EP1427925B1 - Reciprocating piston engine comprising a rotative cylinder - Google Patents

Reciprocating piston engine comprising a rotative cylinder Download PDF

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Publication number
EP1427925B1
EP1427925B1 EP02774600A EP02774600A EP1427925B1 EP 1427925 B1 EP1427925 B1 EP 1427925B1 EP 02774600 A EP02774600 A EP 02774600A EP 02774600 A EP02774600 A EP 02774600A EP 1427925 B1 EP1427925 B1 EP 1427925B1
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EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
reciprocating piston
rotor housing
piston engine
piston
characterized
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Not-in-force
Application number
EP02774600A
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German (de)
French (fr)
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EP1427925A1 (en
Inventor
Erich Teufl
Original Assignee
Erich Teufl
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Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE2001145478 priority Critical patent/DE10145478B4/en
Priority to DE10145478 priority
Application filed by Erich Teufl filed Critical Erich Teufl
Priority to PCT/EP2002/010196 priority patent/WO2003025369A1/en
Publication of EP1427925A1 publication Critical patent/EP1427925A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP1427925B1 publication Critical patent/EP1427925B1/en
Not-in-force legal-status Critical Current
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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01BMACHINES OR ENGINES, IN GENERAL OR OF POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT TYPE, e.g. STEAM ENGINES
    • F01B13/00Reciprocating-piston machines or engines with rotating cylinders in order to obtain the reciprocating-piston motion
    • F01B13/04Reciprocating-piston machines or engines with rotating cylinders in order to obtain the reciprocating-piston motion with more than one cylinder
    • F01B13/045Reciprocating-piston machines or engines with rotating cylinders in order to obtain the reciprocating-piston motion with more than one cylinder with cylinder axes arranged substantially tangentially to a circle centred on main shaft axis
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B57/00Internal-combustion aspects of rotary engines in which the combusted gases displace one or more reciprocating pistons
    • F02B57/08Engines with star-shaped cylinder arrangements
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B75/00Other engines
    • F02B75/02Engines characterised by their cycles, e.g. six-stroke
    • F02B2075/022Engines characterised by their cycles, e.g. six-stroke having less than six strokes per cycle
    • F02B2075/025Engines characterised by their cycles, e.g. six-stroke having less than six strokes per cycle two
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02BINTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL
    • F02B3/00Engines characterised by air compression and subsequent fuel addition
    • F02B3/06Engines characterised by air compression and subsequent fuel addition with compression ignition
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02FCYLINDERS, PISTONS OR CASINGS, FOR COMBUSTION ENGINES; ARRANGEMENTS OF SEALINGS IN COMBUSTION ENGINES
    • F02F7/00Casings, e.g. crankcases or frames
    • F02F2007/0097Casings, e.g. crankcases or frames for large diesel engines

Abstract

A reciprocating piston engine includes a rotor housing for transferring torque to an engine output drive; a contoured guide element in the rotor housing, having a closed, curvilinearly contoured shape, around which the rotor housing is rotatable; at least one compression unit in the rotor housing, each unit including a piston and a cylinder, with the piston having a straight line of action in a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the rotor housing; a connecting rod, rigidly coupled to the piston, movable along a path determined by the contoured guide element, for transferring controlled movement specified by the contoured guide element to the piston; and a guide part, joined to the connecting rod, and movable along a separate guide in the rotor housing, with the connecting rod, the piston, and the guide part each performing a single stroke along a straight line in the rotor housing.

Description

  • The present invention relates to a reciprocating piston machine with a rotating cylinder for generating torque. The reciprocating piston engine preferably works as an internal combustion engine; however, it can also be used in areas of hydraulics due to slightly different structural designs and arrangements of the control channels. Furthermore, the use according to the solution according to the invention is possible as a hydraulic pump, overpressure pump and as a vacuum pump.
  • Best known representative of a. Rotary piston machine in the field of internal combustion engines is the Wankel engine. This has a piston which moves in a trochoid shape and forms a working space. This moves by means of an internal toothing and eccentric bearing of the motor shaft in the interior of an epitrochoid. The corners and the side surfaces of the piston have sealing elements. The gas is changed by opening and closing slots in a housing surrounding the piston. The Wankel engine is characterized by its perfect mass balance, its compact design due to the absence of a valve train. On the other hand, the low torque and the unfavorable shape of the combustion chamber with long combustion distances, the resulting high hydrocarbon emissions, the higher fuel and oil consumption compared to other reciprocating piston engines, and higher manufacturing costs are disadvantageous. Also, due to the working principle, there is no direct possibility of realizing a diesel engine using the Wankel principle.
  • The object of the present invention is to provide a reciprocating piston machine whose overall efficiency is higher than that of reciprocating piston machines according to the prior art, whose mass-performance ratio is improved, whose control is simplified in terms of construction, whose production and assembly work is reduced, and whose smoothness is optimized and their pollutant emissions are reduced.
  • This object is achieved with a reciprocating piston machine with the features according to claim 1. Further advantageous refinements and developments are specified in the dependent claims.
  • A reciprocating piston machine with rotating cylinders has at least one piston per cylinder unit, which is arranged in a rotor housing, wherein in an inner region of the rotor housing there is a space which has a contour around which the piston in the rotatable rotor housing is arranged to be movable through 360 °, whereby the piston is coupled to the contour in such a way that the contour causes a stroke movement of the piston when the cylinder unit moves around the contour. This design of the reciprocating piston machine creates a completely new principle: While the cylinder housing was previously fixed in the usual reciprocating piston engines and the reciprocating piston delivered torque via a rotating crankshaft, in the present case the piston with the rotor housing can be rotated 360 ° around a contour arranged Here, too, combustion of a combustible medium in a combustion chamber enables the piston to build up pressure. The pressure on the piston is also on the rotor housing. Since this is rotatably arranged around the contour and the piston is in turn coupled to the contour, a torque is generated around the contour, which leads to a rotational movement of the rotor housing around the contour. At the same time, the stroke movement of the piston is controlled by the coupling of the contour and the piston. This control carries out the work cycles of the reciprocating machine, such as suction, compression, combustion and ejection. The 4-stroke principle is preferably used. However, there is also a suitable design the possibility to use the 2-stroke method. The torque generated depends in particular on how many pistons are arranged in the rotor housing. On the one hand, this can be made dependent on the size of the rotor, and on the other hand, vibrations that occur can also be taken into account. In particular, a plurality of rotor housings (in the manner of a radial engine) can be coupled to one another, so that a series of pistons located one behind the other is created, which are movable around the contour of the rotor housing. A rotor housing preferably has three, four or more pistons.
  • According to the invention, the line of action of the piston of a cylinder unit (stroke direction of the piston) is arranged in a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the rotor and lies in this plane so that the line of action is eccentric to the axis of rotation of the rotor and straight.
  • The contour is preferably designed such that a combustion chamber delimited by the piston is at least substantially isochoric, ie has a constant volume, during an operating cycle. The combustion chamber does not change over a certain period of the work cycle. This enables a particularly high torque generation around the contour, since the combustion chamber itself remains essentially constant. In contrast to another reciprocating piston engine, this results in a complete combustion of the combustion gas in the combustion chamber on the one hand, and on the other hand the temperature occurring during the combustion and thus pressure increase in the combustion chamber can be used for a long time. Such a period of time of an isochoric combustion chamber is set via the speed of rotation. The length of the work cycle is also decisive. This is preferably at least 90 °, but in particular more than 100 ° rotation around the contour. With a corresponding adaptation of the discharge of the burned gas, it is possible to achieve an essentially isochoric combustion chamber over approximately 120 ° and more.
  • A rotor preferably has four cylinder units which are arranged offset by 90 ° to one another. There is the possibility that during the work cycle the piston executes a lifting movement due to the shape of the contour, which is preferably closed. This is useful, for example, if it is intended to ensure an improved flow in the combustion chamber and thus combustion. The stroke movement, which is controlled by the contour, is preferably such that an intake stroke is significantly longer than an exhaust stroke. The contour for this reciprocating piston machine preferably has a path shape which has a first, a second, a third and a fourth section, which are all convex, all concave or all linear. The respective stroke cycles of the piston are even in this way. In particular, the sections are connected to one another in such a way that an essentially uniform (negative or positive) acceleration of the piston is generated, so that a material load is kept low. In the area of the reversal points in particular, the contour is designed in such a way that occurring surface pressures remain as low as possible due to the coupling of the piston and contour. An embodiment of the contour provides that it is implemented in a cam disk. The cam has a groove. The groove is designed in such a way that it specifies the contour along which the piston is moved in accordance with the coupling. The contour / curve guidance is preferably designed such that when the cylinder units rotate completely, they perform at least one work cycle.
  • The reciprocating piston machine preferably has a lifting disk and a first and a second cam disk. The two cams are arranged opposite the lifting disc and each have a congruent contour. A connecting rod of the piston is guided between the two cam discs and the lifting disc via a corresponding guide in the grooves. Via the connecting rod, the controlled movement predetermined by the contour is transmitted to the piston, which executes its lifting movement along the cylinder space and its guidance.
  • The piston is preferably guided in the fixed cam mechanism via a needle-bearing connecting shaft. The connecting shaft is preferably in one piece, for example cast or forged. In a further design, however, this is assembled from individual components to form a whole. The cam mechanism is formed by the two cams and the lifting disc. The pistons are guided without play by displacing the two flanks of the groove curve. Each flank has its own role, which is located on the connecting shaft. As a result, the rollers run in opposite directions and are constantly held in contact.
  • A further development of the reciprocating piston machine provides that a guide part which is separate from a sealing part of the piston is arranged on the piston. The sealing part and the guide part are coupled with the piston and movable together. The movable coupling serves to transmit the force acting on the piston to the rotor housing. The guide part is arranged movably along a separate guide in the rotor housing. The guide part is preferably at least partially in the rotor housing. The sealing part, for example formed via the piston with its piston rings and the connecting rod connected to it, thus forms a first arm, while the guide part forms a separate second arm. These two arms are preferably connected to one another again at a connecting rod bearing. As a result, the sealing and the guide part form a lever system. It is preferred if the lever arm of the guide part is shorter than the lever arm of the sealing part. In this way, it is possible to achieve a particularly high torque generation on the rotor housing via the connecting rod bearing, to which both arms are preferably attached. In particular, the piston with the sealing and guiding part is matched to the contour so that the guiding part and the sealing part can each perform a respective lifting movement along a straight line in the rotor housing. As a result, the guide part in particular ensures the force transmission of the compressive force acting on the piston to the rotor housing. A lifting movement of the guide part is preferred executed by means of a bearing, in particular a roller bearing. This is especially designed so that it is able to transmit a compressive force from the guide part to the rotor housing permanently. The sealing and the guide part thus form a lever system for transmitting a compressive force acting on the piston via the guide part to the rotor housing. The piston with the sealing part and the guide part can be made of one piece, for example cast or forged. In a further embodiment, however, these are assembled from individual components to form a whole. The axis of the guide part intersects the axis of rotation of the rotor perpendicularly.
  • The piston delimiting the combustion chamber is preferably designed in such a way that mixture rotation in the combustion chamber is supported during the intake process. This takes place, for example, by means of an approximately centrally symmetrical, conical piston crown, which increases turbulence by building an annular squeeze zone. An inlet swirl for generating a swirl in the combustion chamber is preferably achieved by means of an oblique inflow into the combustion chamber. For example, an inlet channel is arranged obliquely to the longitudinal axis of the piston (stroke axis).
  • Furthermore, the reciprocating piston machine has a rotor housing which has a rotationally symmetrical outer jacket. On the one hand, this has the advantage that an imbalance on the rotor housing is avoided. Therefore, it is also preferred that corresponding components of the reciprocating piston face each other and are thus arranged in pairs in order to avoid at high speeds, for example 5000 to 8000 min -1, in particular from 12000 corresponding min -1 (rpm) imbalance moments. An arrangement of the components in such a way that forces generated due to the rotation of the rotor housing compensate each other is preferred. On the other hand, a rotationally symmetrical outer jacket allows gas supply and gas discharge into the combustion chambers in the rotor housing to be made particularly gas-tight. A version of the reciprocating machine has on the outer casing of the rotor housing a rotating gas exchange sealing system, the surface of which preferably closes radially at least partially with the outer casing of the rotor housing, ie rests sealingly. If the rotor housing is arranged in a jacket housing, the rotating gas exchange sealing system is able to produce a seal between the jacket housing and the rotor housing.
  • The rotor housing is preferably arranged in a jacket housing which has an at least concave surface which is arranged opposite an outer jacket of the rotor housing. The gas exchange sealing system is designed in such a way that, on the one hand, the combustion chamber or chambers in the rotor housing are appropriately sealed during the respective cycles / phases of suction, compression, combustion and exhaust. On the other hand, the sealing system ensures that the combustion chamber is filled or emptied as completely as possible by appropriately supplying and discharging the incoming and outgoing gas. For this purpose, for example, corresponding control channels or corresponding openings are arranged in the casing, along which the combustion chamber is filled or emptied. The control channels can be arranged along the surface opposite the outer casing of the rotor housing or also laterally along the side surface of the rotor housing. This also applies to the gas exchange sealing system. Due to the circumferential gas exchange sealing system, the control channels, preferably in the form of slots, can be relatively long, for example extend over 10 ° to 30 ° angle of rotation over the outlet channel or for example up to 120 ° angle of rotation over the inlet channel or more; the inlet duct is preferably substantially longer than the outlet duct. The depth and the width of the control channels and the distance between the control channels depend on the size of the reciprocating machine. The control channels can be adapted to the inflow conditions and the corresponding pressures during inflow and outflow.
  • The gas exchange sealing system preferably has a pressurized, radially movable and preferably rotatable sliding element which is attached to the outer casing of the rotor housing off-center. This sliding element is held, for example, in a groove which is arranged off-center on the outer casing of the rotor housing. The sliding element, which is preferably roller-bearing, seals the rotor space against the opposite jacket space. For this purpose, the roller-mounted slide ring preferably also has a surface corresponding to that of the opposite casing housing. This is preferably spherical. Furthermore, the slide ring has at least one sealing lip, preferably two sealing lips. The sealing lip touches the casing and thus has a sealing effect. In this way, the tightness of the system is ensured even when an ignition channel with a spark plug arranged therein overflows. When two sealing lips are arranged on a circular sliding ring, for example, the first sealing lip encloses the second sealing lip. Both sealing lips are arranged in a circle. The slide ring in turn preferably also carries out an axial movement in addition to the radial movement. The axial movement is an axial rotary movement. For this purpose, the slide ring is attached off-center and is arranged in relation to the surface of the jacket housing in such a way that it produces a rotary movement on the slide ring. The rotary movement has the advantage, for example, that due to its presence any foreign bodies are transported outwards due to the radial force and are thus removed from the path.
  • In order to be able to decrease the torque on the rotor housing, an output is preferably flanged onto the rotor housing. This is done, for example, by means of a transmission gear, preferably by means of a planetary gear. This makes it possible to increase the speed, but also to lower it. A particularly smooth running can be achieved if, in addition to the reciprocating piston machine, at least one additional reciprocating piston machine is additionally arranged in a row in a row on a shaft. For example, it is thereby possible for a first reciprocating piston machine to be compared with a second reciprocating piston machine the phase of the work cycle section is offset by 180 °. When the first and second reciprocating piston engines ignite at the same time, the running smoothness is improved. A further development provides that a plurality of reciprocating piston machines that are arranged in multiple arrangements on a shaft or separately from one another can be switched on and off individually. There is also the possibility that an ignition of a reciprocating piston machine for a cylinder is suspended. This is possible, for example, when using the reciprocating piston engine in overrun to save fuel, as is known in motor vehicle engines. Another embodiment in turn has changeable inlet and outlet openings for the inflow and outflow of the medium to be burned and any air to be supplied. This change is possible, for example, by means of a throttle cross section. The throttle cross-section is preferably controlled or regulated in accordance with the required output via an engine control
  • In order to ensure that the pistons and other movable components run as smoothly as possible, the reciprocating piston machine has a lubrication system that is independent of the installation position of the reciprocating piston machine, that is to say independent of the position. The lubrication system is designed as position-independent pressure circulation lubrication. The oil is sucked out of the oil ring by the gerotor pump. A pressure relief valve inside the pump housing limits the oil pressure and directs the excess oil back into the pump's suction channel. The oil is conveyed from the pressure channel via the oil filter to oil spray nozzles. From there, the lubricating oil gets into the rotor housing. The rotor housing has several rotating lubrication channels. These distribute the lubricating oil to the relevant lubrication points. Due to the centrifugal forces, the lubricant, usually oil, is pressed outwards, so that the movable components are preferably lubricated from the inside of the rotor housing to the outside. In this way, the rotational speed of the reciprocating piston machine can be exploited in a further way.
  • The oil return takes place via the rotor housing, which has several rotating centrifugal channels. The centrifugal force pushes the lubricating oil out through the centrifugal channels. The oil hurls against the opposite oil ring opening, drips off and reaches the closed part of the oil ring. There it is returned to the lubrication circuit. This process is repeated continuously to ensure reliable lubrication regardless of position. The oil ring can preferably be rotated through 360 °, is mounted on rollers and is arranged on the front casing housing. The oil ring is sealed off from the suction channel by two sealing rings which are firmly connected to the casing housing. The side opposite the suction channel is sealed by an axially movable sealing ring with a compression spring, which keeps the oil ring in constant contact. The jacket housing has openings on the circumference through which the centrifugal oil enters the oil ring opening. The Öhing is divided into two, with a first oil ring housing being connected to a second oil ring end housing. The oil ring can also consist of one part, for example as a cast part. A float needle valve is arranged in the oil ring, the excess oil being fed back into the lubrication circuit through the float needle valve and the oil return holes in the casing. The volume of the closed part of the oil ring should be less than, but at most the same as the volume of half the oil ring opening. This avoids unnecessary excess oil and minimizes losses of all kinds. Sight glasses with markings are attached to the oil ring and the oil ring cover for checking the oil level. The oil level itself is regulated by an oil fill and drain plug located in the oil ring.
  • The reciprocating piston engine according to the invention enables the conversion of energy contained in a combustible medium into mechanical energy. The medium releases combustion energy in the combustion chamber, in which a movable piston is arranged, via which the pressure energy resulting from the combustion is converted into mechanical energy. The pressure energy generates a torque around a fixed axis; which for rotation leads a combustion chamber with the combustion chamber and the piston around the fixed axis, mechanical energy being dissipated via this rotation. This principle of operation has the advantage that it can utilize a circular movement or acceleration with a long lever arm, which creates high torques around the fixed axis.
  • The following drawing shows an embodiment of a reciprocating piston machine according to the invention. It explains in detail how the energy contained in a combustible medium is converted into mechanical energy by means of the reciprocating piston machine according to the invention. Show it:
  • Fig. 1:
    a reciprocating piston machine in cross section in a front view (section AB of FIG. 2);
    Fig. Z:
    the reciprocating piston engine of Figure 1 in a side view.
    Fig. 3:
    a piston guided on a contour with sealing part and guide part;
    Fig. 4:
    a side view of the contour and a guide of the piston along the contour;
    Fig. 5:
    a gas exchange sealing system of the reciprocating machine from Fig. 2;
    Fig. 6:
    a rotor seal of the gas exchange sealing system from FIG. 5;
    Fig. 7:
    a sealing body of the gas exchange sealing system from Fig. 5;
    Fig. 8:
    a sealing strip of the gas exchange sealing system from Fig. 5;
    Fig. 9:
    a strip spring of the gas exchange sealing system from FIG. 5;
    Fig. 10:
    an oil ring of the lubrication system of Fig. 2;
    Fig. 11:
    a schematic view of a multiple arrangement of reciprocating engines;
  • 1 shows a reciprocating piston machine 1. This has a first piston 2, a second piston 3, a third piston 4 and a fourth piston 5. The pistons 2, 3, 4, 5 are each offset by 90 ° in a rotor housing 6 Reciprocating piston machine 1 is arranged in an inner area of the rotor housing 6 Room 7. A curve or contour 8 is arranged in room 7. The pistons 2, 3, 4, 5 each perform a stroke movement, indicated by a double arrow. The piston 2, 3, 4, 5 runs along a straight first guide 9. The first guide 9 is inserted as a cylinder unit in the rotor housing 6. The piston 2, 3, 4, 5 has a piston head with a conical attachment 10 which is arranged in a centrally symmetrical (central) manner. The attachment 10 helps shape the combustion chamber geometry. The conical shape of the attachment 10 shown uses the inlet swirl of the inflowing fuel-air mixture in the intake process in order to achieve better swirling and thus mixing in the combustion chamber. This improves the subsequent combustion. The cone-shaped attachment 10 can also be replaced by another attachment to design the combustion chamber, the geometry of which depends, for example, on the type of supply of the medium to be burned, ie the fuel. For example, various injection methods can be used, as are typical for a gasoline or diesel engine. This includes jet injection processes without air swirl with a 6- to 8-hole nozzle, as is known for slow-running large diesel engines. A 3- to 5-hole nozzle can also be used, the combustion air flowing to the respective piston 2, 3, 4, 5 in the form of a swirl flow causing a mixture formation in the form of a swirl flow in the case of direct injection. There is also the possibility of injecting fuel injection onto the combustion chamber wall into a trough-shaped combustion chamber via an eccentrically arranged single-hole nozzle. In addition to direct injection processes, secondary chamber combustion processes such as swirl chamber processes or pre-chamber processes can also be used. With a corresponding design of the reciprocating piston engine 1, a charge stratification is also successful, in which an ignitable mixture is generated on the spark plug by internal mixture formation, while an emaciated mixture is present in the remaining area of the combustion chamber.
  • The reciprocating piston machine 1 can also be used as a multi-fuel engine. Due to a high compression of the reciprocating piston engine 1, for example at ε = 14 to ε = 25 and higher, it is possible to process fuel of different quality without damaging the engine. In this case, for example, an internal mixture formation is used, with an additional fuel jet of 5-10% of the full fuel load injected directly into the combustion chamber ensuring ignition to support the ignition. In the latter case, an external mixture formation can also be used. The reciprocating piston machine 1 can thus be used for a wide variety of fuels. In addition to conventional gasoline or diesel fuel, this also includes alcohol or gas, especially hydrogen. The components required for the respective combustion processes are arranged in a casing, not shown, in which the rotor housing 6 is located.
  • In addition to different combustion processes, the operation of the reciprocating piston engine 1 can also be supported by different types of charging processes. For this purpose, vibrating intake manifold charging, resonance charging or switching suction systems are suitable, the intake pipe length of which can be changed depending on the speed by opening or closing flaps. In addition to the use of these supercharging systems, which take advantage of the dynamics of the sucked-in air (vibration of the air column), mechanical supercharging systems such as piston-type, multi-cell or roots-type superchargers can also be used. Exhaust gas turbocharging can also be used, the exhaust gas turbine to be used being able to be switched on or off depending on the speed of the reciprocating piston engine 1. In addition to exhaust gas turbocharging, pressure wave charging with a pressure wave charger is also possible. A corresponding supercharging is still supported by using charge air cooling for the reciprocating piston engine 1. In this way it is possible to achieve an even higher compression. A corresponding supercharger is, for example, connected directly or indirectly to the rotor housing 6 in order to be able to use its rotational energy.
  • The piston 2, 3, 4, 5 shown in FIG. 1 also has a first piston ring 11 and a second piston ring 12. Both piston rings 11, 12 seal one Combustion chamber 13 against room 7. According to the embodiment shown, the second piston ring 12 also takes on the function of an oil control ring. The oil used to lubricate the piston 2, 3, 4, 5 is brought out from the inner region of the space 7 to the first guide 9. Furthermore, the piston can have strain-regulating strip inserts, so that different materials and thus different expansion coefficients are taken into account. For example, the rotor housing 6 or the first guide 9 is made of aluminum.
  • It can also be seen from FIG. 1 that the piston 2, 3, 4, 5 forms a sealing part 14 together with a connecting rod 15. The connecting rod 15 is connected directly to the piston 2, 3, 4, 5, both of which are rigidly coupled to one another. The design of the contour 8 allows the pistons 2, 3, 4, 5 to be guided linearly. This makes it possible, for example, to dispense with a piston pin and its mounting in the connecting rod. For this purpose, the contour 8 has a curved section in order to ensure a linear guidance of the piston in the reciprocating piston engine 1 in conjunction with the coupling. Furthermore, an opening 16 for a connecting rod bearing 17 is arranged on the connecting rod 15, the connecting rod bearing 17 receiving a connecting shaft 18. The connecting shaft 18 connects the contour 8 to the connecting rod 15. The connecting shaft 18 is arranged eccentrically to the center of the piston 2, 3, 4, 5. As a result, the connecting rod 15 forms a lever arm. The connecting rod 15 preferably has a web shape in cross section. This allows good absorption and transmission of pressure forces.
  • Furthermore, it is shown in FIG. 1 that a guide part 19 is rigidly connected to the connecting rod 15. The guide part 19 is arranged in a second guide 20. The second guide 20 is, for example, a liner arranged in the rotor housing 6. A bearing 21 is arranged around the guide part 19. The bearing 21 allows a largely frictionless movement of the guide part 19 in the second guide 20. The bearing 21 is preferably a roller bearing. Since the guide part 19 forms a lever system with the sealing part 14, the bearing 21 is in particular also capable of transmitting pressure forces occurring to the rotor housing 6 in accordance with the lever system. As shown in Fig. 1, the bearing 21 is movable relative to the second guide 20 and the guide member 19 relative to each other. So that the bearing 21 cannot emerge radially outward from the rotor housing 6, a securing ring 22 is arranged in the rotor housing 6 as a travel limitation. As a result, it is possible for the guide part 19 to extend beyond the second guide 20 during a revolution through 360 ° around the contour 8, but without a surface of the second guide 20 which transmits the force not being fully utilized. The bearing 21 is advantageously at least as long as the second guide 20.
  • Fig. 1 shows the four pistons 2, 3, 4, 5 in different working positions. The direction of rotation is indicated by arrows. The first piston 2 is just starting to aspirate, the second piston 3 is approximately in the final phase of the priming, the third piston 4 is at the end of the ignition phase, and the fourth piston 5 is in the working phase. Depending on the respective position of the pistons 2, 3, 4, 5, the guide part 19 is in a different position within the second guide 20. However, the bearing 21 is dimensioned such that it also extends radially inward beyond the second guide 20 can. In order that the bearing 21 does not hit the contour 8, for example when the reciprocating piston machine 1 is at a standstill, a corresponding travel limitation can be provided. This is present, for example, on the guide part 19 itself, for example by means of a material projection. On the other hand, the second guide 20 itself can have such a path limitation. The bearing 21 is preferably also lubricated. The lubricant is supplied via the oil spray nozzle 58, which supplies all components with sufficient lubricating oil.
  • 1 that the contour has a first section A, a second section B and a third section C. These are each curved. The curvature is designed such that the guide part 19 as well as the piston 2, 3, 4, 5 along the first guide 9 and the second guide 20 can be linear. The third section C is in particular at least partially designed such that the pistons 2, 3, 4, 5 remain essentially constant in their position within the first guide 9 during the working phase taking place there. As a result, the combustion chamber 13 does not change during the working phase. This leads to a particularly high pressure generation in the combustion chamber 13. This causes a particularly large torque transmission to the rotor housing 6 via the lever system comprising the sealing part 14 and the guide part 19. In a fourth section D, the contour 8 has a shape such that the piston 2, 3 , 4, 5 is directed such that the burned gas can flow out of the combustion chamber 13. For this purpose, the contour 8 in section D has an essentially linear region. Furthermore, the contour 8 is designed in such a way that piston tilting is prevented at the top and bottom dead center. This also results in a noise reduction. In addition, the side pressure of the piston 2, 3, 4, 5 on the cylinder wall 9 is minimized.
  • 1 also shows a sliding element 24 of the gas exchange sealing system 23. The gas exchange sealing system 23 is arranged on an outer jacket 23a of the rotor housing 6. As a result, the gas exchange sealing system 23 rotates with the rotor housing 6. The gas exchange sealing system 23 has a roller-mounted sliding element 24 which is resiliently fixed eccentrically at a cylinder end 25 in a groove 26 and is sealingly opposite the combustion chamber 13 , The slide ring 27 is adapted to an oppositely arranged surface of a casing 30. The sealing lips 28, 29 cooperate in a sealing manner with the surface of the casing 30. If the respective sliding element 24 overflows via an ignition channel 31 in which a spark plug 32 is arranged, an ignition spark is preferably only triggered when the spark plug 32 is located within the round first sealing lip 28. The geometry of the ignition channel 31 in the casing 30 is preferably designed such that both sealing lips 28, 29 provide a seal. The sliding element 24 thus acts as a kind of security lock: should when the ignition channel overflows 31 a certain gas volume can escape through the first sealing lip 28, this is at least absorbed via the second sealing lip 29. The sliding element 24 is in turn designed within the groove 26 such that lateral escape of the compressed gas along the groove 26 is prevented. For this purpose, the groove 26 can have, for example, one or more sealing rings. As a result of the resilient mounting of the sliding element 24, the latter is able to ensure the seal when the inlet channel 33 and the outlet channel 34 and the ignition channel 31 overflow by appropriate counterpressure to the surface of the casing housing 30.
  • The sealing system 23 ensures that the combustion chamber is filled or emptied as completely as possible via a corresponding supply or discharge of the inflowing gas. For this purpose, for example, corresponding control channels 33, 34 are arranged in the casing 30, along which the combustion chamber is filled or emptied. The control channels 33, 34 are arranged along the surface opposite the outer jacket 23a of the rotor housing 6. This also applies to the gas exchange sealing system 23. Because of the revolving gas exchange sealing system 23, the control channels 33, 34 can be relatively long. The inlet channel 33 is preferably substantially longer than the outlet channel 34. The depth of the control channels 33, 34 and the width of the control channels 33, 34 and the distance between the control channels 33, 34 depend on the size of the reciprocating piston machine.
  • FIG. 2 shows the reciprocating piston machine 1 according to FIG. 1 in a side sectional view. It can be seen from this that the gas exchange sealing system 23 has a sealing body 35. Sealing strips 36 are arranged on the sealing bodies 35. The sealing strips 36 are placed radially under pressure via strip springs 37. The sealing bodies 35 are in turn also able to apply pressure to the sealing strips 36. The pressure is applied in the circumferential direction. For this purpose, each sealing body 35 carries a leg spring 38. The leg spring 38 thus ensures a seal between the slide ring 27 or the slide element 24 and the The sliding element 24 abuts the sealing strip 36. The sliding element 24 is attached off-center, the degree of eccentricity being indicated by the angle α. Sealing body 35, sealing strips 36 and strip spring 37 are fixed on both sides of the outer casing 23a of the rotor housing 6 in circumferential grooves. As a result, the charge exchange channels and the combustion chamber 13 are completely sealed. This seal is also ensured when the rotor 6 overflows the ignition channel 31 or the spark plug 32. The gas exchange sealing system 23 is thus able, on the one hand, to effect the combustion chamber seal as well as the seal when the charge is changed. On the other hand, the gas exchange sealing system 23 enables gases to enter and exit via radial openings. This eliminates the need for conventional reciprocating engines. Complete control unit for the gas exchange, which leads to a considerable reduction in components and to a better charge exchange. The reciprocating piston machine 1 shown in FIG. 1 operates in a four-stroke mode (suction, compression, work, ejection). With one revolution of the rotor housing 6, a working cycle takes place on two pistons, for example on pistons 2 and 3.
  • The reciprocating piston machine 1 has a jacket housing 30 which is divided into two. A first casing part housing 39 is connected to a second casing part housing 40. The rotating rotor housing 6 is arranged in the casing 30. The rotor housing 6 is preferably also divided into two. A first rotor part housing 41 is connected to a second rotor part housing 42. The surface of the casing housing 30 opposite the outer casing 23a of the rotor housing 6 is curved, to be precise concave. With regard to the sealing, this spherical design of the surfaces has the advantage that a gas-tight sealing is facilitated by means of the gas exchange sealing system 23, the manufacturing tolerances of the gas exchange sealing system 23 being selected in such a way that the sealing of the functional spaces is adequately guaranteed, despite the Freedom of movement of the moving parts. A connector 43 is also arranged on the casing 30. This is the connection for the out-Iasskanal 34. The inlet channel 33, which continues in the casing 30 and is only shown in FIG. 1, is arranged opposite the piston in such a way that gas is supplied off-center. In this way, a swirl effect is generated with the inflowing gas. The degree of eccentricity is again indicated by the angle α.
  • From Fig. 2, the guidance of the connecting rod or the piston along the contour 8 can also be seen. The contour 8 is formed by a lifting disk 44 and by two grooves 47 which are congruent with one another and are arranged in opposing cam disks 45, 46. A connecting shaft 18 is arranged in the grooves 47, the ends 48, 49 of which each have a roller bearing 50. Rollers 51 are in turn assigned to rollers 51. The rollers 51 and the connecting shaft 18 run along the contour 8. A needle bearing 17 is arranged on the connecting shaft 18 as a connecting rod bearing. This is characterized in particular by the fact that it can absorb and transmit high bearing forces. This is advantageous in the case of the forces and moments that occur due to the lever system comprising the sealing part and the guide part 19. The outer flank of the groove 47 absorbs the centrifugal forces of the pistons 2, 3, 4, 5, the cam flank of the lifting disk 44 absorbing the gas forces. The roller 51 has play in relation to the inner flank of the groove 47. Because when rolling on the outer flank of the curve it makes a rotation about its own axis, which has the wrong direction compared to the other flank of the curve. This play is avoided by the lifting disk 44, since the two flanks of the groove curve 47 are offset from one another and each flank on the connecting shaft 18 has its own roller 51. The rollers 51 then run in opposite directions and can be kept permanently in contact. The cam disks 45, 46 are arranged opposite the lifting disk 44, the contours being screwed together in a congruent and immovable manner. The cams 45, 46 and the lifting disc 44 are in turn rigidly connected to the casing 30 via the housing cover 52. The cam discs 45, 46 and the lifting disc 44 are used also as a support for a rotor housing bearing, which is designed here as a roller bearing 53.
  • 2, a lubrication system 54 is shown. The lubrication system 54 is arranged in the rotor housing 6 and on the casing housing 30 and has an oil pump 55. This is coupled to the rotor housing 6 by the driving disk 56 in such a way that it is driven. The lubrication system 54 is designed as independent of the installation position of the reciprocating piston machine, i.e. position-independent pressure circulation lubrication designed. The oil is sucked in by the gerotor pump 55 from the oil ring 57, and a pressure relief valve within the pump housing limits the oil pressure and returns the excess oil to the suction channel of the pump. The oil is conveyed from the pressure channel via the oil filter to the oil spray nozzles 58. From there, the lubricating oil reaches the rotor housing 6. For better clarity, the pressure relief valve, oil filter and the oil channels are also not shown in the individual associated drawings. The rotor housing 6 has a plurality of rotating lubrication channels 59; these distribute the lubricating oil to the relevant lubrication points. Due to the centrifugal forces, the lubricant, usually oil, is pressed outwards, so that the movable components are preferably lubricated from the inside of the rotor housing 6 to the outside. In this way, the rotational speed of the reciprocating piston machine can be exploited in a further way. The oil return takes place via the rotor housing 6, which has several rotating centrifugal channels 60. The centrifugal force pushes the lubricating oil through the centrifugal channels 60 to the outside. The oil hurls against the opposite oil ring opening 61, drips off and reaches the closed part of the oil ring 57. There it is returned to the lubrication circuit. This process is repeated continuously to ensure reliable lubrication regardless of position.
  • The oil ring 57 is preferably rotatable through 360 °, mounted on rollers 62 and arranged in the first casing part housing 39. The sealing of the oil ring 57 to the suction channel 63 is carried out by two sealing rings 64 which are fixed to the first casing part housing 39 The sealing of the side opposite the suction channel 63 is carried out by an axially movable sealing ring 66 provided with a compression spring 65, which is fixed in a groove 67 and which keeps the oil ring 57 in constant contact. The first casing part housing 39 has openings 68 on the circumference, through which the centrifugal oil enters the oil ring opening 61. The oil ring 57 is divided into two, a first oil ring housing 69 being connected to a second oil ring end housing 70. The oil ring 57 can also consist of one part, for example as a cast part. A float needle valve 71 is arranged in the oil ring 57. The excess oil or leaks are returned to the lubrication circuit through the float needle valve 71 and the oil return bores 72 in the first casing part housing 39.
  • In order to have a sufficient oil pressure already at the start of the reciprocating piston machine 1, it is further possible that, for example, an oil pressure storage container is also arranged. This is always kept under pressure during the operation of the reciprocating piston engine 1. This pressure does not decrease even after the reciprocating piston engine 1 has been switched off. Rather, it only releases this pressure when the reciprocating piston engine 1 is to be started. It is also possible to provide an oil pump that is separate from the rotor housing 6. This can be supplied, for example, via an external energy source, such as a battery. A further development provides that an oil pump is supplied by an external energy source as well as by the reciprocating piston engine 1 itself. It is possible to switch from one energy source to the other energy source at a predeterminable time.
  • 2 shows an output 73 of the reciprocating piston machine 1. The output 73 can act directly on a device absorbing mechanical energy. It is also possible to provide a clutch. A further development provides for a transmission to be provided. The transmission is preferably a planetary transmission 74. A further advantage is obtained if a continuously variable transmission is used.
  • The reciprocating piston machine 1 is then able to be operated at a constant speed. The required speed of the energy-absorbing device is then set by means of the continuously variable transmission. It is also possible in this way to change the torque that has been removed. In addition to a continuously variable transmission, the use of a transmission with gear stages is also possible.
  • FIG. 3 shows a section of the reciprocating piston engine 1 as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2. The lever system comprising the sealing part 14, the guide part 19 and the contour 8 is shown. The rollers 51 of the lever system are located along the contour 8 in a position in which a high torque is transmitted to the rotor housing 6. This transfer is exemplified by a triangle of forces with appropriate dimensions. For example, while a maximum gas force F 1 of 2600 N acts on the center of the piston 2, 3, 4, 5, the distance I 2 is, for example, 38 mm. between the piston center axis and the roller center axis with a force action due to the geometry of the piston 2, 3, 4, 5 to a calculated force action direction, which results in an angle β of approximately 34 °. Transferred to the effective force on the rotor housing 6, with a corresponding design of the guide part 19, a force F 2 of approx. 3850 N results. An average effective length L 1 of approx. 25 mm (effective middle lever arm) is assumed. This example shows how the force acting on the pistons 2, 3, 4, 5 can be used to increase the torque by means of the lever system. The increase in force from F 1 = 2600 N to F 2 = 3850 N is only an example. Depending on the change in the lever travel and the force-transmitting surfaces, be it on the piston 2, 3, 4, 5 or on the guide part 19, the most suitable torque can be set for the respective application, for example taking into account the loads occurring in the material used for the individual components , In addition to the linear guidance of the pistons 2, 3, 4, 5 and the guide part 19 shown in FIG. 3, there is also the possibility, with a corresponding adaptation of the contour 8, of curved guidance of either the guide part 19 or the piston 2, 3, 4 , 5 itself or both in combination with each other. For this purpose, the contour 8 becomes accordingly adapted that in a revolution of 360 ° pistons 2, 3, 4, 5 as well as guide part 19 can each run along their guide. There is also the possibility of being able to adjust the force introduction effect into the lever system accordingly via the geometry of the piston surface. It is thus possible to provide a resultant application of force instead of being offset in the center of the piston axis. For example, a resultant introduction of force into the lever system is possible off-center from the piston center axis, in particular in the region of an outer piston region, preferably to achieve a large lever arm. This is possible, for example, via a corresponding surface design of the piston 2, 3, 4, 5. It is also expedient if the guide part 19 can extend radially far outward for the transmission of force. This improves the torque effect. In particular, it succeeds in designing the integral of the surface force on the guide part 19 via the radial extension of the guide part 19 in such a way that it either corresponds to a uniformly increasing function or an exponential function.
  • FIG. 4 shows the section from FIG. 3 in a top view. The rollers 51, which bear against the contour 8, are pressed against the latter via a centrifugal force F 3 of, for example, 800 N. The centrifugal force is dependent on the rotational speed. The first cam 45 and the second cam 46 are designed so that they can absorb this centrifugal force. In the work cycle, the rollers 51, which bear against the contour 8 of the lifting disc 44, are pressed against the latter by a gas force F 1 of, for example, 2600 N. The lifting disc 44 is designed so that it can absorb this gas force accordingly. By means of corresponding components of the lever system, this can be adapted to a corresponding reciprocating piston machine 1 with different dimensions. The guide part 19 is preferably made of one part, and this can also be screwed onto the lever system as a sleeve element. In particular, this allows a modular system to be set up. The modular system contains, for example, pistons, connecting rods, bearings, rollers, lifting discs, cams, etc.
  • FIG. 5 shows the gas exchange sealing system 23 from FIG. 2. As shown in FIG. 5, the gas exchange sealing system 23 has four sliding elements 24, eight sealing bodies 35 and sixteen sealing strips 36 and sixteen strip springs 37. Sealing strips 36 are sealingly adapted to the sealing bodies 35 and to the sliding elements 24. The strip springs 37 exert a radial pressure on the sealing bodies 35 and sealing strips 36.
  • FIG. 6 shows a sliding element 24 from FIG. 5 in an exploded view. The sliding element 24 has a roller-mounted sliding ring 27, on which a first sealing lip 28 and a second sealing lip 29 are arranged. The slide ring 27 is fixed together with a ball cage 75, a race 76 and a plate spring 77 as a radial pressure device for the slide element 24 in a groove 26 located on the cylinder. The inner sealing ring 78 seals the sliding element 24 from the combustion chamber 13. The fixation of the sliding element 24 and the sealing of the sliding element 24 to the combustion chamber 13 are shown in FIG. 1.
  • FIG. 7 shows a sealing body 35 from FIG. 5 in more detail. The sealing body 35 contains a leg spring 38 which is fixed by a cylinder pin 79. A pressure is exerted on the sealing strips 36 to be arranged in the sealing body 35 via the leg spring 38. The leg spring 38 presses the sealing strips 36 outwards, so that, when installed in the groove, a force effect in the circumferential direction presses the sealing strips 36 onto the sliding elements 24. As a result, the sealing strips 36 are also held in their position. In this way, the seal for the gas exchange is realized. On the other hand, this allows components that are located inside the rotor housing 6 to be sealed. The sealing body 35 can consist, for example, of silicon nitrite.
  • 8 shows a sealing strip 36. This has a first end 80 and a second end 81. The first end 80 is correspondingly adapted to the sliding element 24 for sealing. The second end 81 in turn is designed to withstand the pressure of the leg spring 38 receives and transmits in particular uniformly into the sealing strip 36 to the first end 80. The sealing strip 36 itself can in turn consist of silicon nitrite.
  • 9 shows one possibility of exerting a radial pressure on a sealing strip 36. This radial pressure device is in the form of a strip spring 37. The corrugation allows the strip spring 37 to have a plurality of force introduction points on the sealing strip 36 distributed over the circumference. This leads to a uniform application of pressure in the radial direction and thus a particularly effective seal.
  • 10 shows an oil ring 57 of the lubrication system 54. The oil ring 57 is divided into two parts. A first oil ring housing 69 is connected to a second oil ring end housing 70. The oil ring 57 has a first section E and a second section F. These are each radially assigned to the axis of rotation of the oil ring 57. The section E represents the closed part, the section F the open part of the oil ring 57. The volume of the closed part in section E of the oil ring should be less than the maximum but the same as the volume of half the oil ring opening of section F. This avoids unnecessary excess oil and minimizes oil and hydraulic losses. The oil return takes place via the float needle valve 71, which is arranged in the oil ring 57 and in the oil return bores 72 in the first casing part housing 39. The oil ring 57 is preferably mounted on rollers 62 so that it can rotate more easily about its own axis through 360 °. For the oil level control, sight glasses 82 are attached to the oil ring 57 and to the oil ring cover, which have markings in order to be able to measure the oil level. The oil level itself is regulated by the oil filler screw 83 arranged in the oil ring 57 and the oil drain screw 84.
  • 11 shows a multiple arrangement of reciprocating piston machines 1a, 1b, 1c. These are linked together. Furthermore, this multiple arrangement has a charging device 85. This may include charge air cooling 86, for example, which is expediently provided in the case of exhaust gas turbocharging. The reciprocating piston machines are supplied with lubricant via a lubrication device 87. The lubricating device is preferably coupled to the reciprocating piston machines 1a, 1b, 1c in such a way that the latter is driven by the latter. Then position-independent pressure circulation lubrication is preferably used as the lubrication device 87. It is also possible to provide an external lubrication device 87. This is fed, for example, via an external energy source 88, for example a battery. Furthermore, electronics 89 are provided in connection with the reciprocating piston machine 1a, 1b, 1c. The electronics 89 control or regulate them. For example, one or more of these reciprocating piston machines 1a, 1b, 1c can be switched on or off. Electronics 89 also controls ignition. For example, the ignition can also be switched on or off. Furthermore, the electronics 89 regulate or control the amount of fuel which is fed to the reciprocating piston machines 1a, 1b, 1c via a fuel reservoir 90 via a corresponding mixture preparation 91 or the like. An exhaust gas aftertreatment device 92 can also be connected to the reciprocating piston machines 1a, 1b, 1c. This is, for example, a catalytic converter, an exhaust gas recirculation, etc. This is preferably also controlled or regulated by means of the electronics 89, specifically via the fuel supply.
    A consumer 93 can be connected to the reciprocating piston machines 1a, 1b, 1c and converts the energy originating from the machines. An intermediate member 94 is preferably also arranged between the consumer 93 and the reciprocating piston machines 1a, 1b, 1c. The intermediate member 94 is, for example, a clutch, a transmission or something else.
  • The reciprocating piston machine 1a, 1b, 1c can also be used in a network with one or more other energy supply devices 95. This can be a fuel cell, a battery or the like. The energy supply device 95 also supplies the consumer 93 with energy. Via the electronics 89, the energy supply device 95 can be switched on and off as well as one or more of the reciprocating piston machines 1a, 1b, 1c. The reciprocating piston machines 1a, 1b, 1c can serve as a basic supplier, for example. The energy supply device 95 is only switched on when required. The reverse is also possible. Both can also complement each other.
  • The reciprocating piston machine, as described above, is preferably operated either alone or together with other units. For example, the reciprocating piston machine can be used as an energy generator in a stationary application. For example, this is possible with combined heat and power plants. Other areas of application in the stationary area are small energy suppliers or portable units such as emergency power units. Furthermore, due to its design, the reciprocating piston machine offers the possibility of being used for commercial vehicles, passenger vehicles or even small devices such as lawn mowers, saws and others. The reciprocating piston machine can also be used with other means of transport, such as motorcycles or mopeds.
  • With this new reciprocating piston machine, fuel consumption can be reduced. It also makes it possible to meet the globally known emissions regulations now and in the future. The reciprocating machine provides a very high torque at very low speeds. Therefore, good driving performance is possible. In particular, the reciprocating piston machine can be used for vehicles that are operated with hydrogen. The design of the reciprocating piston engine results in a reduction in the noise emissions that arise. This enables the reciprocating piston machine to be used even in noise-sensitive areas. By constructing a reciprocating piston machine based on a modular system with many identical components, one is successful Reduction of manufacturing costs. The working principle eliminates the need for complex components such as a valve train in conventional reciprocating piston engines. Nevertheless, the reliability is preserved. Because of the fundamentally different construction compared to conventional piston machines, the wearing parts are of a smaller number. On the one hand, this simplifies maintenance. On the other hand, this makes it easy to replace the components at a lower cost. The reciprocating piston machine is designed in such a way that both sealing with appropriate lubrication is ensured in spite of an inevitable thermal expansion and possibly corresponding deformation even when components are under load, as well as functionality even with increasing wear.
  • The principle of operation allows many possibilities to operate the reciprocating machine. For example, it is advantageous to carry out a combustion of the fuel with the same cylinder volume in the work cycle. The reciprocating piston machine is also designed so that no mass forces counteract the gas forces in the work cycle. The advantageous four-stroke mode with separate gas exchange requires less loss of work compared to conventional piston engines. The design of the piston with sealing and guiding part as a lever system enables high power transmission or high torque. The combustion chamber can be kept compact, which in turn only requires a small combustion chamber surface. This allows the reciprocating piston machine to be liquid- but also air-cooled. Due to the fact that the point of application of the piston guide lies far out of the rotor's pivot point, a large torque is generated in the work cycle via the gas force in connection with the lever arm. Furthermore, only one spark plug and one carburetor or injection nozzle are advantageously necessary on the reciprocating piston machine. This reduces the number of components to be serviced, including those that are susceptible to wear. A combustion chamber can be sealed by means of a sliding ring, which can in particular be rotating. The rotation gives the fuel-air mixture a swirl that is advantageous for combustion. The sealing between the jacket housing and the rotor housing takes place in a secure manner by means of the fixed sealing elements. For example, a planetary gear, an increase in the speed of the reciprocating piston machine is also possible for the consumer. Another advantage and therefore a special flexibility for the applicability of the reciprocating piston machine is a position-independent oil supply. The reciprocating machine can be used in all conceivable situations. Nevertheless, the oil supply remains secure. Overall, the separation of inlet and outlet channels also enables sufficient cooling of all stationary and moving components. This is further supported by the separation of combustion chambers from other moving parts of the engine. The reciprocating piston machine thus guarantees high performance and safe function with little susceptibility to faults.
  • List of the reference numerals used
  • 1
    reciprocating engine
    1a
    reciprocating engine
    1b
    reciprocating engine
    1c
    reciprocating engine
    2
    piston
    3
    piston
    4
    piston
    5
    piston
    6
    rotor housing
    7
    room
    8th
    contour
    9
    guide
    10
    essay
    11
    piston ring
    12
    piston ring
    13
    combustion chamber
    14
    sealing part
    15
    pleuel
    16
    Opening / connecting rod
    17
    connecting rod bearing
    18
    connecting shaft
    19
    guide part
    20
    Second tour
    21
    camp
    22
    circlip
    23
    Gas exchange sealing system
    23a
    outer sheath
    24
    Slide
    25
    cylinder end
    26
    Nut / cylinder
    27
    sliding ring
    28
    First sealing lip
    29
    Second sealing lip
    30
    cover housing
    31
    ignition channel
    32
    spark plug
    33
    intake port
    34
    outlet channel
    35
    sealing body
    36
    sealing strips
    37
    strip spring
    38
    Leg spring
    39
    First casing part housing
    40
    Second casing part housing
    41
    First rotor part housing
    42
    Second rotor part housing
    43
    Connection
    44
    lifting
    45
    cam
    46
    cam
    47
    Grooves / contour
    48
    Ends / connecting shaft
    49
    Ends / connecting shaft
    50
    roller bearing
    51
    Roll / connecting shaft
    52
    housing cover
    53
    roller bearing
    54
    lubrication system
    55
    oil pump
    56
    driver disc
    57
    oil ring
    58
    Oil spray nozzles
    59
    lubrication channels
    60
    spin channels
    61
    Oil ring opening
    62
    Roll / oil ring
    63
    suction
    64
    Two sealing rings
    65
    compression spring
    66
    seal
    67
    Groove / seal
    68
    Orifices / partial cover housing
    69
    First oil ring housing
    70
    Second oil ring end housing
    71
    Float needle valve
    72
    Oil return bores
    73
    output
    74
    planetary gear
    75
    ball cage
    76
    race
    77
    Belleville spring
    78
    Inner sealing ring
    79
    straight pin
    80
    First end / sealing strip
    81
    Second end / sealing strip
    82
    sight glasses
    83
    Oil filler plug
    84
    Oil drain plug
    85
    charging
    86
    Intercooling
    87
    lubricator
    88
    energy
    89
    electronics
    90
    Fuel reservoir
    91
    mixture preparation
    92
    Exhaust aftertreatment device
    93
    consumer
    94
    intermediary
    95
    Power supply means

Claims (15)

  1. Reciprocating piston engine
    - with a contour (8) that forms a closed curve guide,
    - with a rotor housing (6) that is rotatably arranged with respect to said contour (8) and that transfers the acting torque to the drive or output drive of said reciprocating piston engine,
    - with at least one unit (1a, 1b, 1c, 1d) that is arranged in said rotor housing (6) and that comprises a cylinder (9) and a piston (2, 3, 4, 5), whereby the line of action of said piston (2, 3, 4, 5) in said cylinder (9) lies in a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation of said rotor housing (6) and is eccentric to the axis of rotation of said rotor housing (6) andin a straight line,
    - with one connecting rod (15) that is rigidly coupled to said piston (2, 3, 4, 5) and by being guided along said contour (8) transfers the controlled movement specified thereby to said piston (2, 3, 4, 5),
    - characterized in that joined to said connecting rod (15) is a guide part (19) that is arranged movable along a separate guide in said rotor housing (6), whereby said piston (2, 3, 4, 5) with said connecting rod (15) and said guide part (19) can each perform one stroke along a straight line in said rotor housing (6).
  2. Reciprocating piston engine in accordance with claim 1, characterized in that a connecting rod bearing (17) for guiding on said contour (8) is embodied in the area of the connecting point of connecting rod (15) and guide part (19).
  3. Reciprocating piston engine in accordance with claim 1 or 2, characterized in that said separate guide for said guide part (19) is a linear guide, the longitudinal axis of which intersects theaxis of rotation of said rotor housing (6).
  4. Reciprocating piston engine in accordance with claim 2, characterized in that said linear guide (20) of said guide part (19) is a bush (20) and in that a rolling bearing (21) is arranged about said guide part (19), displaceable in the longitudinal direction of said bush (20).
  5. Reciprocating piston engine in accordance with claim 4, characterized in that said rolling bearing (21) is movable relative to said guide part (19) and said bush (20), whereby said rolling bearing (21) is prevented from exiting outward in the longitudinal direction of said guide part (19) by a path limit.
  6. Reciprocating piston engine in accordance with claim 4, characterized in that said path limit is a locking ring (22) affixed in said rotor housing (6).
  7. Reciprocating piston engine in accordance with claim 5 or 6, characterized in that said rolling bearing (21) is at least as long as said bush (20).
  8. Reciprocating piston engine in accordance with any of the preceding claims, characterized in that four units (1a, 1b, 1c, 1d) comprising cylinder (9) and pistons (2, 3, 4, 5) are provided, whereby the lines of action of said pistons are arranged offset to one another by 90° in the plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation of said rotor (6).
  9. Reciprocating piston engine in accordance with any of the preceding claims, characterized by a design of said contour (8) such that said unit (1a, 1b, 1c, 1d) comprising cylinder (9) and pistons (2, 3, 4, 5) completes at least one work cycle when said rotor housing (6) makes one complete rotation.
  10. Reciprocating piston engine in accordance with claim 9, characterized by a design of said contour (8) such that during the work cycle of said unit (1a, 1b, 1c, 1d) the combustion chamber (13) limited by said unit'spistons (2, 3, 4, 5) is at least largely isochoric.
  11. Reciprocating piston engine in accordance with any of claims 2 through 10, characterized in that said contour is formed by an eccentric disk (44) and by two congruent slots (47) arranged in mutually opposing cam disks (45, 46) and in that a spacer shaft (8) on which is situated said connecting rod bearing (17) is provided with end-side rollers (51) that are held in place in said slots (47).
  12. Reciprocating piston engine in accordance with any of the preceding claims, characterized in that said rotor housing (6) has on its exterior cover (23a) a gas exchange/sealing system (23) that is at least partially sealingly adjacent to a cover housing (30) of said reciprocating piston engine (1).
  13. Reciprocating piston engine in accordance with claim 12, characterized in that said gas exchange/sealing system (23) has a radially movable and rotatably borne slide element (24) that is under pressure.
  14. Reciprocating piston engine in accordance with claim 13, characterized in that said gas exchange/sealing system (23) has sealing strips (36) that are sealingly adapted to said slide element (24) and to the sealing body (35).
  15. Reciprocating piston engine in accordance with any of the preceding claims, characterized in that a position-insensitive lubricating system (54) is provided with an oil ring (57) that is home on rollers (62), rotatable about its own axis 360°.
EP02774600A 2001-09-14 2002-09-11 Reciprocating piston engine comprising a rotative cylinder Not-in-force EP1427925B1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE2001145478 DE10145478B4 (en) 2001-09-14 2001-09-14 Reciprocating engine with rotating cylinder
DE10145478 2001-09-14
PCT/EP2002/010196 WO2003025369A1 (en) 2001-09-14 2002-09-11 Reciprocating piston engine comprising a rotative cylinder

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP1427925A1 EP1427925A1 (en) 2004-06-16
EP1427925B1 true EP1427925B1 (en) 2004-12-29

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Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP02774600A Not-in-force EP1427925B1 (en) 2001-09-14 2002-09-11 Reciprocating piston engine comprising a rotative cylinder

Country Status (11)

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US (1) US6928965B2 (en)
EP (1) EP1427925B1 (en)
JP (1) JP3943078B2 (en)
KR (1) KR100922024B1 (en)
CN (1) CN1287074C (en)
AT (1) AT286203T (en)
AU (1) AU2002340887B2 (en)
CA (1) CA2460162C (en)
DE (1) DE10145478B4 (en)
RU (1) RU2293186C2 (en)
WO (1) WO2003025369A1 (en)

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Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
RU2293186C2 (en) 2007-02-10
JP2005503512A (en) 2005-02-03
CN1287074C (en) 2006-11-29
AU2002340887B2 (en) 2008-07-03
DE10145478B4 (en) 2007-01-18
CA2460162C (en) 2010-08-31
WO2003025369A1 (en) 2003-03-27
CN1553988A (en) 2004-12-08
JP3943078B2 (en) 2007-07-11
RU2004111293A (en) 2005-05-20
EP1427925A1 (en) 2004-06-16
CA2460162A1 (en) 2003-03-27
KR20040031074A (en) 2004-04-09
KR100922024B1 (en) 2009-10-19
DE10145478A1 (en) 2003-05-28
AT286203T (en) 2005-01-15
US20040216702A1 (en) 2004-11-04
US6928965B2 (en) 2005-08-16

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