EP1400698B1 - Axial positioning control of a compressor blade - Google Patents

Axial positioning control of a compressor blade Download PDF

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Publication number
EP1400698B1
EP1400698B1 EP20030292280 EP03292280A EP1400698B1 EP 1400698 B1 EP1400698 B1 EP 1400698B1 EP 20030292280 EP20030292280 EP 20030292280 EP 03292280 A EP03292280 A EP 03292280A EP 1400698 B1 EP1400698 B1 EP 1400698B1
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EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
blade
disk
upstream
downstream
fact
Prior art date
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Active
Application number
EP20030292280
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German (de)
French (fr)
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EP1400698A1 (en
Inventor
Alain Jacques Michel Bassot
Jean-Claude Bonny
Philippe Even
Pierre Antoine Lamothe
Alain Madec
Patrick Jean-Louis Reghezza
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Safran Aircraft Engines SAS
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Safran Aircraft Engines SAS
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Publication date
Priority to FR0211539A priority Critical patent/FR2844562B1/en
Priority to FR0211539 priority
Application filed by Safran Aircraft Engines SAS filed Critical Safran Aircraft Engines SAS
Publication of EP1400698A1 publication Critical patent/EP1400698A1/en
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Publication of EP1400698B1 publication Critical patent/EP1400698B1/en
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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01DNON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, e.g. STEAM TURBINES
    • F01D5/00Blades; Blade-carrying members; Heating, heat-insulating, cooling or antivibration means on the blades or the members
    • F01D5/30Fixing blades to rotors; Blade roots ; Blade spacers
    • F01D5/32Locking, e.g. by final locking blades or keys
    • F01D5/323Locking of axial insertion type blades by means of a key or the like parallel to the axis of the rotor
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01DNON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, e.g. STEAM TURBINES
    • F01D5/00Blades; Blade-carrying members; Heating, heat-insulating, cooling or antivibration means on the blades or the members
    • F01D5/30Fixing blades to rotors; Blade roots ; Blade spacers
    • F01D5/3007Fixing blades to rotors; Blade roots ; Blade spacers of axial insertion type
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE - DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04DNON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
    • F04D29/00Details, component parts, or accessories
    • F04D29/26Rotors specially for elastic fluids
    • F04D29/32Rotors specially for elastic fluids for axial flow pumps
    • F04D29/321Rotors specially for elastic fluids for axial flow pumps for axial flow compressors
    • F04D29/322Blade mountings
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05DINDEXING SCHEME FOR ASPECTS RELATING TO NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, GAS-TURBINES OR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F05D2230/00Manufacture
    • F05D2230/60Assembly methods
    • F05D2230/64Assembly methods using positioning or alignment devices for aligning or centring, e.g. pins
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05DINDEXING SCHEME FOR ASPECTS RELATING TO NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, GAS-TURBINES OR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F05D2260/00Function
    • F05D2260/30Retaining components in desired mutual position
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F05INDEXING SCHEMES RELATING TO ENGINES OR PUMPS IN VARIOUS SUBCLASSES OF CLASSES F01-F04
    • F05DINDEXING SCHEME FOR ASPECTS RELATING TO NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, GAS-TURBINES OR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F05D2300/00Materials; Properties thereof
    • F05D2300/40Organic materials
    • F05D2300/43Synthetic polymers, e.g. plastics; Rubber

Description

  • L'invention concerne un système de maîtrise de la position axiale des aubes amovibles d'un soufflant du turboréacteur.The invention relates to a system for controlling the axial position of the removable vanes of a blower of the turbojet engine.
  • Elle concerne plus précisément un rotor de soufflante comportant un disque dont la jante comporte une pluralité de rainures sensiblement axiales et régulièrement réparties angulairement, une pluralités d'aubes amovibles qui s'étendent radialement vers l'extérieur à la périphérie dudit disque, chaque aube comportant un pied d'aube logeant dans une rainure, un flasque aval solidaire dudit disque et un flasque amont amovible solidaire dudit disque et destiné à retenir les pieds d'aubes dans les rainures, comme défini dans le préambule de la revendication 1. Un tel rotor est connu du document US-A-4 033 705 .More specifically, it relates to a fan rotor comprising a disk whose rim comprises a plurality of substantially axial grooves and regularly distributed angularly, a plurality of removable blades which extend radially outwardly to the periphery of said disk, each blade comprising a blade root housed in a groove, a downstream flange integral with said disk and a removable upstream flange integral with said disk and for retaining the blade roots in the grooves, as defined in the preamble of claim 1. Such a rotor is known from the document US-A-4,033,705 .
  • Dans le présent mémoire, la face amont désigne la face dirigée vers l'avant du moteur et la face aval désigne celle dirigée vers l'arrière.In this specification, the upstream face refers to the forward facing face of the engine and the downstream face refers to the rearward facing face.
  • Le flasque amont d'un rotor de soufflante est généralement amovible afin de permettre le remplacement d'un aube en cas d'avarie. Ceci peut se produire en cas d'ingestion de corps étrangers, tels que des oiseaux, notamment lors des phases de décollage et d'approche de l'aéronef équipé de turboréacteurs.The upstream flange of a fan rotor is generally removable to allow the replacement of a blade in case of damage. This can occur in case of ingestion of foreign bodies, such as birds, especially during the take-off and approach phases of the aircraft equipped with turbojets.
  • Pour des raisons de montage, l'assemblage des aubes sur le disque comporte un jeu axial. Le positionnement axial aléatoire des aubes de soufflante à l'intérieur de ce jeu, déséquilibre le rotor et génère des vibrations lors du fonctionnement. Ceci est d'autant plus important que les aubes de soufflante comporte des pales à grande corde.For mounting reasons, the blade assembly on the disk has axial clearance. The random axial positioning of the fan blades inside this set imbalances the rotor and generates vibrations during operation. This is all the more important as the fan blades has large-rope blades.
  • Les forces centrifuges considérables supportées par les pales des aubes en fonctionnement peuvent également entraîner un déplacement axial aléatoire des aubes à l'intérieur de ce jeu de montage.The considerable centrifugal forces supported by the blades of the blades in operation can also cause a random axial displacement of the blades within this set of mounting.
  • US 4,033,705 dévoile un système de retenue axial des aubes qui comporte à chaque extrémité d'un pied d'aube un tenon qui coopère avec deux mortaises obliques ménagées dans la jante du disque de part et d'autre de la rainure recevant ce pied d'aube. Les tenons prévus sur chaque face de disque sont retenus radialement par un anneau solidarisé au disque. Ce document prévoit entre chaque face d'extrémité du pied d'aube et le tenon adjacent une tôle formant ressort dont le rôle est d'immobiliser radialement le tenon lors du montage des aubes, avant la mise en place et la fixation de l'anneau de retenue. Ces ressorts créent un jeu de montage à chaque extrémité d'aube, ainsi que cela est montré sur la figure 7 de ce document, qui n'est pas maîtrisé. US 4,033,705 reveals an axial blade retention system which comprises at each end of a blade root a pin which cooperates with two oblique mortises formed in the rim of the disk on either side of the groove receiving the blade root. The pins provided on each disk face are retained radially by a ring secured to the disk. This document provides between each end face of the blade root and the adjacent post a spring plate whose role is to immobilize the tenon radially during assembly of the blades, before the establishment and fixing of the ring restraint. These springs create a mounting set at each end of blade, as shown in Figure 7 of this document, which is not mastered.
  • US 5 282 720 prévoit d'intercaler entre les flasques de retenue et les extrémités des pieds d'aubes, des éléments en nid d'abeille destinés à absorber une partie de l'énergie en cas d'ingestion d'oiseaux. Lors de l'ingestion, le nid d'abeille se déforme progressivement et dissipe ainsi une partie de l'énergie. Les éléments en nid d'abeille doivent conserver leur intégrité lors du montage des flasques, aussi existe-t-il inévitablement un jeu axial après le montage, et un déplacement axial aléatoire est possible en fonctionnement de la soufflante. US 5,282,720 provides to insert between the retaining flanges and the ends of the blade roots, honeycomb elements for absorbing part of the energy in case of ingestion of birds. During ingestion, the honeycomb gradually deforms and dissipates some of the energy. The honeycomb elements must maintain their integrity during the mounting of the flanges, so inevitably there is an axial play after assembly, and a random axial displacement is possible in operation of the blower.
  • Le but de l'invention est de proposer un rotor de soufflante tel que décrit en introduction dans lequel la position axiale des aubes est maîtrisé par un dispositif simple et bon marché, sans créer de problème pour le montage et le démontage des aubes en cas de réparation éventuelle.The object of the invention is to provide a fan rotor as described in the introduction in which the axial position of the blades is controlled by a simple and inexpensive device, without creating any problem for the assembly and disassembly of the blades in case of possible repair.
  • Ce but est atteint selon l'invention par le contenu de la revendication 1. Par fonctionnement normal du moteur, il faut entendre qu'il s'agit du fonctionnement hors évènements exceptionnels, type ingestion de corps étrangers ou perte d'aubes.This object is achieved according to the invention by the content of claim 1. By normal operation of the engine, it is meant that it is operation out exceptional events, such as ingestion of foreign bodies or blade loss.
  • Ainsi, ces moyens élastiques, après montage du rotor, exercent sur les pieds d'aube un effort suffisamment important pour que ces derniers soient maintenus positivement en appui contre le flasque amont, éliminant ainsi tout jeu de montage axial quelles que soient les tolérances de fabrication des aubes.Thus, these resilient means, after assembly of the rotor, exert on the blade roots a sufficiently large force so that they are positively held in abutment against the upstream flange, thus eliminating any axial mounting clearance regardless of manufacturing tolerances. blades.
  • Avantageusement, il est prévu des moyens élastiques propres pour chaque pied d'aube. Ces moyens élastiques indépendants sont constitués de préférence par des pions en élastomère retenus dans un orifice ménagé dans le flasque.Advantageously, there are provided clean elastic means for each blade root. These independent elastic means are preferably constituted by elastomeric pins retained in an orifice formed in the flange.
  • Lorsque le rotor de soufflante comporte en outre une cale interposée entre chaque pied d'aube et le fond de la rainure correspondante, cette cale comportant un talon radial en appui contre la face amont dudit pied d'aube, les moyens élastiques sont avantageusement en appui contre lesdits talons.When the fan rotor further comprises a wedge interposed between each blade root and the bottom of the corresponding groove, this wedge having a radial heel bearing against the upstream face of said blade root, the elastic means are advantageously in support against said heels.
  • D'autre avantages et caractéristiques de l'invention ressortiront à la lecture de la description suivante faite à titre d'exemple et en référence aux dessins annexés dans lesquels :
    • la figure 1 est une coupe schématique d'un rotor de soufflante ;
    • la figure 2 est une vue détaillée de la disposition du flasque amont et d'une aube, qui montre le jeu de montage ;
    • les figures 4a et 4b sont des vues en perspective d'un pion ; et
    • la figure 5 montre en perspective la face aval du flasque amont équipé de ses pions.
    Other advantages and characteristics of the invention will appear on reading the following description given by way of example and with reference to the appended drawings in which:
    • the figure 1 is a schematic section of a fan rotor;
    • the figure 2 is a detailed view of the arrangement of the upstream flange and a blade, which shows the mounting clearance;
    • the Figures 4a and 4b are perspective views of a pawn; and
    • the figure 5 shows in perspective the downstream face of the upstream flange equipped with its pawns.
  • La figure 1 montre un rotor de soufflante 1 d'axe X qui comporte un disque 2 et une pluralité d'aubes 3 régulièrement espacées angulairement autour de l'axe X qui s'étendent radialement vers l'extérieur à la périphérie du disque 2. Chacune des aubes 3 comporte un pied d'aube 4 qui est retenu dans une rainure ou alvéole 5 sensiblement axiale ménagée dans la jante du disque 2. Les pieds d'aube 4 ont une forme en queue d'aronde, et les rainures 5 ont une forme complémentaire. Sous l'action des forces centrifuges, lorsque la soufflante est en fonctionnement, les pieds d'aube 4 sont retenues dans les rainures 5 par les parois radialement externes de ces rainures 5.The figure 1 shows an X-axis fan rotor 1 which has a disk 2 and a plurality of vanes 3 regularly angularly spaced about the X axis which extend radially outwardly around the periphery of the disk 2. Each of the vanes 3 comprises a blade root 4 which is retained in a groove or substantially axial cavity 5 formed in the rim of the disk 2. The blade roots 4 have a dovetail shape, and the grooves 5 have a complementary shape . Under the action of the centrifugal forces, when the fan is in operation, the blade roots 4 are retained in the grooves 5 by the radially outer walls of these grooves 5.
  • Une cale 6 est disposée entre la base de chaque pied d'aube 4 et le fond de la rainure 5. Cette cale 6 comporte, du côté de la face amont 7 du disque 2, un talon 8 qui est en appui contre la face amont 9 du pied 4 de l'aube 3. Le rôle de la cale 6 est d'empêcher l'aube 3 de tomber dans la rainure 5, lors de l'arrêt de la soufflante et d'encaisser une partie de l'énergie lors d'un choc sur la pale de l'aube par suite de l'ingestion d'un corps étranger par exemple ou de la rupture d'une aube voisine.A shim 6 is disposed between the base of each blade root 4 and the bottom of the groove 5. This shim 6 comprises, on the side of the upstream face 7 of the disk 2, a heel 8 which bears against the upstream face. 9 of the foot 4 of the blade 3. The role of the shim 6 is to prevent the blade 3 from falling into the groove 5, when stopping the fan and to collect a portion of the energy when of a shock on the blade of the dawn as a result of the ingestion of a foreign body for example or the rupture of a neighboring dawn.
  • Sur la face aval 10 du disque 2 est fixé un flasque aval, non montré sur les dessins, contre lequel les pieds 4 des aubes 3 sont en butée.On the downstream face 10 of the disk 2 is fixed a downstream flange, not shown in the drawings, against which the feet 4 of the vanes 3 abut.
  • Un flasque amont 12 est également prévu sur la face amont 7 du disque 2, dont le rôle est d'empêcher les pieds 4 des aubes 3 de s'échapper des rainures 5 par coulissement après le montage du rotor 1. Ce flasque amont 12 est fixé sur des brides du disque 2 par des vis, afin de permettre son démontage, en cas de nécessité de remplacement d'une aube 3.An upstream flange 12 is also provided on the upstream face 7 of the disk 2, the role of which is to prevent the feet 4 of the blades 3 from escaping from the grooves 5 by sliding after the mounting of the rotor 1. This upstream flange 12 is fixed on disk 2 flanges by screws, so to allow its disassembly, in case of need to replace a blade 3.
  • Sur la figure 2, on voit le jeu de montage J qui existe entre le talon 8 et la face aval 13 du flasque amont 12. Le pied 4 d'une aube 3 peut donc se déplacer d'une distance axiale J dans sa rainure 5, ce qui peut entraîner un déséquilibrage du rotor 1 et générer des vibrations lors du fonctionnement.On the figure 2 , we see the mounting clearance J between the heel 8 and the downstream face 13 of the upstream flange 12. The foot 4 of a blade 3 can therefore move an axial distance J in its groove 5, which can cause an imbalance of the rotor 1 and generate vibrations during operation.
  • Selon l'invention, le flasque amont 12 comporte devant chaque pied d'aube 4 un orifice 15 qui retient le fût 16 d'un pion 17 en élastomère, ce pion 17 comportant une tête 18 de diamètre plus grand que celui de l'orifice 15, et ayant une épaisseur au moins égale au jeu J. Ainsi que cela est montré sur la figure 3, la tête 18 du pion 17 est disposée sur la face aval 13 du flasque amont 12, et cette tête 18 est comprimée entre la face aval 13 du flasque amont 12 et la face amont du talon 8 de la cale 6.According to the invention, the upstream flange 12 comprises, in front of each blade root 4, an orifice 15 which holds the barrel 16 of a pin 17 made of elastomer, this pin 17 comprising a head 18 of diameter greater than that of the orifice 15, and having a thickness at least equal to the set J. As is shown in FIG. figure 3 , the head 18 of the pin 17 is disposed on the downstream face 13 of the upstream flange 12, and this head 18 is compressed between the downstream face 13 of the upstream flange 12 and the upstream face of the heel 8 of the spacer 6.
  • Le pion 17 exerce ainsi des forces élastiques sur le talon 8 dans une direction axiale. Comme le talon 8 est en appui contre le pied d'aube 4 adjacent, ce dernier est sollicité en permanence vers le flasque aval, contre lequel il est en butée. Cette disposition simple, permet de maîtriser le jeu axial des aubes 3 et d'empêcher un déplacement axial aléatoire des aubes 3.The pin 17 thus exerts elastic forces on the heel 8 in an axial direction. As the heel 8 is in abutment against the adjacent blade root 4, the latter is constantly urged towards the downstream flange, against which it is in abutment. This simple arrangement makes it possible to control the axial play of the blades 3 and to prevent random axial displacement of the blades 3.
  • Les figures 4a et 4b montrent en perspective des vues du pion 17 et la figure 5 montre en perspective la face aval 13 du flasque amont 12.The Figures 4a and 4b show in perspective views of pawn 17 and the figure 5 shows in perspective the downstream face 13 of the upstream flange 12.
  • Les pions 17 sont évidemment montés sur le flasque amont 12 avant le montage de ce dernier sur le disque 2. La référence 20 désigne un orifice ménagé dans le flasque amont 12 et servant à la fixation de ce dernier sur des brides du disque 2 au moyen de vis. Le serrage de ces vis exerce sur les têtes 18 des pions 17, un effort de compression suffisant pour empêcher tout déplacement axial ultérieur des aubes 3, en fonction de l'écart entre les épaisseurs des têtes 18 au repos et le jeu de montage J d'origine. Cet effort de compression pourra varier d'une aube à l'autre selon les tolérances de fabrication des aubes 3 et des pions 17.The pins 17 are obviously mounted on the upstream flange 12 before mounting the latter on the disc 2. The reference 20 designates a hole in the upstream flange 12 and for fixing the latter on flanges of the disc 2 by means quote. The tightening of these screws exerts on the heads 18 of the pins 17, a compressive force sufficient to prevent any subsequent axial displacement of the blades 3, as a function of the difference between the thicknesses of the heads 18 at rest and the mounting clearance J d 'origin. This compressive force may vary from one blade to another depending on the manufacturing tolerances of blades 3 and pins 17.

Claims (4)

  1. A fan rotor of a turbojet comprising a disk (2) having a rim with a plurality of substantially axial grooves (5) that are regularly spaced apart angularly, a plurality of removable blades (3) extending radially outwards from the periphery of said disk (2), each blade (3) having a blade root (4) received in a respective groove (5), a downstream flange plate secured to said disk (2), and a removable upstream flange plate (12) secured to said disk (2) for the purpose of retaining the blade roots (4) in the grooves (5),
    the rotor being characterized by the fact that said downstream flange plate, with the downstream faces of the blade roots being in abutment thereagainst, is fixed on said disk (2) and the upstream flange plate (12) is fitted prior to assembly on its downstream face (13) with resilient means (17) for exerting sufficient force on the upstream faces of the blade roots, after assembly, to prevent any axial displacement of the blades (3) during normal operation of the engine.
  2. A fan rotor according to claim 1, characterized by the fact that resilient means (17) specific to each blade root (4) are provided.
  3. A fan rotor according to claim 2, characterized by the fact that the resilient means specific to each blade root (4) are constituted by an elastomer peg (17) retained in an orifice (15) formed in the upstream flange plate (12).
  4. A fan rotor according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized by the fact that it further comprises a spacer (6) interposed between each blade root (4) and the bottom of the corresponding groove (5), the spacer (6) having a radially-extending lug (8) bearing against the upstream face (9) of said blade root (4), and by the fact that the resilient means bear against said lugs (8).
EP20030292280 2002-09-18 2003-09-16 Axial positioning control of a compressor blade Active EP1400698B1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FR0211539A FR2844562B1 (en) 2002-09-18 2002-09-18 Control of the axial position of a blower rotor blade
FR0211539 2002-09-18

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP1400698A1 EP1400698A1 (en) 2004-03-24
EP1400698B1 true EP1400698B1 (en) 2008-09-03

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EP20030292280 Active EP1400698B1 (en) 2002-09-18 2003-09-16 Axial positioning control of a compressor blade

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US (1) US6910866B2 (en)
EP (1) EP1400698B1 (en)
JP (1) JP4059827B2 (en)
CA (1) CA2440995C (en)
DE (1) DE60323309D1 (en)
ES (1) ES2314167T3 (en)
FR (1) FR2844562B1 (en)
RU (1) RU2315206C2 (en)
UA (1) UA79088C2 (en)

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GB9412963D0 (en) * 1994-06-28 1994-09-28 Rolls Royce Plc Gas turbine engine fan blade assembly
FR2803623B1 (en) * 2000-01-06 2002-03-01 Snecma Moteurs Arrangement for axial retention of blades in a disc

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
FR2844562A1 (en) 2004-03-19
JP4059827B2 (en) 2008-03-12
FR2844562B1 (en) 2004-10-29
US6910866B2 (en) 2005-06-28
US20040126240A1 (en) 2004-07-01
CA2440995C (en) 2011-02-08
RU2003128928A (en) 2005-03-20
ES2314167T3 (en) 2009-03-16
CA2440995A1 (en) 2004-03-18
UA79088C2 (en) 2007-05-25
DE60323309D1 (en) 2008-10-16
RU2315206C2 (en) 2008-01-20
JP2004263688A (en) 2004-09-24
EP1400698A1 (en) 2004-03-24

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