EP1121615A4 - Waveguides having axially varying structure - Google Patents

Waveguides having axially varying structure

Info

Publication number
EP1121615A4
EP1121615A4 EP99945028A EP99945028A EP1121615A4 EP 1121615 A4 EP1121615 A4 EP 1121615A4 EP 99945028 A EP99945028 A EP 99945028A EP 99945028 A EP99945028 A EP 99945028A EP 1121615 A4 EP1121615 A4 EP 1121615A4
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
preform
optical waveguide
selected
pre
pores
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
EP99945028A
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
EP1121615A1 (en
Inventor
James C Fajardo
Gary P Granger
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Corning Inc
Original Assignee
Corning Inc
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US10034998P priority Critical
Priority to US100349P priority
Application filed by Corning Inc filed Critical Corning Inc
Priority to PCT/US1999/018089 priority patent/WO2000016141A1/en
Publication of EP1121615A1 publication Critical patent/EP1121615A1/en
Publication of EP1121615A4 publication Critical patent/EP1121615A4/en
Application status is Withdrawn legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/02Optical fibre with cladding with or without a coating
    • G02B6/02295Microstructured optical fibre
    • G02B6/02314Plurality of longitudinal structures extending along optical fibre axis, e.g. holes
    • G02B6/02342Plurality of longitudinal structures extending along optical fibre axis, e.g. holes characterised by cladding features, i.e. light confining region
    • G02B6/02347Longitudinal structures arranged to form a regular periodic lattice, e.g. triangular, square, honeycomb unit cell repeated throughout cladding
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B82NANOTECHNOLOGY
    • B82YSPECIFIC USES OR APPLICATIONS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MEASUREMENT OR ANALYSIS OF NANOSTRUCTURES; MANUFACTURE OR TREATMENT OF NANOSTRUCTURES
    • B82Y20/00Nanooptics, e.g. quantum optics or photonic crystals
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03BMANUFACTURE, SHAPING, OR SUPPLEMENTARY PROCESSES
    • C03B37/00Manufacture or treatment of flakes, fibres, or filaments from softened glass, minerals, or slags
    • C03B37/01Manufacture of glass fibres or filaments
    • C03B37/012Manufacture of preforms for drawing fibres or filaments
    • C03B37/01205Manufacture of preforms for drawing fibres or filaments starting from tubes, rods, fibres or filaments
    • C03B37/01211Manufacture of preforms for drawing fibres or filaments starting from tubes, rods, fibres or filaments by inserting one or more rods or tubes into a tube
    • C03B37/0122Manufacture of preforms for drawing fibres or filaments starting from tubes, rods, fibres or filaments by inserting one or more rods or tubes into a tube for making preforms of photonic crystal, microstructured or holey optical fibres
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03BMANUFACTURE, SHAPING, OR SUPPLEMENTARY PROCESSES
    • C03B37/00Manufacture or treatment of flakes, fibres, or filaments from softened glass, minerals, or slags
    • C03B37/01Manufacture of glass fibres or filaments
    • C03B37/012Manufacture of preforms for drawing fibres or filaments
    • C03B37/01205Manufacture of preforms for drawing fibres or filaments starting from tubes, rods, fibres or filaments
    • C03B37/01225Means for changing or stabilising the shape, e.g. diameter, of tubes or rods in general, e.g. collapsing
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03BMANUFACTURE, SHAPING, OR SUPPLEMENTARY PROCESSES
    • C03B37/00Manufacture or treatment of flakes, fibres, or filaments from softened glass, minerals, or slags
    • C03B37/01Manufacture of glass fibres or filaments
    • C03B37/02Manufacture of glass fibres or filaments by drawing or extruding, e.g. direct drawing of molten glass from nozzles; Cooling fins therefor
    • C03B37/025Manufacture of glass fibres or filaments by drawing or extruding, e.g. direct drawing of molten glass from nozzles; Cooling fins therefor from reheated softened tubes, rods, fibres or filaments, e.g. drawing fibres from preforms
    • C03B37/027Fibres composed of different sorts of glass, e.g. glass optical fibres
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/02Optical fibre with cladding with or without a coating
    • G02B6/02295Microstructured optical fibre
    • G02B6/02314Plurality of longitudinal structures extending along optical fibre axis, e.g. holes
    • G02B6/02342Plurality of longitudinal structures extending along optical fibre axis, e.g. holes characterised by cladding features, i.e. light confining region
    • G02B6/02371Cross section of longitudinal structures is non-circular
    • GPHYSICS
    • G02OPTICS
    • G02BOPTICAL ELEMENTS, SYSTEMS, OR APPARATUS
    • G02B6/00Light guides
    • G02B6/02Optical fibre with cladding with or without a coating
    • G02B6/02295Microstructured optical fibre
    • G02B6/02314Plurality of longitudinal structures extending along optical fibre axis, e.g. holes
    • G02B6/02342Plurality of longitudinal structures extending along optical fibre axis, e.g. holes characterised by cladding features, i.e. light confining region
    • G02B6/02376Longitudinal variation along fibre axis direction, e.g. tapered holes
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03BMANUFACTURE, SHAPING, OR SUPPLEMENTARY PROCESSES
    • C03B2203/00Fibre product details, e.g. structure, shape
    • C03B2203/10Internal structure or shape details
    • C03B2203/12Non-circular or non-elliptical cross-section, e.g. planar core
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03BMANUFACTURE, SHAPING, OR SUPPLEMENTARY PROCESSES
    • C03B2203/00Fibre product details, e.g. structure, shape
    • C03B2203/10Internal structure or shape details
    • C03B2203/14Non-solid, i.e. hollow products, e.g. hollow clad or with core-clad interface
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03BMANUFACTURE, SHAPING, OR SUPPLEMENTARY PROCESSES
    • C03B2203/00Fibre product details, e.g. structure, shape
    • C03B2203/10Internal structure or shape details
    • C03B2203/18Axial perturbations, e.g. in refractive index or composition
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03BMANUFACTURE, SHAPING, OR SUPPLEMENTARY PROCESSES
    • C03B2203/00Fibre product details, e.g. structure, shape
    • C03B2203/10Internal structure or shape details
    • C03B2203/22Radial profile of refractive index, composition or softening point
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03BMANUFACTURE, SHAPING, OR SUPPLEMENTARY PROCESSES
    • C03B2203/00Fibre product details, e.g. structure, shape
    • C03B2203/36Dispersion modified fibres, e.g. wavelength or polarisation shifted, flattened or compensating fibres (DSF, DFF, DCF)
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03BMANUFACTURE, SHAPING, OR SUPPLEMENTARY PROCESSES
    • C03B2203/00Fibre product details, e.g. structure, shape
    • C03B2203/42Photonic crystal fibres, e.g. fibres using the photonic bandgap PBG effect, microstructured or holey optical fibres
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03BMANUFACTURE, SHAPING, OR SUPPLEMENTARY PROCESSES
    • C03B2205/00Fibre drawing or extruding details
    • C03B2205/08Sub-atmospheric pressure applied, e.g. vacuum
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C03GLASS; MINERAL OR SLAG WOOL
    • C03BMANUFACTURE, SHAPING, OR SUPPLEMENTARY PROCESSES
    • C03B2205/00Fibre drawing or extruding details
    • C03B2205/10Fibre drawing or extruding details pressurised

Abstract

An optical waveguide fiber preform and an optical waveguide fiber drawn therefrom, in which the density and thus the effective refractive indices of the clad layer (42) is caused to change in a pre-selected way axially along the waveguide preform and the associated waveguide fiber. The axial change in density of the clad layer (42) is due to the fraction of the clad volume that is air or a glass of a composition different from that of the base clad glass. The axially variation in clad indices changes the signal mode power distribution, thereby changing key waveguide fiber parameters such as magnitude and sign of dispersion, cut off wavelength and zero dispersion wavelength. The invention includes methods of making the structures having an axially varying clad layer. The invention also contemplates preforms, in which the waveguide fibers drawn therefrom, guide light due to the photonic crystal structure of all of the clad layer length or segments of the clad layer length.

Description

WAVEGUIDES HAVING AXIALLY VARYING STRUCTURE

Background of the Invention

This application is based upon the provisional application S.N. 60/100,349, filed 9/15/98, which we claim as the priority date of this application.

The invention is directed to an optical waveguide preform or fiber having a structure that varies in the axial direction. In particular, the novel preform or waveguide exhibits a clad layer refractive index that varies along the waveguide length, the variation due to change in the clad layer porosity or composition. The invention includes methods for making the novel waveguide preform and fiber.

Optical waveguide fibers having a periodically structured clad layer have been discussed. As an example, the periodic structure of the clad layer may be a photonic crystal as described by Knight et al., "All Silica Single Mode

Optical Fiber with Photonic Crystal Cladding", Optics Letters, V. 21 , No. 19, 1 October 96, and by Birks, et al., "Endlessly Single Mode Photonic Crystal Fiber", Optics Letters, V. 22, No. 13, 1 July 97. In these two articles, a single mode fiber having a silica core and a porous silica cladding is described. The pores or voids in the silica clad layer are elongated and extend from end to end of the clad layer. The pores are arranged in a periodic hexagonal pattern to form the clad layer into a photonic crystal. The waveguide fiber so configured can be a single mode fiber at any wavelength. Further work with waveguide fibers having a porous or pore filled clad layer is described in European patent publication EP 0 810 453 A1. In this publication, the clad layer contains elongated pores which serve to lower the average clad layer refractive index. The elongated pores are not arranged in a periodic pattern so the light guiding mechanism in this waveguide is refraction at the core-clad boundary.

The essentially limitless range of cut off wavelength, or, alternatively, the potential absence of any cut off wavelength, available in a photonic crystal clad layer is an advantage in single mode waveguide design. Also useful, in terms of offering an additional design variable, is the relative refractive index difference, Δ, due to a clad layer containing a particular volume of non-periodic pores. This volume is controlled by controlling the air filling fraction in the fiber as is described below.

However, neither of these designs provide for axial changes in relative refractive index. Such axial changes are advantageous in single mode fiber designs intended to provide for management of dispersion. In addition, because the axial changes in relative index are due to changes in the clad layer, a new set of parameters, such as, pore volume, pore cross section, and pore pattern, are available to alter mode power distribution in the waveguide and thus alter key waveguide fiber properties. Combinations of axial changes in clad structure with the numerous core index profile designs are contemplated which will provide unique waveguide fiber properties. Clad layers which incorporate both photonic crystal light guiding and refractive light guiding are contemplated as advantageous in waveguide designs for dispersion management. In addition the present invention incorporates clad layer structures which contain an array of features, periodic or randomly distributed, comprising a material in place of the pores, which adds still further flexibility in waveguide fiber design. Summary of the Invention

The present novel waveguide preform and fiber and method of making the waveguide preform and fiber provide extra waveguide design variables and are advantageous in the making of dispersion compensating or dispersion controlled waveguides.

A first aspect of the invention is an optical waveguide fiber preform comprising a core glass region and a clad glass layer disposed upon the core glass. For convenience of description, the clad glass layer is said to be divided into segments that lie along the preform axis. The density of the clad glass changes in a direction, which is called the preform axis, parallel to the core region such that the clad glass density changes from segment to segment from a higher to a lower or from a lower to higher value. That is, the respective adjacent segment densities are not a monotone function of axial position. The preform clad layer density can be made to alternate from high to low and low to high in adjacent segments by changing the porosity of the clad layer. In particular, respective adjacent segments along the preform axis could alternate between a condition in which the clad layer contains pores and a condition in which the clad layer is essentially free of pores. In an embodiment of the novel preform, the pores are elongated and arranged in a periodic array which can have pitch, i.e., a spacing between corresponding points in the pores. The pitch may be selected to lie in a number of different ranges. For use at optical telecommunication wavelengths the preform pitch is advantageously selected such that in the fiber drawn from the preform the pitch is in the range of about 0.4 μm to 20 μm. A typical outside diameter of the glass fiber is about 125 μm. The low end of this range provides a pitch in the drawn fiber effective to form a photonic crystal in the range of telecommunications signal wavelengths. However, applicants have verified that spacing or pitch in the range of tens of microns can advantageously be used in the making of a waveguide having an axially varying clad. Although an upper limit of 20 μm is set forth here, applicants contemplate the usefulness of still larger clad layer feature pitch. The upper limit of feature spacing or pitch is in fact a practical limit determined from the clad layer thickness.

Applicant has found that the diameter of the elongated pores as well as their pitch is important in determining the properties of the waveguide fiber drawn from the preform. In a particular embodiment, the ratio of the pore diameter to the pitch of the array of elongated pores is in the range of about 0.1 to 0.9.

The core glass of the preform may have a wide range of refractive index profiles. A refractive index profile of a region is the value of refractive index, or relative refractive index, Δ, as a function of radial position across the region.

The definitions of refractive index profile, segmented profile, Δ, and α-profile are known in the art and may be found in U.S. patent 5,553,185, Antos et al. or U.S. patent 5,748,824, Smith, which are incorporated herein by reference. Thus the core region of the preform may have a step shape, a trapezoidal shape, either of which may be rounded at sharp changes in slope, or an α- profile shape. Further, the core region may be segmented into two or more portions and each of the portions may take on the alternative profiles set forth above. The design of this core region in conjunction with clad layer modulation determines the dispersion properties and other performance characteristics of the waveguide fiber.

The refractive index of a base glass material, such as silica, can be changed by incorporating dopants such as germania, alumina, phosphorus, titania, boron, fluorine and the like. Rare earth dopants such as erbium, ytterbium, neodymium, thulium, or praseodymium may also be added to provide a preform, which can be drawn into an optical amplifier waveguide fiber.

In another embodiment of the novel preform, the clad density toggles between two values from segment to segment along the preform axis. This toggling, together with the pre-selected core structure, determines the dispersion management characteristics of the fiber, as set forth above. Here again, the density may be controlled by controlling porosity volume in the clad layer segments. As an alternative, the density may be controlled by controlling the volume of a dopant glass added to the base clad layer glass. The dopant glass can appear as elongated filaments in the base glass of the clad. These filaments may be arranged in a periodic array in analogy to the arrangement of the elongated pores discussed above. One may speak of the filaments as being filled elongated pores, although it is to be understood that the filaments may be formed using several processes known in the art. If one wishes the filament containing clad layer to interact with light in the manner of a photonic crystal having a full band gap, the filament size and spacing should be such as to accommodate a pitch in the range of about 0.4 μm to 5 μm, and, the respective dielectric constants of the matrix glass and the glass comprising the columns of glass contained therein should differ by about a factor of three.

Either a porous clad layer or a filament filled clad layer may guide light by refraction at the core clad interface, the refractive index of the core being higher than what may be thought of as an average refractive index of the structured clad layer.

The preforms described above are fabricated for the purpose of drawing optical waveguide fibers therefrom. Thus the invention includes the optical waveguides which are drawn from the novel preforms. A further aspect of the invention is a method of making the novel preform from which a novel waveguide is drawn. In a first method, a core preform is fabricated by any of several methods know in the art, including outside and axial vapor deposition, and MCVD or plasma deposition techniques. The core portion of the preform is non-porous solid. As an alternative the core preform may be a tube which has open ends and which is not altered in any way prior to forming the preform. This tube will collapse during the drawing step to form a homogeneous or doped (if the tube is doped) solid glass core region. A plurality of glass tubes having an opening extending through the tube are fabricated. The tubes are reduced in dimension at a pre- selected number of locations along the tubes and arranged about the centrally located core preform. Each of the reduced dimension tubes is essentially identical to every other of the reduced dimension tubes. The tubes may be partially or totally collapsed at the reduced dimension locations. The arrangement of the reduced dimension tubes about the centrally located core preform is a preform having axially variation in the clad layer density. The tubes can have a circular shape or can be in the shape of a polygon of 3 or more sides. The array of tubes about the central core preform can be random or periodic, with the particular selected geometry depending upon the type of signal and waveguide interaction, either refractive or photonic crystalline, that is desired at the core-clad interface. In the case of a clad layer having photonic crystal properties and a full band gap, the pitch of the periodic array of tubes must be nearly of the order of the signal wavelength of light carried in the waveguide.

Instead of pores intermittently distributed along the tube length, the tubes may be fabricated using an outer matrix glass and a column of glass included therein. The individual segments of the tubes could be filled with a glass forming powder or a section of glass filament during the making of the reduced dimension portions or a filament could be placed in the tube before the dimension reduction is carried out. Either of these techniques, filament or powder fill, can be used in a process which provides filled tubes in which the fill material has a softening temperature significantly lower than the tube, for example more than 20 °C. The alternative case, where the columns have a higher softening point than the tubes, is enabled by encasing the assembly of columns and tubes in a larger tube having a softening temperature near that of the columns. If the waveguide fiber drawn from the preform so constructed is to act as a photonic crystal, the difference in dielectric constant between the matrix glass and column glass should be no less than about a factor of three.

In order to draw the preform made in accord with the method, some means must be provided to hold the parts of the preform together. In one embodiment of the novel preform, the tubes and core preform are placed in a larger tube and the larger tube is collapsed onto the tubes and core preform assembly. In another embodiment of the preform, the tubes and core preform may be inserted into chucks and a layer or soot deposited on the tubes and vitrified. The insertion into chucks can be facilitated by bundling the tubes and core preform prior to the chucking or deposition step. The bundling can be accomplished by heat tacking the parts of the preform to each other. As an alternative a frit can be used to glass solder the parts of the preform to each other. Another bundling alternative is to use straps to hold the preform parts together until chucking is completed. The straps may be removed before the start of deposition or be made of a material which will readily burn off during deposition of a first glass soot layer.

A further aspect of the invention is a method of making a waveguide fiber from the novel preform whose general configuration and particular embodiments are described above. An embodiment of the method of drawing a waveguide from the novel preform, includes the steps of sealing one end of each of the altered tubes surrounding the core preform and drawing a waveguide fiber from the opposing end. The pores within the altered tubes will persist through the drawing step because they are sealed into the tubes. Undesired pores or voids between tubes can be collapsed during the drawing step by applying a vacuum to the end of the preform opposite the end from which a waveguide is drawn.

Another embodiment of the method omits the step of sealing one end of the tubes surrounding the preform before the drawing step. The step of altering the cross section of the tubes along their length may also be omitted. In this embodiment, a gas pressure is applied to the unsealed tubes during the drawing step. An increase in the internal gas pressure of the tubes causes the tube openings to remain unchanged or become larger. A decrease in internal tube pressure causes the tube openings to become smaller or to close completely during draw. Thus the density of the waveguide fiber clad layer can be made to change in the axial direction by changing the gas pressure. An advantage of this embodiment is that the clad density can be varied essentially continuously from a solid glass to a glass having a maximum porosity limited only by the number of open tubes in the clad layer and the minimum wall thickness of the tubes together with the desired geometry of the finished waveguide fiber. An inert pressurizing gas such as nitrogen or helium is preferred. Undesired interstitial pores or voids among the tubes are subject to the applied pressure as well. Depending upon pore size through the tube relative to interstitial pore size the process alternatives are:

- all pores are collapsed or closed;

- all pores are left open;

- the interstitial pores are left open while the tube pores are closed; or, - the tube pores are left open while the interstitial pores are closed. It is understood that the pressure control allows for essentially a continuum of values of the ratio of final interstitial pore size to final tube pore size.

In yet another embodiment of the method, the preform parts are a core preform as described above having a clad layer comprising an array of glass rods arranged about the core preform. The array of rods is shaped such that a periodic or random array of pores are present between or through the rods. By intermittently applying a vacuum to this preform during the drawing step, these pores between the rods can be intermittently changed from a value equal to or less than the original pore cross section down to a minimum cross section of zero, thereby producing a waveguide which has an axially varying density.

This same intermittent change in cross section can be accomplished by applying a gas pressure to the pores as described above for the open tubes. Here again the possible density of the clad layer can be made to vary essentially continuously from that of solid glass material to a porous glass material having a porosity limited only by the dimensions of the preform components and the waveguide drawn therefrom. The preform configuration in this embodiment is chosen such that viscous forces act to close the pores at neutral pressure. Then, the pore size can be modulated by modulating positive pressure applied to the preform during draw. This is the inverse of the embodiment in which the preform configuration is chosen such that the pore size can be modulated by modulating negative pressure. A particularly useful embodiment of the novel waveguide is one in which the total dispersion is controlled from segment to segment of the waveguide.

The combination of a pre-selected core refractive index profile with a particular pattern of change in clad layer segment density causes the total dispersion to alternate between positive and negative values. In a waveguide fiber having positive total dispersion, shorter wavelengths of light travel faster than light of longer wavelengths. The result is that the algebraic sum of the products of segment length and segment total dispersion over an entire length of waveguide fiber, i.e., the net total dispersion, can be made equal to a pre- selected target value. For example, the net total dispersion of a waveguide fiber can be made equal to zero even though no segment of the waveguide has a total dispersion of zero.

These and other features of the novel preform and the optical waveguide drawn therefrom are further described using the following drawings.

Brief Description of the Drawings

Fig. 1a is an illustration of a tube having a circular cross section.

Fig. 1b is an illustration of a tube having a hexagonal cross section.

Fig. 2 is a sketch of a tube having segments of reduced dimension. Fig. 3 is an illustration of hexagonal tubes arranged around a core preform and inserted into a larger holding tube.

Fig. 4 is an illustration of a cross section of a preform or a waveguide having a core region and a porous or composite clad layer.

Fig. 5 is an illustration of a cross section of a waveguide having a core region and a porous clad layer in which the pores are due to interstitial pores among the clad layer tubes.

Figs. 6a & b show cross sections of preforms or waveguides having respective solid and porous or composite clad layers.

Figs. 6c, e, & g show the core index profiles of preforms or waveguides having a solid clad layer. Figs. 6d, f , & h show the core index profiles of preforms or waveguides having a porous or composite clad layer.

Detailed Description of the Invention The novel waveguide preform or waveguide fiber makes use of the guiding properties of clad layers having an axially varying refractive index which is lower than that of the waveguide core. A waveguide fiber is contemplated in which the guiding is done by structuring the clad layer to act as a photonic crystal having a band gap, at least over certain parts of the waveguide length. In each type of clad, the desired clad properties are achieved by altering the clad material composition or distribution.

One embodiment alters the clad layer by including pores of particular size and shape. In an analogous embodiment, a material having a dielectric constant different from the base clad glass, is included in place of the pores. In either case, the mode power distribution of signal light in the waveguide is affected, thus affecting the waveguide properties. Because both the core and the clad may be changed in the novel waveguide preform or fiber, a great deal of flexibility is available to an optical waveguide fiber designer.

An interesting embodiment disclosed and described in this document is one in which elongated pores or glass filaments are included in the clad layer.

Two possible substructures of such a clad layer are illustrated in Figs. 1a and 1 b, which are cross sections of tubes having respective centerline pores 4 and 6. The material surrounding the pore has a circular shape 2 in Fig. 1a and a hexagonal shape 8 in Fig. 1b. The outside shape is selected to accommodate a preferred pattern of pores to be formed by the substructures in the clad layer.

The pores 4 and 6 could be filled with a material comprising a glass having a dielectric constant different from that of the surrounding or matrix glass material.

A step in the method of altering one of the substructures is illustrated in Fig 2. Indentations 12 have been formed in the exemplary tube 10. The indentations produce restricted regions 14 in the central pore or filament separated by regions 16 over which the central portion of the tube is undisturbed. An assembly of such substructures about a core region provides a clad layer having axial variations in its refractive index. In addition, the substructures can be arranged such that the central pores or filaments 18 form a periodic array. The periodic array can have the pitch of a photonic crystal designed for use in a preferred wavelength range. At present, the wavelength range of interest for telecommunication applications is from about 600 nm to 2000 nm.

A waveguide preform in accord with the present invention is shown in Fig. 3. In this example, the substructures are tubes 20 and 22 having essentially identical hexagonal cross sections. The difference in shading between tubes 20 and 22 indicates that the plurality of substructures may be formed into a secondary structure which is then assembled into a clad layer. As an alternative the shading can indicate that the substructures are of different composition and may be assembled to form a compositional pattern having components of area larger than that of the individual substructures. Such an assembly could be made for example in a process in which the secondary structures are extruded, assembled and then drawn to a desired cross sectional area. The extrusion and draw process is disclosed and described in Provisional Application S:N. 60/094,609 filed 30 July 1998.

Example

Referring to Fig. 3, a waveguide preform and fiber may be fabricated as follows. The hexagonal substructures 20 and 22, having an opening along the centerline, are assembled into a clad layer that surrounds core preform 30.

The entire assembly of hexagonal tubes surrounding the core preform 30 is made stable by placing it into tube 28. The details of the illustration show the substructure openings as dots 26.

In this example, tubes 20 and 22 have a surface free of indentations. The ends of the tubes in the plane of Fig. 3 are shown as unsealed, by exemplary dots 26 which indicate an opening. The tube 28 may be collapsed upon the assembly before or during drawing of the preform into a waveguide fiber. To insure proper control of the clad porosity, a pressure that ranges from atmospheric pressure upwards is applied to tube 28 during the drawing step. Over a first range of pressures beginning at atmospheric pressure and ending at a pre-determined pressure above atmosphere, the substructure openings will close due to the action of viscous forces which exist during the drawing step. Over a second range of pressures, beginning slightly above the highest pressure in the first range of pressures and continuing upward, openings will exist in the clad layer after drawing is completed. The size of the openings is controlled by the magnitude of the applied pressure. The pressure applied to the substructure openings is varied between a value in the first pressure range to a value in the second pressure range during the drawing step. Thus, the diameter of the openings varies from zero to pre-selected diameter corresponding to the pressure selected from the second range. The modulation of the applied pressure produces a corresponding axial modulation of the clad layer density or refractive index. That is, the density and the average refractive index of the clad layer vary along the axial dimension of the waveguide fiber.

Comparative Example 1

An optical waveguide preform is fabricated as described in the example above except that in this comparative example the ends of the substructure tubes are sealed. In addition, the tubes are indented as shown in Fig. 2. The respective indentations of the substructure tubes are held in registration each to the others in tube 28. The registration is maintained by bundling or other means as described above.

An optical waveguide fiber is drawn from the preform end opposite the sealed ends of the substructure tubes. During draw a vacuum can be applied to the preform tube 28 at the preform end having the sealed substructure tubes. Thus, the altered, i.e., indented tubes, which are sealed, form elongated pores, arranged in essentially the same pattern as that of the substructures in the preform. The indented portions of the tubes collapse to form a substantially homogeneous clad cross section. The elongated pores are separated axially one from another by these collapsed sections of clad having a substantially homogeneous cross section. The elongated pores are separated one from another in cross section by the walls of the substructures.

The vacuum, together with the viscous forces exerted in the preform during draw, serve to close unwanted interstitial pores between the substructure tubes.

In an embodiment of the preform and waveguide of this comparative example, the core portion of the preform may be an assembly of tubes having the desired composition and unsealed ends. During draw, the viscous forces, together with the applied vacuum act to close the openings in the unsealed core tubes to produce a solid glass core.

Fig. 4 is a drawing taken from a photograph of a cross section of a waveguide fiber drawn in accord with the example. The core region 32 is solid glass and the clad region cross section contains exemplary pores 34 which serve to reduce the average refractive index of the clad layer.

It is understood that the pores 34 could be sized or configured to form a photonic crystal which confines the signal to the core region because the signal wavelength lies in the band gap of the crystal.

Comparison Example 2

An alternative process is one in which the substructures are solid and are arranged within a large tube as in the comparative example 1 above. However in this case, the substructures are unaltered. During draw a vacuum is intermittently applied to tube 28 so that the interstitial pores, i.e., those between the substructures, are alternately collapsed (the vacuum is applied) or remain as elongated pores (the vacuum is turned off) in the clad layer. The result of such a process is shown in Fig. 5. which is a drawing taken from a photograph of the waveguide fiber clad layer cross section. The elongated pores 36 which are present in the clad layer are interspersed among the solid clad glass matrix 38. In the axial direction, the porous portions of the clad are separated one form another by the non-porous portions of substantially homogenous, pore free clad glass.

The effect of the introduction of pores into the clad layer is shown by the pairs of figures which make up Fig 6. In Fig. 6a is shown a cross section of a non-porous portion of the waveguide fiber. Core or core preform 40 is surrounded by solid clad glass layer 42. In Fig. 6b, core or core preform 44 is surrounded by porous clad layer 46. The cores of Figs. 6a and 6b, 6c and 6d, 6e and 6f, and, 6g and 6h correspond one to other in that the pairs may be drawn from the same preform. The first member of the pairs, i.e., Fig. 6a, c, e, and g have a solid clad layer while each of the second members of the pairs, Fig. 6b, d, f, and h have a porous clad layer.

The effect of the elongated pores in the porous clad layer is illustrated in the pairs of figures showing refractive index profile. For example a step index core 48 in Fig. 6c has an index difference with reference to clad layer index 49.

Fig. 6c corresponds to the solid core and clad structure shown in Fig. 6a. In comparison, the index difference between core index 50 and porous clad layer average index 51 as shown in Fig. 6d is greater. The mode power distribution of a signal in a portion of the waveguide characterized by the refractive index profile of Fig. 6c will be broad in comparison to the mode power distribution of a signal propagated in the waveguide region having the refractive index profile of Fig. 6d. It will also be understood, that other properties, such as total dispersion, total dispersion slope, cut off wavelength, zero dispersion wavelength are also different for different axial portions along the novel waveguide. One properly constructed and drawn preform produces a waveguide fiber having these axial variations in waveguide fiber properties.

In analogy with Figs. 6c and 6d, Figs. 6e and 6f show the relative profiles for the case in which the core has three segments. The core 52 has a given index profile relative to clad layer 53. By introducing pores into the clad layer, the larger refractive index difference, that between core index 54 and clad layer index 56, is achieved. Here again, the relative index difference alters the mode power distribution of a signal propagated in the waveguide.

In Figs. 6g and 6h the axial change in clad index results in a first profile 56, relative to clad layer index 57, having three distinct annular regions, 60, 62, and 64. In contrast, the core profile 58, relative to the index of porous or pore filled clad layer 59 has only two distinct annular regions 66 and 68.

The potential of the novel waveguide preform and associated waveguide fiber to compensate dispersion is readily seen in Figs. 6(c-h). Further, control of mode power distribution provides control of such key waveguide fiber parameters as cut off wavelength, zero dispersion wavelength, and the magnitude and sign of waveguide dispersion, thereby providing great flexibility in the uses of the novel waveguide.

Although particular embodiments of the invention have herein been disclosed and described, the invention in nonetheless limited only by the following claims.

Claims

We Claim:
1. An optical waveguide preform comprising: a central core glass surrounded by and in contact with a clad glass layer to form a preform, the preform having a first and a second end and an axis therebetween, and the clad layer comprising a plurality of annular segments that extend sequentially along the axis, wherein, the segments are characterized by a pre-selected density different from the pre-selected density of the segments immediately adjacent the each segment, and, the each segment density is either higher or lower than both immediately adjacent segments.
2. The optical waveguide preform of claim 1 in which the segments, that have a pre-selected density lower than that of adjacent segments, contain pores.
3. The optical waveguide preform of claim 2 in which the segments that have a pre-selected density higher than that of adjacent segments also contain pores. 4. The optical waveguide preform of claim 2 in which the pores are elongated and have their long dimension oriented along the axis of the preform.
5. The optical waveguide preform of claim 3 in which the pores are elongated and have their long dimension oriented along the axis of the preform.
6. The optical waveguide preform of claim 4 in which the elongated pores form a periodic array.
7. The optical waveguide preform of claims 5 in which the elongated pores form a periodic array.
8. The optical waveguide preform of either one of claims 6 or 7 in which the pitch of the periodic array is such that a waveguide fiber drawn from the preform to a pre-selected diameter contains a periodic array of elongated pores having a pitch in the range of 0.4 μm to 20 μm.
9. The optical waveguide preform of either of claims 6 or 7 in which the elongated pores have a diameter and the ratio of the diameter to the pitch of the periodic array is in the range of about 0.1 to 0.9. 10. The optical waveguide preform of claim 1 in which the core glass has a refractive index profile which is selected from a group consisting of a step, a rounded step, a trapezoid, a rounded trapezoid, an α-profile, and a segmented profile wherein the segments of the segmented profile are selected from a group consisting of a porous layer, a step, a rounded step, a trapezoid, a rounded trapezoid, and an α-profile. 11. The optical waveguide preform of claim 10 in which the core glass comprises silica glass having a dopant selected from the group consisting of germania, alumina, phosphorus, titania, boron, and fluorine.
12. The optical waveguide preform of claim 11 in which the core glass comprises silica doped with a substance selected from the group consisting of erbium, ytterbium, neodymium, thulium, and praseodymium.
13. The optical waveguide preform of claim 1 , wherein, the density of a clad layer segment has one of two pre-selected values.
14. The optical waveguide preform of claim 13, wherein, the clad glass layer segment having the first one of the two pre-selected densities is a homogeneous first composition, and the clad glass layer segment having the second one of the two pre-selected densities comprises a porous first composition.
15. The optical waveguide preform of claim 14, wherein, the pores of the clad layer having the second pre-selected density are elongated and have their long dimension oriented along the axis of the preform.
16. The optical waveguide preform of claim 15 in which the elongated pores form a periodic array.
17. The optical waveguide preform of claim 16 in which the pitch of the periodic array is such that a waveguide fiber drawn from the preform to a pre-selected diameter contains a periodic array of elongated pores having a pitch in the range of 0.4 μm to 20 μm.
18. The optical waveguide of claim 13, wherein, the clad glass layer segment having the first one of the two pre-selected densities is a homogeneous first composition having a dielectric constant, and the clad glass layer segment having the second one of the two pre-selected densities comprises a porous first composition, wherein, the pores are elongated and the long dimension of the pores are oriented along the preform axis, and wherein, the elongated pores are filled with a material having a second dielectric constant, wherein, the first and second dielectric constants differ by a factor of at least three.
19. The optical waveguide 18 in which the elongated filled pores form a periodic array.
20. The optical waveguide preform of claim 19 in which the pitch of the periodic array is such that a waveguide fiber drawn from the preform to a pre-selected diameter contains a periodic array of elongated pores having a pitch in the range of 0.4 μm to 20 μm. 21. An optical waveguide fiber drawn from the preform of any one of claims 1-7 or claims 10-20.
22. An optical waveguide fiber drawn from the preform of any one of claims 1-7 or claims 10-20 in which the core has a refractive index profile and the segment densities are selected to provide in conjunction with the core profile a total dispersion which alternates between positive and negative values as the segment density alternates between different pre-selected densities, to provide a waveguide fiber having a net dispersion equal to a pre-selected value .
23. A method of making an optical waveguide fiber preform comprising the steps: a) fabricating a core preform having a long axis; b) fabricating a plurality of glass tubes having an inside and an outside dimension and a long axis; c) forming along the long axis in each of the plurality of glass tubes a number, N, of sections of reduced inside and outside dimension, wherein, the N reduced dimension sections are spaced apart, each from another, by a section of the tube; d) arranging the plurality of tubes of step c) in an array surrounding the core preform; wherein the long axis of the core preform is substantially parallel to the long axes of the tubes.
24. The method of claim 23 in which the tubes of step b) have a cross section shape selected from the group consisting of a circle, a triangle, a parallelogram, and a polygon.
25. The method of claim 23 in which the array is random. 26. The method of claim 23 in which the array is periodic.
27. The method of claim 23 in which the reduced inside dimension is zero.
28. The method of claim 23, in which the tube has a first composition and a first dielectric constant, and during or before the forming step c) each of the sections which space apart the N sections are filled with a material having a second composition and a second dielectric constant, wherein the first dielectric constant differs from the second dielectric constant by a least a factor of three.
29. The method of claim 23, in which the tube has a first composition and a first refractive index, and during or before the forming step c) each of the sections which space apart the N sections are filled with a material having a second composition and a second refractive index, wherein the first refractive index is greater than the second refractive index.
30. The method of claim 23 further including the steps: e) inserting the arrangement of step d) into an outer tube; and f) collapsing the outer tube onto the arrangement.
31. The method of claim 30 further including the step of depositing glass soot particles onto the outer tube.
32. The method of claim 23 further including the steps: e) bundling the arrangement of tubes of step d) to hold them in registration each to another; and, f) depositing glass soot onto the bundle.
33. The method of claim 32 in which the step of bundling includes tacking the glass tubes each to another and the innermost tubes to the core preform by means of heating the tubes.
34. The method of claim 32 in which the step of bundling includes tacking the glass tubes each to another and the innermost tubes to the core preform using a glass frit.
35. A method of making an optical waveguide fiber comprising the steps: a) fabricating a preform in accord with any one of claims 23 - 34; b) sealing one end of the glass tubes; c) drawing a waveguide fiber from the preform end opposite the preform end having sealed tubes; and, d) applying a vacuum to the preform end opposite the end being drawn. 36. A method of making an optical waveguide fiber comprising the steps: a) fabricating a core preform; b) fabricating a plurality of glass rods having a cross sectional shape; c) arranging the plurality of rods in an array surrounding the core preform such that the array contains a plurality of pores; d) inserting the array of rods and the core preform into a tube to form a draw preform; e) drawing an optical waveguide fiber from the draw preform; and, f) during step e) applying a varying pressure to the tube.
37. The method of claim 36 in which the applied pressure varies between atmospheric pressure and a pre-selected pressure below atmospheric pressure.
38. The method of claim 37 in which the pre-selected pressure is sufficient to at least partially collapse the pores.
39. The method of claim 37 in which the applied pressure varies between a first pre-selected pressure greater than or equal to atmospheric pressure and a second pre-selected pressure greater than the first pre-selected pressure.
EP99945028A 1998-09-15 1999-08-10 Waveguides having axially varying structure Withdrawn EP1121615A4 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
US10034998P true 1998-09-15 1998-09-15
US100349P 1998-09-15
PCT/US1999/018089 WO2000016141A1 (en) 1998-09-15 1999-08-10 Waveguides having axially varying structure

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP1121615A1 EP1121615A1 (en) 2001-08-08
EP1121615A4 true EP1121615A4 (en) 2004-12-01

Family

ID=22279305

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP99945028A Withdrawn EP1121615A4 (en) 1998-09-15 1999-08-10 Waveguides having axially varying structure

Country Status (10)

Country Link
EP (1) EP1121615A4 (en)
JP (2) JP4495344B2 (en)
CN (1) CN1145813C (en)
AU (1) AU5772699A (en)
BR (1) BR9913724A (en)
CA (1) CA2341727A1 (en)
ID (1) ID28248A (en)
TW (1) TW455709B (en)
WO (1) WO2000016141A1 (en)
ZA (1) ZA9905897B (en)

Families Citing this family (37)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US6243522B1 (en) * 1998-12-21 2001-06-05 Corning Incorporated Photonic crystal fiber
GB9903918D0 (en) 1999-02-19 1999-04-14 Univ Bath Improvements in and relating to photonic crystal fibres
CN1178079C (en) 1999-02-19 2004-12-01 布拉兹光子学有限公司 Photonic crystal fibres and its production method
GB9911698D0 (en) * 1999-05-20 1999-07-21 Univ Southampton Developing holey fibers for evanescent field devices
US6571045B2 (en) 2000-01-21 2003-05-27 Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. Microstructured optical fiber
JP4779281B2 (en) * 2000-02-28 2011-09-28 住友電気工業株式会社 Optical fiber
US6636677B2 (en) 2000-02-28 2003-10-21 Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. Optical fiber
US6526209B1 (en) * 2000-04-17 2003-02-25 Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. Optical fiber having improved optics and structure
KR100803929B1 (en) 2000-05-01 2008-02-18 스미토모덴키고교가부시키가이샤 Optical fiber and method for manufacturing the same
DE60137770D1 (en) * 2000-05-01 2009-04-09 Sumitomo Electric Industries Optical fiber and process for their manufacture
US6766088B2 (en) 2000-05-01 2004-07-20 Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. Optical fiber and method for making the same
US6885683B1 (en) * 2000-05-23 2005-04-26 Imra America, Inc. Modular, high energy, widely-tunable ultrafast fiber source
DE20122782U1 (en) * 2000-06-17 2007-11-15 Leica Microsystems Cms Gmbh lighting device
US6898367B2 (en) 2000-06-17 2005-05-24 Leica Microsystems Heidelberg Gmbh Method and instrument for microscopy
DE20122791U1 (en) * 2000-06-17 2007-11-29 Leica Microsystems Cms Gmbh scanning microscope
US6792188B2 (en) 2000-07-21 2004-09-14 Crystal Fibre A/S Dispersion manipulating fiber
GB2365992B (en) * 2000-08-14 2002-09-11 Univ Southampton Compound glass optical fibres
US6658183B1 (en) * 2000-10-20 2003-12-02 Lucent Technologies Inc. Process for fabricating tapered microstructured fiber system and resultant system
AU2351502A (en) 2000-11-20 2002-05-27 Crystal Fibre As A micro-structured optical fibre
JP4759816B2 (en) * 2001-02-21 2011-08-31 住友電気工業株式会社 The method of manufacturing an optical fiber
AU2002237219A1 (en) * 2001-03-12 2002-11-11 Crystal Fibre A/S Higher-order-mode dispersion compensating photonic crystal fibres
EP1381894A1 (en) 2001-04-11 2004-01-21 Crystal Fibre A/S Dual core photonic crystal fibers (pcf) with special dispersion properties
US20020181911A1 (en) * 2001-04-30 2002-12-05 Wadsworth William John Optical material and a method for its production
US7359603B2 (en) 2001-07-20 2008-04-15 The University Of Syndey Constructing preforms from capillaries and canes
US6751241B2 (en) 2001-09-27 2004-06-15 Corning Incorporated Multimode fiber laser gratings
GB2386435B (en) * 2002-03-15 2005-10-19 Blazephotonics Ltd Microstructured optical fibre
CA2479760A1 (en) * 2002-03-20 2003-10-02 Crystal Fibre A/S Method of drawing microstructured glass optical fibres from a preform
JP2004240390A (en) 2002-12-10 2004-08-26 Sumitomo Electric Ind Ltd Optical fiber
US6925840B2 (en) * 2003-05-29 2005-08-09 Corning Incorporated Method of making a photonic crystal preform
US7414780B2 (en) 2003-06-30 2008-08-19 Imra America, Inc. All-fiber chirped pulse amplification systems
US7280730B2 (en) * 2004-01-16 2007-10-09 Imra America, Inc. Large core holey fibers
JP2007108190A (en) * 2004-01-22 2007-04-26 Nikon Corp Photonic crystal and its manufacturing method
EP1846784B1 (en) 2004-12-30 2016-07-20 Imra America, Inc. Photonic bandgap fibers
US7787729B2 (en) 2005-05-20 2010-08-31 Imra America, Inc. Single mode propagation in fibers and rods with large leakage channels
US7343074B1 (en) * 2007-02-27 2008-03-11 Corning Incorporated Optical waveguide environmental sensor and method of manufacture
US7496260B2 (en) 2007-03-27 2009-02-24 Imra America, Inc. Ultra high numerical aperture optical fibers
EP2201415A4 (en) 2007-09-26 2014-07-02 Imra America Inc Glass large-core optical fibers

Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3920312A (en) * 1972-08-28 1975-11-18 American Optical Corp Optical fiber with porous cladding
US5627921A (en) * 1993-10-14 1997-05-06 Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson Optical fiber for sensors including holes in cladding
WO1997030944A1 (en) * 1996-02-23 1997-08-28 Corning Incorporated Method of making dispersion decreasing and dispersion managed optical fiber
US5802236A (en) * 1997-02-14 1998-09-01 Lucent Technologies Inc. Article comprising a micro-structured optical fiber, and method of making such fiber

Family Cites Families (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US5308764A (en) * 1988-06-30 1994-05-03 The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space Administration Multi-cellular, three-dimensional living mammalian tissue
US5098178A (en) * 1989-05-30 1992-03-24 Ugur Ortabasi Superconducting matrix
US5155792A (en) * 1991-06-27 1992-10-13 Hughes Aircraft Company Low index of refraction optical fiber with tubular core and/or cladding
FR2683053B1 (en) * 1991-10-29 1994-10-07 Thomson Csf optical fiber and method of manufacture.
DE69424606D1 (en) * 1993-02-25 2000-06-29 Fujikura Ltd Polarization maintaining optical fiber, manufacturing method thereof, joining method for optical amplifiers, laser oscillator and polarization holder fiber optic coupler
EP0810453B1 (en) * 1996-05-31 2001-10-10 Lucent Technologies Inc. Article comprising a micro-structured optical fiber, and method of making such fiber
US5907652A (en) * 1997-09-11 1999-05-25 Lucent Technologies Inc. Article comprising an air-clad optical fiber

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3920312A (en) * 1972-08-28 1975-11-18 American Optical Corp Optical fiber with porous cladding
US5627921A (en) * 1993-10-14 1997-05-06 Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson Optical fiber for sensors including holes in cladding
WO1997030944A1 (en) * 1996-02-23 1997-08-28 Corning Incorporated Method of making dispersion decreasing and dispersion managed optical fiber
US5802236A (en) * 1997-02-14 1998-09-01 Lucent Technologies Inc. Article comprising a micro-structured optical fiber, and method of making such fiber

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
See also references of WO0016141A1 *

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
JP2002525256A (en) 2002-08-13
JP2010140045A (en) 2010-06-24
ZA9905897B (en) 2000-04-04
TW455709B (en) 2001-09-21
CN1317099A (en) 2001-10-10
AU5772699A (en) 2000-04-03
WO2000016141A9 (en) 2000-11-09
WO2000016141A1 (en) 2000-03-23
CN1145813C (en) 2004-04-14
JP4495344B2 (en) 2010-07-07
CA2341727A1 (en) 2000-03-23
ID28248A (en) 2001-05-10
EP1121615A1 (en) 2001-08-08
BR9913724A (en) 2001-05-29

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
US4165223A (en) Method of making dry optical waveguides
EP1119523B1 (en) Method of fabricating photonic structures
EP0875014B1 (en) Optical waveguide with photosensitive refractive index cladding
US7349611B2 (en) Photonic bandgap fibre, and use thereof
US6944382B2 (en) Low water peak optical waveguide fiber
JP5921504B2 (en) Glass large core optical fiber
FI77217C (en) Foerfarande Foer framstaellning of a polarisationsbevarande an optical fiber.
EP0139348B1 (en) Optical fiber and method for its production
US6892018B2 (en) Micro-structured optical fiber
JP5364090B2 (en) Fiber containing alkali metal oxides
US20080056657A1 (en) Holey optical fiber with random pattern of holes and method for making same
EP1153325B1 (en) Photonic crystal fibresand methods of manufacturing
EP0810453B1 (en) Article comprising a micro-structured optical fiber, and method of making such fiber
CA1116449A (en) High bandwidth optical waveguide having b.sub.2o.sub.3 free core and method of fabrication
CA1284442C (en) Method for making index-profiled optical device
US20030059185A1 (en) Photonic crystal fibers
US20050069269A1 (en) Dual core photonic crystal fibers(pcf) with special dispersion properties
US5802236A (en) Article comprising a micro-structured optical fiber, and method of making such fiber
US6847771B2 (en) Microstructured optical fibers and preforms and methods for fabricating microstructured optical fibers
US6522820B2 (en) Method of fabricating microstructured optical fibers
EP0905834B1 (en) Silica-based optical fiber comprising low refractive index intermediate cladding
US8798412B2 (en) Optical fiber containing an alkali metal oxide and methods and apparatus for manufacturing same
US5894537A (en) Dispersion managed optical waveguide
AU707445B2 (en) Mode field diameter conversion fiber, method for locally changing the refractive index of optical waveguides and method for fabricating optical waveguide preforms
US5295210A (en) Optical waveguide fiber achromatic coupler

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
17P Request for examination filed

Effective date: 20010207

AK Designated contracting states:

Kind code of ref document: A1

Designated state(s): AT BE CH CY DE DK ES FI FR GB GR IE IT LI LU MC NL PT SE

RBV Designated contracting states (correction):

Designated state(s): DE FR GB IT NL

A4 Despatch of supplementary search report

Effective date: 20041015

RIC1 Classification (correction)

Ipc: 7C 03B 37/012 B

Ipc: 7C 03B 37/027 B

Ipc: 7G 02B 6/22 A

Ipc: 7G 02B 6/16 B

18D Deemed to be withdrawn

Effective date: 20050409