EP1415705A1 - Apparatus for hydrogen production and process using the apparatus - Google Patents

Apparatus for hydrogen production and process using the apparatus Download PDF

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Publication number
EP1415705A1
EP1415705A1 EP03022712A EP03022712A EP1415705A1 EP 1415705 A1 EP1415705 A1 EP 1415705A1 EP 03022712 A EP03022712 A EP 03022712A EP 03022712 A EP03022712 A EP 03022712A EP 1415705 A1 EP1415705 A1 EP 1415705A1
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Prior art keywords
reformer
water
heat exchanger
gas
characterized
Prior art date
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EP03022712A
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German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Peter Dr. Britz
Bernd Dr. Hafner
Klaus Dr. Heikrodt
Nicolas Zartenar
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Viessmann Werke GmbH and Co KG
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Viessmann Werke GmbH and Co KG
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Priority to DE10250793 priority Critical
Priority to DE10250793A priority patent/DE10250793A1/en
Application filed by Viessmann Werke GmbH and Co KG filed Critical Viessmann Werke GmbH and Co KG
Publication of EP1415705A1 publication Critical patent/EP1415705A1/en
Withdrawn legal-status Critical Current

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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01BNON-METALLIC ELEMENTS; COMPOUNDS THEREOF; METALLOIDS OR COMPOUNDS THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASS C01C
    • C01B3/00Hydrogen; Gaseous mixtures containing hydrogen; Separation of hydrogen from mixtures containing it; Purification of hydrogen
    • C01B3/02Production of hydrogen or of gaseous mixtures containing a substantial proportion of hydrogen
    • C01B3/32Production of hydrogen or of gaseous mixtures containing a substantial proportion of hydrogen by reaction of gaseous or liquid organic compounds with gasifying agents, e.g. water, carbon dioxide, air
    • C01B3/34Production of hydrogen or of gaseous mixtures containing a substantial proportion of hydrogen by reaction of gaseous or liquid organic compounds with gasifying agents, e.g. water, carbon dioxide, air by reaction of hydrocarbons with gasifying agents
    • C01B3/38Production of hydrogen or of gaseous mixtures containing a substantial proportion of hydrogen by reaction of gaseous or liquid organic compounds with gasifying agents, e.g. water, carbon dioxide, air by reaction of hydrocarbons with gasifying agents using catalysts
    • C01B3/384Production of hydrogen or of gaseous mixtures containing a substantial proportion of hydrogen by reaction of gaseous or liquid organic compounds with gasifying agents, e.g. water, carbon dioxide, air by reaction of hydrocarbons with gasifying agents using catalysts the catalyst being continuously externally heated
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D53/00Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols
    • B01D53/34Chemical or biological purification of waste gases
    • B01D53/74General processes for purification of waste gases; Apparatus or devices specially adapted therefor
    • B01D53/86Catalytic processes
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J8/00Chemical or physical processes in general, conducted in the presence of fluids and solid particles; Apparatus for such processes
    • B01J8/02Chemical or physical processes in general, conducted in the presence of fluids and solid particles; Apparatus for such processes with stationary particles, e.g. in fixed beds
    • B01J8/04Chemical or physical processes in general, conducted in the presence of fluids and solid particles; Apparatus for such processes with stationary particles, e.g. in fixed beds the fluid passing successively through two or more beds
    • B01J8/0492Feeding reactive fluids
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J8/00Chemical or physical processes in general, conducted in the presence of fluids and solid particles; Apparatus for such processes
    • B01J8/02Chemical or physical processes in general, conducted in the presence of fluids and solid particles; Apparatus for such processes with stationary particles, e.g. in fixed beds
    • B01J8/04Chemical or physical processes in general, conducted in the presence of fluids and solid particles; Apparatus for such processes with stationary particles, e.g. in fixed beds the fluid passing successively through two or more beds
    • B01J8/0496Heating or cooling the reactor
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01BNON-METALLIC ELEMENTS; COMPOUNDS THEREOF; METALLOIDS OR COMPOUNDS THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASS C01C
    • C01B3/00Hydrogen; Gaseous mixtures containing hydrogen; Separation of hydrogen from mixtures containing it; Purification of hydrogen
    • C01B3/02Production of hydrogen or of gaseous mixtures containing a substantial proportion of hydrogen
    • C01B3/32Production of hydrogen or of gaseous mixtures containing a substantial proportion of hydrogen by reaction of gaseous or liquid organic compounds with gasifying agents, e.g. water, carbon dioxide, air
    • C01B3/34Production of hydrogen or of gaseous mixtures containing a substantial proportion of hydrogen by reaction of gaseous or liquid organic compounds with gasifying agents, e.g. water, carbon dioxide, air by reaction of hydrocarbons with gasifying agents
    • C01B3/48Production of hydrogen or of gaseous mixtures containing a substantial proportion of hydrogen by reaction of gaseous or liquid organic compounds with gasifying agents, e.g. water, carbon dioxide, air by reaction of hydrocarbons with gasifying agents followed by reaction of water vapour with carbon monoxide
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M8/00Fuel cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M8/06Combination of fuel cells with means for production of reactants or for treatment of residues
    • H01M8/0606Combination of fuel cells with means for production of reactants or for treatment of residues with means for production of gaseous reactants
    • H01M8/0612Combination of fuel cells with means for production of reactants or for treatment of residues with means for production of gaseous reactants from carbon-containing material
    • H01M8/0618Reforming processes, e.g. autothermal, partial oxidation or steam reforming
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J2208/00Processes carried out in the presence of solid particles; Reactors therefor
    • B01J2208/00008Controlling the process
    • B01J2208/00017Controlling the temperature
    • B01J2208/00106Controlling the temperature by indirect heat exchange
    • B01J2208/00168Controlling the temperature by indirect heat exchange with heat exchange elements outside the bed of solid particles
    • B01J2208/00212Plates; Jackets; Cylinders
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J2208/00Processes carried out in the presence of solid particles; Reactors therefor
    • B01J2208/00008Controlling the process
    • B01J2208/00017Controlling the temperature
    • B01J2208/00504Controlling the temperature by means of a burner
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J2208/00Processes carried out in the presence of solid particles; Reactors therefor
    • B01J2208/00008Controlling the process
    • B01J2208/00017Controlling the temperature
    • B01J2208/0053Controlling multiple zones along the direction of flow, e.g. pre-heating and after-cooling
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J2208/00Processes carried out in the presence of solid particles; Reactors therefor
    • B01J2208/00796Details of the reactor or of the particulate material
    • B01J2208/00823Mixing elements
    • B01J2208/00831Stationary elements
    • B01J2208/00849Stationary elements outside the bed, e.g. baffles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01JCHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS OR COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS
    • B01J2219/00Chemical, physical or physico-chemical processes in general; Their relevant apparatus
    • B01J2219/00002Chemical plants
    • B01J2219/00004Scale aspects
    • B01J2219/00006Large-scale industrial plants
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01BNON-METALLIC ELEMENTS; COMPOUNDS THEREOF; METALLOIDS OR COMPOUNDS THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASS C01C
    • C01B2203/00Integrated processes for the production of hydrogen or synthesis gas
    • C01B2203/02Processes for making hydrogen or synthesis gas
    • C01B2203/0205Processes for making hydrogen or synthesis gas containing a reforming step
    • C01B2203/0227Processes for making hydrogen or synthesis gas containing a reforming step containing a catalytic reforming step
    • C01B2203/0233Processes for making hydrogen or synthesis gas containing a reforming step containing a catalytic reforming step the reforming step being a steam reforming step
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01BNON-METALLIC ELEMENTS; COMPOUNDS THEREOF; METALLOIDS OR COMPOUNDS THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASS C01C
    • C01B2203/00Integrated processes for the production of hydrogen or synthesis gas
    • C01B2203/02Processes for making hydrogen or synthesis gas
    • C01B2203/0283Processes for making hydrogen or synthesis gas containing a CO-shift step, i.e. a water gas shift step
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01BNON-METALLIC ELEMENTS; COMPOUNDS THEREOF; METALLOIDS OR COMPOUNDS THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASS C01C
    • C01B2203/00Integrated processes for the production of hydrogen or synthesis gas
    • C01B2203/04Integrated processes for the production of hydrogen or synthesis gas containing a purification step for the hydrogen or the synthesis gas
    • C01B2203/0435Catalytic purification
    • C01B2203/044Selective oxidation of carbon monoxide
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01BNON-METALLIC ELEMENTS; COMPOUNDS THEREOF; METALLOIDS OR COMPOUNDS THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASS C01C
    • C01B2203/00Integrated processes for the production of hydrogen or synthesis gas
    • C01B2203/04Integrated processes for the production of hydrogen or synthesis gas containing a purification step for the hydrogen or the synthesis gas
    • C01B2203/0435Catalytic purification
    • C01B2203/0445Selective methanation
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01BNON-METALLIC ELEMENTS; COMPOUNDS THEREOF; METALLOIDS OR COMPOUNDS THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASS C01C
    • C01B2203/00Integrated processes for the production of hydrogen or synthesis gas
    • C01B2203/04Integrated processes for the production of hydrogen or synthesis gas containing a purification step for the hydrogen or the synthesis gas
    • C01B2203/0465Composition of the impurity
    • C01B2203/047Composition of the impurity the impurity being carbon monoxide
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01BNON-METALLIC ELEMENTS; COMPOUNDS THEREOF; METALLOIDS OR COMPOUNDS THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASS C01C
    • C01B2203/00Integrated processes for the production of hydrogen or synthesis gas
    • C01B2203/06Integration with other chemical processes
    • C01B2203/066Integration with other chemical processes with fuel cells
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01BNON-METALLIC ELEMENTS; COMPOUNDS THEREOF; METALLOIDS OR COMPOUNDS THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASS C01C
    • C01B2203/00Integrated processes for the production of hydrogen or synthesis gas
    • C01B2203/08Methods of heating or cooling
    • C01B2203/0805Methods of heating the process for making hydrogen or synthesis gas
    • C01B2203/0811Methods of heating the process for making hydrogen or synthesis gas by combustion of fuel
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01BNON-METALLIC ELEMENTS; COMPOUNDS THEREOF; METALLOIDS OR COMPOUNDS THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASS C01C
    • C01B2203/00Integrated processes for the production of hydrogen or synthesis gas
    • C01B2203/08Methods of heating or cooling
    • C01B2203/0872Methods of cooling
    • C01B2203/0883Methods of cooling by indirect heat exchange
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01BNON-METALLIC ELEMENTS; COMPOUNDS THEREOF; METALLOIDS OR COMPOUNDS THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASS C01C
    • C01B2203/00Integrated processes for the production of hydrogen or synthesis gas
    • C01B2203/08Methods of heating or cooling
    • C01B2203/0872Methods of cooling
    • C01B2203/0888Methods of cooling by evaporation of a fluid
    • C01B2203/0894Generation of steam
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
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    • C01BNON-METALLIC ELEMENTS; COMPOUNDS THEREOF; METALLOIDS OR COMPOUNDS THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASS C01C
    • C01B2203/00Integrated processes for the production of hydrogen or synthesis gas
    • C01B2203/12Feeding the process for making hydrogen or synthesis gas
    • C01B2203/1288Evaporation of one or more of the different feed components
    • C01B2203/1294Evaporation by heat exchange with hot process stream
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M8/00Fuel cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M8/06Combination of fuel cells with means for production of reactants or for treatment of residues
    • H01M8/0662Treatment of gaseous reactants or gaseous residues, e.g. cleaning
    • H01M8/0668Removal of carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide

Abstract

Device for producing hydrogen comprises a reformer for converting an educt gas, a catalyst stage , and a heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is connected to a water feeding unit which is placed under high pressure to guarantee a liquid aggregate state of the water in the stationary operation within and at the outlet of the heat exchanger on the reformer side. Device for producing hydrogen comprises a reformer (1) for converting an educt gas, e.g. hydrocarbon gas and water vapor, into hydrogen gas and further reformer products such as a product gas containing carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, a catalyst stage (2) for reducing the amount of carbon monoxide in the product gas, and a heat exchanger (3) arranged between the reformer and the catalyst stage. The heat exchanger is connected to a water feeding unit (5) which is placed under high pressure to guarantee a liquid aggregate state of the water in the stationary operation within and at the outlet of the heat exchanger on the reformer side. A unit for relieving pressure to vaporize the water is arranged between the heat exchanger and the educt inlet (4) in the reformer. An Independent claim is also included for a process for producing hydrogen.

Description

The invention relates to an apparatus for generating hydrogen for operating a fuel cell according to the preamble of claim 1 and a method for operating said Apparatus according to the preamble of claim 7.

According to DE 100 57 537 A1, an apparatus for generating Known hydrogen, which u. a. a reformer for conversion of hydrocarbon gas and water in hydrogen and others Has reformer products. The reformer has several catalyst stages to reduce the proportion of carbon monoxide in the product gas downstream. In order to control the temperature of the Lowering product gas at the reformer outlet from around 800 ° C to 400 ° C, is between the reformer and the subsequent catalyst stage a heat exchanger arranged. For cooling this water fed, which then together in the reformer with the hydrocarbon gas that may be supplied in the same way serves as starting gas. Because the water to the reformer is normally not liquid, it has proved to be particularly useful in this apparatus to evaporate beforehand by means of the upstream heat exchanger.

It turned out to be problematic that the physical state of water especially in between the reformer and the first catalyst stage arranged heat exchanger Varies between vapor and liquid. As is well known the heat transfer properties of a medium when changing from liquid to vapor significantly deteriorated, can in particular with the apparatus described The actual physical state of the water in load cycle operation not definitely predetermined in advance in the heat exchanger become, d. H. with this device there are always undefined Heat transfer states in the heat exchanger and this leads to unclear entry conditions at the catalyst stage, which is disadvantageous in that it is for the carbon monoxide purification process in each case an optimal temperature that must be observed exactly there and a deviation from this to one clearly leads to poorer cleaning results.

The invention has for its object in an apparatus of the type mentioned in the simplest possible technical way Way to ensure that despite maintaining the water preheating in every operating state it is guaranteed that the heat exchanger arranged between the reformer and the catalyst stage only liquid water flows through it.

This task is represented with an apparatus of the beginning mentioned type by the in the characterizing part of claim 1 listed features solved. The characteristics of the license plate of claim 7 solve the task procedurally.

The invention thus comprises two essential features: first it is to maintain the liquid state of matter of the water flowing through the heat exchanger to put this under high pressure so that despite a Temperature above 100 ° C does not evaporate. How high this Pressure depending on the temperature has to be results from the generally known vapor pressure curve of the Water. The source of this pressure is, for example Water connection to a house is considered, which is usually an overpressure (compared to the environment) of about 3 to 4 bar having. This pressure would be enough to keep water at one temperature keep liquid at around 130 ° C. At higher temperatures the water supply device would have to be provided with a pump that does this for the respective temperature creates the required pressure level. For liquid water with a temperature of 200 ° C, for example, according to the vapor pressure curve a pressure of about 20 bar is required.

The second feature essential to the invention is that emerging from the heat exchanger at a comparatively high pressure Water of a device for depressurization, preferably an expansion valve, to feed it to this by Evaporate pressure release. It then becomes steamy Educt input of the reformer fed.

preferably there is a device after the expansion valve for mixing the hot water vapor with the hydrocarbon gas intended. This is the case with a particularly preferred one Embodiment, which will be discussed in more detail later is, from a so-called jet pump, in which the hydrocarbon gas by means of the so-called Venturi nozzle effect sucked in and swirled and mixed with the water vapor becomes. This also advantageously increases the Pressure of the educt mixture.

Other advantageous developments result from the dependent Claims.

The apparatus according to the invention and its advantageous further developments according to the dependent claims is based below the drawing of an embodiment explained in more detail.

It shows schematically

Fig. 1
the apparatus of the invention with expansion valve and jet pump in conjunction with a fuel cell; and
Fig. 2
a qualitative representation of the water vapor pressure curve.

The apparatus for generating hydrogen shown in Fig. 1 to operate a fuel cell 13 (preferably one so-called PEM fuel cell) includes in particular a reformer 1 for converting a feed gas, namely hydrocarbon gas and water vapor, in a hydrogen gas and others Products containing reformer such as carbon dioxide and monoxide Product gas. The reformer 1 is in the illustrated embodiment operated as a so-called allothermal reformer, d. H. the heat required for the reforming is from provided on the outside via a gas burner 11. The gas burner themselves, as shown in Fig. 1, for the heat generation process Air and hydrocarbon gas (preferably natural gas) supplied via appropriate connections. Furthermore, the Burner 11 still has the anode of the fuel cell 13 connected anode residual gas return 14 unused hydrogen fed.

The apparatus according to the invention also has a so-called Single shift stage (catalyst stage 2) and a gas fine cleaning stage 12 (optionally so-called SelOx or methanation stage) to reduce the proportion of carbon monoxide in the product gas on. Both stages are preferably with an outer jacket cooling 16 provided, d. H. during operation, a Cooling medium (in this case the hydrocarbon gas itself) passed through an outer flow jacket to the in catalyst stages 2, 12 in the exothermic process of Dissipate the heat generated by carbon monoxide reduction.

To cool the product gas after the reforming is particularly between the reformer 1 and the catalyst stage 2 a water flow-through heat exchanger 3 is arranged on the output side hydraulic with an educt input 4 of the reformer 1 is connected. In the illustrated embodiment is further still between the gas cleaning stage 12 and the Fuel cell 13, a further heat exchanger 15 is provided, which also serves to cool the product gas on the one hand and on the other hand, what is necessary for the reform process Preheat water.

It is essential for the apparatus according to the invention that at least the heat exchanger 3 (here also the heat exchanger 15) to ensure a liquid physical state of the Water in stationary operation within and on the reformer side Output of the heat exchanger 3, 15 with a corresponding one Pressurized water supply device 5 connected is and that between the heat exchanger 3 and the educt input 4 on the reformer 1 a device for pressure release, preferably, as shown, an expansion valve 6 to Evaporation of the water is arranged.

As explained, it is therefore essential to the invention that that for the water required for the reform process until the exit of the Heat exchanger 3 in any operating state of the apparatus liquid remains and therefore it does not close due to evaporating water deteriorated heat transfer occurs. To do this ensure a water supply device 5 is provided, which, as mentioned, is optional depending on the pressure required directly to the water pipe connection 10 (about 3 to 4 bar Positive pressure) of a house or an additional one Pump 8 comprises, which increases the water pressure so far, that this prevails even at very high, in the heat exchanger 3 Temperatures remain fluid in all operating conditions.

In the illustrated embodiment, the pump 8 is more integral Part of the water supply device 5, which u. a. (What corresponding control valves for dosing the amount of water. From there it gets water required for the reformer process first to between the fuel cell 13 and the gas cleaning stage 12 arranged heat exchanger 15 to the at the outlet of the apparatus absorb heat generated to produce hydrogen, because the fuel cell 13 for an optimal fuel cell process preferably relatively cold (i.e. about 60 ° C warm) hydrogen should be added.

After the heat exchanger 15, the still liquid water arrives to the heat exchanger 3, to the product gas there for to cool the catalyst stage 2 optimal temperature. by virtue of of the high pressure applied according to the invention remains the water but also in this heat exchanger 3 always liquid.

In order to be able to supply the water to the reformer 1 in vapor form, is an expansion valve according to the invention after the heat exchanger 3 6 provided that the pressure in the water is significantly reduced and thus leads to its evaporation. This throttling process is in the qualitatively represented vapor pressure curve in Fig. 2 illustrates. There is about 160 ° C hot isothermal, and throttled liquid water from 12 bar to 1 bar evaporated.

Finally, one is advantageous after the expansion valve 6 Device 7 for mixing the water vapor with the preferably by means of the arranged on the catalyst stages 2, 13 Outer jacket cooling 16 preheated hydrocarbon gas intended. This device 7 is advantageous as a so-called Jet pump 9 formed, which has a wide entry area for the water vapor that is continuously downstream narrowed and at least one at its narrowest point Includes supply for the hydrocarbon gas, and accordingly according to the Venturi nozzle principle (also finds e.g. in the case of atmospheric gas burners) above that at the Place the lowest pressure occurring suction effect of water vapor the hydrocarbon gas sucks in and in the two gases swirled to a high degree.

LIST OF REFERENCE NUMBERS

1
reformer
2
catalyst stage
3
heat exchangers
4
reactant inlet
5
Water supply means
6
expansion valve
7
Mixing device
8th
pump
9
jet pump
10
Water line connection
11
gas burner
12
Gas purification stage
13
fuel cell
14
Residual anode gas recirculation
15
heat exchangers
16
Outer jacket cooling

Claims (9)

  1. Apparatus for generating hydrogen for operating a fuel cell, comprising a reformer (1) for converting an educt gas, namely hydrocarbon gas and water vapor, into a hydrogen gas and further reformer products such as product gas containing carbon dioxide and monoxide and at least one catalyst stage (2) for reducing the carbon monoxide content in the product gas, with a water-flow-through heat exchanger (3) being arranged at least between the reformer (1) and the catalyst stage (2) for cooling the product gas and hydraulically connected on the outlet side to an educt inlet (4) of the reformer (1),
    characterized in that the heat exchanger (3) is connected to a water supply device (5) under corresponding overpressure to ensure a liquid physical state of the water in stationary operation within and at the reformer-side outlet of the heat exchanger (3) and
    that a device for pressure relief for evaporating the water is arranged between the heat exchanger (3) and the starting material inlet (4) on the reformer (1).
  2. Apparatus according to claim 1,
    characterized in that the pressure relief device is designed as an expansion valve (6).
  3. Apparatus according to claim 1 or 2,
    characterized in that the water supply device (5) is connected to a water pipe connection (10) of a house.
  4. Apparatus according to one of claims 1 to 3,
    characterized in that the water supply device (5) comprises a pump (8) for increasing the water pressure.
  5. Apparatus according to one of claims 1 to 4,
    characterized in that a device (7) for mixing the water vapor with the hydrocarbon gas is arranged between the device (6) for evaporating the water and the starting material inlet (4).
  6. Apparatus according to claim 5,
    characterized in that the device (7) for mixing the water vapor with the hydrocarbon gas is designed as a jet pump (9).
  7. Method for operating an apparatus for generating hydrogen, in which a starting gas comprising hydrogen, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide is produced from a starting gas comprising hydrocarbon gas and water vapor in a reformer, said product gas being used to reduce the carbon monoxide content of at least one catalyst stage downstream of the reformer (1) (2) is supplied, whereby a water-flow-through heat exchanger (3) arranged between the reformer (1) and the catalyst stage (2) is used to cool the product gas, which is hydraulically connected on the output side to an educt input (4) of the reformer (1) .
    characterized in that the water in the liquid state is conveyed through the heat exchanger (3) at a pressure above the water vapor pressure curve and after passage of the heat exchanger (3) but before the educt inlet (4) at the reformer (1) for evaporation in a device for depressurization is relaxed to a pressure below the water vapor pressure curve.
  8. Method according to claim 7,
    characterized in that the water vapor coming from the device for pressure relief, preferably an expansion valve (6), is mixed with the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the educt inlet (4).
  9. A method according to claim 8,
    characterized in that the water vapor and the hydrocarbon gas are mixed together in a jet pump (9).
EP03022712A 2002-10-30 2003-10-09 Apparatus for hydrogen production and process using the apparatus Withdrawn EP1415705A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

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DE10250793 2002-10-30
DE10250793A DE10250793A1 (en) 2002-10-30 2002-10-30 Apparatus for generating hydrogen and method for operating such an apparatus

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE10356650A1 (en) * 2003-12-02 2005-07-07 Süd-Chemie AG Apparatus for generating hydrogen
EP1903002A2 (en) * 2006-09-21 2008-03-26 The Boc Group, Inc. Process for the Partial Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrocarbons Utilising a Gas Mixing Device
CN101503177B (en) * 2009-01-12 2011-07-27 江阴市尚疯新能源技术开发有限公司 Method for producing hydrogen by carbon dioxide thermal cycle with biomass as fuel

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