EP1215754A1 - Leaky-wave antenna with galvanic isolation - Google Patents

Leaky-wave antenna with galvanic isolation Download PDF

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Publication number
EP1215754A1
EP1215754A1 EP01403171A EP01403171A EP1215754A1 EP 1215754 A1 EP1215754 A1 EP 1215754A1 EP 01403171 A EP01403171 A EP 01403171A EP 01403171 A EP01403171 A EP 01403171A EP 1215754 A1 EP1215754 A1 EP 1215754A1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
antenna
signals
analog
digital
receiver
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
EP01403171A
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Maurice Thales Intellectual Property Elkael
Frédéric Thales Intellectual Prop. Ngo Bui Hung
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Thales SA
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Thales SA
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to FR0016160 priority Critical
Priority to FR0016160A priority patent/FR2818018B1/en
Application filed by Thales SA filed Critical Thales SA
Publication of EP1215754A1 publication Critical patent/EP1215754A1/en
Withdrawn legal-status Critical Current

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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q23/00Antennas with active circuits or circuit elements integrated within them or attached to them
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01QANTENNAS, i.e. RADIO AERIALS
    • H01Q9/00Electrically-short antennas having dimensions not more than twice the operating wavelength and consisting of conductive active radiating elements
    • H01Q9/04Resonant antennas
    • H01Q9/16Resonant antennas with feed intermediate between the extremities of the antenna, e.g. centre-fed dipole
    • H01Q9/28Conical, cylindrical, cage, strip, gauze, or like elements having an extended radiating surface; Elements comprising two conical surfaces having collinear axes and adjacent apices and fed by two-conductor transmission lines
    • H01Q9/285Planar dipole

Abstract

Antenna (1) with radiating structure with two poles (1 ') and (1 ") comprising at least one device (200, 500) adapted to transform analog signals, respectively digital, into digital signals, respectively analog, said device (200 , 500) being placed in a part of the antenna (102, 402) isolated from waves or electromagnetic phenomena Use of the antenna in radiocommunication systems. <IMAGE>

Description

The present invention relates to an isolated radiating antenna and adapted to transform analog signals into digital signals or vice versa.

It is used in particular in the field of radio communications, for example, as a transmitting antenna or a receiving antenna:

  • reception antenna for surface buildings capable of supplying a large number of receivers,
  • elementary antenna of an antenna network of a detection and monitoring system having very effective protection against jammers,
  • elementary antenna of an antenna network of a high resolution direction finding system.

More generally, it is applied in all systems of reception where the amplitude and phase of the wanted signals must be known with great precision, such as detection or monitoring systems having an ability to cancel jammers, or high resolution direction finding or localization or reception of multi-receiver mono-antenna of great dynamics.

In the field of radiocommunications, for example, that is to say including listening, detection, localization means, the usual reception systems are mainly composed of the following elements:

  • An antenna 1 having the role of picking up an incident electromagnetic wave and transforming it into an electrical signal to be supplied to the receiver,
  • A receiver 3 making it possible to select and isolate the so-called useful signals,
  • A processing unit 2 which formats the signals useful to be interpreted by the operator. In some systems, the processing unit is an integral part of the receiver.

Figure 2 shows an example of connection diagram according to the prior art from an antenna to a receiver.

The signals received by the antenna 1 are transferred to the receiver 3 by a 4 conductor power supply cable which can be of the type bifilar or more usually of coaxial type, such a cable is called commonly in the Anglo-Saxon "feeder" language. In the absence of precautions taken when installing the antenna and cable, parasitic phenomena can appear and disturb the good operation of the reception system, such as, for example, a modification of the antenna's reception capacity, or the introduction an unwanted phase shift on the useful signal to be processed. This last defect is all the more pronounced as the system operates in a wide band of frequencies such as HF (high frequency) reception systems which covers the range from 1.5 M Hz to 30 M Hz, or whatever the system implements small antennas in front of the wavelength, or that the antenna is installed far from the receiver.

To remedy the defect of the possible phase shift, the prior art discloses various solutions, some of which are given in Figures 3 to 4.

Figure 3a shows an example of a dipole antenna where the 3 radio receivers are asymmetrical in structure. The entrance a receiver comprises a so-called hot terminal 3a and a cold terminal or mass 3b. It is the same for the power cables or feeder of coaxial type of which a first end 5a of the core is to be connected to the hot terminal 3a and the first end 5b of corresponding shielding is to be connected to earth 3b at one of its ends. This is also true for a loop antenna shown in Figure 3b. However, the majority of antennas 1, as shown in Figures 3a and 3b rather have a structure symmetrical comprising a pole 1 'and a pole 1 ".

In this case, if the second end 6a, 6b of the coaxial cable 4 is connected without any precaution to one of the antennas 1 in FIG. 3a or in FIG. 3b, taken for example by connecting the end 6a of the core to the pole 1 ′ and the end 6b of the shield at the pole 1 ″ of the antenna, the incident electromagnetic wave to be picked up by the antenna will induce a current I g called “sheath current” on the external skin of the coaxial shield, which is added to the current I generated by the antenna itself. by Kirchoff's law, the current on the pole 1 "of the antenna 1 is equal to the current I, so that a pole 1 ', the current is equal to the sum of the currents I g and I a . It is then necessary to make the currents equal to the two poles 1 ′ and 1 ″ of the antenna in order to cancel the sheath current I g of the coaxial cable 4 and therefore the sensing capacity thereof. This symmetrization is obtained for example at by means of a suitable device called a “balun” by the skilled person (or balun in the English language), placed between the coaxial cable and the antenna.

In addition, when the antenna is very far from the receiver, the sheath current I g , even if it is canceled at the level of the antenna by the use of a balun, can be significant in the case of a coaxial cable of significant length having imperfect shielding, for example a flexible coaxial cable whose shielding consists of a metal braid. This current then induces a parasitic electrical voltage between the core and the shield of the coaxial cable, a voltage which is evidently found at the input of the receiver. This parasitic voltage is proportional to the sheath current I g and to the physical length of the coaxial cable. The proportionality coefficient is an intrinsic characteristic of the coaxial cable used and is called "transfer impedance". To overcome this defect, it is necessary to use cables with very low transfer impedance, such as cables with double braid, rigid cables with full shielding which in particular have the disadvantages of being expensive, heavy and restrictive.

In applications using a large number of antennas reception located in the same cramped place, for example, the mature of a vessel, proximity issues exist due to cables Power. Figure 4 shows schematically the simple case of two antennas dipoles 1 and I installed one above the other for lack of space lateral. It appears that the cable 4 of the antenna 1 above hides in to some extent the radiation from antenna I below.

The object of the invention relates to an antenna making it possible to avoid in particular the aforementioned faults by isolating it from its environment.

The idea of the invention consists in particular in providing an antenna with means adapted to transform the analog signals received into signals digital signals or digital signals to be transmitted as analog signals and to have these means in an isolated part of the electromagnetic waves or any disturbing phenomena.

In the case of a receiving antenna the means of transmission signals are chosen to transmit at a sufficient rate dictated by the application, the digital signals generated by the antenna, the object of this invention, to the receiver without using conductor-based links electricity which could disturb the functioning of the antenna, at least essential links between the antenna and a receiver.

The subject of the invention is an antenna with radiating structure with two poles characterized in that it comprises at least one device adapted to transform analog signals, respectively digital, in digital, respectively analog signals, said device being arranged in a part of the antenna isolated from waves, or phenomena, electromagnetic.

According to one embodiment, the conversion device comprises, for example, an amplifier and impedance adapter stage adapted to antenna and analog-to-digital converter.

According to a second embodiment, the conversion device may include a power stage and a digital converter analog.

The antenna includes, for example, a transmission device data integrated in the isolated part, this device can be a electrical-converter in connection with an insulating optical fiber and transparent to electromagnetic waves.

The subject of the invention is also a transmission or transmission system. reception of signals comprising one or more antennas according to one of the above mentioned characteristics, each antenna being connected by means of transmission that do not conduct electricity to at least one receiver.

The antenna comprising one of the above characteristics is used for example in radio systems operating in the HF frequency band varying from 1.5 to 30 M Hz.

The antenna according to the invention has the following advantages in particular:

  • It eliminates the disturbances generated in the operation by the presence of “main” link based on electricity conductors between the antenna and the receiver, for example the coaxial cables usually used,
  • It presents an ease of integration, in the choice of location, the links between the antenna and the receiver being transparent to electromagnetic waves
  • The elements of the galvanically isolated antenna thus formed have no "main" electrical conductive link, neither with the electrical ground, nor with the mechanical ground of the radiocommunication system to which it is connected,
  • It makes it possible to work in a wide frequency band, higher than that generally of the prior art.

Other advantages and characteristics of the invention will appear better on reading the description which follows, given by way of illustration and in no way limiting, where:

  • FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a reception system,
  • FIG. 2 represents an example of connection of an antenna to a receiver according to the prior art,
  • FIGS. 3a, 3b and 4 of examples of antenna connections according to the prior art,
  • FIG. 5 a first block diagram of a dipole antenna according to the invention,
  • FIG. 6 a second block diagram representing a loop antenna according to the invention, and
  • FIG. 7 an example of a transmitting antenna structure.

The following description given by way of illustration and in no way limitative relates to a possible embodiment of the antenna according to the invention using usual elementary antennas mentioned above, namely the dipole or the frame. These antennas can be used as a transmitter or a receiver.

The antenna elements already shown in Figures 1 to 4 keep the same references.

FIG. 5 represents a dipole antenna according to the invention. She includes a conductive part 102 placed for example near the pole 1 "and a part 101 capturing the signals received by the antenna.

The conductive part 102 is hollowed out in order to receive a device 200 designated by the term "digitizer", which is suitable for transform the analog signals received by antenna 1 into signals digital. Digital signals can be in a form digital capable of being transmitted by an optical fiber 301 to a receiver not shown in the figure. More generally, the shape taken by digital signals is adapted to the transmission medium used up to the receiver.

The conductive part 102 is preferably made of high-strength metal electrical conductivity, and constitutes an electromagnetic shielding for the digitizer 200, while being part of the antenna capturing structure.

The digitizer 200 is, for example, essentially composed a stage 201 amplifier and impedance adapter, a converter-analog digital 202 (CAN) which transforms signals analog delivered by the amplifier stage 201 in digital signals and a data transmission device 203. The device data transmission 203 is for example an electrical-optical converter for transmitting digital information over a fiber optics 301 to a receiver that can be distant by several kilometers from the antenna. The constitution of stage 201 is known to the skilled person and will not be detailed in the description. Floor 201 is made so that its input characteristics are adapted to the type of antenna 1 used and that its output characteristics are compatible with the requirements of the CAN used. The same is true for the analog to digital converter 202 and for the transmission device 203 which is equipped with circuits suitable interfaces, for example, a parallel-serial interface for adapt to the output of CAN 202 if the latter has a parallel output, or all other element necessary for operation.

The transmission device 203, can, in another example of realization, be placed outside the conductive part, at a distance close enough to avoid disturbance problems resulting from the electrically conductive connecting element.

The signals received by antenna 1 are applied to both input terminals of stage 201. One of the two inputs is connected to the pole 1 'of the antenna 1 by an electrical connecting wire 11, this wire passing through the element 102 by a hole 100 of small dimension so as not to disturb the effect shielding the second terminal is connected to the 1 "pole by an electric wire Liaison 10.

The electrical energy required to operate the digitizer 200 is supplied by an energy source 204 which can be a battery, a battery rechargeable or preferably a photovoltaic cell powered by the light energy of a laser (not shown here for the clarity of the description) provided by an optical fiber 300. An electric cable 12 distributes the energy delivered by the source 204 to the different components of digitizer 200. The zero potential is referenced to that of the shielding element 102 by connecting the ground of the source 204 to this the latter via the electrical connection 13.

The clock pulses necessary for the operation of CAN 202 and the optical-optical converter 203 can be generated internally in digitizer 200, but preferably they can be brought by fiber optic 302 from a single remote clock to ensure of perfect synchronism between several antennas of the same system of radiocommunication.

FIG. 6 represents an alternative embodiment of the invention applied to a loop antenna comprising elements identical to those used to describe the dipole antenna in Figure 5. The difference is mainly in the arrangement of the two poles 1 'and 1' 'of the antenna. To understand the structure and operation of such an antenna, the reader can refer to the description of figure 5.

Figure 7 shows schematically an antenna structure used as transmitter.

The antenna 1 comprises a transmitting part 401 and a part electrically conductive 402. The device for converting digital signals received by the antenna is referenced 500 in the figure and includes a transmission chain composed for example of a converter digital-analog 502 or DAC and a power amplifier 501. The antenna also comprises, a data transmission device 203, a device 204 supplying the energy necessary for the operation of the assembly, as well as the links, such as optical fibers, 300, 301 and 302 for bringing digital signals to the antenna or power the energy supply device 204. These elements carry identical references to those given in Figures 5 and 6.

The digital information to be transmitted is brought to the antenna using fiber optics 301 for example and are received by the transmission device 203. The signals are then transformed into analog signals by the DAC 502 before being amplified by the amplifier power 501. The amplified analog signals are then transmitted to the transmitting part 401 of the antenna.

The conductive part 402 has similar characteristics to those of the conductive part 102 of FIG. 5, and constitutes a shielding electromagnetic for the signal conversion device 500.

The positioning characteristics of the different elements relative to each other or to the poles of the antenna are similar to those given in Figures 5 and 6.

According to another embodiment, the transmitting antenna is a loop antenna, not shown.

Without departing from the scope of the invention, the optical fibers used for transmit or bring the signals to or to the antenna can be replaced by any other means capable of transmitting the information digital data obtained with a sufficient speed set by the desired application, such as the infrared beam, microwave beam.

Claims (11)

  1. Antenna (1) with radiating structure with two poles (1 ') and (1 ") characterized in that it comprises at least one device (200, 500) adapted to transform analog signals, respectively digital, into digital signals, respectively analog, said device (200, 500) being arranged in a part of the antenna (102, 402) isolated from waves or electromagnetic phenomena.
  2. Antenna according to claim 1 characterized in that the conversion device (200) comprises a stage (201) amplifier and impedance adapter adapted to the antenna and to the analog-to-digital converter (202).
  3. Antenna according to claim 1 in that the conversion device (500) includes a power stage (501) and a digital converter analog (502).
  4. Antenna according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the device (200, 500) adapted to transform the signals is integrated in the isolated part (102, 402) of the antenna arranged near one of the two poles (1 ', 1 ").
  5. Antenna according to one of claims 1 to 4 characterized in that it comprises a device (203) for transmitting data integrated in the isolated part (102, 402).
  6. Antenna according to claim 5 characterized in that the device (203) for transmitting the data is an electrical converter in connection with an insulating optical fiber and transparent to electromagnetic waves.
  7. Antenna according to one of claims 1 to 6 characterized in that it comprises a device for supplying electrical energy supplied by a photovoltaic cell.
  8. Signal transmission or reception system comprising one or more several antennas according to one of claims 1 to 7, each antenna being connected by non-electrically transmitting means to at least one receiver.
  9. System according to Claim 8, characterized in that it comprises a data transmission device (203) which is an electrical converter in connection with an insulating optical fiber and transparent to electromagnetic waves.
  10. System according to Claim 8, characterized in that it comprises a data transmission device connected to a supply of electrical energy supplied by a photovoltaic cell supplied by an optical fiber (300).
  11. Use of an antenna according to one of claims 1 to 7 for radio systems operating in the frequency band HF varying from 1.5 to 30 M Hz.
EP01403171A 2000-12-12 2001-12-07 Leaky-wave antenna with galvanic isolation Withdrawn EP1215754A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FR0016160 2000-12-12
FR0016160A FR2818018B1 (en) 2000-12-12 2000-12-12 Radiant galvanic insulation antenna

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP1215754A1 true EP1215754A1 (en) 2002-06-19

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ID=8857548

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP01403171A Withdrawn EP1215754A1 (en) 2000-12-12 2001-12-07 Leaky-wave antenna with galvanic isolation

Country Status (5)

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US (1) US6603439B2 (en)
EP (1) EP1215754A1 (en)
CA (1) CA2363943A1 (en)
FR (1) FR2818018B1 (en)
IL (1) IL147018D0 (en)

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR2901064A1 (en) * 2006-05-12 2007-11-16 Thomson Licensing Sas Portable compact antenna for digital terrestrial television with frequency rejection

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6753825B2 (en) * 2002-04-23 2004-06-22 Broadcom Printed antenna and applications thereof
FR2871619A1 (en) * 2004-06-09 2005-12-16 Thomson Licensing Sa Broadband antenna with omnidirectional radiation
FR2884973A1 (en) * 2005-04-20 2006-10-27 Thomson Licensing Sa Broadband type dipole antenna
FR2896341A1 (en) * 2006-01-17 2007-07-20 Thomson Licensing Sas Portable compact antenna
JP4673276B2 (en) * 2006-09-13 2011-04-20 富士通コンポーネント株式会社 Antenna device
US8106836B2 (en) 2008-04-11 2012-01-31 Apple Inc. Hybrid antennas for electronic devices

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4062010A (en) * 1976-03-11 1977-12-06 The Ohio State University Underground pipe detector
DE4310532A1 (en) * 1993-03-31 1994-10-06 Rohde & Schwarz Push-pull amplifier for an active dipole antenna
US6011519A (en) * 1998-11-11 2000-01-04 Ericsson, Inc. Dipole antenna configuration for mobile terminal
EP1052780A2 (en) * 1999-05-12 2000-11-15 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Integrated circuit with A/D or D/A converter with galvanic isolation

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DE3927665A1 (en) * 1989-08-22 1991-02-28 Telefunken Systemtechnik Foot-feed rod antenna
US5349362A (en) * 1992-06-19 1994-09-20 Forbes Mark M Concealed antenna applying electrically-shortened elements and durable construction
FR2758012B1 (en) 1996-12-27 1999-05-28 Thomson Csf Double antenna, particularly for vehicle
FR2759498B1 (en) 1997-02-07 1999-08-27 Thomson Csf Variable geometry antenna
SE512219C2 (en) * 1998-06-15 2000-02-14 Jan Bergman Method and system for obtaining a direction of elliptically polarized electromagnetic wave propagation
US6184812B1 (en) * 1998-12-14 2001-02-06 Qualcomm Incorporated Method and apparatus for eliminating clock jitter in continuous-time Delta-Sigma analog-to-digital converters
US6268774B1 (en) * 1999-11-05 2001-07-31 Intel Corporation Self-tuning amplifier
US6547140B2 (en) * 2000-11-29 2003-04-15 Xerox Corporation Microwave barcode reader using dipole antenna

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4062010A (en) * 1976-03-11 1977-12-06 The Ohio State University Underground pipe detector
DE4310532A1 (en) * 1993-03-31 1994-10-06 Rohde & Schwarz Push-pull amplifier for an active dipole antenna
US6011519A (en) * 1998-11-11 2000-01-04 Ericsson, Inc. Dipole antenna configuration for mobile terminal
EP1052780A2 (en) * 1999-05-12 2000-11-15 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Integrated circuit with A/D or D/A converter with galvanic isolation

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
None

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
FR2901064A1 (en) * 2006-05-12 2007-11-16 Thomson Licensing Sas Portable compact antenna for digital terrestrial television with frequency rejection
WO2007135312A1 (en) * 2006-05-12 2007-11-29 Thomson Licensing Compact portable antenna for digital terrestrial television with frequency rejection
US7956816B2 (en) 2006-05-12 2011-06-07 Thomson Licensing Compact portable antenna for digital terrestrial television with frequency rejection

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
US20020109639A1 (en) 2002-08-15
FR2818018B1 (en) 2003-02-14
FR2818018A1 (en) 2002-06-14
IL147018D0 (en) 2002-08-14
US6603439B2 (en) 2003-08-05
CA2363943A1 (en) 2002-06-12

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