EP1316774A1 - High penetration and lateral effect projectiles having an integrated fragment generator - Google Patents

High penetration and lateral effect projectiles having an integrated fragment generator Download PDF

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Publication number
EP1316774A1
EP1316774A1 EP01127470A EP01127470A EP1316774A1 EP 1316774 A1 EP1316774 A1 EP 1316774A1 EP 01127470 A EP01127470 A EP 01127470A EP 01127470 A EP01127470 A EP 01127470A EP 1316774 A1 EP1316774 A1 EP 1316774A1
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EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
active
pressure
characterized
transmission medium
body according
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Granted
Application number
EP01127470A
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German (de)
French (fr)
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EP1316774B1 (en
Inventor
Gerd Kellner
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Futurtec AG
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GEKE Technologie GmbH
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Priority to EP20010127470 priority Critical patent/EP1316774B1/en
Publication of EP1316774A1 publication Critical patent/EP1316774A1/en
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B12/00Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material
    • F42B12/02Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material characterised by the warhead or the intended effect
    • F42B12/36Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material characterised by the warhead or the intended effect for dispensing materials; for producing chemical or physical reaction; for signalling ; for transmitting information
    • F42B12/367Projectiles fragmenting upon impact without the use of explosives, the fragments creating a wounding or lethal effect
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B12/00Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material
    • F42B12/02Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material characterised by the warhead or the intended effect
    • F42B12/20Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material characterised by the warhead or the intended effect of high-explosive type
    • F42B12/201Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material characterised by the warhead or the intended effect of high-explosive type characterised by target class
    • F42B12/204Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material characterised by the warhead or the intended effect of high-explosive type characterised by target class for attacking structures, e.g. specific buildings or fortifications, ships or vehicles
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B12/00Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material
    • F42B12/02Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material characterised by the warhead or the intended effect
    • F42B12/20Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material characterised by the warhead or the intended effect of high-explosive type
    • F42B12/208Projectiles, missiles or mines characterised by the warhead, the intended effect, or the material characterised by the warhead or the intended effect of high-explosive type characterised by a plurality of charges within a single high explosive warhead

Abstract

A projectile comprises an inner inert pressure transfer medium (4), a sleeve (2A), a pressure generating unit (5) which borders onto or is located in the inert medium, and an activating unit (7). The pressure generating unit has one or more elements (6). The mass of the pressure generating unit is low in relation to that of the pressure transfer medium.

Description

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The invention relates to an active penetrator which is also highly effective, an active one Projectile, an active missile or an active multi-purpose projectile with one constructively adjustable ratio between breakdown performance and lateral Effect. The final ballistic effect from penetration depth and area coverage / In the active case, the area load is determined independently of the position of the Active body triggerable device (device) triggered. This is achieved by means of a suitable inert transmission medium, e.g. a liquid, a pasty Medium, a plastic, a substance composed of several components or a plastically deformable metal, inside it via a pressure generating / detonative device (also without primary explosive) with integrated or functional Ignition release with integrated ignition protection a quasi-hydrostatic or hydrodynamic pressure field built up and on the surrounding, splintering or Sub-storey shell is transferred.

With end ballistic functional units, a distinction is usually made between:

  • Balancing projectiles (KE projectiles, swirl or aerodynamically stabilized arrow projectiles);
  • Shaped charges (HL projectiles, flat cone charges, preferably aerodynamically stabilized) with ignition device;
  • Explosive projectiles with ignition device;
  • inert fragments, eg PELE (penetrator with increased lateral effects) or with dismantling charge with ignition device;
  • so-called multi-purpose bullets / hybrid bullets (explosive / splinter effect with eg HL effect, acting radially or in the direction of flight ("ahead"));
  • Tandem floors (KE, HL or combined);
  • Warheads (mostly with HL and / or splinter / explosive effect); and
  • Penetrators or sub-penetrators in missiles or warheads.

There are also corresponding ones for a number of the above-mentioned categories of active bodies Special constructions. These usually unfold certain, constructively or technologically (material side) predetermined effects. An effect-optimized design but is usually with a serious limitation of the range of effects connected. In order to meet the requirements of the battlefield, one therefore takes action mostly on a combination of several (two or three) separate functional units back (e.g. separately fed ammunition, mixed belting, etc.). simplistically you combine, for example, bullets (KE effect) with explosive and fragmentary bullets.

The simplification of the ammunition range without restricting the spectrum of action is thus a solution that should always be sought. In the field of balancing projectiles through the laterally acting penetrators (PELE penetrators) a crucial one Progress made. Such PELE penetrators are, for example, in DE 197 00 349 C1 disclosed. This functional unit combines the KE depth effect with a splinter or sub-floor generation in such a favorable way that with a whole series of applications of this ammunition concept solely for the fulfillment of the tasks set sufficient. The key limitation with this principle of operation is that that an interaction with the target is necessary to trigger the lateral effects, because This is the only way to build up an appropriate internal pressure, via which the final ballistic effective shell can be accelerated laterally or disassembled.

With the present invention, a way is shown, as with as few as possible Limitations of the range of effects not only the performance spectrum of pure balancing projectiles linked to that of explosives / fragments / multi-purpose / tandem projectiles functions, but also functions that have not yet been combined, separate types of ammunition are to be integrated. This will make the properties possible to combine the most diverse ammunition concepts in a single functional unit. This not only leads to a decisive improvement of previously known multi-purpose bullets, but also to an almost unlimited expansion of the conceivable Range of applications for ground, air and sea targets and in the defense against missiles.

The invention does not intend to use pyrotechnic powder or explosives alone to use casing disassembling or splinter accelerating elements. such Bullets are in a wide variety of designs with and without an ignition device known (see e.g. DE 29 19 807 C2). DE 197 00 349 C1 already names these Possibility, for example in connection with an expansion medium as a single component.

From US-A-4,625,650 is an explosive and with a hollow cylindrical as well aerodynamically designed copper jacket provided with fire tube with tubular Heavy metal penetrator with explosive device known. Taking into account the relative small caliber (12.7 mm) is a sufficient depth effect with additional Lateral effect cannot be achieved for physical reasons alone. Its active components do not correspond in their functionality to that in the context of this Invention outlined facts.

Another floor is known from US-A-4,970,960, which is essentially one Projectile core and an attached and connected tip with molded Mandrel includes, the inner mandrel in a bore of the projectile core is arranged. It can be made of a pyrophoric material, for example zirconium, Titanium or their alloys exist. This floor is also not active. As well it contains no expansion medium.

From DE-A-32 40 310 an armor-piercing projectile is known, by means of which a Fire-generating effect should be achieved inside the target, with the projectile one largely formed as a solid body cylindrical metal body arranged thereon Tip and a fire set in the cavity of the metal body comprises, for example, as a cylindrical solid or as a hollow cylindrical Sleeve is formed. With this bullet, the outer shape remains unchanged when penetrating, inside, an adiabatic compression with explosive Incineration of the incendiary device. No active components are included here either nor are there any means of achieving a dynamic expansion of the Penetrator acting metal body and its lateral disassembly or fragmentation intended.

In a very much further embodiment of all previously known approaches to generating lateral effects, the chemical / pyrotechnic aids which basically only generate sufficient internal pressure should not only be minimized, but should be optimally disassembled by embedding them in pressure-transmitting media with the least amount of pyrotechnical effort or volume these envelopes or segments which produce or give off fragments or sub-floors can be reached. This separation of the functions of pressure generation and pressure spreading or pressure transmission only opens up the range of applications for individual active elements, projectiles or warheads that have so far been only partially recognized. As examples, elements that are ejected are used for large-caliber ammunition outside or within a target, for dropped flight bombs to combat shelters, for warheads up to TBM ( T actical B allistic M issile) - defense and for use in so-called killer satellites and finally when used in super cavitating torpedoes / high speed torpedoes.

In DE 197 00 349 C1 projectiles or warheads are disclosed, which means an inner arrangement for the dynamic formation of expansion zones sub-floors or produce splinters with a large lateral effect. In principle, this is the Interaction of two materials when hitting armored targets or when Penetration and penetration into homogeneous or structured goals in such a way that the inner, dynamically insulated material compared to the surrounding, with a higher Material that is penetrating or penetrating at speed builds up a pressure field and thereby granted a lateral velocity component to the outer material. This pressure field is determined by both the projectile and target parameters. There such penetrators both in their starting form and in individual components (Fragments, sub-floors) should have the greatest possible end ballistic effect, steel or preferably tungsten heavy metal (WS) is suitable for the casing. Out The intended decomposition with given target parameters then results in the pallet suitable expanding media. Depending on the combination selected, the impact speeds are already at generated by a few 100 m / s expansion pressures, which is reliable Ensure the projectile or warhead is disassembled. Technical or material specific Aids such as design or partial weakening The surface or the choice of brittle materials as the shell material are fundamental not a prerequisite, but expand the range of designs and the range of applications with these so-called PELE penetrators.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention provides a further developed active body with the Features of claim 1 before.

The active body according to the present invention has an inner, inert Pressure transmission medium, an active body shell, one to the inert pressure transmission medium adjoining or incorporated in this pressure generating device and a activatable trigger device. The pressure-generating device has here or more pressure generating elements, the mass of the pressure generating Device is small in relation to the mass of the inert pressure transmission medium. It has been found in an active body constructed in this way with a low mass ratio between the pressure generating device and the pressure transmission medium via a pressure pulse triggered by an ignition signal Detonator can cause a lateral decomposition of such an active body.

The ratio of the mass of the pressure generating device referred to as low The mass of the inert pressure transmission medium is preferably at most 0.6, particularly preferably at most 0.5. There can be even lower values of maximum 0.2 to 0.3 can be selected.

It is also advantageous to the ratio of the mass of the pressure generating unit to Total mass of the pressure transmission medium and the active body shell to a maximum of 0.1 or limit a maximum of 0.05. This ratio is particularly preferably 0,0 0.01, where even smaller values can be selected.

The pressure transmission medium preferably consists entirely or partially of a Material selected from the group with light metals or their alloys, plastically deformable metals or their alloys, thermosetting or thermoplastics, organic substances, elastomeric materials, glassy or powdery materials, pressed bodies of glassy or powdery materials, and mixtures or combinations thereof. Moreover the pressure transmission medium can be made partially from pyrophoric or other energetic positive, i.e. for example flammable or explosive materials. The Pressure transmission medium can also be pasty, gelatinous or gel-like or be liquid.

The present invention relates to an active projectile or an active body, the final ballistic depth effect with either a programmed and / or the basement and / or splinter formation determined by the target to be combated is combined. The entire spectrum of effects is varied Aim in previously unknown ways so that technically fundamentally universally designed penetrator by changing individual floor parameters the intended effects or target assignments as best as possible achieved that the concept determining the invention largely independent of the Type of projectile or missile with regard to its stabilization (e.g. swirl or aerodynamically stabilized, folding stabilizer, shape stabilization or otherwise in the target spent), with regard to the caliber (full caliber, sub-caliber) and with regard to the movement or Acceleration type (e.g. cannon-accelerated, rocket-accelerated) as a floor / Warhead designed or integrated into such. The invention Arrangement (projectile or missile) generally does not require any airspeed to trigger their function. An own speed determines however, the final ballistic performance in the direction of flight. It is in combination with the to combine the active part and the triggering point particularly effectively.

The universal possibilities of the arrangement according to the invention thereby come expressed that without changing the basic principle on one side it is a Arrow bullet of highest penetration with additional, over the entire length or act in places that form fragments or sub-floors can, on the other hand, primarily around you with a (e.g. pyrotechnic) Active element filled projectile container, which in turn over the entire length or only can deliver sub-floors or fragments in some areas. And this basically on the Trajectory, when approaching the target, when hitting, at the beginning of the intrusion, during the finish line, or only after penetration.

The penetrator according to the invention (projectile or missile) has in addition to its active properties a structurally adjustable ratio between breakdown performance and lateral effect. The basically inert mode of action is thereby by means of a position-determined or independent of the position of the active body triggerable device / device for triggering or supporting the lateral Efficacy (or the lateral effects) initiated. This is achieved by means of one via a suitable inert transmission medium, e.g. a liquid, a pasty Medium, a plastic, a polymeric material or a plastically deformable metal a pyrotechnic / detonative building up a quasi-hydrostatic or hydrodynamic pressure field Device (also without primary explosive) with built - in or Functional ignition initiation with integrated ignition protection.

Figures 1A and 1B show such active lateralwirksame penetrators ALP (A ktiver L ateralwirksamer P enetrator), Fig 1A (spin-stabilized, for example) in a shorter and 1B (aerodynamically stabilized, for example) in a longer construction with an outer ballistic cap or tip.. 10. The enveloping body 2A, 2B, which is effective because of its material properties, mass and speed, forms the central KE component. This body 2A, 2B, which is either completely or partially closed, envelops an inner part 3A, 3B, which is filled in the region of a desired active lateral action with a suitable transmission medium 4, which exerts the pressure on the enveloping body 2A generated by a controllable pyrotechnic device 5 , 2B transmits and thus causes a breakdown into fragments / sub-floors with a lateral movement component.

When building the pressure field in the inert medium 4 and its effect on the The environment is the acoustic resistance of the adjacent media (density p x longitudinal speed of sound c) of importance. Because this determines the degree of reflection and thus also the energy from the inert medium 4 of the surrounding Case 2A, 2B can be communicated. This connection will for example in the ISL report ST 16/68 by G. Weihrauch and H. Müller "Investigations with new armor materials "explained.

If the acoustic resistances are not equal, the quotient (ρ 1 xc 1 ) / (ρ 2 xc 2 ) is designated as m (with m> 1) and the expression α = (m-1) / (m + 1) is defined as the reflection coefficient α ). This consideration is of interest not only for the pressure transmission medium, but also if, for example, two sleeves or media are to be used in combination (cf. FIGS. 13, 15, 16A, 16B, 23 and 24).

From the above definition it follows that with liquids (c ≈ 1500 m / s) or similar substances, as a rule, over 95% of the incoming impact energy is reflected at the pressure transmission medium / shell interface (steel or WS). But even with a light metal such as aluminum, more than 70% is reflected in a WS casing, and around 50% in light metal compared to a steel casing. There is a particularly wide margin when using plastics and polymers. There the sound propagation speeds fluctuate between 50 m / s and 2000 m / s, the densities between approximately 1 and 2.5 g / cm 3 . When combined with duralumin as a casing and plastic / polymer as a pressure transmission medium, this results in a reflectance of 60% or more, for example for an arrangement with a double jacket or a practice bullet. This therefore decisively determines the efficiency of the pressure transmission medium with regard to speed (time), the pressure transfer and thus the sensitivity (spontaneity) of the lateral spread or also with regard to the axial pressure charging as a function of place and time.

The inert medium 4 is usually a substance that is capable of is to transmit pressure forces dynamically without major damping losses. There are however, cases are also conceivable in which damping properties are desired, such as with certain disassembly specifications or to achieve particularly low disassembly speeds. The inner medium can continue to vary over its length or in its material properties (e.g. different speeds of sound) and thus produce different lateral effects. It is also conceivable about different damping properties of the pressure-transmitting medium 4 axially to effect different dismantling of the shells 2A, 2B. Furthermore, this can Medium 4 also other, for example, supplementing or supporting effects Possess properties. Poured into the inert medium 4 Elements or inner shells or structures delimiting the interior 3A, 3B (e.g. inserted sub-floors) neither prevent those inherent in the system PELE- still its ALP properties.

The active pyrotechnic unit 5 can consist of a single one, in relation to the size of the active body small, electrically ignitable detonator 6 exist with a simple touch detector, with a timer, a programmable module, a receiving part and a safety component as an activatable triggering device 7 is connected. This activatable triggering device 7 can be in the tip area and / or rear area of the penetrator and connected by a line 8.

The tip 10 can be hollow or solid. For example, as Housing for additional devices such as sensors or triggering or Security elements of the active pyrotechnic unit 5 are used. It is also conceivable that power-supporting elements are integrated in the tip (see e.g. Fig. 43A to 43D).

A rigid tail assembly 12 is indicated in the aerodynamically stabilized version 1B. This can also be done in the central area, as listed above contain. It is also fundamentally conceivable for the active body to be electronic Contains components in the sense of data processing (so-called "on board systems").

The present invention is therefore not an explosive device or an explosive device or an explosive / fragmentary bullet of conventional design and also not a bullet with a detonator of conventional design with the necessary and very complex (primary / secondary explosive separating) safety devices. It is also not a floor, which is basically a PELE structure according to DE 197 00 349 C1. However, it can be very beneficial and in most applications, this is also compatible with the ALP requirements, if, for example, in a combination of effects or to ensure one Lateral effect even in the inert case in intended and particularly advantageous Applications the properties of a passive lateral penetrator of the well-known PELE type to get integrated.

Further features, details and advantages emerge from the following description of preferred exemplary embodiments of the invention with reference to the accompanying drawings. In it show:

Fig. 1A
a spin-stabilized version of an ALP;
Figure 1B
an aerodynamically stabilized version of an ALP;
Figure 2A
Examples of positions of the auxiliary devices for controlling or triggering and securing the pressure-generating devices on arrow projectiles;
Figure 2B
Examples of positions of the auxiliary devices for controlling or triggering and securing the pressure-generating devices on swirl projectiles;
Figure 3A
a first example of a tail / tail form (for example to accommodate the auxiliary devices) in the form of a rigid wing tail;
Figure 3B
a second example of a tail / tail form (for example to accommodate the auxiliary devices) in the form of a cone tail;
Figure 3C
a third example of a tail / tail form (for example to accommodate the auxiliary devices) in the form of a star tail;
Fig. 3D
a fourth example of a tail / tail form (for example to accommodate the auxiliary equipment) in the form of a tail with a mixed structure;
Figure 4A
a first embodiment of an arrangement of pressure-generating elements in the form of a compact pressure-generating unit in the front middle part;
Figure 4B
a second embodiment of an arrangement of pressure-generating elements in the form of a compact unit in the rear area;
Figure 4C
a third embodiment of an arrangement of pressure-generating elements in the form of a compact unit in the area near the tip;
Figure 4D
a fourth embodiment of an arrangement of pressure-generating elements in the form of a compact unit in the tip;
Figure 4E
a fifth embodiment of an arrangement of pressure-generating elements in the form of an extended slim unit in the front region of the penetrator;
Figure 4F
a sixth embodiment of an arrangement of pressure-generating elements in the form of a continuous slim unit;
Figure 4G
a seventh embodiment of an arrangement of pressure-generating elements in the form of three evenly distributed compact units;
Figure 4H
an eighth embodiment of an arrangement of pressure-generating elements in the form of a combination of a compact unit near the tip with a slim unit;
Fig. 4I
a ninth embodiment of an arrangement of pressure-generating elements in the form of a two-part floor with a compact unit in the rear part;
Figure 4J
a tenth embodiment of an arrangement of pressure-generating elements in the form of a two-part floor with compact units in both parts;
Figure 4K
an eleventh embodiment of an arrangement of pressure-generating elements in the form of a two-part projectile with a compact unit in the top of the projectile and a slim unit in the rear part of the projectile;
Figure 5A
an example of an ALP floor with a control / fuse / release unit in the tip area with a control and signal line to the second unit;
Figure 5B
another example of an ALP projectile with a control / safety / release unit in the rear area with a control and signal line to the second unit;
Figure 6A
various examples of geometries of pressure generating elements;
Figure 6B
further examples of geometries of pressure generating elements;
Figure 6C
still further examples of geometries of pressure generating elements;
Figure 6D
further examples of geometries of pressure-generating elements with cone tips and roundings;
Figure 6E
an example of the combination of two pressure-generating elements of different geometry with a transition area;
Fig. 7
various examples of hollow pressure generating elements;
Figure 8A
an example of an arrangement of interconnected pressure-generating elements;
Figure 8B
an example of the arrangement of a central penetrator connected to external pressure-generating elements;
Figure 9A
the basic structure of an ALP storey with three effective zones positioned one behind the other;
Figure 9B
a schematic representation to explain the operation of an ALP projectile from FIG. 9A, in which all three effective zones are activated before reaching the target;
Figure 9C
a schematic representation to explain the functioning of an ALP projectile from FIG. 9A, in which only the front effective zone (possibly also the rear effective zone) is activated before reaching the target;
Figure 9D
a schematic representation to explain the operation of an ALP projectile from FIG. 9A, in which all three effective zones are only activated when the target is reached;
Fig. 10
a representation of a numerical 2D simulation of the pressure generation by means of a slim detonator-like detonator according to FIG. 4F;
Fig. 11
a representation of a numerical 2D simulation of the pressure generation using two different pressure generating units according to FIG. 4H;
Fig. 12
a further embodiment of an ALP projectile according to the invention with two axial zones A and B of different geometric configuration;
Fig. 13
an embodiment of an active body according to the invention with a symmetrical structure, central pressure-generating element and an inner and an outer pressure transmission medium, in cross section;
Fig. 14
an embodiment of an active body according to the invention with an eccentrically positioned pressure-generating element, in cross section;
Figure 15A
an embodiment example of an active active body according to the invention with an eccentrically positioned pressure generating unit, as well as an inner well pressure-distributing medium and an outer pressure transmission medium, in a cross-sectional view corresponding to FIG. 13;
Figure 15B
in cross section a similar embodiment of an active body according to the invention as in Fig. 13, but with pressure-generating elements in the outer pressure transmission medium and with an inner medium as a reflector;
Figure 16A
in cross section an embodiment of an active body according to the invention with a central penetrator with pressure-generating elements in the penetrator and in the outer pressure-transmitting medium, which can be controlled separately, for example;
Figure 16B
an embodiment of an active body according to the invention with a central penetrator and with pressure-generating elements in the outer pressure-transmitting medium, in cross section;
Fig. 17
a standard structure of an ALP floor in cross section, which is also used as a reference for other embodiments;
Fig. 18
an embodiment of an ALP structure according to the invention with a central penetrator with a star-shaped cross section and several pressure-generating elements, in cross section;
Fig. 19
in cross section an embodiment of an ALP structure according to the invention with a central penetrator with a rectangular or square cross section and several pressure-generating elements;
Fig. 20
in cross section an embodiment of an ALP structure according to the invention corresponding to FIG. 9A with four shell segments;
Fig. 21
an embodiment of an ALP structure according to the invention with two laterally arranged pressure-transmitting media, in cross section;
Fig. 22
an embodiment of an ALP structure according to the invention with a segmented pressure-generating element, in cross section;
Fig. 23
an embodiment of an ALP structure according to the invention with two different, laterally arranged shell shells, in cross section;
Fig. 24
in cross section an embodiment of an ALP structure according to the invention corresponding to Figure 17 with an additional outer jacket.
Fig. 25
in cross section an embodiment of an ALP structure according to the invention with a non-circular cross section;
Fig. 26
an embodiment of an ALP structure according to the invention with a hexagonal central part corresponding to Figure 17 and a splinter ring made of preformed sub-levels or fragments with a non-circular cross-section (for example also with PELE structure);
Fig. 27
an embodiment of an ALP structure according to the invention similar to Figure 26, but with a further shell.
Fig. 28
an embodiment of an ALP floor with four penetrators (for example in PELE design) and a central pressure generating unit;
Fig. 29
an embodiment of an ALP projectile with three penetrators (for example in PELE design) and three pressure generating units arranged in the inert transmission medium;
Figure 30A
an embodiment of an ALP structure with a solid central penetrator with any cross section and three pressure generating units arranged in the inert transmission medium;
Figure 30B
an embodiment of an ALP structure similar to that of FIG. 30A, but with a solid, segment-forming penetrator with a triangular cross section;
30C
an embodiment of an ALP structure in cross section similar to that of Fig. 30B, but with a triangular hollow body;
Figure 30D
an embodiment of an ALP structure in cross section with a cross-shaped inner element;
Fig. 31
a further embodiment of an ALP structure with a central penetrator with any cross-section, which itself is again designed as an ALP;
Fig. 32
an embodiment of a pressure generating unit with a non-circular cross-section;
Fig. 33
an embodiment of an ALP floor with several (here three) units (segments) across the cross section, which can be controlled separately, for example;
Fig. 34
different embodiments for dams;
Fig. 35
an embodiment of a penetrator with a splitter head (at the same time insulation for the initiation of ignition) and a conical jacket;
Fig. 36
an embodiment of a penetrator with dam (for the ignition initiation) and conical pressure-generating element;
Fig. 37
an embodiment of an ALP projectile with a modular inner structure, which is designed for example as a container for liquids;
Fig. 38
an embodiment of an ALP structure with shell segments that can be controlled separately, for example;
Fig. 39
an embodiment of an ALP structure with a jacket of sub-levels;
40A
a representation of an embodiment of a three-part ALP floor showing the basic structure, the active part being provided in the tip area;
Figure 40B
a representation corresponding to FIG. 40A of a three-part ALP projectile, the active part being provided in the central region;
40C
a representation corresponding to FIG. 40A of a three-part ALP projectile, the active part being provided in the rear area;
Figure 40D
another embodiment of a three-part ALP projectile, but with an active tandem arrangement;
Fig. 41
an exemplary representation to explain the separation of an ALP floor;
Figure 42A
an embodiment of a top design of an ALP projectile, with a PELE penetrator;
Fig. 42 B
a further embodiment of a top design of an ALP floor, with an ALP structure;
Fig. 42C
an embodiment of a top design of an ALP floor as a solid active top module;
Figure 42D
a further embodiment of a tip design of an ALP projectile, with a tip filled with active agent;
Fig. 42E
an embodiment of a tip design of an ALP projectile, as a tip with reset pressure transmission medium (cavity);
42F
an embodiment of a tip design of an ALP projectile, as a tip with preferred pressure transmission medium;
Figure 43A
a representation of a 3D simulation, which shows an ALP projectile according to the invention with a compact pressure generating unit and a liquid as the pressure transmission medium (corresponding to FIG. 4C) and a WS jacket;
Figure 43B
a representation of a 3D simulation for a dynamic decomposition of the arrangement according to FIG. 43A, 150 microseconds after the ignition;
Figure 44A
a 3D simulation of an ALP projectile with a slim pressure generating unit, a WS jacket and a liquid as a pressure transmission medium (corresponding to FIG. 4E);
Figure 44B
a representation of a 3D simulation for a dynamic decomposition of the arrangement according to FIG. 44A, 100 microseconds after the ignition;
Fig. 45A
a representation of a 3D simulation of a basic ALP structure according to FIG. 4H with various pressure transmission media;
Figure 45B
a representation of a 3D simulation for a dynamic decomposition of an arrangement according to FIG. 45A, 150 microseconds after ignition, with a liquid being used as the pressure transmission medium;
Fig. 45C
a representation of a 3D simulation for a dynamic disassembly of an arrangement according to FIG. 45A, 150 microseconds after the ignition, wherein a polyethylene (PE) was used as the pressure transmission medium;
Fig. 45D
a representation of a 3D simulation for a dynamic decomposition of an arrangement according to FIG. 45A, 150 microseconds after the ignition, aluminum being used as the pressure transmission medium;
Fig. 46A
a representation of a 3D simulation of an ALP structure with an eccentrically positioned, pressure-generating element (cylinder);
Fig. 46B
a representation of a 3D simulation for a dynamic disassembly of an arrangement according to FIG. 46A, 150 microseconds after ignition, a liquid being used as the pressure transmission medium;
Fig. 46C
a representation of a 3D simulation for a dynamic decomposition of an arrangement according to FIG. 46A, 150 microseconds after ignition, aluminum being used as the pressure transmission medium;
Fig. 47A
a representation of a 3D simulation of an ALP structure with a central penetrator and an eccentrically positioned, pressure-generating element (cylinder);
Fig. 47B
a representation of a 3D simulation for a dynamic decomposition of an arrangement according to FIG. 47A, 150 microseconds after the ignition;
Fig. 48A
an embodiment of a three-part, modular, spin-stabilized projectile (or missile);
Fig. 48B
an embodiment of a four-part, modular, aerodynamically stabilized projectile (or missile);
Fig. 48C
an embodiment of an ALP projectile with a cylindrical or conical part in the active part for more intense lateral acceleration;
Fig. 48D
an enlarged view of the cylindrical / conical portion of the ALP projectile of Fig. 48C;
Fig. 49A
an illustration of an experiment showing a WS cylinder jacket before and after active disassembly;
Figure 49B
a double exposure X-ray flash of the accelerated splinters;
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

DE 197 00 349 C1 describes possibilities for designing the room within the disassembling casing also shown in connection with different materials. All of these design features can basically be integrated into an active part in accordance with the present invention can be integrated. In addition to this, the conical Design of the pressure-generating interior are called - see. Fig. 12, 34 and 42B - and the division of the cross-sectional area into segments with, for example, different ones pressure transmitting materials - cf. Fig. 33. In addition, since the pressure build-up is carried out separately, the range of materials to be used practically unlimited. The same applies to the dimensions (thicknesses) of those involved components

In DE 197 00 349 C1 some examples of the design of the Shell or sub-storey producing or releasing shell in connection with a Expansion medium - also in connection with a central penetrator - called. This technically demanding and extremely varied range of laterally acting projectiles or warheads can be created by using pressure-generating pyrotechnic Expand facilities to extreme application situations. And this is especially true for large-caliber ammunition and warheads.

As already mentioned, the area of application is for active, laterally active penetrators practically not limited. The pressure-generating component and your assigned auxiliary facilities of particular importance. It is also a special one Advantage of the present invention that the effectiveness of an ALP (Active Lateral Effective Penetrator) advantageous even in technically relatively simple arrangements can be used.

Regarding the technical design for triggering the pressure-generating elements to distinguish between a simple contact ignition, which is already on the projectiles in various embodiments is used and is therefore available, one delayed ignition (also known), proximity ignition (e.g. by radar or IR technology) and remote-controlled ignition on the trajectory, for example over a timer.

It is another advantage of the present invention that it is not specific Systems or their level of development. Rather, this compares their universal usability and the technical design options depending on the state of development, there may still be properties to be improved Systems largely out. The present invention further benefits from the fact that Particularly in recent years, there has been decisive progress in terms of Miniaturization of ignition devices in connection with electronic improvements and new developments were achieved. For example, systems like Electric Foil Initiation (EFI) and ISL technology are known to perform such functions with very small dimensions (a few millimeters in diameter and 1 to 2 cm in length) and small masses with low energy requirements. The lowest energy requirement however need the simplest ignition systems. So it has to be weighed between necessary security and effort.

Basically, the tip is essential for the performance of a floor Parameters represent this point of view in DE 197 00 349 C1 treated. However, this applies to the application scenario there much more pronounced and also more restrictive than for the possible field of application of the present invention. In this The top of the projectile is connected in addition to the reduction of the external ballistic Resistance assigned positive (supportive) functions rather than negative ones, such as hindering the intrusion or triggering of a function Characteristics. As positive examples, i.a. are called: lace as Construction space, detachable tip, tip as an upstream penetrator.

The principle of action according to the present invention is also suitable for targeted Storey dismantling / spatial limitation of the effective distance, for example at Missing a target or when laying out practice bullets. Here you can compressed or pressed materials (powder compacts, plastics or fiber materials) can be used advantageously as shell material, since this is either a experience fine distribution when pressurized or practical in end ballistic disassemble ineffective particles. It can also be just a part of the projectile / penetrator be disassembled / accelerated laterally, so that the projectile / penetrator rest basically remains functional. For example, several splinter levels can be found on the flight may be delivered as illustrated in FIG. 9B, or it may be a certain part can be blasted off just before hitting it, like this is exemplified in Fig. 9C.

The ALP principle is therefore particularly useful for projectiles / warheads Self-dismantling facilities suitable. So with relatively little effort or with a very small additive volume use or volume loss a safe one Self-decomposition can be achieved. It is even possible in principle, even with slim KE bullets to provide a system for limiting the depth of action.

Projectiles of this type are also particularly suitable for combating incoming Threats such as warheads or TBMs (Tactical Ballistic Missiles) or combat or reconnaissance drones. The latter becomes one on the battlefield attached increasing importance. They are difficult to fight with direct hits. Conventional fragments are also practical due to the Encounter situation with drones and the splinter distribution less efficient. The Mode of operation of the present invention in combination with a corresponding one Tripping unit, however, promises a very effective application here.

A storey concept according to the proposed invention is also suitable especially for use in penetrators accelerated by means of rockets (boosters) or as an active component of rocket-like missiles. These can, for example in addition to the classic application of large caliber barrel weapons at Fighting sea targets and used as on-board missiles for combat aircraft become.

2-9 and 12-41, a variety of embodiments are listed. This have the task of the possibilities of the active principle according to the present Not only to explain the invention, but also a variety of technical to the expert Possible solutions in the design of active laterally acting penetrators convey.

2A and 2B are examples of the positions of auxiliary devices of the active part. The aerodynamically stabilized shown in Fig. 2A Version is divided into two separate modules to explain that in particular at longer penetrators or comparable functional units, e.g. rocket accelerated Penetrators, also a subdivision of the active components or one Mixing with other functional units is possible, as is also in FIGS. 48A and 48B is indicated. Preferred positions here are the tip region 11A, the front one Area of the first active laterally effective projectile module 11B, the rear area of the active laterally effective projectile module 11E, the front 11F, middle 11C and the rear area 11D of the second active laterally effective projectile module or Storey tails or the middle area between the modules 11G.

In the spin-stabilized version shown in FIG. 2B, the positions of the Auxiliary devices preferably in the tip area 11A, in the front floor area 11B or in the rear area 11E. Furthermore, a receiving unit (auxiliary device) also located in space 11H between the ALP and the outer shell his.

In both floor versions, the remaining part of the tip can be hollow or filled be (with an active ingredient, for example). With a sub-calibrated design of the active part can the space up to the outer skin also for additional functional units or as Construction space can be used for additional equipment.

By using special tail geometry, larger volumes for the Integration of auxiliary facilities can be created. 3A to 3D are some Examples compiled. 3A shows this in particular for comparison purposes recorded wing tail 13A. FIG. 3B shows a cone tail 13B, FIG. 3C Star tail 13D and Fig. 3D a mixture of wing and cone tail 13D. It perforated cone tail units are also conceivable, as are tail units formed from ring surfaces or other stabilization devices.

4A to 4K are basic positions and structures of the pressure generating Elements or the pressure-generating elements of active laterally active Penetrators put together. 4A and 4B show such pyrotechnic Devices in a compact design (cf. exemplary embodiments in the 6A, 6B and 6D) in the front central area or in the rear floor area or Rear area, and Fig. 4C and 4D in the near-tip and in the tip area. In Fig. 4E a slender pressure generating element extends approximately over the front half of the Penetrators, in Fig. 4F over the entire length of the penetrator. The arrangement of Fig. 4C corresponds to the simulation example in FIG. 43A / B, the arrangement of FIG. 4E corresponds to that Simulation example in Fig. 44A / B.

4G shows the case in which several pressure-generating elements are in one Penetrator / projectile / warhead are located, as also in the representations of Fig. 9 is the case.

4H there are two different pressure-generating elements in a one-piece ALP Elements (see numerical simulations in Figs. 46A to 46D).

4I to 4K stand for two-part ALP projectiles. So Fig. 41 shows as an example a two-part ALP with an active part in the rear element / module while moving in Fig. 4J compact pressure-generating elements are located on both floors. This can be controlled separately or individually. 4K shows mixed pressure generating Elements (a compact pressure generating unit in the tip and a slim unit in the rear) to achieve certain disassemblies, which are usually determined by the type of target to be combated and the intended effect become.

Of course, the number of active modules to be connected in series is fundamental is not restricted and is determined solely by structural factors such as For example, the available length, the application scenario such as mainly splinter or sub-floor levy and the type of floor or Warhead predefined.

For reasons of simple manufacture and handling, and in particular because of the Mostly any design options are explosive modules are used as pressure-generating elements. However, in principle, too other pressure generating devices conceivable. As an example, here is a chemical Pressure generation by an airbag gas generator can be called. That too is Combination of a pyrotechnic module with a pressure or volume generating element conceivable.

5A and 5B are examples of the connection / connection of various pressure-generating Elements shown on a single floor. This connection 44 can for example by means of a signal line / transmission charge / ignition line / detonating cord or wirelessly with or without a time delay. Of course you are here only a few representative possibilities are shown, the possible combinations are practically unlimited.

4A to 4K are examples of the arrangement of pressure generating elements in active laterally active penetrators are shown, so the possible combinations by the examples of pressure generating shown in Figs. 6A to 6E Elements expanded accordingly. For the sake of clarity are the pressure-generating elements in one compared to their execution shown enlarged view.

6A shows four examples of compact, locally concentrated elements (also Detonators), for example a spherical part 6K, a short cylindrical part 6A in the order of length L to diameter D of L / D≈1; Part 6G shows as another Example a short truncated cone and part 6M a pointed, slim cone. In 6B are a short pressure generating element 6B with L / D as examples between 2 and 3 and a slim pressure generating element 6C. there can be, for example, a detonating cord or an ignition cord-like one Act detonator (L / D greater than about 5).

As another example, a disc-shaped element 6F is shown in FIG. 6C. Of course are also combinations with the elements shown or with other elements conceivable, as shown in Example 6P.

6D shows exemplary embodiments for the case that by means of a appropriate design of the pyrotechnic elements especially in the front part of a Penetrators or in the tip area a predominantly radial the surrounding parts Speed component to be issued. This is preferably done using a conical design of the tip of the pressure generating elements 6H, 60, 6N or above a rounding 6Q.

It can also be particularly advantageous, depending on the desired effect or disassembly to allow several pressure-generating elements to interact on one floor. So FIG. 6E shows the connection of a short, laterally acting cylinder 6A with a slim, long element 6C through a transition part 6I. By means of such Arrangements can vary depending on the pressure transmission medium selected Lateral speeds can also be generated in a cylindrical projectile part.

7 shows examples of hollow pressure generating / pyrotechnic components. there it can be ring-like elements 6D or hollow cylinders. these can open (6E) or partially closed (6L).

Basically, it can be assumed that in order to fully develop the effect / Disassembly requires only a small amount of pressure-generating agent. So have both the numerical simulations and the experiments performed confirms that, for example, for large-caliber projectiles (penetrator diameter> 20 mm) explosive cylinders only a few millimeters thick in connection with a liquid or with PE are sufficient for a very efficient disassembly.

Another design option for active laterally effective projectiles or Warheads over the accelerating components are shown in Figures 8A and 8B shown.

8A is a cross section 142 as an example for four outside the center in FIG Pressure transmission medium 4 positioned pressure generating elements 25A (for example 6C), which are connected via a line 28, outlined. Such a possibility is in interaction with FIGS. 15, 16B, 18, 19, 29, 30A to 30D and also 31 and 33 can be seen.

In FIG. 8B, an example of a central pressure-generating module is shown as cross section 143 26, which is shown via the lines 27 with the cross section in the pressure transmission medium 4 positioned further pressure generating elements 25B connected is.

With the illustrated and illustrated embodiments in FIGS. 2 to 7 for the axial storey structure and the possible variations in the pressure generating Elements can already be found at this point, i.e. still without special consideration other parameters such as various pressure transmission media, special radial structures or constructively given details the decisive advantage of active lateral acting penetrators can be made clear using the example of FIGS. 9A to 9D.

When considering in connection with active laterally active penetrators it is useful to define the corresponding distance ranges to the target, because the No generally defined values can be found in literature. It can make a difference between the immediate close range (target distance less than 1 m), the target area (1 to 3 m), the target area (3 to 10 m), the middle Distance range (10 to 30 m), larger target distances (30 to 100 m), the far target Range (100 to 200 m) and large target distances (greater than 200 m).

9A shows reference floor 17A, which is not shown to scale (enlarged). It should in the cylindrical part made up of three active modules designed in the first approximation 20A, 19A and 18A (see FIG. 4G) that are in different positions the three selected target examples 14, 15, 16 are triggered.

FIG. 9B shows the case in which the projectile 17A is in a closer area the target (here about 5 storey lengths) is activated so that the three levels Disassemble 18A, 19A and 20A one after the other. The residual penetrator 17B after Disassembly of the module 18A thus still consists of the two active modules 20A and 19A, the front module 18A has broken down into a splinter ring 18B. After a further approach to target 14, which here consists of three individual plates, for example there is, the splinter ring 18B has widened into the ring 18C in the case of the residual projectile 17C and the module 19A has already formed the splinter or sub-floor ring 19B. The The drawing on the right represents the point in time at which the split 18C has formed further lateral spread of the ring 18D from the splinter ring 19B second stage 19A the splinter ring 19C and from stage 20A of the remaining floor 17C the fragment or sub-floor ring 20B. Of course, the splinter densities take according to the geometric conditions.

This example thus illustrates the great lateral performance of such active laterally active penetrators according to the present invention. From the technical details presented so far, it can also be easily derived that for example via the triggering distance or by an appropriate design accelerating elements a much larger area can be applied. In addition, the decomposition can be set up in this way, for example be that a desired residual breakdown performance at least the central splinter still remains ensured. Penetrators constructed in this way are therefore particularly suitable for relatively light target structures such as against aircraft, unarmored or armored helicopters, unarmored or armored ships and lighter targets / Vehicles in general, especially extensive ground targets.

9C shows a second representative example of a controlled story dismantling. In this case, the projectile 17A is activated only in the vicinity of the target, which here consists of a thin pre-armor 15A and a thicker main armor 15. The front active part 18 A of the floor 17A already has the fragment or sub-floor ring 18B formed; which further extends to ring 18C, which is the Front plate 15A heavily loaded. The residual penetrator 17B meets the pre-armor 15A on. For example, it can act as an inert PELE module and beat it Crater 21A in the main armor 15, the second part 19A being used up. The The remaining projectile module 20A can now be opened by the penetrator part 19A Form formed hole 21 A and - either inert or active - on the inside of the target displace crater 21B. Larger crater fragments are also formed and into the Accelerated inside the target.

In FIG. 9D, the projectile 17A directly meets that which is assumed to be massive in this example Goal 16 on. Here the module 18A is intended to be active for the immediate vicinity (e.g. triggering by tip contact) so that it is opposite the 9C forms comparatively larger crater 22A. Through this can For example, fly the following module 19A into the target interior. In the shown Crater image was assumed to also hit the third module 20A or was activated via a delay element and thus a very large crater diameter 22B forms and corresponding residual effects (effects after the breakthrough) he brings.

For example, it was experimentally proven that with inert PELE penetrators compared to slim, homogeneous arrow projectiles with one of the breakthrough performance of the ALP according to the invention corresponding plate thickness by a factor of 7 to 8 times larger crater volume can be displaced. This finding was, for example in the ISL report S-RT 906/2000 (ISL: German-French Research Institute Saint-Louis) disclosed in detail.

If the module is active, this value can increase considerably. It is there However, it should be noted that this was superseded by Cranz's model law Crater volume per unit of energy is constant in the first approximation. This means that a high lateral effect is usually associated with a loss of depth of penetration. Overall, however, the majority of the cases that occur will turn out to be positive overall The result is that the large-scale target load in the vicinity of the Committee (due to a discharge from the back) the displacement in the interior of the target results in much more energy-efficient punching. In particular with thinner multi-plate targets, a total breakdown performance can be achieved (penetrated total target plate thickness), which certainly with the penetration more compact or even massive penetrators in homogeneous or quasi-homogeneous To compare goals. But even with homogeneous target plates laterally effective penetrators with a comparatively high penetration rate are to be expected because punching in the area of the committee crater favors or earlier is initiated.

Here too it becomes obvious that with floor structures corresponding to the Invention almost any palette is available to produce desired effects according to the present or expected target scenario in a previously not to achieve known bandwidth.

As already mentioned, the selection of pressure-transmitting media opens up another one Parameter field with regard to an optimal design not only with a given one Target spectrum, but also with regard to a floor concept greatest possible range of applications. It is true for those listed here Examples and the corresponding explanations of inert pressure transmission media assumed, but of course can also be reactive in certain cases Materials or active media supporting the lateral effect have such functions take.

In addition to the inert pressure transmission media already mentioned, there are also Materials with special behavior under pressure, such as glassy ones or polymeric materials.

In this context, reference should also be made to the explanations in DE 197 00 349 C1 to get expelled. These are not only fully applicable to the present case transferred, but it results from the special features of the present invention also a much larger range of possible materials such as ductile Metals of higher density up to heavy metals, organic substances (e.g. cellulose, Oils, fats or biodegradable products) or to a certain extent compressible materials of various strengths and densities. Some can cause additional effects, such as the increase in volume when the load is released in the case of glass. Mixtures and batches are of course also available conceivable, as well as powder compacts or materials with pyrotechnic properties and the introduction or embedding of further substances or bodies in the area the transmission medium or the pressure transmission media, insofar as the Functional safety is not unduly restricted. By type, mass and The design of the pressure-generating media gives you practical leeway unlimited.

10 shows ten partial images of a numerical 2D simulation of the pressure spread with a slim pressure generating element (explosive cylinder) 6C in one 1B (partial image 1) - cf. Figures 4F and 44A / B. The detonation front 265 runs through the explosive cylinder (detonation cord) 6C and spreads in it Liquid 4 as a pressure build-up wave (pressure spread front) 266 (sub-images 2 to 5). The Angle of the pressure propagation front 266 is the speed of sound in the Pressure transmission medium 4 determined.

After the cylinder is detonated, wave 266 propagates at the speed of sound of the medium 4 further (much slower here, see drawing 6 and 7). From partial image 5, the waves 272 reflected by the inner wall of the envelope 2B are closed detect. Due to the waves 272 reflected by the envelope 2B, one occurs rapid pressure equalization (drawing files 8 to 9), an advanced pressure equalization 271 is recognizable in drawing 10. In response, the shell wall begins to expand elastically, with sufficient wave energy or appropriate pressure build-up it will expand plastically 274. The dynamic material properties are decisive about the way the casing is deformed, such as the formation of different ones Splinter sizes and basement shapes.

The simulation example shown with a relatively thin explosive cylinder impressively demonstrates the dynamic structure of a pressure field in the pressure transmission medium for casing disassembly according to the present invention. With the geometric design, the choice of the pressure-generating element and the used materials, there are a variety of parameters to achieve optimal Effects.

11 shows ten partial images of a numerical 2D simulation of the pressure spread with a structure of the pressure-generating element according to FIG. 4H (partial picture 1) - cf. 6B, 6E and 45A to 45D. With this example, the influence of different Explosive geometries and their interaction.

Partial picture 2 shows the detonation front 269 of the explosive cylinder 6B and that in the Pressure wave 266 propagating medium 4. In partial image 3, the detonation front 265 runs in the very slim explosive cylinder 6C here. On drawing files 4 and 5 is the Transition 270 of the pressure waves of the short cylinder 267 and the pressure waves of the Detonating cord 268. Likewise, those that are already running back from the inner wall of the casing Waves 272. In sub-images 6 to 10 the reaction takes place on the side of the Detonating cord as described in Fig. 10. Due to the smaller diameter of the Explosive cylinder or the detonating cord, the wave pattern is more pronounced and the Pressure equalization takes place over time. The drawing files also show that from short, thicker explosive cylinder 6B formed pressure field over the entire shown For the time being remains local and that only one print front 267 runs right through the interior. This can, if interpreted accordingly of course also for certain dismantling effects in the right part of the envelope be used. Correspondingly, there is also one on the outside of the casing 2B more pronounced bulge 275 instead, which can already be clearly seen at this point. Whether the load is sufficient to tear open the casing can be determined, for example, by a 3D simulation can be checked (see FIGS. 45A to 45D).

Through a pasty, at least when introduced, quasi-liquid or e.g. polymeric or otherwise at least temporarily made plastic or flowable pressure transfer medium is almost any in a technically particularly simple way Realize internal shape / internal structure. So are great constructive or related manufacturing advantages, such as embedding or pouring of detonators or active parts in a way that is often not mechanical at all would be possible ("rough" inner cylinder, formations on the inside and the like). The nature of the inner surfaces, e.g. from a manufacturing point of view, 18 to 21 with the explanatory text in the patent DE 197 00 349 C1 can be used.

Embodiments in the sense of the present invention are both in lateral and in axial direction possible. Examples are given below for both cases, advantageous combinations are also conceivable.

12 shows an example of an active laterally active projectile 23 with two axially Zones A and B connected in series, each with a pyrotechnic element 118, 119, a (e.g. different) pressure transmitting medium 4A, 4B and the (also own separate) splitters / sub-floors generating casings 2C, 2D in different Design, as well as a third zone C. Zone C represents Example of a tapered envelope 2E with a corresponding in the rear area designed pyrotechnic element 6G, e.g. from the pressure transmission medium 4C can be surrounded - or a taper in the transition area to the top of a Projectile.

The exemplary embodiments set out in FIG. 12 are technically interesting because they show a possibility, the tail, which usually belongs to the dead mass, or the To design the tip as a splinter module. Given that at usual Bullet geometries both the tip length and the conical rear area 2 penetrator diameter / flight diameter can be determined by a corresponding Design a significant part of the floor of an efficient performance implementation fed.

13 stands for an exemplary embodiment 144 with a cross section and symmetrical Structure, a central explosive cylinder 6C and an inner 4D and one outer pressure transmission medium 4E and a splitter / sub-floors generating or delivering envelope 2A / 2B. It is conceivable that in particular Variation of the inner component 4D special effects can be achieved. So can the medium 4D, for example, has a delaying effect on the pressure transmission or else accelerating or the pressure effect when choosing appropriate materials support. Furthermore, the distribution of the area between 4D and 4E can mean density of these two components can be varied, which is when interpreting Shot can be important.

The question of what is necessary arises not least from the point of view of production technology Tolerances or other cost-intensive (e.g. because of technically difficult or elaborate) details. It is another serious advantage of the present Invention that both with respect to the materials used here and in terms of Manufacturing tolerances, at least as far as the effect is concerned, only comparatively low requirements are to be made. Another, especially in this context A big advantage is the fact that with a number of pressure-transmitting media Position of the pressure-generating module (at least if it is of sufficient thickness surrounding pressure-transmitting medium) can be chosen almost arbitrarily.

14 shows an example 145 for an eccentrically positioned pressure generating device pyrotechnic element 84 (see numerical 3D simulations in FIGS. 46A to 46C).

FIG. 15A shows an example of an ALP cross section 30 analogous to FIG. 13, but with a eccentrically positioned, pressure generating element 32 (e.g. explosive cylinder 6C) and an inner (4F) and an outer pressure transmission medium 4G and one Shell 2A / 2B producing or emitting sub-storeys. The inner component 4F should preferably be made from a medium that distributes pressure well, for example one Liquid or PE exist (see explanations for Fig. 31). Otherwise applies to the Both components of the facts already explained for FIG. 13. With appropriate Interpretation of the 4G medium can also be interesting, specifically asymmetrical To achieve effects. This can e.g. can be achieved by having the more massive side of the internal pressure transmission medium 4F as a dam for the pressure generating Element 32 acts and thus a directional orientation is achieved (see also the 30B and 33).

It is now obvious to pursue two concepts by means of this known advantage: For example, extensive pressure equalization or a locally desired pressure distribution. In particular if there are several pyrotechnic elements on the circumference interesting possibilities in terms of effectiveness.

15B shows a structure 31 similar to FIG. 13, but with a pressure generating unit (e.g. corresponding to 6C) in the inner pressure transmission medium 4H and pressure generating elements 35 (here e.g. three) in the outer pressure transmission medium 4I, which can be controlled separately, for example. Of course superstructures without the central component are also conceivable.

It is of particular advantage that in the case of projectiles or penetrators according to the present invention large lateral effects with relatively high penetration rates are to be combined. This can generally be a high overall specific cross-sectional load (limit case, the homogeneous cylinder is more appropriate Density and length) or over high cross-sectional loads partially caused in terms of area can be achieved. Examples of this are solid / thick-walled casings or introduced, primarily centrally positioned penetrators of high slenderness (for Increase in the penetration rate if possible from materials of high hardness, density and / or strengths such as hardened steel, hard and heavy metal). It is also conceivable to design the central penetrator as a (sufficiently pressure-resistant) container with which special parts, substances or liquids have to be brought into the target interior. In In special cases, the central penetrator can also be positioned centrally Module to be replaced, which special effects inside the target are assigned can.

In the following embodiments, a number of approaches for the introduction of such end ballistic service providers with regard to penetration (see, for example, Figures 16A, 16B, 18, 19, 30C and 31).

16A shows a structure 33 with a central hollow penetrator 137. In the cavity 138 of the penetrator 137 can support substances such as fire masses or pyrotechnic substances or flammable liquids. Between the Envelope 2A / 2B and the central hollow penetrator 137 is the pressure transmission medium 4. The pressure build-up can, for example, be annular Pressure generating element 6E take place.

16B shows another example of an inserted central penetrator Cross section 29 with four symmetrically positioned pressure generating elements 35 in Pressure transmission medium 4, which surrounds a central massive penetrator 34. This penetrator 34 not only achieves high end ballistic depth performances, but he is also suitable for on its surface (or near the surface) positioned explosive cylinder 35 to serve as a reflector. Bring more examples this effect is particularly evident (cf. for example FIGS. 18, 19, 30A and 30B).

For the following figures, FIG. 17 is intended to be the standard version of an ALP cross section 120 of the simplest design according to the invention apply.

18 shows an ALP structure 36 with a central penetrator 37 with a star shape Cross section and four symmetrically arranged pressure-generating elements 35. This star-shaped cross-section is available (such as the square / rectangular cross-section in Fig. 19 and the triangular cross-section in Fig. 30A) for any cross-sectional shape.

19 shows an ALP structure 38 with a central penetrator 39 with a rectangular shape or square cross-section and four symmetrically distributed pressure-generating Elements 35. These elements (e.g. explosive cylinders) can be used, for example Achieve a more focused effect in whole or in part in the central penetrator be let in (see partial view).

FIG. 20 shows an ALP structure 40 corresponding to FIG. 17 with two each other oppositely arranged shell segments 41 and 42 as an example of possible different material assignments over the scope or also for one over the Scope of different geometric design of the shell segments. From foreign ballistic However, the different segments should be axisymmetric for reasons to be ordered.

21 shows an ALP structure 133 with a pressure-generating element 6E accordingly Fig. 7. The pyrotechnic part 6E can be a central penetrator enclose or any other medium, for example also a reactive one Component or a flammable liquid (see also comments on Fig. 16A).

22 shows an ALP structure 134 with segmented pressure generators (explosive segments) 43 (see also Fig. 38).

23 shows an ALP structure 46 with two concentrically arranged one above the other Envelope shells 47 and 48. This can, for example, be a combination of a ductile and a brittle material or materials otherwise different Act properties. Such a configuration is also an example of sleeve-supported penetrators. Such sleeves can some constructions may be necessary if, for example, a certain one dynamic strength, for example when firing, must be ensured or if axial arranged modules at least with each other via such a guide or support sleeve at launch, unless such functions are designed accordingly Sabotages are taken over and are to be connected on the trajectory.

24 shows an ALP structure 49 with a central explosive cylinder 6C in the Pressure transmission medium 4 and an inner jacket 2A / 2B in connection with a relatively thick outer jacket 50. Alternatively, as a central pressure generating unit an explosive hollow cylinder corresponding to 6E of FIG. 21 is possible. Then it also results the combination possibility according to FIG. 21. The inner jacket 2A / 2B can for example from heavy metals such as WS, hard metal, a powder compact or from Steel, the outer jacket 50 also made of heavy metal, steel or cast steel, light metals like magnesium, duralumin, titanium or also from a ceramic or non-metallic material. Lighter and increasing the bending stiffness (e.g. to avoid bullet vibrations in the pipe or on the flight) materials are technically particularly interesting with regard to their use in the outer shell. she can form an optimal transition to sabots and with limited total floor masses increase the design scope (basis weight compensation). That prefabricated further active parts can also be introduced, results from the Explanations in connection with the present invention.

25 shows a cross section 51 through the example of an ALP structure with one the outer contour of the flight is not circular. It goes without saying that this Functioning underlying the invention not to certain cross-sectional shapes is bound. Rather, special shapes can contribute to the breadth of design to expand. So it is conceivable that, for example, with the cross section shown in FIG. 25 preferably four large sub-floors are generated. Then this is from Particularly advantageous if there is still a high penetration after the penetrator has been dismantled individual penetrators should be achieved.

Fig. 26 shows an ALP structure 52 with a hexagonal central part with a pressure generating element 6C, a pressure transmission medium 54 and a splinter ring from preformed sub-floors (or splinters) with a non-circular cross-section 53, in which for example again massive penetrators 59 or PELE penetrators 60 or satellite ALPs 45 can be arranged. They are too Connections / lines / detonating cords 61 between the central pressure-generating Element 6C and the peripheral satellite ALPs 45 conceivable.

FIG. 27 shows an ALP structure 55 corresponding to FIG. 26 with an additional shell or sleeve 56. The statements relating to FIGS. 23 and also apply to this element 56 24. The sub-segments between the hexagonal sub-floors 53 and the shell 56 can preferably contain a filling compound 57 to achieve various side effects.

FIG. 28 shows the example of an ALP floor 58 with four (here, for example circular) penetrators (e.g. solid 59 or in PELE design 60) and one central acceleration unit 6C in combination with a pressure transmission medium 4. Between the inner components 59 or 60 and the outer shell 62 can are a filling medium 63, which in turn can be designed as an active medium or can also contain such parts or elements.

29 shows a variant / combination of previously described exemplary embodiments (see e.g. Figures 16B, 18, 19 and 28). The cross section of the penetrator 64 is here from three massive homogeneous sub-floors 59, three pressure-generating devices e.g. corresponding to 6C, a pressure transmission medium 4 and the splitter / sub-floors producing or emitting shell 300. Basically, this example stands for multi-part central penetrators.

In Fig. 30A is also for demonstration of almost any design freedom in In connection with the present invention, a penetrator variant 66 with a central penetrator 67 shown with a triangular cross section. The pressure generating Devices here suitably consist of three explosive cylinders 68. These can be initiated together or separately.

In the cross section 69 shown in FIG. 30B, it divides the entire inner cylinder The triangular central penetrator 70 fills the inner surface in three areas each with a pressure-generating element 68 and a pressure-transmitting medium 4 are equipped. As in the example of FIG. 30A, they can also be used together or can be controlled / initiated separately. It is also conceivable to have a separate one Ignition of the elements 68 a targeted lateral effect can be achieved.

In the cross section 285 shown in FIG. 30C, the inside of the cylinder or Pressure transmission medium 4 a triangular hollow member 286, the interior 287th additionally with a pressure transmission medium or other, the effect enhancing Materials such as reactive components or flammable Liquids can be filled, arranged. For the triangular shell 65 of the Elements 286 then apply the relationships already listed above. As in 30B, three pressure generating elements 68 are provided. With ignition only one Elements 68 will have a distinct asymmetrical pressure distribution and one correspondingly asymmetrical sub-floor or splinter occupancy of the surrounding Space (the area under attack).

In addition to FIGS. 30B and 30C, FIG. 30D shows an ALP cross section 288, at that in the cylinder interior of the surrounding shell 290 by means of a cross-shaped part 289 four chambers are formed, each with a pressure-generating element 68 is located in the pressure transmission medium 4. Here, too, only one is ignited Element 68 an asymmetrical sub-floor or splinter distribution.

In the ALP cross section 71 shown in FIG. 31 based on FIG. 30B, the is central penetrator (or the central module) 72 with triangular cross section itself as ALP executed. There can be between this central penetrator 72 and the sheath 301 e.g. Air, a liquid or solid, a powder, or a mixture or batch 73 are located (cf. comment to FIG. 28), furthermore other pressure-generating bodies 68 corresponding to Fig. 30B. The central pressure generating element 6C and the peripheral pressure-generating elements 68 can also be connected here to a coordinated To achieve effect. Of course, they can also be activated separately. This makes it possible, for example, to close the lateral components when the target is approaching activate and the central ALP at a later date.

The numerical simulation has confirmed that with a suitable choice of the pressure transmitting Media (e.g. liquid, plastic such as PE, glass fiber reinforced materials, polymeric materials, plexiglass and similar materials) even with eccentric ones Positioning of the pressure-generating components, pressure equalization takes place very quickly, which, in a first approximation, disassembles the casing evenly or accordingly even distribution of sub-floors guaranteed (see e.g. Fig. 46B). Nevertheless, it can make sense, especially if the pressure is not quickly equalized Materials on a corresponding design of the pressure generating Components to effect certain effects or desired decomposition. So shows 32 shows, as an example, a penetrator cross section 75 with a pressure generating unit 76 with a non-circular cross-section.

Such shapes are additional, sometimes particularly effective To achieve effects. For example, it is conceivable that the cross-sectional shape of 76 result in four effects similar to cutting charges on the circumference. This is particularly so then advantageous if targeted localized large lateral effects should be achieved. With metallic pressure transmission media with a lower one Compatibility with regard to the dynamic pressure field can be achieved with such Cross-sectional shapes 76, for example, intended certain disassemblies of sheath 302 can be achieved.

The exemplary embodiments shown so far relate to the complexity of the Build up preferably on medium or large caliber penetrators. With warheads, Missiles or large-caliber ammunition (e.g. for firing with howitzers or large-caliber ones Ship guns) are technically more complex solutions, especially with separately (e.g. via a radio signal) to be triggered or permanently programmed Activations possible in certain preferred directions.

33 shows an example of an ALP projectile (warhead) 77 with several (here three) units 79 distributed over the cross section (cross-sectional segments A, B and C, e.g. with a partition 81), which also function separately as ALP (pressure-generating Elements 82 in connection with corresponding pressure transmitting media 80) and separately controllable or with each other by means of a line 140 or via an Signal can be controlled (connected). The three segments are either complete separated or have a common shell 78. This shell 78 can be used, for example Supporting a desired disassembly with notches or slots 83, twists or other mechanically or, for example, laser-generated or material-specific conditioned changes on the surface.

It goes without saying that such interventions in the surface of the splinters generating or sub-storey shell 78 in principle all shown embodiments possible according to the present invention are.

As a modification to the exemplary embodiment from FIG. 13, the ALP cross section however, also an eccentrically positioned pressure generating element such as, for example an explosive cylinder 6C and an inner and an outer pressure transmission medium and have a shell producing or releasing sub-storeys. The inner component should preferably be made of a medium that distributes pressure well, For example, a liquid or PE exist (see explanations for Fig. 31). Otherwise applies to the two components of the facts already explained for FIG. 13. With the appropriate design of the inner medium, it can also be interesting to achieve targeted asymmetrical effects. This can be achieved, for example that the more massive side of the inner pressure transmission medium than dam acts for the pressure generating element 32 and thus a directional orientation is achieved (see also the comment on FIGS. 30B and 33).

After in the previous explanations, explanations and descriptions of present invention the almost unlimited range of possible variations was shown using a variety of examples, more will be shown below execution-oriented points of view. In addition to the corresponding numerical simulations also presented floor concepts that not only the performance of the principle presented as an inert projectile, e.g. as a PELE penetrator, illustrate, but in particular also the possibilities of Modular construction methods combining different service providers explain the ideal complementary effect.

In pyrotechnic devices, the dam is basically a big one Importance because it influences the propagation of the shock waves significantly hence the achievable effects. Damming can be done statically using constructive Measures or dynamic, i.e. due to inertia effects more suitable Pressure transmission media. In principle, this is also possible with liquid media, but only at very high impact or deformation speeds. Is essentially determined dynamic damping through the propagation speed of sound waves, which determine the rate of loading of the pressure transmission medium. There when using active, laterally effective penetrators (projectiles or in particular Dimensions for missiles) can also be expected with relatively low impact speeds insulation, preferably via technical facilities (for example Closing the tail, partitions). A mixed dam, i.e. mechanical devices coupled with dynamic insulation by rigid Print transmission media expand the range of applications. A purely dynamic dam should be reserved for very high impact speeds, e.g. in the TBM-defense.

Fig. 34 shows examples of dams in the introduction of pressure-generating Elements in a penetrator. For example, the tip can be used as a damper Element 93 can be designed. Furthermore, at the locations of a desired dam advantageous to use insulation panels 90 or front 89 and rear cover panels 92. Such elements can also form the end of hollow cylinders. As more of many conceivable other forms of partial or complete constructive insulation of the pressure-generating elements such as the shape 6B (see FIGS. 6A to 6E and FIG. 7) is still a damaging element in FIG. 34 Shown a cylinder 91 open on one side.

One on projectiles or penetrators according to the present invention a particularly interesting way of damaging the pressure-generating elements introduced Elements is the combination with a splitter module. For example, Fig. 35 shows an example ALP floor 84 with a splitter module 85 positioned behind the tip. This serves as a dam for the pressure generating element 6B and for the Initiation of ignition in the pressure generating element (explosive cord) 6C. As another The technical variant for such penetrators is a splitter or sub-storey in FIG. 35 generating or dispensing envelope 86 with conical interior 222 outlined.

It is also conceivable that an externally conical splinter shell (conical jacket) can be used without restriction of the principles of action described.

36 shows a further example of a penetrator 87 with a damaging one Module 91 (e.g. for better ignition initiation), with module 91 being the pressure-generating one Element 6B surrounds itself into a long pressure generating element 88 conical design. With such conical elements 88 can be very simple way different acceleration forces over the floor or Penetrator length can be applied. It is also conceivable to have a conical coat, for example corresponding to 86, with a conical pressure generating element 88 combine.

In the descriptions and explanations relating to the present invention already on liquid or quasi-liquid print transmission media or materials such as PE, Plexiglass or rubber as a particularly interesting pressure transmission medium. With regard to a desired pressure distribution or shock wave propagation one is by no means only dependent on the above-mentioned categories of material, because with a multitude comparable effects can be achieved with other materials (see mentioned materials). However, since liquids in particular have a large scope for offer additional effects in the target, they represent an important element in the range possible functional units. This also applies in particular to the mode of action of a ALP in inert use, which was already discussed in the patent DE 197 00 349 C1 has been.

As far as the introduction of liquid or quasi-liquid agents into an ALP is concerned several constructive options are available. These can, for example, be in existing ones and appropriately sealed cavities are introduced. such Cavities can, for example, also be latticed or foam-like Tissue filled, which is soaked with the introduced liquid or by it is filled out. However, a particularly interesting constructive solution is liquid media by means of appropriately prefabricated and usually before assembly fill filled containers. However, it can also be interesting in terms of application technology be to fill such containers only in an application.

37 shows an ALP example 94 with a modular internal structure (for example as a container for liquids). In this example, the inner module 95 will have the outer diameter 97 and the inner cylinder or the inner wall 96 in the shell 2B introduced (inserted, inserted, screwed in, vulcanized, glued). By a Such a construction can not only be exchanged or used later , but also the pressure-generating element 6C can only be introduced if necessary become. This type of construction is in accordance with the present for active arrangements To use the invention particularly advantageously, since the pressure-generating element 6C (shown here in continuous form) only over a relatively small radial part of the Penetrators must extend because the disassembly is via the pressure transmitting Medium 98, for example a liquid, ensured. So the ALP needs first at the time of its expected use with the pyrotechnic module 6C be provided and, if necessary, the pressure-transmitting liquid medium 98 only in Use case to be filled in the indoor module 95 - a particular advantage of this invention.

Basically, this example also stands for the possibility of corresponding floors to design the present invention in a modular manner. It is quite possible to be active to replace laterally acting modules for example with inert PELE modules or vice versa. The individual inert or active modules can be fixed (form or be non-positively connected or releasably arranged by suitable connection systems become. This would then make the individual modules interchangeable and thus enable a corresponding variety of combinations. So would be such projectiles or missiles also at later times to changed application scenarios easy to adapt or new to combat value enhancement measures optimize.

The same applies to the exchange of homogeneous components or tips. It is only It is advisable to note that replacing individual components does not Overall behavior of the projectile with regard to its interior and exterior ballistics is not changed.

38 shows an ALP example 99 with preformed shell structure fragments / shell segments in the longitudinal direction of the sleeve 102 and a central pressure generating unit 100. The separation 74 between the individual segments 101 can be done by means of the pressure transmission medium 4 or as a chamber with a special material (e.g. for shock absorption and / or for connecting the elements) (example: prefabricated jacket as a separate, replaceable module) - cf. Drawing. The Spaces 74 can also be hollow. This results in an over, for example the extent of the dynamically variable dynamic loading of the casing 102 Change in the web width of partition 74 and the thickness of the sheath 102 or by an appropriate choice of materials, this effect can be varied. An interesting one Application variant results here from the use of many industrial manufactured ball or roller bearing cages. Such modules can of course be arranged in several stages to achieve a larger number of sub-floors.

The consequent further development of the route to generation shown in FIG. 38 a certain splitter / sub-floor occupancy of the battlefield leads to solutions, as shown for example in Fig. 39. It is an ALP floor 170 with a jacket of prefabricated fragments or sub-floors 171, the are surrounded by an outer jacket (ring / sleeve) 172. Be on the inside bodies 171 either of an inner shell / sleeve 173 or sufficient fixed pressure transmission medium 4 held.

Component 171 now results, in particular with large-caliber ammunition or with Warheads or rocket-propelled projectiles, an exceptionally large one Scope with regard to the active bodies to be used. For example, in the The simplest case can be designed as a slim cylinder made of different materials. Furthermore, they can be designed again as ALP 176 (drawing A), for example with a connection to the central pressure-generating element 6A / 6B / 6C and / or be connected with each other or in a summary or Interconnection of assemblies to generate a directional splitter / Sub-floor levy. The sub-floors 171 can also be used as PELE penetrators 179 be formed (partial drawing B). Likewise, these elements 171 represent tubes 174, for example, which have cylinders of different lengths or Materials filled with balls or other prefabricated bodies or liquids are (partial drawing C).

The modular design of a projectile or penetrator according to the present Invention enables the effective zones and the necessary auxiliary devices to position optimally or to divide favorably. 40A to 40D give this Explanations using the example of a three-part floor with a front, one middle and a rear zone.

40A, the active laterally active component 6B is located in the tip or in the tip area of the floor (tip ALP) 103, the auxiliary devices 155 in the rear zone. The connection 152 can be by means of signal lines, radio or through also using pyrotechnic devices (e.g. explosive cord).

In the example in FIG. 40B, the active part 6C with integrated, in Auxiliary devices 155 are located in the central zone of the floor (Mid-segment ALP) 104.

In the example in FIG. 40C, the active part 6B is located in the rear area of the Storey (rear ALP) 105, the auxiliary devices 155 are distributed on top and rear and connected to the active part 6B through signal lines 152.

40D shows an ALP projectile 106 with an active tandem arrangement as an example (Tandem-ALP). The auxiliary device 155 responsible for both active parts is here in Mid-range housed. Of course, the two active modules 6B of the Tandem arrangement can also be controlled or triggered separately. It is also one logical linkage conceivable, for example via delay elements 139 Auxiliary devices 155 can also be arranged decentrally / remote from the axis.

Another technically interesting variant with a modular floor or penetrator is either a technically prescribed one or a dynamically effected one Storey separation / separation of the modules. Dynamic separation / separation can thereby on the flight, before impact, at the time of impact or at Finish crossing. The rear modules can only be activated inside the finish area become.

Fig. 41 shows an example of a floor separation or dynamic separation into individual function modules. This can be done by means of a rear separating charge 251 Be blown off the stern. The charge 251 also serves to build up pressure in one active module 253, designed as an inert PELE penetrator Separating charge 251 a rear detonation is carried out with other, generated by the rear Lateral effects. This results in an optimal use of the floor mass in this Part, since the tail is usually considered a dead mass.

The second element for dynamic separation is the front separation charge 254. In addition to the separation, this can also be sufficient for generating pressure. The top can be blown up and dismantled at the same time. Both become active on this floor Parts using an inert buffer zone or a solid element or a Storey core or / a fragment part 252 separated. Alternatively, the buffer element 252 with a chipping disc 255 to the front active part (or rear part) can be provided or even via an annular pressure generating element 6D achieve a lateral effect. There may also be an auxiliary tip 250 on the rear Projectile part can be provided which protrudes into the buffer element 252.

42A to 42F are examples of the configuration of a projectile tip (Auxiliary tip) shown.

42A shows a tip 256 with an integrated PELE module, consisting of the end-ballistic sleeve material 257 in conjunction with an expansion medium 258. In this embodiment, the tip is still with a small cavity 259 provided, which has a favorable effect on the function of the PELE module, in particular when striking obliquely.

42B shows an active tip module 260, consisting of the splinter jacket 261 in Connection with the pyrotechnic element 263 according to FIG. 6E and a Pressure transmission medium 262. It can make sense to use the tip cover 264 here to fuse with the splinter jacket 261. An even simpler structure results from a waiver of the pressure transfer medium 262. When activated, the Splinter in the direction of the arrows drawn a wreath that is not just one appropriate lateral effect achieved, but also with more inclined goals better impact behavior can be expected.

42C shows a tip design 295 in which a pressure generating element according to FIG 6B partially protrudes into the solid tip and into the projectile body and through the Sleeve 296 is held / insulated. In this way, the tip 295 forms its own Module that is only used, for example, when needed.

A similar arrangement is shown in Fig. 42D, in which the tip 297 is either hollow is executed or is filled with an agent 298 which achieves additional effects. Element 291 corresponds to element 296 in FIG. 42C.

42E shows a tip arrangement 148 in which between hollow tip 149 and a cavity in the projectile body interior or the pressure transmission medium 4 150 is arranged. Target material can flow into this cavity 150 during impact and thereby achieve a better lateral effect.

In Fig. 42F, a tip assembly 153 is shown for completion, in which the Pressure transmission medium 156 protrudes into the cavity 259 of the tip cover 149.

This arrangement can also have a similar effect to the arrangement according to FIG. 42B achieve and a rapid initiation of the lateral acceleration process ..

In the case of the complex relationships that occur in connection with projectiles or penetrators according to the present invention, the three-dimensional numerical simulation using suitable codes such as OTI-Hull with 10 6 grid points is an ideal aid not only for representing the corresponding deformations or disassemblies, but also for Evidence of the additive function of multi-part storeys. The simulations shown in the context of this application were carried out by the German-French Research Institute Saint-Louis (ISL). This tool of numerical simulation has already proven itself in the investigations in connection with laterally acting penetrators (PELE penetrators) (cf. DE 197 00 349 C1) and has since been confirmed by a large number of other experiments.

The dimension plays no role in the simulation. This only goes in the number of grid points required and sets a corresponding computing capacity ahead. The examples were with a bullet or penetrator outer diameter simulated from 30 to 80 mm. The slenderness ratio (length / diameter ratio L / D) is usually 6. This size is also of minor importance because in the calculations not quantitative, but primarily qualitative statements should be won. The wall thicknesses were 5 mm (thin wall thickness) and 10 mm (thick wall thickness) selected. This wall thickness is primarily decisive for the projectile mass and is primarily dependent on the performance of cannon-fired ammunition the weapon, that is the achievable muzzle velocity for a given projectile mass certainly. For missiles or rocket-accelerated penetrators, the is The scope for interpretation is also considerably greater in this regard.

Since most of the examples are basic functional principles, which in particular with large-caliber ammunition or with appropriately dimensioned Warheads or missiles can be used advantageously, there was also one appropriate dimensioning. Of course, all the examples shown are and all positions are not tied to a specific scale. It's just that Question of a meaningful miniaturization of more complex structures also in context to consider with a possible cost issue during the implementation.

Tungsten heavy metal (WS) of medium strength (600 N / mm 2 to 1000 N / mm 2 tensile strength) and corresponding elongation (3 to 10%) was assumed to be the material for the shell / sub-storey-producing shell. Since the deformation criteria on which this invention is based are always met in order to ensure a desired disassembly and one is not dependent on a specific brittleness behavior, not only can a very large range of materials be used, but the scope within a family of materials is also very large and becomes principally only determined by the loads during the launch or other requirements from the storey construction.

Basically apply to active arrangements in the sense of the present invention for the same considerations and selection or Design criteria as for PELE penetrators (see DE 197 00 349 C1). Furthermore are a serious extension to the PELE principle with an active laterally acting Penetrator practically no restrictive criteria when determining Material combinations to consider. For example, the pressure generation and the pressure spread at an ALP is always guaranteed and in form, height and expansion adjust. The function of the ALP is therefore independent of its speed. This only determines the breakdown performance of the individual components in flight direction and in the laterally accelerated parts in connection with the Lateral speed the effective angle of impact.

According to the above, it is quite possible to use an inner cylinder high density (up to e.g. homogeneous heavy or hard metal or pressed Heavy metal powder) by means of a pressure-generating medium and thus as a pressure-transmitting medium, an outer jacket of lower density (e.g. prefabricated Structures, hardened steel or light metal) to disassemble and accelerate radially.

Furthermore, due to the pressure generation to be specified and the required pressure level or expansion performance of almost any casing construction, including prefabricated ones Sub-floors can be reliably accelerated radially. You are subject to it not the limitations of spontaneous decomposition with the restricted ones Possibilities regarding a desired splitter / basement speed, but very small lateral speeds on the order of magnitude some 10 m / s up to high splinter speeds (over 1,000 m / s) without special technical effort can be realized. Calculations and experiments have shown that the pyrotechnic mass required is generally very small, so that the use primarily of additive elements and desired effects is determined. So it can be assumed that with penetrator masses in Range from 10 to 20 kg minimum explosive masses in the order of 10 g are sufficient. In the case of smaller penetrator masses, this minimal one decreases Explosive mass still corresponding to values from 1 to 10 g.

First, three-dimensional numerical simulations become in Figs. 43A to 45D relatively simple structures shown to the technical explanations set out above and listed examples in basic points physically / mathematically occupy. To make the deformation of individual parts, especially the shell, more visible make, the representations of the deformed parts are often by the Detonating gas and the pressure transmission medium only made visible if these do not cover the deformation process to be observed.

43A shows a simple ALP wireframe structure 107, designed as on the front hollow cylinder sealed with a WS cover 110A (60 mm outer diameter, Wall thickness 5 mm, WS high ductility) with the casing 2B (see FIG. 1B) and a compact acceleration / pressure generating unit 6B with an explosive substance of only 5 g. A liquid medium 124 was used as the pressure transmission medium (here water) assumed (structure according to Fig. 4A).

43B shows the dynamic decomposition 150 microseconds (µs) after the ignition of the Explosive charge 6B. In the present configuration, six large shell fragments are formed 111 and a number of smaller fragments. It is also easy to see deformed cover 110B accelerated in the axial direction. On the back of the Cylinder exits accelerated liquid pressure transfer medium 124 (exit length 113). In the front area, the pressure transmission medium 158 is on the inside of the Shell splinter on, part 159 has escaped. Continue to point at this time incipient cracks 112 and longitudinal cracks 114 that have already developed indicate that itself with this very low explosive mass, the ductile shell chosen is completely disassembled. At the same time, this image of deformation documents the perfect functioning of a such construction according to the invention.

FIG. 44A shows a penetrator similar to FIG. 43A. The dimensions of the ALP 108 remained unchanged, only the pressure generating element was modified. It is now a thin explosive cylinder 6C (a detonating cord) accordingly Figure 4F.

44B shows the dynamic deformation of the ALP 108 already 100 μs after the Ignition of the charge 6C. The corresponding pressure spread and pressure distribution has already been explained in FIG. 10.

Furthermore, the influence of various materials as a pressure transmission medium was checked. The selected structure 109 according to FIG. 45A corresponds to that of the 2D simulation in FIG Fig. 11, consisting of an AC sleeve 2B (with 60 mm outer diameter) with a one-sided front dam 110A in the area of the thicker explosive cylinder 6B. The pressure transfer medium surrounds the pressure generating elements 6B / 6C.

45B shows the dynamic envelope expansion with a liquid (water) 124 as Pressure transmission medium 150 µs after ignition of the pressure generation charge 6B. The accelerated shell segment 115, the tearing shell segment 116 and the reaction gases 146 are clearly visible. To the rear, the liquid medium 124 is slight, i.e. accelerated with the exit length 113. The beginning cracking is 123 already advanced to half of the entire length of the casing

In FIG. 45C, plexiglass was used as the pressure transmission medium 121. The dynamic expansion 125 of the shell 2B and beginning cracking 126 is 150 microseconds after ignition somewhat less than in the example according to FIG. 45B. The exit of the Medium 121 to the rear is very low.

In the numerical simulation shown in Fig. 45D, aluminum was used as the pressure transmission medium 122 used. The deformation of the shell 2B after 150 µs Ignition is very pronounced in the area of the pressure-generating element 6B. The shell fragments 127 are already widening locally. Cracking in the longitudinal direction of the In contrast, envelope 2B has not yet taken place (FIGS. 45B and 45C) and the exit of the Medium 122 to the rear is negligible.

46A is an ALP 128 with an eccentrically positioned pressure generating element 35 shown in the form of a slim explosive cylinder. This was done in this order a comparison of liquid (water) 124 and aluminum 122 as pressure-transmitting Medium.

46B shows the dynamic decomposition of this arrangement in accordance with FIG. 46A the Liquid 124 as transmission medium 150 µs after ignition. There is none significantly different distribution of the shell fragments 129 and also not serious different splinter speeds on the circumference.

FIG. 46C shows the dynamic decomposition of the arrangement corresponding to FIG. 46A with Aluminum 122 as transmission medium 150 µs after ignition. Here stands out original geometry also in the disassembly image. So the shell splitter 130 was opened the adjacent side of the pressure generating element 35 accelerates strongly and the envelope is heavily fragmented on this side, while the lower one, facing away from cargo 35 Side still forms a shell 131. At this point the calculation is on the On the inside, only beginning constrictions (tears) 132 can be seen.

47A shows an ALP 135 with a central penetrator 34 from WS which is already for the WS envelope quality and with an eccentrically positioned pressure generating Element 35. Like the simulated deformation image 150 µs after ignition in Fig. 47B shows that, despite the selected liquid 124, this results as the pressure transmission medium a clear difference with regard to the fragment or sub-floor distribution over the scope. So the shell splinters 136 are on the side of the pressure-generating one Element 35 accelerated more. Forward is partly the accelerated liquid Medium 159 recognizable.

The comparison with Fig. 46B suggests that the difference in the deformation image is the same central penetrator 34 is assigned. As already stated, it obviously acts as Reflector for the pressure waves emanating from the explosive charge 35. This means the simulation provides evidence that such arrangements are targeted directional lateral effects can be achieved via geometric designs. It It is also noteworthy that the central penetrator does not destroy, but only after below, i.e. deviating from its original trajectory.

It can also be deduced from FIG. 47B that it is in one - albeit technically demanding variant - is fundamentally possible by targeting one or several eccentrically distributed charges 35 in the central penetrator in To give a corrective directional impulse close to the target.

The simulation examples shown so far inter alia link 2A, 2B, 4B, 4C, 4H, 6E, 12 and 40A to 40C listed individual components to a twist or aerodynamically stabilized ammunition concept, which in particular the Fundamentally addressed in connection with the present invention Have ammunition modules at the same time: tip, active laterally effective Module, PELE component (if not combined with the active part) and massive or homogeneous component. Such structures show the following examples 48A to 48C.

48A is a three-part, modular, spin-stabilized penetrator 277, consisting of a top module 278, a passive (PELE) or solid Module 279 and an active module 280. The auxiliary devices can become Example in the part 282 surrounding the active modules, in the tip module 278 or in the Rear area (or, as already described, be distributed). The active module 280 is advantageous to be completed on the rear side with an insulating disk 147.

48B is a four-part, modular, aerodynamically stabilized projectile 283 shown as an example. It consists of a top module 278, an active module 280 with an insulating disc 147 against, for example, hollow or insufficient insulating tip, a PELE module 281 and an adjoining one homogeneous rear section 284. This means that the main storey, penetrator or Warhead parts listed that occur in complex active bodies can. It goes without saying that you will endeavor, depending on the area of application to design the simplest possible variant. It is certainly from great advantage that several modules perform double or multiple functions can.

In Fig. 48C a floor 276 is shown, in which in the active part after the disc-shaped pressure-generating charge 6F a cylindrical 247 or piston-like Part 249 is located. The cylinder 247 can also have one or more bores 248 for pressure equalization or for pressure transmission (see detailed drawing 48D).

The piston-like part 249 can on the side of the pressure transmission medium 4 to Example have conical or conical shape 185 (see detailed drawing Fig. 48D) when the pressure is introduced, the medium 4 in the region of this cone becomes more intensely laterally accelerate. Such pistons for compressing or pressurizing a Medium are described for example in the patent EP 0 146 745 A1 (FIG. 1 there). In contrast to the mechanical acceleration provided there the impacting ballistic hood and, if necessary (in the case of oblique impact) intermediate aids and the resulting question of a perfect axial movement initiation is by means of a pressurization of a pyrotechnic module, the piston 249 is always accelerated axially. Besides, can it should still be surrounded by the medium 4 (i.e. not the entire inner cylinder to complete). As a result, the pressure that arises is generated via the resulting annular gap 184 can spread into the medium 4 between the outer shell 2B and the piston 249.

To verify the invention, experiments in the meantime have also been carried out in the ISL Scale 1: 2 in addition to the numerical simulations for basic verification the operability of an arrangement according to the present invention carried out.

As an example, Figure 49A shows the original penetrator sleeve 180 (WS, diameter 25 mm, wall thickness 5 mm, length 125 mm) and part of the splinters 181 found.

49B shows a double-exposed X-ray flash image, approximately 500 μs after the Triggering of the ignition pulse, with the accelerated evenly over the circumference Splinter 182.

Water was used as the pressure transmission medium. An explosive cord-type detonator (5 mm in diameter) simply inserted into the liquid with 4 g of explosive mass was used to generate pressure. The mass of the WS casing was 692 g (WS with a density of 17.6 g / cm 3 ), the mass of the liquid pressure transmission medium (water with a density p = 1 g / cm 3 ) was 19.6 g. The ratio of explosive mass (4 g) to the mass of the inert pressure transmission medium (19.6 g) was therefore 0.204; and the ratio of explosive mass (4 g) to inert projectile mass (casing + water = 711.6 g) was thus 0.0056, corresponding to a share of 0.56 percent of the inert total mass. The values for these ratios will decrease with larger storey configurations or increase with smaller storeys.

The experiment carried out proves that an inert penetrator with one in proportion to the total mass of very low pyrotechnic mass of the pressure generating device from about 0.5 to 0.6 percent of the total inert mass of the penetrator appropriate dimensioning of the shell and the with a suitable, inert pressure transmission medium filled interior through the through Ignition signal triggered pressure pulse of a detonator laterally disassembled.

The experiment carried out is only one example of a possible embodiment of an ALP floor. However, there is none based on the basic principle of the invention Restrictions in the design with regard to the final ballistic cover and its Thickness or length. This is how the laterally effective dismantling principle works for both thick-walled Envelopes (e.g. 10mm WS wall thickness with a penetrator diameter of 30 mm) as well as for very thin covers (e.g. 1 mm titanium wall thickness for one Penetrator diameter of 30 mm).

Regarding the length, the ALP principle also applies to all conceivable and ballistic values works. For example, the length / diameter ratio (L / D) in the range between 0.5 (disc) and 50 (very slim penetrator) lie.

For the ratio of the chemical mass of the pressure generating unit to the inert one In principle, there is only the mass of the pressure transmission medium Restriction that the pressure energy generated is sufficient and suitable chronological order recorded by the pressure transmission medium and to the surrounding Cover can be passed on. As a sensible upper limit for small ones Floor configurations a value of 0.5 is just practicable.

For the ratio of the (chemical) mass of the pressure generating unit to the inert one Total mass of the penetrator / projectile / missile was carried out based on the 3D simulations determine very small values in the range from 0.0005 to 0.001, in the experiment a value of 0.0056. From this it can be predicted that even at very small storey configurations, in which the active laterally active functional principle can still be used sensibly, a value of 0.01 is not exceeded.

The invention results in a diverse design of an active, laterally effective ALP penetrators (projectile or missile) with integrated dismantling device, in the end it means that for all conceivable application scenarios only a story principle of the design according to the invention is required (universal story).

Particular advantages of the invention are naturally also when used as end phase steered Ammunition (intelligent ammunition) in connection with an increase in range the artillery, which also increases the likelihood of being hit should be connected.

Furthermore, it is conceivable to generate a splitter / basement field in certain or predetermined distances in front of the muzzle, e.g. after the flame cut a tracer, the active story dismantling according to the principle presented to initiate this invention. In this way, especially with weapons with high Cadence tightly occupied fragment / sub-floor fields can be achieved. It is also possible to build the bullet casings out of preformed sub-floors, which have a resistance stabilization continue to fly stabilized by the aerodynamic forces and thus maintain such fields of action over a greater distance.

All details shown in the figures and explained in the description are important for the invention. It is a feature of the invention that all described details can be combined in a meaningful way, one or more times can and thereby each individually adapted active laterally active Surrender.

LIST OF REFERENCE NUMBERS

1A
spin-stabilized ALP
1B
aerodynamically stabilized ALP
2A
Splitter / sub-storey housing with spin-stabilized ALP
2 B
Splitter / sub-storey housing with aerodynamically stabilized ALP
2C
rear-side splitter / sub-storey housing in FIG. 12
2D
middle splitter / sub-storey housing in Fig. 12
2E
front conical splitter / sub-storey housing in Fig. 12
3A
Sleeve interior from 2A
3B
Sleeve interior from 2B
4
Pressure transmission medium
4A
Pressure transmission medium in zone A in FIG. 12
4B
Pressure transmission medium in zone B in FIG. 12
4C
Pressure transmission medium in zone C in Fig. 12
4D
internal pressure transmission medium in FIG. 13
4E
external pressure transmission medium in FIG. 13
4F
internal pressure transmission medium in FIG. 15
4G
15 external pressure transmission medium
4H
internal pressure transmission medium at Fig. 34
41
34 external pressure transmission medium
5
active pyrotechnic unit or pressure generating device
6
pressure generating element / detonator / explosive
6A
cylindrical pressure-generating element (L / D ≈ 1)
6B
cylindrical pressure generating element (L / D> 1)
6C
detonator-like detonator
6D
annular pressure-generating element
6E
tubular pressure-generating element
6F
disc-shaped pressure-generating element
6G
conical pressure generating element
6H
pressure generating element with cone tip
61
conical transition from 6A to 6C
6K
round pressure generating element
6L
tubular, pressure-generating element closed on one side
6M
conical, pointed (slim) pressure-generating element
6N
Combination of 6M and 6G
60
disc-shaped pressure-generating element with tip
6P
Combination of 6F and 6C
6Q
6A with rounding
7
activatable triggering device (programmed part, safety and triggering part)
8th
transmission line
9
additional active elements
10
external ballistic hood or tip
11A
Receiving and / or triggering and security unit in the tip area
11B
Receiving and / or triggering and security unit in the front part of the floor
11C
Receiving and / or triggering and security unit in the rear floor part
11D
Receiving and / or triggering and security unit in the rear area
11E
Receiving and / or triggering and security unit in the rear part of a active module
11F
Receiving and / or triggering and security unit in the front part of a active module
11G
Receiving and / or triggering and securing unit in the middle part between two modules
11H
Receiving and / or triggering and securing unit in the envelope area of a swirl bullet
12
Tail of an aerodynamically stabilized penetrator
13A
wing tail
13B
cone rudder
13C
Mixing tail from 13A and 13B
13D
star-shaped tail unit
14
Bulkhead target made of three relatively thin sheets
15
massive target plate
15A
Front plate of the target plate 15
16
homogeneous target
17A
ALP with three active units
17B
Residual penetrator after submission of a basement or fragment ring
17C
Residual penetrator after delivery of two basement or fragment rings
18A
front disassembly portion of penetrator 17A
18B
Splinter or sub-floor ring of 18A
18C
Splinter ring or sub-level ring of 18 A when approaching the target
18D
18 A splinter or sub-floor ring at the destination
19A
middle section of the penetrator 17A
19B
Splinter or sub-floor ring of 19A
19C
Splinter or sub-floor ring of 19 A shortly before the goal
20A
rear disassembly portion of the penetrator 17A
20B
Splinter or sub-round ring of 20A
21A
Crater formed by part 19A of residual penetrator 17B
21B
Crater formed by part 20A of residual penetrator 17B
22A
Crater formed by part 18A of penetrator 17A
22B
Crater formed by part 20A of penetrator 17A
23
Penetrator with axially different pressure-superior media 4A and 4B
25A
Pressure generating elements distributed over the cross section in FIG. 8A
25B
Pressure-generating elements distributed over the cross section in FIG. 8B
26
central pressure generating element in FIG. 8B
27
Connection between 26 and pressure generating elements 25B
28
Connection between pressure generating elements 25A
29
ALP example with central penetrator 34 and four pressure-generating elements 35
30
Arrangement with decentralized explosive cylinder 32 and two radially different ones 4F and 4G media
31
ALP cross section with central pressure generating unit and additional eccentrically positioned pressure generating units
32
34 eccentrically positioned pressure generating element
33
ALP cross section with central hollow penetrator 137
34
massive central penetrator
35
pressure generating element (e.g. 6C type)
36
ALP example with a central penetrator with a star-shaped cross section 37 and relatively thin shell 2A, 2B
37
central penetrator with a star-shaped cross-section
38
ALP example with a central penetrator with a square (rectangular) cross section 39
39
central penetrator with a square (rectangular) cross section
40
ALP example with active segments 41 and 42 symmetrical to the circumference
41
active segment
42
active segment
43
Explosives segment
44
connecting line
45
Satellite ALP
46
ALP with two different shell materials 47, 48
47
outer thin shell material of 46 (splinter ring, coat, "jacket")
48
inner thick shell material of 46
49
ALP with additional thick outer shell
50
additional thick shell of 49
51
ALP example with a square (rectangular) cross section
52
ALP example with a shell made of hexagonal elements 53
53
hexagonal solid shell element
54
Pressure transmission medium in 52
55
ALP structure corresponding to 52 with additional shell 56
56
additional cover for ALP example 52
57
Filling mass between 52 and 56
58
ALP example with four subpenetrators
59
massive subpenetrator
60
Example of subpenetrator in PELE design
61
Connection with satellite ALP 45
62
Outer shell of 58
63
Filling medium between the outer casing 62 and subpenetrators 59 and 60
64
ALP example with three subpenetrators 59
65
Triangular shell of the inner body 286
66
ALP example with a small massive subpenetrator 67 with a triangular one Cross sectional area
67
small solid subpenetrator with triangular cross-sectional area
68
pressure generating element in 66/69/285/288
69
ALP example with a large solid subpenetrator 70 with a triangular one Cross sectional area
70
large solid subpenetrator with triangular cross-sectional area
71
Lateral penetrator with inner ALP 72
72
massive subpenetrator corresponding to 70 as internal ALP
73
Medium between the hull of 71 and 72
74
Separation between the shell elements 101
75
ALP example with specially shaped pressure generating element 76
76
specially shaped pressure generating element
77
Penetrator with three cross-sectional segments as ALP
78
Envelope of 77
79
Cross-sectional segment as ALP
80
pressure-transmitting medium in cross-sectional segment 79
81
Wall between segments 79
82
the pressure-generating element assigned to the cross-sectional segment 79
83
Groove 78
84
Eccentrically positioned pressure generating element in FIG. 14
85
splinter-forming element / element for blocked ignition
86
conical shaped fragments or sub-storey generating / releasing shell
87
ALP example with insulated ignition 91 and explosive cone 88
88
conical pressure charge in 87
89
front lens as a damper
90
inner damaging element
91
insulating element in the form of a cylinder open on one side
92
rear lens as a damper
93
Lace as a damaging element
94
ALP floor example with active interior module 95 to be installed separately
95
indoor unit
96
Inner cylinder of 95
97
Outside diameter of 95
98
Internal volume of 95 (filling)
99
Projectile with central pressure generating unit 100 and preformed shell structure fragments 101
100
central pressure generating unit from 99
101
preformed shell fragments (shell elements)
102
laterally effective envelope of 99
103
Floor with three zones and ALP part in the top
104
Floor with three zones and ALP module in the middle part
105
Floor with three zones and ALP part in the rear
106
Tandem floor with three zones and two ALP parts (tip and rear area)
107
ALP simulation example with a small explosive cylinder in the front area
108
ALP simulation example with a slim, pressure-generating element
109
ALP simulation example with a combination of pressure generation from 107/108
110A
lid-like insulation
110B
Cover 110A after acceleration by means of the active arrangement (6B / 4)
111
44B, fragment segment cone generated by 6B
112
incipient cracking in the remaining shell 2B in Fig. 44B
113
Exit length of the liquid pressure transmitting medium 124
114
dynamically generated longitudinal cracks in the shell 2B in FIGS. 44B and 45B
115
accelerated envelope segment in Fig. 46B
116
tearing open shell segment (Fig. 46B)
117
Storey example for separation
118
detonator-like detonator in the rear area in FIG. 12
119
detonator-like detonator in the middle region in FIG. 12
120
ALP standard cross-section
121
Plexiglass as a pressure transmitting medium
122
Aluminum as a pressure transmitting medium
123
Crack formation begins with liquid as a pressure transmission medium
124
Water as a pressure-transmitting medium
125
Shell fragments with plexiglass as a medium
126
beginning cracking in plexiglass
127
Shell splinters with aluminum as a medium
128
ALP with eccentrically positioned pressure generating element 84 and liquid 124 (Fig. 47B) or A1 122 (Fig. 47C) as transmission medium (see Fig. 14)
129
Shell fragments with liquid as pressure transmission medium on the side of 84
130
Shell splinter at A1 as pressure transmission medium on the side of 84
131
Partial envelope at A1 as pressure transmission medium on the opposite side of 84
132
beginning cracking in 131
133
ALP example with an annular pressure generating element
134
ALP example with segmented pressure generators
135
ALP example with a central penetrator 34 and an eccentrically positioned one pressure generating element 35 and liquid as medium (see FIG. 16B)
136
Shell splinter (Fig. 48B)
137
central hollow-shaped penetrator
138
Cavity in 137
139
Linking with tandem ALP
140
Link (signal line) between pressure generators 82 in FIG. 33
142
ALP cross section with pressure generating elements distributed over the cross section 25A
143
ALP cross section with central pressure generating element 26 and above the cross section distributed pressure generating elements 25B
144
Axially symmetrical arrangement with two radially different pressure transmission media 4D and 4E
145
ALP cross section with an eccentrically positioned pressure generating unit 84
146
reaction gases
147
damming washer in Fig. 49B
148
Tip shape with downstream cavity
149
Lace cover at 148/256/153
150
Cavity between tip and pressure medium 4
151
Partial envelope in Fig. 48B
152
signal lines
153
Tip shape with preferred pressure transmission medium
155
auxiliary equipment
156
pressure transmission medium advanced into the tip
158
liquid medium attached to the envelope
159
leaking liquid medium
170
ALP example with a basement ring
171
Sub floors in 170
172
outer coat
173
inner shell
174
Tubes, cylindrical hollow bodies as sub-floors in 170
176
ALP as a basement in 170
179
PELE as a basement in 170
180
WS pipe (ISL experiment)
181
Splinters after the lateral decomposition (ISL experiment)
182
Lateral splinters in the double-exposed X-ray flash image (ISL experiment)
184
Annular gap between 2B and 249
185
Cone of 249
222
Acceleration medium in a conical design
223
Shell / sub-storey envelope of 30
247
cylindrical part in Fig. 49C / D
248
Bore in cylinder 247
249
piston-like part in Fig. 49C / D
250
Auxiliary tip (Fig. 42)
251
rear separation charge (Fig. 42)
252
inert buffer zone / solid element / storey core / fragment part (Fig. 42)
253
massive module / PELE module / explosive module (Fig. 42)
254
front separating charge (Fig. 42)
255
Baffle plate (Fig. 42)
256
PELE tip
257
Shell material for PELE expansion
258
bulging
259
Cavity in tip
260
Tip with active disassembly module
261
Fragmentation casing
262
Pressure transmission medium
263
pyrotechnic element according to Fig. 6E
264
top shell
265
Detonation front of the explosive cylinder 6C
266
Pressure propagation front
267
Pressure spread front of the short / thick cylinder
268
Explosive cord pressure spread front
269
Detonation front of the explosive cylinder 6B
270
Transition of pressure spread fronts 267 and 268
271
advanced pressure equalization in Liquid 4
272
wave reflected from wall 2B
273
Pressure balance wave / wave of internal reflections
274
flat bulge of the shell 2B
275
Bulge 2B
276
three-part aerodynamically stabilized bullet
277
three-part spin-stabilized projectile
278
top module
279
homogeneous floor module
280
active storey module
281
PELE projectile module
282
Bullet casing from 277
283
three-part aerodynamically stabilized bullet
284
solid rear section of 283
285
ALP example with hollow inner body 286
286
Hollow body with a triangular cross section
287
Cavity of 286 or interior space filled with a medium of 286
288
ALP example with star-shaped inner body 289 forming four chambers
289
cruciform inner body in 288
290
Envelope of 288
291
Sleeve for pressure generating element 6C (Fig. 43D)
293
Outer shell in ALP according to FIG. 30A
294
Outer shell at ALP according to FIG. 30B
295
massive active top module
296
Sleeve for pressure generating element 6B (Fig. 43C)
297
Top module filled with agent 298
298
effective means
299
Outer shell of ALP cross section according to FIG. 30C
300
Outer shell of ALP cross section according to FIG. 29
301
Outer shell of ALP cross section according to FIG. 31

Claims (36)

  1. Active active body (1), with an inner, inert pressure transmission medium (4), an active body shell (2), a pressure-generating device (5) adjacent to or introduced into the inert pressure transmission medium (4) and an activatable triggering device (7),
    characterized in that the pressure generating device (5) has one or more pressure generating elements (6), the mass of the pressure generating device (5) being small in relation to the mass of the inert pressure transmission medium (4).
  2. Active active body according to claim 1,
    characterized in that the ratio of the mass of the pressure generating device (5) to the mass of the inert pressure transmission medium (4) is ≤ 0.5.
  3. Active active body according to claim 1 or 2,
    characterized in that the ratio of the mass of the pressure-generating unit (5) to the total mass of the pressure transmission medium (4) and the active body shell (2) is ≤ 0.01.
  4. Active active body according to one of the preceding claims,
    characterized in that the pressure transmission medium (4) consists entirely or partially of a material selected from the group consisting of light metals or their alloys, plastically deformable metals or their alloys, thermosetting or thermoplastic plastics, organic substances, elastomeric materials, glassy or powdery materials, Compacts of glassy or powdery materials, and mixtures or combinations thereof.
  5. Active active body according to one of the preceding claims,
    characterized in that the pressure transmission medium (4) partially consists of pyrophoric or other energetically positive (flammable, explosive) materials.
  6. Active active body according to one of the preceding claims,
    characterized in that the pressure transmission medium (4) is pasty, gelatinous or gel-like or liquid or liquid.
  7. Active active body according to one of the preceding claims,
    characterized in that the pressure transmission medium (4) is arranged to be variable over the length of the active body (1) or has different damping properties.
  8. Active active body according to one of the preceding claims,
    characterized in that the pressure transmission medium (4) is made up of two or more elements arranged radially one inside the other, which have different material or damping properties.
  9. Active active body according to one of the preceding claims,
    characterized in that the activatable triggering device (7) can be triggered by a time or proximity signal when firing or during the flight phase.
  10. Active active body according to one of the preceding claims,
    characterized in that the activatable triggering device (7) can be triggered when striking the target structure, when penetrating or after penetrating the target structure.
  11. Active active body according to one of the preceding claims,
    characterized in that the pressure-generating elements (6) of the pressure-generating device (5) are detonators, detonators, detonators or gas generators.
  12. Active active body according to one of the preceding claims,
    characterized in that a plurality of pressure-generating elements (6) are provided which are triggered either at separate times or simultaneously.
  13. Active active body according to one of the preceding claims,
    characterized in that auxiliary devices for igniting the pressure-generating elements (6) are provided, which are designed as separate modules or are embedded in the pressure transmission medium (4).
  14. Active active body according to one of the preceding claims,
    characterized in that the pressure transmission medium (4) consists entirely or partially of prefabricated structures.
  15. Active active body according to one of the preceding claims,
    characterized in that the same or different bodies are embedded in the pressure transmission medium (4) in whole or in part rod-shaped or connected in series, end ballistic or the like, the bodies being arranged in the pressure transmission medium in an orderly manner or being distributed as desired.
  16. Active active body according to claim 15,
    characterized in that the bodies embedded in the pressure transmission medium (4) have pyrophoric or explosive properties.
  17. Active active body according to one of the preceding claims,
    characterized in that the active body shell (2) consists of a material selected from the group consisting of sintered, pure or brittle metals of high density, steel of high hardness, pressed powders, light metals, plastics and fiber materials.
  18. Active active body according to claim 17,
    characterized in that the active-substance shell (2) creates sub-floors or fragments in a statistically distributed manner.
  19. Active active body according to claim 18,
    characterized in that the active body shell (2) consists of one or more rings of segments, longitudinal structures or sub-floors, which are mechanically connected, glued or soldered together.
  20. Active active body according to one of the preceding claims,
    characterized in that the active body sheath (2, 48) is completely or partially surrounded by a second sheath (50, 47).
  21. Active active body according to one of the preceding claims,
    characterized in that the active body shell (2) has wall thicknesses (2C, 2D, 86) which are variable over its length.
  22. Active active body according to one of the preceding claims,
    characterized in that one or more penetrators, containers or similar active parts are arranged in the pressure transmission medium (4).
  23. Active active body according to claim 22,
    characterized in that the penetrators, containers or similar active parts have any surface and are solid or have all or part of a cavity.
  24. Active active body according to claim 23,
    characterized in that the cavities are completely or partially filled with a pressure transmission medium or with reactive components.
  25. Active active body according to claim 22,
    characterized in that the active parts are inert PELE penetrators or active laterally active penetrators.
  26. Active active body according to one of the preceding claims,
    characterized in that the active body (1) consists of several individual modules (top module, one or more section modules, rear module), which are designed to be solid or inert laterally active (PELE) or actively laterally active (ALP), the individual modules being interchangeable if necessary.
  27. Active active body according to claim 26,
    characterized in that several such individual modules are arranged over the circumference and / or the length of the active body (1).
  28. Active active body according to one of the preceding claims,
    characterized in that the active body (1) has a modular internal structure such that the auxiliary devices, the pressure-generating elements (6) or the pressure transmission medium (4) can be exchanged if necessary or can only be used in the application.
  29. Active active body according to one of the preceding claims,
    characterized in that the active body (1) is spin-stabilized or aerodynamically stabilized or can be fired with a compensating spin.
  30. Rotation stabilized or aerodynamically stabilized projectile with one or several active bodies according to one of claims 1 to 29.
  31. End-phase-guided projectile with one or more active bodies one of claims 1 to 29.
  32. Practice floor with one or more active bodies according to one of the Claims 1 to 29.
  33. Warhead with one or more active bodies according to one of the Claims 1 to 29.
  34. Missile-accelerated guided or unguided missile with one or several active bodies according to one of claims 1 to 29.
  35. Guided or unguided underwater body (torpedo) with one or more active bodies according to one of claims 1 to 29.
  36. Airplane-based or self-flying ejection container (dispenser) with one or several active bodies according to one of claims 1 to 29.
EP20010127470 2001-11-28 2001-11-28 High penetration and lateral effect projectiles having an integrated fragment generator Active EP1316774B1 (en)

Priority Applications (1)

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EP20010127470 EP1316774B1 (en) 2001-11-28 2001-11-28 High penetration and lateral effect projectiles having an integrated fragment generator

Applications Claiming Priority (19)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
SI200130595T SI1316774T1 (en) 2001-11-28 2001-11-28 High penetration and lateral effect projectiles having an integrated fragment generator
AT01127470T AT326681T (en) 2001-11-28 2001-11-28 Buildings of high penetration and lateral efficiency with integrated disposal device
EP20010127470 EP1316774B1 (en) 2001-11-28 2001-11-28 High penetration and lateral effect projectiles having an integrated fragment generator
DE2001509825 DE50109825D1 (en) 2001-11-28 2001-11-28 Projectiles with high penetration and lateral action with integrated disintegration device
ES01127470T ES2264958T3 (en) 2001-11-28 2001-11-28 Projectiles with high effect of penetration and side with integrated disgregation device.
DK01127470T DK1316774T3 (en) 2001-11-28 2001-11-28 Projectiles with high penetration and lateral effect with integrated disintegration device
PCT/EP2002/013082 WO2003046470A1 (en) 2001-11-28 2002-11-21 Projectile having a high penetrating action and lateral action and equipped with an integrated fracturing device
EA200400732A EA006030B1 (en) 2001-11-28 2002-11-21 Projectile having a high penetrating action and lateral action equipped with an integrated fracturing device
CNB028237838A CN100402969C (en) 2001-11-28 2002-11-21 Projectile having a high penetrating action and lateral action and equipped with an integrated fracturing device
IL16191602A IL161916D0 (en) 2001-11-28 2002-11-21 Projectile having a high penetrating action and lateral action and equipped with an integrated fracturing device
CA 2468487 CA2468487C (en) 2001-11-28 2002-11-21 Projectiles possessing high penetration and lateral effect with integrated disintegration arrangement
AU2002356703A AU2002356703B2 (en) 2001-11-28 2002-11-21 Projectile having a high penetrating action and lateral action and equipped with an integrated fracturing device
PL370477A PL200470B1 (en) 2001-11-28 2002-11-21 Projectile having a high penetrating action and lateral action and equipped with an integrated fracturing device
KR20047007981A KR100990443B1 (en) 2001-11-28 2002-11-21 Projectiles possessing high penetration and lateral effect with integrated disintegration arrangement
US10/305,512 US7231876B2 (en) 2001-11-28 2002-11-27 Projectiles possessing high penetration and lateral effect with integrated disintegration arrangement
HK03108670A HK1056388A1 (en) 2001-11-28 2003-11-27 High penetration and lateral effect projectiles having an integrated fragment generator
IL16191604A IL161916A (en) 2001-11-28 2004-05-10 Projectile having a high penetrating action and lateral action and equipped with an integrated fracturing device
ZA2004/03569A ZA200403569B (en) 2001-11-28 2004-05-11 Projectile having a high penetrating action and lateral action and equipped with an integrated fracturing device
NO20042408A NO328165B1 (en) 2001-11-28 2004-06-09 The projectile has high penetration effect and side effect and equipped with an integrated breakage means

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EP1316774A1 true EP1316774A1 (en) 2003-06-04
EP1316774B1 EP1316774B1 (en) 2006-05-17

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EP (1) EP1316774B1 (en)
KR (1) KR100990443B1 (en)
CN (1) CN100402969C (en)
AT (1) AT326681T (en)
AU (1) AU2002356703B2 (en)
CA (1) CA2468487C (en)
DE (1) DE50109825D1 (en)
DK (1) DK1316774T3 (en)
EA (1) EA006030B1 (en)
ES (1) ES2264958T3 (en)
HK (1) HK1056388A1 (en)
IL (2) IL161916D0 (en)
NO (1) NO328165B1 (en)
PL (1) PL200470B1 (en)
SI (1) SI1316774T1 (en)
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WO2004003460A1 (en) 2002-06-26 2004-01-08 Geke Technologie Gmbh Projectile or warhead
FR2915563A1 (en) * 2007-04-30 2008-10-31 Nexter Munitions Sa Flash generator projectile
DE102011100788A1 (en) * 2011-05-06 2012-11-08 Rheinmetall Waffe Munition Gmbh Projectile, in particular explosive projectile
DE102012019865A1 (en) * 2012-10-10 2014-04-10 Rheinmetall Waffe Munition Gmbh Explosive hydrodynamic projectile injects hydraulic fluid into combustion chamber from cylinder chamber, after ignition of piston head arranged in combustion chamber through rear-side displacement of differential piston
DE102012019866A1 (en) * 2012-10-10 2014-04-10 Rheinmetall Waffe Munition Gmbh Hydrodynamic high explosive shell, has piston head facing toward projectile, where opening is lockable by closure such that closure remains closed in rest state of projectile and cylinder space opens due to overpressure arising in space
WO2016022181A1 (en) * 2014-08-07 2016-02-11 Raytheon Company Fragmentation munition with limited explosive force
US9816793B2 (en) 2014-02-11 2017-11-14 Raytheon Company Shock-resistant fuzewell for munition
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