EP1196677B2 - Hollow plastic section - Google Patents

Hollow plastic section Download PDF

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Publication number
EP1196677B2
EP1196677B2 EP00956175A EP00956175A EP1196677B2 EP 1196677 B2 EP1196677 B2 EP 1196677B2 EP 00956175 A EP00956175 A EP 00956175A EP 00956175 A EP00956175 A EP 00956175A EP 1196677 B2 EP1196677 B2 EP 1196677B2
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
stiffening
profile
hollow plastic
plastic profile
hollow
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
EP00956175A
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
EP1196677B1 (en
EP1196677A1 (en
Inventor
Hans-Walter Bielefeld
Matthias Senneca
Ralf KÄMPER
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Schueco International GmbH and Co
Original Assignee
Schueco International GmbH and Co
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Family has litigation
Priority to DE19933099 priority Critical
Priority to DE29912375U priority patent/DE29912375U1/en
Priority to DE29912375U priority
Priority to DE19933099A priority patent/DE19933099A1/en
Priority to PCT/EP2000/006636 priority patent/WO2001006079A1/en
Application filed by Schueco International GmbH and Co filed Critical Schueco International GmbH and Co
Publication of EP1196677A1 publication Critical patent/EP1196677A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP1196677B1 publication Critical patent/EP1196677B1/en
First worldwide family litigation filed litigation Critical https://patents.darts-ip.com/?family=26054191&utm_source=google_patent&utm_medium=platform_link&utm_campaign=public_patent_search&patent=EP1196677(B2) "Global patent litigation dataset” by Darts-ip is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Publication of EP1196677B2 publication Critical patent/EP1196677B2/en
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Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E06DOORS, WINDOWS, SHUTTERS, OR ROLLER BLINDS IN GENERAL; LADDERS
    • E06BFIXED OR MOVABLE CLOSURES FOR OPENINGS IN BUILDINGS, VEHICLES, FENCES OR LIKE ENCLOSURES IN GENERAL, e.g. DOORS, WINDOWS, BLINDS, GATES
    • E06B3/00Window sashes, door leaves, or like elements for closing wall or like openings; Layout of fixed or moving closures, e.g. windows in wall or like openings; Features of rigidly-mounted outer frames relating to the mounting of wing frames
    • E06B3/04Wing frames not characterised by the manner of movement
    • E06B3/06Single frames
    • E06B3/08Constructions depending on the use of specified materials
    • E06B3/20Constructions depending on the use of specified materials of plastics
    • E06B3/22Hollow frames
    • E06B3/221Hollow frames with the frame member having local reinforcements in some parts of its cross-section or with a filled cavity
    • E06B3/222Hollow frames with the frame member having local reinforcements in some parts of its cross-section or with a filled cavity with internal prefabricated reinforcing section members inserted after manufacturing of the hollow frame
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E06DOORS, WINDOWS, SHUTTERS, OR ROLLER BLINDS IN GENERAL; LADDERS
    • E06BFIXED OR MOVABLE CLOSURES FOR OPENINGS IN BUILDINGS, VEHICLES, FENCES OR LIKE ENCLOSURES IN GENERAL, e.g. DOORS, WINDOWS, BLINDS, GATES
    • E06B3/00Window sashes, door leaves, or like elements for closing wall or like openings; Layout of fixed or moving closures, e.g. windows in wall or like openings; Features of rigidly-mounted outer frames relating to the mounting of wing frames
    • E06B3/04Wing frames not characterised by the manner of movement
    • E06B3/06Single frames
    • E06B3/08Constructions depending on the use of specified materials
    • E06B3/20Constructions depending on the use of specified materials of plastics
    • E06B3/22Hollow frames
    • E06B3/221Hollow frames with the frame member having local reinforcements in some parts of its cross-section or with a filled cavity
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E06DOORS, WINDOWS, SHUTTERS, OR ROLLER BLINDS IN GENERAL; LADDERS
    • E06BFIXED OR MOVABLE CLOSURES FOR OPENINGS IN BUILDINGS, VEHICLES, FENCES OR LIKE ENCLOSURES IN GENERAL, e.g. DOORS, WINDOWS, BLINDS, GATES
    • E06B3/00Window sashes, door leaves, or like elements for closing wall or like openings; Layout of fixed or moving closures, e.g. windows in wall or like openings; Features of rigidly-mounted outer frames relating to the mounting of wing frames
    • E06B3/04Wing frames not characterised by the manner of movement
    • E06B3/06Single frames
    • E06B3/08Constructions depending on the use of specified materials
    • E06B3/20Constructions depending on the use of specified materials of plastics
    • E06B3/22Hollow frames
    • E06B3/221Hollow frames with the frame member having local reinforcements in some parts of its cross-section or with a filled cavity
    • E06B3/222Hollow frames with the frame member having local reinforcements in some parts of its cross-section or with a filled cavity with internal prefabricated reinforcing section members inserted after manufacturing of the hollow frame
    • E06B2003/224Hollow frames with the frame member having local reinforcements in some parts of its cross-section or with a filled cavity with internal prefabricated reinforcing section members inserted after manufacturing of the hollow frame with reinforcing plastic section members
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E06DOORS, WINDOWS, SHUTTERS, OR ROLLER BLINDS IN GENERAL; LADDERS
    • E06BFIXED OR MOVABLE CLOSURES FOR OPENINGS IN BUILDINGS, VEHICLES, FENCES OR LIKE ENCLOSURES IN GENERAL, e.g. DOORS, WINDOWS, BLINDS, GATES
    • E06B3/00Window sashes, door leaves, or like elements for closing wall or like openings; Layout of fixed or moving closures, e.g. windows in wall or like openings; Features of rigidly-mounted outer frames relating to the mounting of wing frames
    • E06B3/04Wing frames not characterised by the manner of movement
    • E06B3/06Single frames
    • E06B3/08Constructions depending on the use of specified materials
    • E06B3/20Constructions depending on the use of specified materials of plastics
    • E06B3/22Hollow frames
    • E06B3/221Hollow frames with the frame member having local reinforcements in some parts of its cross-section or with a filled cavity
    • E06B3/222Hollow frames with the frame member having local reinforcements in some parts of its cross-section or with a filled cavity with internal prefabricated reinforcing section members inserted after manufacturing of the hollow frame
    • E06B2003/225Means for stabilising the insert
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E06DOORS, WINDOWS, SHUTTERS, OR ROLLER BLINDS IN GENERAL; LADDERS
    • E06BFIXED OR MOVABLE CLOSURES FOR OPENINGS IN BUILDINGS, VEHICLES, FENCES OR LIKE ENCLOSURES IN GENERAL, e.g. DOORS, WINDOWS, BLINDS, GATES
    • E06B3/00Window sashes, door leaves, or like elements for closing wall or like openings; Layout of fixed or moving closures, e.g. windows in wall or like openings; Features of rigidly-mounted outer frames relating to the mounting of wing frames
    • E06B3/04Wing frames not characterised by the manner of movement
    • E06B3/06Single frames
    • E06B3/08Constructions depending on the use of specified materials
    • E06B3/20Constructions depending on the use of specified materials of plastics
    • E06B3/22Hollow frames
    • E06B3/221Hollow frames with the frame member having local reinforcements in some parts of its cross-section or with a filled cavity
    • E06B2003/228Hollow frames with the frame member having local reinforcements in some parts of its cross-section or with a filled cavity with separate reinforcements situated outside the cavity or in the walls
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E06DOORS, WINDOWS, SHUTTERS, OR ROLLER BLINDS IN GENERAL; LADDERS
    • E06BFIXED OR MOVABLE CLOSURES FOR OPENINGS IN BUILDINGS, VEHICLES, FENCES OR LIKE ENCLOSURES IN GENERAL, e.g. DOORS, WINDOWS, BLINDS, GATES
    • E06B3/00Window sashes, door leaves, or like elements for closing wall or like openings; Layout of fixed or moving closures, e.g. windows in wall or like openings; Features of rigidly-mounted outer frames relating to the mounting of wing frames
    • E06B3/04Wing frames not characterised by the manner of movement
    • E06B3/263Frames with special provision for insulation
    • E06B3/2632Frames with special provision for insulation with arrangements reducing the heat transmission, other than an interruption in a metal section
    • E06B2003/26323Frames with special provision for insulation with arrangements reducing the heat transmission, other than an interruption in a metal section with coatings reducing the radiation
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E06DOORS, WINDOWS, SHUTTERS, OR ROLLER BLINDS IN GENERAL; LADDERS
    • E06BFIXED OR MOVABLE CLOSURES FOR OPENINGS IN BUILDINGS, VEHICLES, FENCES OR LIKE ENCLOSURES IN GENERAL, e.g. DOORS, WINDOWS, BLINDS, GATES
    • E06B3/00Window sashes, door leaves, or like elements for closing wall or like openings; Layout of fixed or moving closures, e.g. windows in wall or like openings; Features of rigidly-mounted outer frames relating to the mounting of wing frames
    • E06B3/04Wing frames not characterised by the manner of movement
    • E06B3/263Frames with special provision for insulation
    • E06B3/2632Frames with special provision for insulation with arrangements reducing the heat transmission, other than an interruption in a metal section
    • E06B2003/26325Frames with special provision for insulation with arrangements reducing the heat transmission, other than an interruption in a metal section the convection or radiation in a hollow space being reduced, e.g. by subdividing the hollow space
    • E06B2003/26327Frames with special provision for insulation with arrangements reducing the heat transmission, other than an interruption in a metal section the convection or radiation in a hollow space being reduced, e.g. by subdividing the hollow space with separate thin walled inserts
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E06DOORS, WINDOWS, SHUTTERS, OR ROLLER BLINDS IN GENERAL; LADDERS
    • E06BFIXED OR MOVABLE CLOSURES FOR OPENINGS IN BUILDINGS, VEHICLES, FENCES OR LIKE ENCLOSURES IN GENERAL, e.g. DOORS, WINDOWS, BLINDS, GATES
    • E06B7/00Special arrangements or measures in connection with doors or windows
    • E06B7/14Measures for draining-off condensed water or water leaking-in frame members for draining off condensation water, throats at the bottom of a sash
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E06DOORS, WINDOWS, SHUTTERS, OR ROLLER BLINDS IN GENERAL; LADDERS
    • E06BFIXED OR MOVABLE CLOSURES FOR OPENINGS IN BUILDINGS, VEHICLES, FENCES OR LIKE ENCLOSURES IN GENERAL, e.g. DOORS, WINDOWS, BLINDS, GATES
    • E06B7/00Special arrangements or measures in connection with doors or windows
    • E06B7/16Sealing arrangements on wings or parts co-operating with the wings
    • E06B7/22Sealing arrangements on wings or parts co-operating with the wings by means of elastic edgings, e.g. elastic rubber tubes; by means of resilient edgings, e.g. felt or plush strips, resilient metal strips
    • E06B7/23Plastic, sponge rubber, or like strips or tubes
    • E06B7/2305Plastic, sponge rubber, or like strips or tubes with an integrally formed part for fixing the edging
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
    • Y10STECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y10S49/00Movable or removable closures
    • Y10S49/02Plastic frame components

Description

  • Die Erfindung bezieht sich auf ein extrudiertes Kunststoffhohlprofil gemäß einem Oberbegriff des Anspruchs 1, mit eingelagerter Verstärkung, vorzugsweise auf ein Rahmenprofil für Fenster oder Türen.The invention relates to an extruded plastic hollow profile according to a preamble of claim 1, with embedded reinforcement, preferably on a frame profile for windows or doors.
  • Ein derartiges Kunststoffrahmenprofil ist aus der DE-GM 81 11 425 bekannt, bei dem die faserverstärkten Kunststoffbänder entweder in den Außenwandungen eingebettet oder an der Innenseite der Außenwand durch einen Schaumkern oder durch einen Kleber festgelegt sind. Die Befestigung dieser faserverstärkten Kunststoffbänder erfolgt ausschließlich über die Haftung zwischen den einzelnen Materialien. Diese Haftung entsteht durch eine klebende Wirkung der Rahmenmaterialien mit den Verstärkungsbändem bzw. zwischen dem Verstärkungsband und dem Schaumkem. Diese Haftung durch Kleben bzw. durch Kraftschluß reicht bei der Kraftübertragung durch dynamische Belastungen auf das Kunststoffhohlprofil nicht aus, um die Schubfestigkeit zwischen dem Verstärkungsband und dem Rahmenprofil sicherzustellen.Such a plastic frame profile is known from DE-GM 81 11 425, in which the fiber-reinforced plastic bands either embedded in the outer walls or fixed on the inside of the outer wall by a foam core or by an adhesive. The fastening of these fiber-reinforced plastic tapes takes place exclusively via the adhesion between the individual materials. This adhesion is caused by an adhesive effect of the frame materials with the reinforcing bands or between the reinforcing band and the foam core. This adhesion by gluing or adhesion is not sufficient in the transmission of power by dynamic loads on the plastic hollow profile to ensure the shear strength between the reinforcing strip and the frame profile.
  • Es kommt hinzu, daß das bekannte Rahmenprofil eine Innenkammer mit großem Querschnitt aufweist, so daß sich in diesem großvolumigen Innenraum eine Wärmekonvektionsströmung ausbilden kann, durch die die Wärmedämmung beeinträchtigt wird.It should be added that the known frame profile has an inner chamber with a large cross-section, so that in this large-volume interior can form a Wärmekonvektionsströmung, through which the thermal insulation is impaired.
  • Ein weiteres Kunststoffrahmenprofil ist aus der DE 28 33 738 A1 bekannt, bei dem die Kunststoffwände eine großvolumige Innenkammer umschließen, in die rohrförmige Versteifungsprofile eingesetzt sind, die sich über die lichte Weite der Innenkammer erstrecken und an den Innenseiten der Kammerwände anliegen. Diese rohrförmigen Metallprofile sind ein guter Wärmeleiter zwischen den Außenflächen des Rahmenprofils. Eine Wärmedämmung wird ferner dadurch beeinträchtigt, daß sich im großvolumigen Innenraum eine Wärmekonvektionsströmung ausbilden kann und auch eine Wärmeabstrahlung von den Metallflächen stattfindet.Another plastic frame profile is from the DE 28 33 738 A1 known in which the plastic walls enclose a large-volume inner chamber, are inserted into the tubular stiffening profiles extending over the inside diameter of the inner chamber and abut the inner sides of the chamber walls. These tubular metal profiles are a good conductor of heat between the outer surfaces of the frame profile. A thermal insulation is further impaired by the fact that can form a Wärmekonvektionsströmung in large-volume interior and also takes place a heat radiation from the metal surfaces.
  • Der Erfindung liegt die Aufgabe zugrunde, ein Kunststoffhohlprofil der eingangs genannten Art so zu gestalten, daß mit geringem konstruktiven Aufwand eine hohe Wärmedämmung sowie eine große statische Belastbarkeit gegeben sind.The invention has for its object to make a hollow plastic profile of the type mentioned so that with little design effort high thermal insulation and a high static load capacity are given.
  • Diese Aufgabe wird erfindungsgemäß durch ein Kunststoffhohlprofil mit den Merkmalen des Anspruches 1 gelöst.This object is achieved by a hollow plastic profile with the features of claim 1.
  • Durch die Mehrzahl der Innenkammern, die jeweils ein kleines Volumen aufweisen, wird eine die Wärmedämmung beeinträchtigende Konvektionsströmung verhindert. Da die leistenförmigen, aus vorzugsweise Metall gefertigten Versteifungselemente nicht miteinander verbunden sind, entfällt auch eine Wärmeleitung zwischen diesen Versteifungselementen.Due to the plurality of inner chambers, each having a small volume, a thermal insulation impairing convection flow is prevented. Since the strip-shaped, preferably made of metal stiffening elements are not connected to each other, also eliminates heat conduction between these stiffening elements.
  • Gemäß einer weiteren Ausführungsform der Erfindung weist das Kunststoffhohlprofil mehrere, durch in Profillängsrichtung sich erstreckende Trennwände begrenzte Innenkammern mit kleinem Querschnitt auf, wobei die Versteifungselemente im Längsbereich oder im Bereich zwischen den Längsrändern mit Formschluß bildenden Ausstanzungen ausgerüstet sind.According to a further embodiment of the invention, the plastic hollow profile has a plurality of inner chambers with a small cross-section delimited by partitions extending in the longitudinal direction of the profile, the stiffening elements being equipped with form-fitting cut-outs in the longitudinal region or in the region between the longitudinal edges.
  • Durch diese Formschlussmittel wird zwischen den faserverstärkten Versteifungselementen aus Kunststoff und dem Rahmenprofil eine hohe Schubfestigkeit erreichtBy this positive locking means a high shear resistance is achieved between the fiber-reinforced plastic stiffening elements and the frame profile
  • Durch die Mehrzahl der Innenkammern, die ausschließlich einen kleinen Querschnitt und ein kleines Volumen aufweisen, wird eine die Wärmedämmung beeinträchtigende Konvektionsströmung verhindert.Due to the majority of the inner chambers, which have only a small cross-section and a small volume, a thermal insulation impairing convection flow is prevented.
  • Die Versteifungselemente, die vorzugsweise im Querschnitt rechteckförmig ausgebildet sind, können eine Oberfläche mit hoher Strahlungsreflektion aufweisen, so daß durch Wärmestrahlung die Wärmedämmung des Kunststoffhohlprofils nicht beeinträchtigt wird.The stiffening elements, which are preferably formed rectangular in cross-section, may have a surface with high radiation reflection, so that the heat insulation of the plastic hollow profile is not affected by thermal radiation.
  • Die Versteifungselemente sind gemäß einer bevorzugten Ausführungsform aus faserverstärktem Kunststoff ausgebildet. Bei den Fasern zur Herstellung der Kunststoffversteifungselemente kommen alle derzeit bekannten Materialien in Frage, wie Glasfasern, Kohlfasern, Naturfasern - wie Hanf und Sisal - und dgl. Die Versteifungs- bzw. Verstärkungselemente können beispielsweise aus PVC, Polyamid, Polyester oder Epoxidharz gefertigt werden.The stiffening elements are formed according to a preferred embodiment of fiber-reinforced plastic. In the fibers for the production of plastic stiffening elements, all currently known materials come into question, such as glass fibers, carbon fibers, natural fibers - such as hemp and sisal - and the like. The stiffening or reinforcing elements can be made for example of PVC, polyamide, polyester or epoxy resin.
  • Weitere Ausgestaltungen der Erfindung sind in den übrigen Unteransprüchen herausgestellt.Further embodiments of the invention are highlighted in the remaining subclaims.
  • Ausführungsbeispiele des erfindungsgemäßen Kunststoffhohlprofils sind in den Zeichnungen dargestellt und werden im folgenden beschrieben.Embodiments of the plastic hollow profile according to the invention are illustrated in the drawings and will be described below.
  • Es zeigen:
  • Figur 1
    ein Rahmenprofil für Fenster oder Türen im Schnitt, bei dem an der Innenseite der Außenwandungen bandförmige oder leistenförmige Versteifungselemente angeordnet sind,
    Figur 2
    ein Rahmenprofil mit vertikal und horizontal angeordneten leistenförmigen Versteifungselementen,
    Figur 3
    ein Rahmenprofil, bei dem band- oder leistenförmige Versteifungselemente in Abstand von den Außenwandungen vorgesehen sind,
    Figur 4
    eine Abwandlungsform zu der Figur 3, bei der die leistenförmigen Versteifungselemente in Taschen von Trennwänden angeordnet sind,
    Figur 5
    ein Flügelrahmen- und ein Blendrahmenprofil eines Fensters oder einer Tür und
    Figuren 6 und 7
    Ausführungsformen leistenförmiger Versteifungselemente.
    Show it:
    FIG. 1
    a frame profile for windows or doors in section, in which on the inside of the outer walls band-shaped or strip-shaped stiffening elements are arranged,
    FIG. 2
    a frame profile with vertically and horizontally arranged strip-shaped stiffening elements,
    FIG. 3
    a frame profile, in which band or strip-shaped stiffening elements are provided at a distance from the outer walls,
    FIG. 4
    a modification to the FIG. 3 in which the strip-shaped stiffening elements are arranged in pockets of partitions,
    FIG. 5
    a sash and a frame profile of a window or door and
    FIGS. 6 and 7
    Embodiments strip-shaped stiffening elements.
  • Das in der Figur 1 dargestellte Rahmenprofil 1 für Fenster oder Türen, das aus Kunststoff gefertigt ist, weist an den Innenseiten der Außenwandungen 2,3 band- oder leistenförmige Versteifungselemente 4,5 aus Metall oder faserverstärktem Kunststoff auf. Die Außenwandungen 2,3, die die Profilsichtflächen bilden, werden in ihrer Dimensionierung durch die Anordnung der leistenförmigen Versteifungselemente 4,5 nur geringfügig beeinflußt. Die Versteifungselemente 4,5 liegen in halboffenen oder geschlossenen Kammern und werden dort durch Fonnschluss festgelegt, indem sie bereits bei der Profilherstellung miteinextrudiert sind.That in the FIG. 1 shown frame profile 1 for windows or doors, which is made of plastic, has on the inner sides of the outer walls 2,3 band or strip-shaped stiffening elements 4,5 made of metal or fiber-reinforced plastic. The outer walls 2,3, which form the profile viewing surfaces are only slightly influenced in their dimensions by the arrangement of the strip-shaped stiffening elements 4.5. The stiffening elements 4, 5 are located in half-open or closed chambers and are fixed there by means of a Fonnschluss, since they are co-extruded during the production of the profile.
  • Die Längskanten der Versteifungselemente 4,5 werden bei dem dargestellten Ausfuhrungsbeispiel vom Kunststoffprofil durch Haltestege 6 umschlossen. Die Versteifungselemente sind im Längsrandbereich mit Formschluß bildenden Ausstanzungen. ausgerüstet, so daß sich eine innige Verbindung zwischen Rahmenprofil und den Versteifungselementen ergibt.The longitudinal edges of the stiffening elements 4.5 are enclosed in the illustrated embodiment of the plastic profile by holding webs 6. The stiffening elements are in the longitudinal edge region with form-fitting punched outs. equipped, so that there is an intimate connection between the frame profile and the stiffening elements.
  • Der zwischen den Außenwandungen 2,3 liegende Profilhohlraum wird durch dünne Trennwände 7,8,9 in Hohlkammem aufgeteilt. Es können beliebig viele Hohlkammem vorgesehen werden, die in der Breite übereinstimmen können.The lying between the outer walls 2.3 profile cavity is divided by thin partitions 7,8,9 in Hohlkammem. Any number of hollow chambers can be provided, which can coincide in width.
  • Es ist das Ziel, durch eine Mehrzahl von Hohlkammern die Ausbildung von Wärmekonvektionsströmen zu unterbinden.It is the goal to prevent the formation of Wärmekonvektionsströmen by a plurality of hollow chambers.
  • Die Figur 2 zeigt ein Kunststoffrahmenprofil 10, das dahingehend gegenüber dem Rahmenprofil 1 nach der Fig. 1 abgewandelt ist, daß nicht nur vertikale Versteifungselemente 4,5 sondern zusätzlich horizontal sich erstreckende bandförmige oder leistenförmige Versteifungselemente 11,12 vorgesehen sind, und zwar an der Innenseite der Profilfalzwandungen.The FIG. 2 shows a plastic frame profile 10, which is relative to the frame profile 1 after the Fig. 1 modified that not only vertical stiffening elements 4.5 but additionally horizontally extending band-shaped or strip-shaped stiffening elements 11,12 are provided, on the inside of Profilfalzwandungen.
  • Diese Versteifungselemente 11,12 dienen ebenfalls der Erhöhung der Profilstatik, jedoch zusätzlich der sicheren Festlegung von Beschlagteilen bzw. der Festlegung der gefertigten Bauelemente selbst mittels Schrauben und/oder sonstigen üblichen Befestigungsmitteln.These stiffening elements 11,12 also serve to increase the profile statics, but in addition the secure fixing of fittings or the determination of the finished components themselves by means of screws and / or other conventional fastening means.
  • Diese Versteifungselemente, die im Längsrandbereich mit Formschluß bildenden Ausstanzungen ausgebildet sind, dienen dann ebenfalls der Erhöhung der Profilstatik, jedoch zusätzlich der sicheren Festlegung von Beschlagteilen bzw. der Festlegung der gefertigten Bauelemente selbst mittels Schrauben und/oder sonstigen üblichen Befestigungsmitteln.These stiffening elements, which are formed in the longitudinal edge region with form-fitting punching, then also serve to increase the profile statics, but in addition the secure fixing of fittings or the determination of the finished components themselves by means of screws and / or other conventional fasteners.
  • Diese Versteifungselemente 11, 12 werden aus wärmetechnischen Gründen lediglich in bezug auf die Profillänge partiell angeordnet, und zwar an den Stellen, an denen sie zur Festlegung von Befestigungsmitteln erforderlich sind.These stiffening elements 11, 12 are arranged for reasons of thermal engineering only in relation to the profile length partially, in the places where they are required for fixing fasteners.
  • In der Figur 3 ist ein Rahmenprofil 13 dargestellt, bei dem die streifenförmigen Versteifungselemente 4,5 in Trennwänden 14, 17 angeordnet sind, die parallel zu den Außenwänden 2,3 verlaufen. Diese Trennwände sind in der Nähe der Außenwände 2,3 vorgesehen. Die Versteifungselemente 4,5 sind auch durch Formschluß bildende Ausstanzungen in den Trennwänden 14,17 verankert.In the FIG. 3 a frame profile 13 is shown, in which the strip-shaped stiffening elements 4, 5 are arranged in partitions 14, 17 which run parallel to the outer walls 2, 3. These partitions are provided in the vicinity of the outer walls 2, 3. The stiffening elements 4, 5 are also anchored in the partitions 14, 17 by form-fitting punched-out sections.
  • Das Profil weist weitere Trennwände 15,16 auf, die Innenkannmem mit geringem Volumen begrenzen und sich parallel zu den Außenwänden 2 und 3 erstrecken.The profile has further partitions 15, 16, which delimit inner channels with a low volume and extend parallel to the outer walls 2 and 3.
  • Die Versteifungselemente 4,5 sind an ihren Längskanten in Profillängsrichtung durch Haltestege 6 an der Trennwand 14 bzw. 17 gehalten.The stiffening elements 4, 5 are held on their longitudinal edges in the profile longitudinal direction by holding webs 6 on the dividing wall 14 or 17.
  • Eine Besonderheit dieses Rahmenprofils 13 besteht darin, daß die Versteifungselemente 4,5 in einer Ebene liegen, die sich nicht durch eine Profilsichtkante des späteren Fensters oder der Tür erstreckt.A peculiarity of this frame profile 13 is that the stiffening elements are 4.5 in a plane that does not extend through a profile edge of the future window or door.
  • Die Außenwand 2 geht im Bereich des Flügel- bzw. Glasfalzes in einen Flügelanschlag 19 über, der nach oben eine Sichtfläche des Fensters oder der Tür bildet.The outer wall 2 is in the region of the wing or Glasfalzes in a wing stopper 19, which forms a visible surface of the window or the door upwards.
  • Verlängert man die Fluchtebene der Versteifungselemente 4,5 und bezeichnet diese Fluchtebene mit A, so ist zu erkennen, daß die beiden Fluchtebenen der Versteifungselemente 4,5 die Sichtfläche 20 nicht durchsetzen.If one extends the alignment plane of the reinforcing elements 4, 5 and designates this alignment plane with A, then it can be seen that the two escape planes of the reinforcing elements 4, 5 do not penetrate the visible surface 20.
  • Die Figur 4 zeigt ein Rahmenprofil, das weitgehend mit dem Rahmenprofil 13 der Figur 3 übereinstimmt. Lediglich anstelle der Haltestege 6 zur endseitigen Einfassung der Versteifungselemente 4,5 sind bei dieser Konstruktion durchgehende Wandungen 21, 22 angeordnet, die eine geschlossene Aufnahmetasche bzw. einen geschlossenen Aufnahmeraum für die Versteifungselemente 4,5 bilden.The FIG. 4 shows a frame profile which is largely with the frame profile 13 of FIG. 3 matches. Only in place of the retaining webs 6 for the end-side enclosure of the stiffening elements 4, continuous walls 21, 22 are arranged in this construction, which form a closed receiving pocket or a closed receiving space for the reinforcing elements 4, 5.
  • Diese vollständige Einbettung der Versteifungselemente bietet die Möglichkeit, die Versteifungselemente durch entsprechende Ausnehmungen gewichtsmäßig zu reduzieren unter Aufrechterhaltung der erforderlichen Statik, so daß die eingesetzte Metallmasse vermindert wird. Dies wirkt sich einerseits wärmetechnisch vorteilhaft aus und andererseits wird ein Formschluss zwischen den Versteifungselementen und dem Kunststoffhohlprofil erreicht. Es bestehe auch die Möglichkeit, ausschließlich im Längsrandbereich der Versteifungselemente 4,5 aus faserverstärktem Kunststoff formschlusserhöhende Ausstanzungen vorzusehen, die im Material der Wände 21,22 verankert werden und somit die Schubfestigkeit zwischen den Versteifungselementen und dem Rahmenprofil erhöhen.This complete embedding of the stiffening elements offers the possibility of reducing the stiffening elements by corresponding recesses in weight while maintaining the required statics, so that the metal mass used is reduced. On the one hand, this has a thermally advantageous effect and, on the other hand, a positive connection between the stiffening elements and the plastic hollow profile is achieved. There is also the possibility to provide formschlusserhöhende punching exclusively in the longitudinal edge region of the stiffening elements 4,5 made of fiber-reinforced plastic, which are anchored in the material of the walls 21,22 and thus increase the shear strength between the stiffening elements and the frame profile.
  • Die Figur 5 zeigt einen Schnitt durch eine Profilkombination eines Fensters oder einer Tür, die aus einem Blendrahmen 23 und einem Flügelrahmen 24 besteht.The FIG. 5 shows a section through a profile combination of a window or a door, which consists of a frame 23 and a sash 24.
  • Die Versteifungselemente 25 sind sowohl im Flügel als auch im Blendrahmen nahe der Außenwandungen 26, 27, 28, 29 vorgesehen, und bilden Trennwände zwischen zwei Innenkammern. Die Längskanten der Versteifungselemente 25, die mit Formschluß erhöhenden Ausstanzungen ausgerüstet sind, werden beidseitig durch Haltestege 6 bzw. durch Innenwandmaterial des Profils eingefaßt und gehalten.The stiffening elements 25 are provided both in the wing and in the frame near the outer walls 26, 27, 28, 29, and form partitions between two inner chambers. The longitudinal edges of the stiffening elements 25, which are equipped with form-fitting increasing punched, are bordered and held on both sides by retaining webs 6 and by inner wall material of the profile.
  • Im Bereich des Blendrahmens 23 liegen die Außenebenen A der Versteifungselemente 25 so weit innerhalb der Profilkontur, daß diese Ebenen die Sichtfläche 30 nicht durchtreten.In the region of the frame 23, the outer planes A of the stiffening elements 25 are so far within the profile contour that these levels do not pass through the visible surface 30.
  • Im Gegensatz dazu durchschneiden die seitlichen Begrenzungsebenen der Versteifungselemente 25 im Bereich des Flügelrahmens 24 die jeweilige Sichtfläche 31 bzw. 32. Hier ist aber sichergestellt, daß die zur Sichtfläche weisende Längskante des Versteifungselementes 25 eine ausreichend große Distanz zu dieser Sichtfläche hat. Die Versteifungselemente 25 erstrecken sich ausschließlich über den Kembereich des Flügelrahmenprofils 24, so daß die Anschlagbereiche 33 und 34 von dem Versteifungselement 25 freigehalten sind.In contrast, the lateral boundary planes of the stiffening elements 25 in the region of the sash 24 cut through the respective visible surface 31 and 32. Here, however, it is ensured that the longitudinal edge of the stiffening element 25 facing the visible surface has a sufficiently large distance to this visible surface. The stiffening elements 25 extend exclusively over the core area of the casement 24, so that the stop areas 33 and 34 are kept free of the stiffening element 25.
  • Im Blendrahmenprofil 23 ist zum oberen Falz hin eine Kammer 35 vorgesehen, die zur Aufnahme eines Versteifungselementes 11 dient. Dieses Versteifungselement wird während der Extrusion im Rahmenprofil 23 angeordnet.In the frame profile 23, a chamber 35 is provided to the upper fold, which serves to receive a stiffening element 11. This stiffening element is arranged in the frame profile 23 during the extrusion.
  • Die Figur 6 zeigt ein band- oder leistenförmiges Versteifungselement 4,5,25, das zur formschlüssigen Festlegung im Rahmenprofil an den einander gegenüberliegen den Längskanten mit Ausstanzungen 36 versehen ist. Diese Ausstanzungen 36 sind so gestaltet, daß ein Formschluß zwischen dem Rahmenprofil und dem Versteifungselement sowohl in Längsrichtung als auch quer zum Versteifungselement entsteht. Die Ausstanzung 36 entspricht flächenmäßig dem verbleibenden Elementabschnitt 37.The FIG. 6 shows a band or strip-shaped stiffening element 4,5,25, which is provided for positive fixing in the frame profile at the opposite the longitudinal edges with punched 36. These cutouts 36 are designed so that a positive connection between the frame profile and the stiffening element arises both in the longitudinal direction and transversely to the stiffening element. The cutout 36 corresponds in terms of area to the remaining element section 37.
  • Die Ausstanzungsreihen sind so angeordnet, daß der Ausstanzung 36 auf der einen Seite ein Elementabschnitt 37 exakt gegenüberliegt.The Ausstanzungsreihen are arranged so that the punching 36 on one side exactly opposite an element portion 37.
  • Hierdurch wird erreicht, daß beim Einextrudieren des Versteifungselementes zu jedem Zeitpunkt die extrudierte Kunststoffmasse identisch gleich ist. Es wird sichergestellt, daß pro Profillänge immer identisch die gleiche Kunststoffmenge für die Extrusion benötigt wird. Unterschiedliche Materialmengen pro Profillänge würden in der Extrusion zu einem Pulsieren mit unterschiedlichen Drücken führten, was eine Beeinträchtigung der Extrusion und der Profilqualität ergeben würde.This ensures that when extruding the stiffening element at any time, the extruded plastic mass is identical. It is ensured that the same amount of plastic is always required for the extrusion per profile length. Different amounts of material per profile length would result in pulsation at different pressures in the extrusion, which would compromise extrusion and profile quality.
  • Dadurch, daß einer Ausklinkung ein entsprechend gleicher Elementabschnitt gegenübersteht, liegt bei jedem Schnitt durch das Versteifungselement die gleiche Querschnittsfläche vor. Die verdrängbare Masse bleibt somit immer exakt gleich.Due to the fact that a notch faces a correspondingly identical element section, the same cross-sectional area is present at every cut through the stiffening element. The displaceable mass thus always remains exactly the same.
  • Voraussetzung ist aber weiterhin, daß auch die Ausstanzung 36 und die Elementabschnitte 37 identisch gleich sind. Bei der Darstellung ist der Winkel α der Ausstanzung gleich 45°.However, a prerequisite is that the punched-out 36 and the element sections 37 are identical. In the illustration, the angle α of the punched-out is equal to 45 °.
  • Natürlich sind auch andere Ausstanzungsformen denkbar, wie z.B. gestufte Rechteckausnehmungen, die ebenfalls eine Flächengleichheit ergeben, wie dies in der Figur 6 angedeutet ist. Weitere Formgebungen sind denkbar und anwendbar, die Ausstanzungen u.a. Kreise und Halbkreise aufweisen und die die Flächengleichheit mit Abweichungen annähernd erreichen.Of course, other Ausstanzungsformen are conceivable, such as stepped Rectangular recesses, which also give a surface equality, as in the FIG. 6 is indicated. Other shapes are conceivable and applicable, have the punching inter alia circles and semicircles and the surface equality with deviations approximately reach.
  • Die Figur 7 zeigt ein Versteifungselement 4,5 das z.B. bei einem Rahmenprofil nach der Fig. 4 eingesetzt werden kann. Das Versteifungselement wird bei diesem Rahmenprofil vollständig von extrudiertem Kunststoffmaterial umschlossen. Zur Einsparung von Material zur Verminderung des Gewichtes wie auch zur Verbesserung der Wärmedämmung ist dieses Versteifungselement mit Ausstanzungen 3 8 versehen, zwischen denen sich Diagonalstäbe 39 ergeben. Die Ausstanzungen reihen sich wechselseitig aneinander, wobei es vorteilhaft ist, den Winkel α gleich auszubilden.The FIG. 7 shows a stiffening element 4,5, for example, in a frame profile after the Fig. 4 can be used. The stiffening element is completely enclosed in this frame profile of extruded plastic material. To save material to reduce the weight as well as to improve the thermal insulation of this stiffening element is provided with cutouts 3 8, between which arise diagonal bars 39. The punched rows are mutually connected, it being advantageous to form the angle α equal.
  • Es sind aber auch Ausstanzungen möglich, bei denen die eingestanzten Dreiecke mit unterschiedlichen Winkeln ausgestattet sein können.But there are also punching possible in which the stamped triangles can be equipped with different angles.
  • Entscheidend ist auch hier, daß die Querschnittsfläche der Versteifungselemente bei einem beliebig gelegten Querschnitt immer gleich ist, so daß auch hier mit identisch gleicher Extrusionsmaterialmenge gearbeitet werden kann. Das Extrusionsmaterial wird von den Ausstanzungen aufgenommen. Die Versteifungselemente 4,5, 25 werden aus Metall, vorzugsweise aus Aluminium herstellt. Zur Verbesserung der Wärmedämmung des Kunststoffprofils, d.h. zur Verschlechterung des Wärmeflusses, können die Oberflächen der Versteifungselemente so behandelt werden, daß eine hohe Strahlungsrefektion erzielt wird. Dies kann durch Reflektionsbeschichtungen erreicht werden.It is also crucial here that the cross-sectional area of the stiffening elements is always the same for an arbitrarily placed cross-section, so that it is also possible to work with identically the same amount of extrusion material here. The extrusion material is picked up by the punched holes. The stiffening elements 4,5, 25 are made of metal, preferably made of aluminum. To improve the thermal insulation of the plastic profile, i. for the deterioration of the heat flow, the surfaces of the stiffening elements can be treated so that a high radiation refection is achieved. This can be achieved by reflection coatings.
  • Dies kann auch durch hochblanke Oberflächen, durch Eloxieren oder durch Reflektionsbeschichtungen erreicht werden.This can also be achieved by high-gloss surfaces, by anodizing or by reflection coatings.
  • In den Figuren 1 und 2 sind die Versteifungselemente auf der Innenseite der Außenwandungen 2,3 angeordnet, während in den Figuren 3 bis 5 die Versteifungselemente in der Nachbarschaft der Außenwände vorgesehen sind. Aus der Fig. 5 ergibt sich, daß die Versteifungselemente auch als Trennwände zwischen zwei Innenkammern verwendet werden können.In the Figures 1 and 2 the stiffening elements are arranged on the inside of the outer walls 2,3, while in the FIGS. 3 to 5 the stiffening elements are provided in the vicinity of the outer walls. From the Fig. 5 shows that the stiffening elements can also be used as partitions between two inner chambers.
  • Wichtig ist, daß die Versteifungselemente eine ausreichende Distanz zu den Außensichtflächen haben, da für den Schweißvorgang zur Rahmenherstellung die Versteifungselemente gegenüber der Schnittfläche der Rahmenprofile geringfügig gekürzt werden können. Dies erfolgt durch Fräsen mittels Scheibenfräser oder Stimfräser oder durch Stanzen.It is important that the stiffening elements have a sufficient distance to the outer viewing surfaces, since the stiffening elements can be slightly reduced relative to the sectional surface of the frame profiles for the welding process for frame production. This is done by milling using a side milling cutter or end mill or by punching.
  • Die Bearbeitung des Stirnbereichs der Versteifungselemente muß in der Form gewährleistet sein, daß die Sichtflächen der Rahmenprofile nicht beschädigt werden und eine ausreichend gute Verschweißung in optischer wie in funktioneller Hinsicht sichergestellt ist.The machining of the end region of the stiffening elements must be ensured in the form that the visible surfaces of the frame profiles are not damaged and a sufficiently good welding is ensured in optical and functional terms.
  • Unter diesem Gesichtspunkt ist auch die Anordnung der Versteifungselemente 25 in der Figur 5 in bezug auf die Anschlagstege 30, 31 und 32 vorgenommen worden. Wird bei diesen Rahmenprofilen z.B. die Klinkung im Stirnbereich der Versteifungselemente mit Scheibenfräsern vorgenommen" so ist ausreichender Auslauf des Fräswerkzeuges sichergestellt, ohne daß die Sichtflächen des Rahmenprofils beschädigt werden.From this point of view, the arrangement of the stiffening elements 25 in the FIG. 5 with respect to the stop webs 30, 31 and 32 have been made. If, for example, the notch in the front region of the stiffening elements with disc cutters made in these frame profiles "so sufficient leakage of the milling cutter is ensured without the visible surfaces of the frame profile are damaged.
  • Die Figur 2 zeigt, daß sowohl vertikal angeordnete Versteifungselemente 4,5 und horizontal sich erstreckende Versteifungselemente 11,12 in einem Rahmenprofil angeordnet werden können. Diese Versteifungselemente sind getrennt voneinander vorgesehen, so daß diese Elemente die Wärmeleitung nicht erhöhen.The FIG. 2 shows that both vertically arranged stiffening elements 4,5 and horizontally extending stiffening elements 11,12 can be arranged in a frame profile. These stiffening elements are provided separately from each other, so that these elements do not increase the heat conduction.
  • Im allgemeinen erstrecken sich die horizontal angeordneten Versteifungselemente 11,12 nicht über die gesamte Profillänge, sondern erfassen nur einen Profilabschnitt.In general, the horizontally arranged stiffening elements 11, 12 do not extend over the entire profile length, but only cover one profile section.
  • Die Versteifungselemente 4,5,25 sind im Längsbereich oder im Bereich zwischen den Längsrändern mit formschlussbildenden Ausstanzungen ausgerüstet.The stiffening elements 4,5,25 are equipped in the longitudinal region or in the region between the longitudinal edges with form-fitting punching.

Claims (14)

  1. Extruded hollow plastic profile with integrated reinforcing elements, preferably a frame profile for windows or doors, the extruded profile comprising a plurality of inner chambers bounded by partitions (7, 8, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18) extending in the longitudinal direction of the profile and the reinforcing elements provided being rib-shaped stiffening elements (4, 5, 11, 12, 25) made of fibre-reinforced plastic or metal which are not connected to one another, characterized in that
    - at least two mutually opposite stiffening elements (4, 5, 11, 12, 25) are fixed to inner faces of the outer walls (2, 3), these walls forming the visible faces of the hollow profile, or are embedded in these outer walls,
    - and/or at least two stiffening elements (6, 25) are fixed to the partitions (14, 17) bounding the inner chambers or are embedded in these partitions (14, 17),
    - and the stiffening elements (4, 5, 25) are provided with punchouts (36, 38) in the longitudinal edge region or in the region between the longitudinal edges, these punchouts being configured in such a way that the stiffening element has the same cross-sectional area for any section taken transversely to the longitudinal axis of the stiffening element (4, 5, 25),
    - the stiffening elements (4, 5, 11, 12, 25) being incorporated by coextrusion with the hollow plastic profile during the production thereof in such a way that those regions of the stiffening elements (4, 5, 25) which are provided with the so punchouts (36, 38) form, with the extruded plastic composition, a positive connection between the plastic profile and the stiffening elements.
  2. Hollow plastic profile according to Claim 1, characterized in that the stiffening elements are formed from metal.
  3. Hollow plastic profile according to Claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the stiffening elements are formed from integrated bands or strips of fibre-reinforced plastic, and a plurality of inner chambers of small cross section which are bounded by partitions (7, 8, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18) extending in the longitudinal direction of the profile are provided.
  4. Hollow plastic profile according to one of Claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the stiffening elements (4, 5, 11, 12, 25) are rectangular in cross section.
  5. Hollow plastic profile according to one of Claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the stiffening elements (4, 5, 11, 12, 25) produced from metal have a surface with high radiation reflection.
  6. Hollow plastic profile according to one of Claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the surface of the stiffening elements (4, 5, 11, 12, 25) is provided with a reflective coating.
  7. Hollow plastic profile according to Claim 5, characterized in that the stiffening elements (4, 5, 11, 12, 25) are made of aluminium and are anodized.
  8. Hollow plastic profile according to Claim 1, characterized in that the outwardly open punchouts (36) on one longitudinal edge of the stiffening element (4, 5, 25) are offset with respect to the punchouts in the other longitudinal edge, and the section (37) remaining between two punchouts corresponds in surface area to the punchout.
  9. Hollow plastic profile according to one of Claims 1 to 8, characterized in that the stiffening elements (25) form partitions between two inner chambers.
  10. Hollow plastic profile according to one of Claims 1 to 9, characterized in that the rib-shaped stiffening elements (4, 5, 25) have lateral boundary planes A which do not intersect any visible faces of the hollow profile.
  11. Hollow plastic profile according to Claim 10, characterized in that the rib-shaped stiffening elements (4, 5, 25) are sufficiently spaced apart from the visible faces of the hollow plastic profile so that work can be carried out on the end region of the stiffening elements using a tool without damaging the visible faces of the hollow profile.
  12. Hollow plastic profile according to one of Claims 1 to 11, characterized in that, in addition to vertically arranged rib-shaped stiffening elements (4, 5), horizontally extending stiffening elements (11, 12) extending at a distance from the vertical stiffening elements are also provided.
  13. Hollow plastic profile according to Claim 12, characterized in that the horizontal stiffening elements (11, 12) are provided only in the region of a portion of the profile.
  14. Hollow plastic profile according to one of Claims 1 to 13, characterized in that it has an insertion pocket (35) for a loosely engaging furniture attachment profile.
EP00956175A 1999-07-15 2000-07-12 Hollow plastic section Expired - Lifetime EP1196677B2 (en)

Priority Applications (5)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE29912375U DE29912375U1 (en) 1999-07-15 1999-07-15 Hollow plastic profile with embedded strips or strips of fiber-reinforced plastic, preferably a frame profile for windows or doors
DE29912375U 1999-07-15
DE19933099A DE19933099A1 (en) 1999-07-15 1999-07-15 Hollow plastic profile with embedded metal reinforcement, preferably frame profile for windows or doors
DE19933099 1999-07-15
PCT/EP2000/006636 WO2001006079A1 (en) 1999-07-15 2000-07-12 Hollow plastic section

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EP1196677A1 EP1196677A1 (en) 2002-04-17
EP1196677B1 EP1196677B1 (en) 2006-06-21
EP1196677B2 true EP1196677B2 (en) 2010-08-11

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CN (1) CN1207480C (en)
AT (1) AT331114T (en)
CA (1) CA2377862A1 (en)
DE (1) DE50013057D1 (en)
EA (1) EA003881B1 (en)
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HU (1) HU0201964A2 (en)
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CN1361846A (en) 2002-07-31
WO2001006079A1 (en) 2001-01-25
US6920726B2 (en) 2005-07-26
PL352939A1 (en) 2003-09-22
EP1196677B1 (en) 2006-06-21
HU0201964A2 (en) 2002-10-28
CA2377862A1 (en) 2001-01-25
EA003881B1 (en) 2003-10-30
EP1196677A1 (en) 2002-04-17
EA200200133A1 (en) 2002-06-27
US20020059759A1 (en) 2002-05-23
EE200200004A (en) 2003-02-17
NO20020178L (en) 2002-01-14
JP2003505621A (en) 2003-02-12
NO20020178D0 (en) 2002-01-14
CN1207480C (en) 2005-06-22
DE50013057D1 (en) 2006-08-03
SK392002A3 (en) 2002-10-08
HK1047152A1 (en) 2003-02-07
AT331114T (en) 2006-07-15

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