joining area between each individual blade root and the respective fastening groove lead to structural overloads may be the cause of premature material fatigue and ultimately a total loss of a blade.
  • If, however, the intermediate gap between two adjacent vane feet is selected to be too large in the cold state, large intermediate gaps exist despite thermally induced material expansions in the nominal operating state of the flow rotary machine, for example a gas turbine plant, through which significant leakage losses occur.
  • The above-described relationships make it clear that to achieve the best possible minimum sealing gap between two adjacent blade roots along a row of blades sealing gaps are provided in the cold state whose dimensions are set very precisely with very narrow tolerance limits to obtain a desired minimum sealing gap when hot , However, this is not feasible in the desired manner due to the technical conditions and the not exactly predictable thermal expansion properties of the individual components. Moreover, oxidation phenomena on the flanks or edges of the blade roots during operation contribute to the fact that originally as optimally dimensioned sealing gap distances in the cold state undergo considerable deviations. This leads to undesirable changes within the sealing gap, etc., which can lead to very high pressure forces between two adjacent blade roots in the hot state and thus to structural overloads, as mentioned above.
  • Presentation of the invention
  • The invention, as characterized in the claims, the object underlying a sealing arrangement for Dichtspaltreduzierung within a flow rotating machine, preferably an axial turbomachine, with blades and vanes, which are each arranged in at least one row of blades and vanes and blade feet over each which are in fastening contours within the rotor and vane rows such that, during the hot operating behavior of the turbomachine, an optimally minimal sealing gap is formed between two adjacent blade roots, which on the one hand effectively and optimally reduces a possibly existing leakage flow and on the other hand does not cause compressive forces between the blade roots by the circumferential direction of a blade row fastened blade roots are claimed in a defective manner. The seal assembly should also be resistant to high temperatures and oxidation and thus have a long life.
  • The invention is based on the idea, in contrast to the previously known approaches, in which two adjacent blade roots are as firm and intimately with each other, have two adjacent blade feet so loose against each other, so that the blade feet are exposed to pressure forces even when hot, the lead to mechanical tension in the blade roots, but still include a minimum possible sealing gap with each other.
  • This is inventively realized by the use of a plastically easily deformable material, which is selectively introduced between two adjacent blade roots and preferably has a material thickness, the dimensioned in such a way is that both blade feet in the cold state by a cold gap in the usual, manufacturable order of about 1/100 mm to 5 mm apart. Since the individual blade roots are fixed circumferentially within the fastening contour along the row of blades, the sealing gap enclosed between two adjacent blade roots during operation of the turbomachine, preferably a gas turbine engine, reduces due to the high operating temperatures and thermal material expansion initiated thereby within the blade roots. Due to the material expansion, the side flanks of the blade roots move toward each other, come into contact and due to further expansion able to plastically deform the material introduced between the two blade roots so that the material is literally "squeezed out" of the sealing gap and / or one subject to local material compaction, depending on the plastic deformation behavior of the material. In this way, the pressure forces exerted by the two opposing blade roots are absorbed by the plastically deformable sealing element itself and are not transmitted to the respective opposite blade root. Due to the plastic deformation of the sealing element automatically sets a lowest possible hot gap regardless of current operating conditions and originally provided tolerances in the design of cold-sealing gaps and corresponding sealing elements.
  • In addition to the sealing gap reduction between adjacent blade roots, the plastically deformable material is also to be provided between components of the flow rotary machine, such as spacer spacers along a row of guide blades or blades or heat shield segments, the so-called Heartshields.
  • As plastically deformable materials are preferably sintered metals, metal foams and porous metallic coating materials used.
  • Sintered metals, which are present in their original form as powdered nickel aluminide, iron aluminide or cobalt aluminim and preferably can be applied under high pressure to at least one of two opposite flanks of a blade root, are preferred oxidation-resistant sealing materials.
  • It is also conceivable to use metal foams in the form of nickel or nickel alloy foams, cobalt or cobalt-forming foams, as well as aluminum or aluminum alloy foams, which are applied to the respective side flank of a blade root, for example by means of a soldering or welding process, and are permanently available therewith.
  • The use of metallic porous coatings, such as the provision of so-called MCrAIY layers, where M is selected for an element of the group consisting of iron-cobalt-nickel, is particularly suitable as a sealing material in the sense described above. Such material compounds can also be applied by means of flame spraying onto the surface of an edge of a blade root. Depending on the choice of suitable spray parameters, different porosities can be set in a targeted manner, whereby the degree of plasticity is almost arbitrarily adjustable.
  • In principle, any oxidation-resistant, plastically deformable materials can be used for the above-mentioned purpose, which are suitably available by means of flame spraying, electrodeposition, vacuum coating, plating or using the blade roots with soldering and welding techniques.
  • The concept of the invention advantageously further forming features are the subject of the other dependent claims.
  • Brief description of the figures
  • The invention will now be described by way of example without limitation of the general inventive idea by means of embodiments with reference to the drawings. Show it:
  • Fig. 1a, b
    schematic section of a cross section of two opposing inner shrouds of two blade feet,
    Fig. 2,3,4
    alternative forms of training,
    Fig. 5
    schematic top view of two arranged in a row of vanes adjacent vanes with sealing elements, as well as
    Fig. 6
    alternative training.
    Ways to carry out the invention, industrial usability
  • In Fig. 1a is a partial cross-sectional view through two, along a row of blades extending in the circumferential direction (see arrow) on a rotor assembly 1, immediately adjacent opposite platforms 21, 31 of two blade roots 2, 3, which extend into the rotor assembly 1 for attachment, shown.
  • FIG. 1a shows the cold state, ie the state of the blade roots 2, 3 before the flow rotary machine is put into operation, which represents, for example, a compressor unit or a gas turbine stage. At the two, directly opposite flanks 22, 32 of the platforms 21, 31, a layer-shaped, consisting of plastically deformable material sealing element 4 is provided in each case, which together include a cold gap 5 with a cold gap width s c with each other. The cold gap width s c typically has a spacing of between 0.01 and 5 mm.
  • In Fig. 1 b, the same arrangement is shown in the hot state, ie after already completed thermal expansion of the two opposite blade roots 2, 3 with the platforms 21, 31. Both sealing elements 4 are subjected to force against each other and at least partially plastically deformed due to the prevailing joining forces, which has reduced their effective material thickness. At the edge regions of both plastically deformed layers 4 according to FIG. 1, lateral over-crimping regions 41 have formed, which also remain in a recirculation in the cold state due to the plastic deformation.
  • The inventive provision of plastically deformable material between two immediately adjoining blade roots, preferably between the adjacent platforms 21, 31 of the two blade roots 2, 3 forms an optimum minimum hot gap 6 in the hot state, which has a gap width s w , in the best Fall is close to zero and in any case substantially smaller than the cold gap s c .
  • In Fig. 2, two contoured edges of two platforms 7, 8 are shown by vanes, which delimit a hot gas channel 9 within a gas turbine plant relative to a stator housing, not shown. Also in this case, a part of the platform flank 81 has a sealing element 4 consisting of plastically deformable material, against which a corresponding shoulder of the platform 7 is pressed and at the same time cooled by a cooling channel 72.
  • A corresponding arrangement, Fig. 3, in which both platforms 7, 8 add a wedge-shaped sealing element 4 together. The larger wedge end 42 of the wedge-shaped sealing element 4 is oriented to the sides of the hot gas channel 9.
  • Finally, FIG. 4 shows a further alternative embodiment of two opposing platforms 7, 8, in which two opposite flanks 71, 81 with corresponding sealing elements 4 are provided. Additional cooling channels 72, 82 provide for a corresponding local cooling. Finally, from Fig. 5, the plan view of two arranged along a row of vanes guide vanes with associated platforms 7, 8 along the two side edges 73, 83 are arranged side by side. The provided on both side edges 73 and 83 sealing elements 4 are dimensioned such that adjusts the most uniform possible minimum hot gap. This is complicated by the occurring tilting of both platforms 7, 8 relative to each other. However, this can be taken into account by suitable choice of layer thickness in the sealing elements
  • FIG. 6 shows a further alternative embodiment comparable to FIGS. 2 to 4. The platform flank of the vane has a raised-sealing nose 74 which is locally pressed into the opposite sealing element 4, resulting in a local, simple plastic deformation within the sealing element 4, through which the leakage current can be effectively suppressed.
  • LIST OF REFERENCE NUMBERS
  • 1
    rotor assembly
    2, 3
    blade
    21, 31
    platform
    22, 32
    side flanks
    4
    Plastically deformable material, sealing element
    41
    About contusion area
    42
    wedge end
    5
    Sealing gap (cold gap)
    6
    Sealing gap (hot gap)
    7, 8
    platform
    71, 81
    Side flanks of the platform 7, 8
    72, 82
    cooling channels
    73, 83
    side flanks
    74
    sealing nose
    9
    Hot-gas duct

Claims (16)

  1. Seal arrangement for reducing the seal gaps within a rotary flow machine, preferably an axial turbomachine,
    - having rotor blades and guide vanes, which are respectively arranged in at least one rotor blade row and guide vane row and have respective blade/vane roots (2, 3) which protrude into fastening contours within the rotor blade and guide vane rows,
    - the blade/vane roots (2, 3) having a respective platform (7, 8, 21, 31),
    - a sealing element (4) in plastically deformable material being provided between at least two platforms (7, 8, 21, 31) of adjacent blade/vane roots (2, 3) along a rotor blade row or guide vane row or between a platform (7, 8, 21, 31) of a blade/vane root (2, 3) of a rotor blade or guide vane and a rotary flow machine component directly adjoining the platform (7, 8, 21, 31).
    - the sealing element (4) being firmly connected to at least one platform (7, 8, 21, 31) and having a thickness protruding from the surface of the platform (7, 8, 21, 31),
    characterized in that
    - the two adjacent platforms (7, 8, 21, 31) or the platform (7, 8, 21, 31) and the component directly adjoining the platform (7, 8, 21, 31) enclose a cold gap sc in the cold condition and a hot gap sw in the hot condition during operation of the rotary flow machine.
  2. Seal arrangement according to Claim 1, characterized in that the connection of the sealing element (4) to the platform (7, 8, 21, 31) is a brazed/soldered or bonded connection.
  3. Seal arrangement according to one of Claims 1 and 2, characterized in that
    - the sealing element (4) is applied as a layer material to a platform (7, 8, 21, 31) by means of a precipitation process, and
    - in that the sealing element (4) and the platform (7, 8, 21, 31) enter into a metallurgical combination.
  4. Seal arrangement according to Claim 3, characterized in that the sealing element (4) configured as a layer material can be applied by flame spraying, galvanic precipitation or by plating onto the platform (7, 8, 21, 31).
  5. Seal arrangement according to one of Claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the plastically deformable material (4) is a sintered metal, a metal foam or a porous metallic coating.
  6. Seal arrangement according to Claim 5, characterized in that the sintered metal is a homogeneously baked combination from NiAl, FeAl or CoAl.
  7. Seal arrangement according to Claim 5, characterized in that the metal foam is one containing Ni, Co and/or Al.
  8. Seal arrangement according to Claim 5, characterized in that the porous metallic coating exhibits MCrAlY, where M is a metal from the group consisting of Ni, Co or Fe.
  9. Seal arrangement according to one of Claims 1 to 8, characterized in that the following applies: sw << sc.
  10. Seal arrangement according to one of Claims 1 to 9, characterized in that when a contact pressure present between two platforms (7, 8, 21, 31) or between the platform (7, 8, 21, 31) and the component directly adjoining the platform (7, 8, 21, 31) is exceeded in the hot condition of the rotary flow machine, the sealing element (4) deforms plastically in order to form a minimum hot gap sw.
  11. Seal arrangement according to Claim 10, characterized in that the plastic deformation of the sealing element (4) takes place substantially laterally relative to the plane of a seal gap (5, 6) enclosed by both platforms (7, 8, 21, 31) or by the platform (7, 8, 21, 31) and the component directly adjoining the platform (7, 8, 21, 31).
  12. Seal arrangement according to one of Claims 1 to 11, characterized in that the sealing element (4) has a wedge-shaped configuration and in that the thicker wedge end (42) is oriented to be facing toward the blade/vane aerofoils.
  13. Seal arrangement according to one of Claims 1 to 11, characterized in that the platforms (7, 8, 21, 31) or the platform (7, 8, 21, 31) and the component directly adjoining the platform (7, 8, 21, 31) have a contour protruding into one another, the sealing element (4) being provided at least on the contour part facing toward the blade/vane aerofoils.
  14. Seal arrangement according to one of Claims 1 to 13, characterized in that at least one cooling duct (72, 82) is provided which opens from the platform (7, 8, 21, 31) in the region of the sealing element (4).
  15. Seal arrangement according to one of Claims 1 to 10, characterized in that a sealing protrusion (74) is provided on the platform (7, 8, 21, 31), opposite the sealing element (4).
  16. Seal arrangement according to one of Claims 1 to 15, characterized in that the component of the rotary flow machine adjoining the platform (7, 8, 21, 31) is an intermediate piece, in the form of a distance piece, or a heat insulation segment.
EP20020767798 2001-09-25 2002-09-19 Joint system for reducing a sealing space in a rotary gas turbine Expired - Fee Related EP1448874B1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CH176601 2001-09-25
CH17662001 2001-09-25
PCT/IB2002/003862 WO2003027445A1 (en) 2001-09-25 2002-09-19 Joint system for reducing a sealing space in a rotary gas turbine

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP1448874A1 EP1448874A1 (en) 2004-08-25
EP1448874B1 true EP1448874B1 (en) 2007-12-26

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EP20020767798 Expired - Fee Related EP1448874B1 (en) 2001-09-25 2002-09-19 Joint system for reducing a sealing space in a rotary gas turbine

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US (1) US7175387B2 (en)
EP (1) EP1448874B1 (en)
DE (1) DE50211431D1 (en)
WO (1) WO2003027445A1 (en)

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DE19858031A1 (en) * 1998-12-16 2000-06-21 Rolls Royce Deutschland Contact seal between a wall section and the blade tips of a gas turbine
DE19937577A1 (en) * 1999-08-09 2001-02-15 Abb Alstom Power Ch Ag Frictional gas turbine component
WO2003027445A1 (en) 2001-09-25 2003-04-03 Alstom Technology Ltd Joint system for reducing a sealing space in a rotary gas turbine

Also Published As

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WO2003027445A1 (en) 2003-04-03
US20040179937A1 (en) 2004-09-16
US7175387B2 (en) 2007-02-13
DE50211431D1 (en) 2008-02-07
EP1448874A1 (en) 2004-08-25

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