EP1421271B1 - Fuel injection valve - Google Patents

Fuel injection valve Download PDF

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Publication number
EP1421271B1
EP1421271B1 EP20020740381 EP02740381A EP1421271B1 EP 1421271 B1 EP1421271 B1 EP 1421271B1 EP 20020740381 EP20020740381 EP 20020740381 EP 02740381 A EP02740381 A EP 02740381A EP 1421271 B1 EP1421271 B1 EP 1421271B1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
fuel injection
injection valve
valve
actuator
piston
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Not-in-force
Application number
EP20020740381
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
EP1421271A1 (en
Inventor
Andreas Eichendorf
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Robert Bosch GmbH
Original Assignee
Robert Bosch GmbH
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE10140799 priority Critical
Priority to DE2001140799 priority patent/DE10140799A1/en
Application filed by Robert Bosch GmbH filed Critical Robert Bosch GmbH
Priority to PCT/DE2002/001926 priority patent/WO2003018992A1/en
Publication of EP1421271A1 publication Critical patent/EP1421271A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP1421271B1 publication Critical patent/EP1421271B1/en
Not-in-force legal-status Critical Current
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02MSUPPLYING COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL WITH COMBUSTIBLE MIXTURES OR CONSTITUENTS THEREOF
    • F02M61/00Fuel-injectors not provided for in groups F02M39/00 - F02M57/00 or F02M67/00
    • F02M61/04Fuel-injectors not provided for in groups F02M39/00 - F02M57/00 or F02M67/00 having valves, e.g. having a plurality of valves in series
    • F02M61/08Fuel-injectors not provided for in groups F02M39/00 - F02M57/00 or F02M67/00 having valves, e.g. having a plurality of valves in series the valves opening in direction of fuel flow
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02MSUPPLYING COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL WITH COMBUSTIBLE MIXTURES OR CONSTITUENTS THEREOF
    • F02M51/00Fuel-injection apparatus characterised by being operated electrically
    • F02M51/06Injectors peculiar thereto with means directly operating the valve needle
    • F02M51/0603Injectors peculiar thereto with means directly operating the valve needle using piezo-electric or magnetostrictive operating means

Description

    State of the art
  • The invention relates to a fuel injection valve according to the preamble of the main claim.
  • From EP 0 477 400 A1 a hydraulic coupler for a piezoelectric actuator is known, in which the actuator transmits a lifting force to a master piston. The master piston is positively connected to a guide cylinder for a slave piston. The slave piston, the guide cylinder and the master cylinder finalizing the master cylinder form a hydraulic chamber. In the hydraulic chamber, a spring is arranged, which presses apart the master piston and the slave piston. Arranged around an end section of the guide cylinder and the slave piston is a rubber sleeve, through which a reservoir for a viscous hydraulic fluid is sealed against a fuel chamber. The viscosity of the hydraulic fluid is adapted to the annular gap between slave piston and guide cylinder.
  • The slave piston mechanically transfers a lifting movement to, for example, a valve needle. When the actuator transmits a stroke movement to the master piston and the guide cylinder, this stroke movement is transmitted to the slave piston by the pressure of the hydraulic fluid in the hydraulic chamber, since the hydraulic fluid in the hydraulic chamber is not can compress and only a small proportion of the hydraulic fluid can escape through the annular gap during the short period of a stroke in the reservoir formed by the rubber sleeve. In the resting phase, when the actuator exerts no pressure force on the master piston, the slave piston is pushed out of the guide cylinder by the spring and by the resulting negative pressure penetrates through the annular gap, the hydraulic fluid in the hydraulic chamber and fills it again. As a result, the coupler automatically adjusts to length expansions and pressure-related expansions of a fuel injection valve.
  • A disadvantage of the known prior art is that the seal is permanently incomplete by a rubber sleeve, which is usually pressed by two clamping rings against the end portion of the guide cylinder and the slave piston. The high viscosity hydraulic fluid and the fuel may mix and failure of the coupler may occur. If fuel, such as gasoline, enters the interior of the coupler, it may lead to malfunction, since due to the low viscosity of gasoline, this liquid can pass through the annular gap too quickly and can build up in the pressure chamber pressure during the time of the stroke.
  • The known prior art also offers no solution to how the piezoelectric actuator can be protected from contact with fuel, in particular gasoline.
  • From DE 43 06 073 C1, a fuel injection valve with a piezoelectric actuator is known, which is connected to a large-scale pressure piston. This pressure piston is biased against the piezoelectric actuator with a plate spring, which is supported against a fuel injection valve body. The pressure piston is guided in a bore of the valve body and has a central bore in which a slave piston is guided, which is connected to a valve needle. In the bore of the plunger, between the bottom of the bore and the slave piston, there is a spring, which biases the slave piston toward a valve seat and pushes out of the bore. The fuel injection valve has a valve needle which opens inwards. Between the fuel injection valve body and the pressure piston and the opposite side of the slave piston is a pressure chamber. The pressure chamber communicates with the actuator chamber via the annular gap between slave piston and pressure piston, the bore in the pressure piston and a connecting bore. The actuator chamber serves as a reservoir for a hydraulic fluid. When the piezoelectric actuator is actuated by applying a voltage, the pressure piston is moved in the direction of the valve seat and pressed by increasing the pressure of the hydraulic fluid in the pressure chamber of the slave piston in the bore in the pressure piston counter to the direction of movement and thus raised a valve needle from the valve seat ,
  • A disadvantage of this known prior art is that no solution for an outwardly opening fuel injection valve is made possible. Furthermore, it is disadvantageous that no devices for fast refilling of the pressure chamber are provided after returning to the rest position. Finally, the structure is multi-part and complicated, since a pressure piston, which is guided in the fuel injection valve in an exact bore, again must have a bore to be produced exactly for the slave piston.
  • Advantages of the invention
  • The fuel injection valve according to the invention with the characterizing features of the main claim has the opposite advantage that can be achieved by the movable diaphragm secure sealing of the actuator chamber relative to the fuel chamber. Furthermore, it is advantageous that a fast refilling of the pressure chamber after return of the piezoelectric actuator in its initial position and after return of the slave piston in its initial position and thus resulting volume increase of the pressure chamber is carried out by the check valve. The resulting negative pressure becomes the check valve opened and the hydraulic fluid flows quickly and quickly into the pressure chamber. Advantageously, the movable diaphragm can be permanently sealed, for example when it is a thin metal diaphragm which can be secured by welds both to the slave piston and to a fuel injector body. The sealing lines themselves are therefore no movable sealing lines and permanently sealed for life. The required mobility occurs solely from the elasticity of the membrane. It is particularly advantageous that the membrane does not interfere with the mobility of the slave piston, as in the actuator chamber and in the fuel chamber, the same pressure prevails and the membrane moves by their deformability in such a position that they themselves do not have to absorb forces from occurring pressure differences , The piezoelectric actuator is thus safely protected from contact with the fuel and can be cooled by the high-viscosity hydraulic fluid at the same time, as well as being protected against wear by contact friction with the housing of the fuel injection valve.
  • The measures specified in the dependent claims advantageous refinements and improvements of the main claim fuel injector are possible.
  • Advantageously, the slave piston as well as the master piston can be formed as a deep-drawn part of sheet metal.
  • By using its own hydraulic fluid which is highly viscous, its viscosity can be adapted to the expected annular gaps between a guide cylinder and the master piston and the slave piston and thus the use of inexpensive deep-drawn parts made of sheet metal is possible, which do not allow very small tolerances ,
  • In a favorable embodiment, at least one partial section of the annular gap is between master piston or slave piston and a guide cylinder in the installed position of the fuel injection valve in the rising direction of any gas bubbles, arranged at the highest point of the pressure chamber.
  • Since it is not possible due to assembly, to keep the pressure chamber of a coupler according to the invention in the manufacture of the fuel injector completely free of gas bubbles, it is crucial that gas bubbles can escape quickly, which are located in the pressure chamber. Due to the check valve, the hydraulic fluid can only escape from the pressure chamber via the annular gaps during operation during the short stroke phases. If at least a portion of such an annular gap is arranged at the highest point in installation position, the pressure chamber is safely emptied of all gas bubbles over the service life of the fuel injection valve. Due to the arrangement of the actuator and thus the actuator chamber above the coupler in normal mounting position and the nachfließende by the check valve after a stroke hydraulic fluid is free of gas bubbles. It can not come to a reduction in the stroke of the valve needle by the unwanted compression of a gas bubble in the pressure chamber. Residual gas bubbles will accumulate over time in the upper area of the actuator chamber and be compressed as far as it corresponds to the pressure that prevails in Aktorraum and fuel chamber equal. The gas bubbles which inevitably arise during the filling during the production of a fuel injection valve can not thereby lead to functional failures and malfunctions.
  • In a favorable embodiment, the slave piston is sealingly and non-positively connected to the guide cylinder.
  • For example, by the guide cylinder consists of a deep-drawn sheet metal part or a pipe section, which is sealingly connected to the slave piston by welding, creating a simple component. The master piston is guided in this cup-like component.
  • Alternatively, it is possible to provide the master piston and the slave piston with different diameters and thus effective areas.
  • As a result, a path ratio can be effected and the low stroke of a piezoelectric actuator can be translated in a larger travel.
  • In an advantageous embodiment, the check valve is a ball check valve whose valve seat is formed on the master piston.
  • A ball check valve is inexpensive to manufacture and can be well placed in the pressure chamber with a small size.
  • In a favorable embodiment, a silicone oil is used as the hydraulic fluid.
  • An actuator spring may be formed as a spiral spring and enclose the hydraulic coupler.
  • The necessary biasing force on the actuator can thus be effected in a space-saving arrangement.
  • Advantageously, the membrane has a wavy contour in a radial section.
  • As a result, with an arrangement of the diaphragm in a radial plane, relative to an axis of symmetry of a fuel injection valve, a high axial deformability of the diaphragm is produced. In the case of pressure differences between the actuator chamber and the fuel chamber, the membrane deforms in the axial direction along its radial section until pressure equality prevails. Likewise, it adapts to the movement of the slave piston, with which it is sealingly and non-positively connected.
  • drawing
  • An embodiment of the invention is shown in simplified form in the drawing and explained in more detail in the following description. It shows:
  • Fig. 1
    a schematic section through an embodiment of a fuel injection valve according to the invention in the region of the actuator and coupler.
    Description of the embodiment
  • Fig. 1 shows schematically a section of a fuel injection valve 1, wherein the region of a piezoelectric or magnetostrictive actuator 2 and an actuator chamber 3, which communicates via a connecting bore 4 with a lower actuator chamber 5, are shown. The actuator 2 is arranged in an actuator chamber housing 6, which is bounded by a closure plate 7. Through a bore 8 in the closure plate 7 electrical connections 9 are passed and sealed by an O-ring 10. About these electrical connections 9, the actuator 1 is driven by an electrical voltage. An actuator spring 11 is supported on an intermediate disc 12 and presses an actuator head 13 against the actuator 2 so that it comes into contact with the closure plate 7. On the actuator head 13 is located on a master piston 14 which is guided in a guide cylinder 15. The guide cylinder 15 is sealingly and non-positively connected to a slave piston 16 by a weld 17. A coupler spring 18 exerts on the master piston 14 a biasing force which seeks to drive the master piston 14 out of the guide cylinder 15. The master piston 14, the guide cylinder 15, the slave piston 16 and the coupler spring 18 form the coupler 19. In the interior of the coupler 19, a check ball 20 is arranged, which is pressed by a check spring 21 and a guide sleeve 22 against a valve seat 23 into the master piston 14 , The check ball 20, the return spring 21 and the sealing seat 23 form a check valve 24. About inlet bores 25th For example, the hydraulic fluid can pass from the upper actuator chamber 3 to the valve sealing seat 23 of the check valve 24. The coupler 19 is guided with its guide cylinder 15 in a bore 26 of the washer 12. About an outer weld 27, a diaphragm 29 is sealingly connected to the washer 12 and via an inner weld 28, the same membrane 29 is sealingly connected to the slave piston 16.
  • The membrane 29 separates a fuel chamber 30 from the lower actuator chamber 5. Since the lower actuator chamber 5 is connected via the connecting bore 4 with the upper actuator chamber 3, prevails in the upper actuator chamber 3, the lower actuator chamber 5 and the fuel chamber 30, the same pressure the membrane 29 deformed so far until pressure equalization is established. The diaphragm 29 also follows the movement of the slave piston 16, and further radially outwardly disposed parts of the diaphragm 29 perform an opposite movement, so that also the pressure balance between the lower actuator chamber 5 and the fuel chamber 30 is maintained during a lifting movement of the slave piston 16. The lifting movement of the slave piston 16 is not or only slightly prevented or influenced by the diaphragm 29. The slave piston 16 transmits a possible lifting movement to a valve needle 31st
  • When a voltage is applied to the actuator 2 via the electrical supply line 9, the actuator 2 exerts on the actuator head 13 a lifting movement, which continues to be transmitted to the master piston 14 of the coupler 19. The master piston 14 is pressed into the interior of the guide cylinder 15 which is formed with the slave piston 16 as a one-piece deep-drawn part. The hydraulic fluid inside a pressure chamber 32 formed by the slave piston 16, the guide cylinder 15 and the master piston 14 is a highly viscous liquid, such as a silicone oil, almost non-compressible. Thus, there is a rapid rise in pressure in the pressure chamber 32, through which the check ball 20 is pressed into the sealing seat 23 and the guide cylinder 15 with the slave piston 16 in the bore 26 of the intermediate disc 12 moves in the direction of the valve needle 31 and exerts a lifting force on this valve needle 31. Because of the high viscosity of the silicone oil, only a small amount of silicone oil can escape into the upper pressure chamber 3 due to the annular gap which inevitably exists between the master piston 14 and guide cylinder 15. The valve needle 31 of the fuel injection valve 1 thus opens. After the voltage has dropped across the actuator 2, the actuator 2 is pressed back into its starting position by the actuator spring 11 via the actuator head 13. Likewise, the valve needle 31 returns to its original position. By the coupler spring 18 of the guide cylinder 15 and the slave piston 16 are pressed until it stops against the valve needle 13 and the master piston 14 is pressed until it stops against the actuator head 13. Since the hydraulic fluid can not flow into the pressure chamber 32 quickly enough via the annular gap between the master piston 14 and the guide cylinder 15, a negative pressure is created in the pressure chamber 32 and the check ball 20 is lifted out of the sealing seat 23 due to the force of the coupler spring 18. Of the actuator chamber 3 can flow over the inlet bores 25 and the sealing seat 23 silicone oil in the pressure chamber 32 until no negative pressure prevails and the check spring 21, the check ball 20 in turn presses into the sealing seat 23. The coupler 19 thus automatically adapts to changes in length between the rest position of the valve needle 31 and the actuator head 13.
  • Advantageously, the properties of the silicone oil for the coupler and the use in the actuator chamber 3 can be optimized. Thus, it can be achieved by setting a suitable viscosity that the components of the master piston 14, the guide cylinder 15 and the slave piston 16 can be designed as inexpensive to be produced deep-drawing plates, which require relatively large gap dimensions. The described embodiment of a fuel injection valve 1 according to the invention further enables a secure sealing of the actuator 2 relative to the fuel chamber 30, since the sealing membrane 29 does not have to absorb pressure forces. By also shown here arrangement of the master piston 14 in one Installation position of the fuel injection valve 1 such that the unimaginable annular gap between the master piston 14 and guide cylinder 15 is at least in part in the ascent of any gas bubbles in the pressure chamber 32 above, it is achieved that the long-term operation of the pressure chamber 32 is free of gas bubbles and the fuel valve 1 works properly. Gas bubbles accumulate in the pressure chamber 32 above and in the case of a stroke of the actuator 2, the gas bubbles are first pushed out through the annular gap. In the upper actuator chamber 3, however, the gas bubbles collect in the vicinity of the closure plate 7, at which point they do not affect the functionality of the fuel injection valve 1. The hydraulic fluid flowing in via the sealing seat 23 is therefore free of gas bubbles. After a short time there are no gas bubbles in the pressure chamber 32.
  • Furthermore, it is advantageous that the silicone oil exerts a damping effect both on the actuator 2 as well as all other moving parts. Due to the high actuation rate of fuel injection valves 1, which is necessary in modern internal combustion engines, vibrations can occur, which are effectively damped.

Claims (12)

  1. Fuel injection valve (1), in particular injection valve for fuel injection systems of internal combustion engines, with a piezoelectric or magnetostrictive actuator (2) which, via a hydraulic coupler (19), actuates a valve-closing body which is shaped on a valve needle (31) and which cooperates with a valve-seat surface to form a valve-sealing seat, the coupler (19) having a master piston (14) and a slave piston (16) which are connected to a pressure space (32), the pressure space (32) being filled with a hydraulic fluid, and a coupler spring (18) pressing the master piston (14) and the slave piston (16) apart from one another, characterized in that the pressure space (32) is connected to an actuator space (3, 5) via a non-return valve (24), the shut-off direction of which faces the pressure space (32), and in that the actuator space (3, 5) is sealed off with respect to a fuel space (30) by means of a movable diaphragm (29).
  2. Fuel injection valve according to Claim 1, characterized in that the slave piston (16) is a deep-drawn part consisting of sheet metal.
  3. Fuel injection valve according to Claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the master piston (14) is a deep-drawn part consisting of sheet metal.
  4. Fuel injection valve according to one of Claims 1 to 3, characterized in that, when the fuel injection valve (1) is in the installation position, at least one portion of an annular gap between the master piston (14) or slave piston (16) and a guide cylinder (15) is arranged at the highest point of the pressure space (32) in the direction of rise of possible gas bubbles.
  5. Fuel injection valve according to Claim 4, characterized in that the slave piston (16) is connected to the guide cylinder (15) sealingly and non-positively.
  6. Fuel injection valve according to one of Claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the master piston (14) and the slave piston (16) have different effective surfaces.
  7. Fuel injection valve according to one of Claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the non-return valve (24) is a ball-type non-return valve (24).
  8. Fuel injection valve according to Claim 7, characterized in that a valve seat (23) of the ball-type non-return valve (24) is formed on the master piston (14).
  9. Fuel injection valve according to one of Claims 1 to 8, characterized in that the hydraulic fluid is a silicone oil.
  10. Fuel injection valve according to one of Claims 1 to 9, characterized in that an actuator spring (11), which exerts a prestressing force on the actuator (2), is arranged around the hydraulic coupler (19).
  11. Fuel injection valve according to Claim 10, characterized in that the actuator spring (11) is a helical spring (11).
  12. Fuel injection valve according to one of Claims 1 to 11, characterized in that the diaphragm (29) has a wavy contour in radial section.
EP20020740381 2001-08-20 2002-05-25 Fuel injection valve Not-in-force EP1421271B1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE10140799 2001-08-20
DE2001140799 DE10140799A1 (en) 2001-08-20 2001-08-20 Fuel injector
PCT/DE2002/001926 WO2003018992A1 (en) 2001-08-20 2002-05-25 Fuel injection valve

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP1421271A1 EP1421271A1 (en) 2004-05-26
EP1421271B1 true EP1421271B1 (en) 2006-01-18

Family

ID=7696038

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP20020740381 Not-in-force EP1421271B1 (en) 2001-08-20 2002-05-25 Fuel injection valve

Country Status (6)

Country Link
US (1) US6948667B2 (en)
EP (1) EP1421271B1 (en)
JP (1) JP4116548B2 (en)
KR (1) KR100881583B1 (en)
DE (2) DE10140799A1 (en)
WO (1) WO2003018992A1 (en)

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DE10307816A1 (en) * 2003-02-24 2004-09-02 Robert Bosch Gmbh Fuel injector
DE10344061A1 (en) * 2003-09-23 2005-04-28 Siemens Ag Injection valve with a hydraulic compensation element
US7100577B2 (en) * 2004-06-14 2006-09-05 Westport Research Inc. Common rail directly actuated fuel injection valve with a pressurized hydraulic transmission device and a method of operating same
DE102005025953A1 (en) * 2005-06-06 2006-12-07 Siemens Ag Compensator e.g. for injection valve, has pot shaped body with pot base and recess with piston provided at axially extending guide of piston having clearance fit of recess
US7472844B2 (en) * 2005-12-21 2009-01-06 Caterpillar Inc. Fuel injector nozzle with tip alignment apparatus
EP1816341B1 (en) * 2006-02-03 2011-04-27 Continental Automotive GmbH Actuator device for an injector and injector
DE102006019308A1 (en) * 2006-04-26 2007-10-31 Robert Bosch Gmbh Injector for fuel supply to internal combustion engine, especially in motor vehicle, has piezoactuator with foot on end remote from nozzle needle with sealing profile facing needle that contacts seal seat on injector body
US7353806B2 (en) * 2006-09-06 2008-04-08 Cummins Inc. Fuel injector with pressure balancing valve
DE102007043532A1 (en) * 2007-09-12 2009-03-19 Robert Bosch Gmbh Valve arrangement for metering an aqueous urea solution
US7665445B2 (en) * 2008-04-18 2010-02-23 Caterpillar Inc. Motion coupler for a piezoelectric actuator
US8201543B2 (en) * 2009-05-14 2012-06-19 Cummins Intellectual Properties, Inc. Piezoelectric direct acting fuel injector with hydraulic link
WO2010144559A2 (en) * 2009-06-10 2010-12-16 Cummins Intellectual Properties, Inc. Piezoelectric direct acting fuel injector with hydraulic link
DE102013012444A1 (en) * 2013-07-29 2015-01-29 Astrium Gmbh Valve assembly for switching and / or regulating a media flow of a spacecraft and spacecraft
DE102013219225A1 (en) * 2013-09-25 2015-03-26 Continental Automotive Gmbh Piezo injector for direct fuel injection

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EP0477400B1 (en) 1990-09-25 2000-04-26 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Device for compensating the tolerance in the lift direction of the displacement transformer of a piezoelectric actuator
DE4306073C1 (en) * 1993-02-26 1994-06-01 Siemens Ag Metering system for dosing of fluids with injection valve for IC engine - has piston acting on closing unit, and spring with actuator acting on large dia. piston moving in cylinder
DE4306072C2 (en) * 1993-02-26 1994-12-08 Siemens Ag Device for opening and closing a passage opening in a housing
DE19500706C2 (en) * 1995-01-12 2003-09-25 Bosch Gmbh Robert Metering valve for dosing liquids or gases
DE19727992C2 (en) * 1997-07-01 1999-05-20 Siemens Ag Compensation element for compensation of temperature-related changes in length of electromechanical control systems
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Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
EP1421271A1 (en) 2004-05-26
DE10140799A1 (en) 2003-03-06
US6948667B2 (en) 2005-09-27
KR100881583B1 (en) 2009-02-03
KR20040027899A (en) 2004-04-01
DE50205654D1 (en) 2006-04-06
JP4116548B2 (en) 2008-07-09
WO2003018992A1 (en) 2003-03-06
JP2005500469A (en) 2005-01-06
US20040031862A1 (en) 2004-02-19

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