EP1110857A2 - Arrangement for stabilizing a vessel, especially in roll - Google Patents

Arrangement for stabilizing a vessel, especially in roll Download PDF

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Publication number
EP1110857A2
EP1110857A2 EP00403572A EP00403572A EP1110857A2 EP 1110857 A2 EP1110857 A2 EP 1110857A2 EP 00403572 A EP00403572 A EP 00403572A EP 00403572 A EP00403572 A EP 00403572A EP 1110857 A2 EP1110857 A2 EP 1110857A2
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EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
cable
characterized
train
device according
jaws
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
EP00403572A
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German (de)
French (fr)
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EP1110857B1 (en
EP1110857A3 (en
Inventor
Edmond Chaix
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TechnicAtome SA
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TechnicAtome SA
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Priority to FR9916066 priority Critical
Priority to FR9916066A priority patent/FR2802504B1/en
Application filed by TechnicAtome SA filed Critical TechnicAtome SA
Publication of EP1110857A2 publication Critical patent/EP1110857A2/en
Publication of EP1110857A3 publication Critical patent/EP1110857A3/en
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Publication of EP1110857B1 publication Critical patent/EP1110857B1/en
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B63SHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS; RELATED EQUIPMENT
    • B63BSHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS; EQUIPMENT FOR SHIPPING 
    • B63B39/00Equipment to decrease pitch, roll, or like unwanted vessel movements; Apparatus for indicating vessel attitude
    • B63B39/02Equipment to decrease pitch, roll, or like unwanted vessel movements; Apparatus for indicating vessel attitude to decrease vessel movements by displacement of masses

Abstract

The device balances large tonnage vessels, being used in multiple copies. It mainly comprises a train of movable lead masses (12), completed at each end by a pair of jaws (16) bearing against the side rails of a box (3). A single cable (2) is used to tow the train and to control the loosening of the jaws (16). The cable displacement and tension control means are placed on one side of the ship. The winch (20) of a device can be coupled to the winch of an adjacent device, thus making it possible to troubleshoot a device, possibly faulty. Application to the balancing of large tonnage ships, such as aircraft carriers. <IMAGE>

Description

Field of the invention

The invention relates to the balancing of large tonnage vessels, such as aircraft carriers and, in particular, roll balancing, that is to say in gite.

Prior art and problem posed

We know, by patent application French 2,687,978, from the same applicant, a device balancing of a ship, in particular in roll, using a track on which runs a ballast train solid. Indeed, with reference to Figure 1 of this document the balancing elements consist of two trains or series of rollers 19, rolling on one track consisting, for example, of two side rails 25 and 26. A cable 4, driven by means of a motor 10, via a motor drum 9, allows move the rollers 19, on either side of the ship. A locking system in position 34, using two jaws 37, is placed between the two sets of rollers 19 and controlled by cable 4. The immobilization of the whole is done by approximation of the jaws 34 against a central rail positioning 30 placed longitudinally above of the device. When the cable is not stretched, the jaws 34 tighten the central positioning rail 30. Two devices are also used on this device lateral electric cylinders 14 for tensioning the cable to its two ends, via a sheave 5, attached to the cylinder rod. Many of these devices can be mounted in parallel in boxes of one same ship, part of the bridge structure of this one.

It is easy to understand that, during a cable tension, the two clamping jaws 37 move away from each other to release the device relative to the central positioning rail 30. The set of rollers 19 can then be moved by a pull, on one side or the other, of the cable 4. The removal of tension, voluntary or caused by the break of a strand of cable 4, causes blocking automatic clamping jaws 37 against the rail central positioning unit 30, in the position close together.

The blocking system used here in the central part of the whole, that is to say in the middle of two sets of rollers, requires bonding extremely safe between the different moving masses formed by the rollers. Similarly, the presence of the central locking rail means that the rollers have to be designed 19 of restricted diameter, at least in part central, to leave space for the passage of the rail positioning 30. In this way, the mass of the assembly is significantly reduced, as is the effectiveness of the system.

In addition, the presence of the two cylinders electric 14 and their respective mobile sheave, 5, of each side of the system, penalizes the system by its size.

The object of the invention is therefore to remedy to these disadvantages, by proposing a device balancing of a different ship.

Summary of the invention

To this end, the main object of the invention is a device for balancing a ship, in particular in roll, comprising:

  • a mobile ground train traveling on a track;
  • train immobilization means;
  • a train traction cable and control means of immobilization;
  • motor means for actuating the cable; and
  • means for adjusting the cable tension in order to control the immobilization means, comprising two mobile sheaves for adjusting the cable tension.

According to the main characteristic of the invention, the adjustment means also have a fixed sheave placed on one side of the device, both mobile sheaves being controlled by a single cylinder and placed on the other side of the device, opposite the sheave fixed, with the motor means and the jack.

In the preferential realization of adjustment means, the two mobile sheaves are connected to each other in an elastic manner, the cable passing around these two mobile sheaves, the motor means being made up of a winch placed between these two sheaves mobile and around the drum from which the cable.

It is advantageous that the two strands of the cable is fixed inversely on the winch, around which they wrap and unwind, from this done, alternately and simultaneously.

The cylinder is preferably a cylinder hydraulic.

In the main realization of the invention, it is elastically connected to one of the two mobile sheaves.

It can advantageously be ordered by a solenoid valve.

In the event that means are provided for lateral guide of the train, in this case two rails lateral, the immobilization means include mainly a pair of jaws, each pair being controlled by one end of the cable, the jaws of each pair being held apart from each other by elastic means to come resting on the side rails, their opening is controlled by cable tension on these two extremities.

In the latter case and when the rails sides are standardized I-shaped profiles (IPN), defining two concave parts to three interior surfaces it is expected that both jaws of each pair of jaws have three friction surfaces pressing on the three surfaces interior of this winch.

In the event that several balancing are used on the same vessel it's better to provide, on each winch, means temporary coupling with the winch of a adjacent device so that, in the event of a breakdown, one of the winches can drive each other.

In order to increase the efficiency of the device and, in particular, to optimize the torque of compensation provided by the mobile ground train it it is advantageous that the latter be constituted by lead blocks of a shape almost parallelepiped, mounted on casters rolling on the track.

When, as some requirements for large tonnage vessels, the train must be enclosed in a metal box, the track, on which these moving masses roll, being formed by the lower interior surface of the box, which is installed transversely to to the center line of the ship.

List of Figures

The invention and its various technical characteristics will be better understood on the following reading, which is accompanied by a few figures representing, respectively:

  • Figure 1, in perspective view, a balancing device according to the prior art;
  • Figure 2, an overall view, in section, of the balancing device according to the invention;
  • Figure 3, in top view, in section, a pair of jaws used in the train immobilization means of the balancing device according to the invention;
  • Figure 4, a detailed view of the motor means and adjusting the cable tension in the device according to the invention;
  • Figure 5, in side view, the jaws shown in Figure 4;
  • Figure 6, in section, seen from the side, one of the moving masses of the train of a balancing device according to the invention;
  • Figure 7, a diagram of the cable winding on the winch including the balancing device according to the invention;
  • Figure 8, the winch of the balancing device according to the invention.
Detailed description of a realization of the invention

Referring to Figure 2, the system balancing device according to the invention is installed transversely to the ship, which is symbolized by its side walls 5. A metal box 3 is therefore placed transversely on a deck of the ship or ceiling under a bridge. The internal surface 7 of the wall lower 8 of box 3 acts as a track for the mobile ground train, which is placed inside the box. This train includes several wagons made up each one of a mass of lead 12 mounted on casters 13, which roll on the internal surface 7 of the wall lower 8 of box 3. Of course, the wagons, thus formed, are connected together by a hook hitch 15 placed between each lead mass 12. At each end of the train is a pair of jaws 16 intended to immobilize the train in moving away and taking support on the side walls of the housing 3. These two pairs of jaws 16 therefore constitute means of immobilizing the train in box 3 at a given location. The fact that uses two pairs of jaws 16, one each end of the train, balance these means immobilization and gives them a redundant character constituting security, in case one of the two 16 pairs of jaws would fail.

The train is towed by a cable 2 which also controls the operation of the two pairs of jaws 16. It is rolled up, in its right part, on a fixed sheave 17 stowed to the carcass of the ship, by example on side wall 5. On its left side, the cable 2 passes through a control assembly, comprising a winch 20 placed between two mobile sheaves 21. The winch 20 controls train movements by driving the cable 2 in one direction or the other. The two mobile sheaves 21 control the tension of the cable 2, thereby enabling the two pairs of jaws 16. The detail of this control assembly is explained further in Figure 4.

Figure 3 shows how the cable 2, a pair of jaws 16 and the train are fixed relative to each other. The end of cable 2 is fixed directly to a jaw control part 22 via a shoulder 23 constituting a grip tool grip, in case the cable 2 would be broken. Two jaws 24 are mounted pivoting, each around a vertical axis 26, fixed relative to the lead mass 12 at the end of the train. A powerful spring 27 maintains permanently the two jaws 24 apart so that each of them rubs against the lateral internal wall 39 of the box. The lead weights 12 are attached to each other others with a towing hook 15, which can be advantageously consisting of two heads slightly ball joints 29, each inserted into a cavity coupling 30 of a lead mass 12.

However, when the two mobile sheaves 21 of Figure 2 act simultaneously to make vary the cable tension, i.e. act by traction on the two ends of the two strands of the cable 2, a tensile force is then exerted on each of the pairs of jaws 16. Indeed, if the cable pulls, balanced on both ends of the train, it will remain stationary, while the jaw control parts 22 will exert a traction on the two jaws of the same pair 24 by through two links 32. Thus, these last will be brought together by compression of the spring 27 and the winch can then do its work as train movement control by pulling one of the two strands of cable 2.

When the winch 20 drives the cable 2 pulling on one side of the train, last is driven for movement by rotation inside the casing 3. Thus, all of the 12 lead masses is moved from one place to another, to obtain the transverse balancing effect of the ship.

Referring to Figure 5, we understand better how the jaws 24 can act on the lateral internal surface 28 of the lateral walls of the box, in case these are advantageously each constituted by a profile in form of I, of type IPN, and whose height corresponding to the interior height of the box in which is the train. IPN 35 profiles each have two concave parts, one of which corresponds to the interior lateral surface 28. This last one has three parts, a vertical part 28A and two inclined parts 28B at the top and in the bottom of I. In correspondence, each jaw 24 has three surfaces, a vertical surface 26A and two inclined surfaces 26B placed on either side of the vertical surface 26A and forming a surface outer corresponding to the lower surface concave 28 of the IPN profile 35. Thus, each jaw 24 has a maximum yield since an external surface 26 maximum acts on the lateral interior surface 28 of the box.

In Figure 5, are also shown four links 32, two for each jaw 24. Their axis of rotation, with respect to the control part 22 of FIG. 3, is symbolized by a single dashed line 33.

With reference, together with Figures 3 and 6, we can see that the shape of each mass of lead 12 is parallelepiped. We note above all that the dimensions of each lead mass 12 correspond to the dimensions of the interior volume of the box 3, delimited mainly by surfaces lower interior 7 and upper interior 34 and through the interior surfaces 28 of the IPN profiles 35. As a result, a maximum of the interior section of the box 3 is occupied by the lead weights 12, which is a weight gain compared to the system described in patent application FR-2 687 978 and mentioned in the paragraph of the prior art. Indeed, the presence of a central rail, referenced 30, reduced significantly the space available for the masses mobile. The fixing of such a rail 30, taking into account the special characteristics of the steel of which it is constituted, poses technological problems, in particular weldability, and its reduced size induced, by the clamping forces, stress levels important.

In Figure 6, we see that the wheels 13 of each moving mass 12 rest on the wall inclined 28A lower than the concave internal surface 28 of IPN 35 profiles, which helps to center naturally the moving masses in the box. Finally, we see that the cable 2 is housed below lead weights 12 and above the surface lower inner 7 of the box.

In Figure 4, is shown in detail the cable control assembly 2. There are the end of the train, and, more precisely, the last lead weight 12, equipped with a pair of jaws 16 and its support piece 22, as well as the shoulder 23, to which the first cable strand 2A is fixed. It goes around a first mobile mounted 21A sheave in horizontal translation on a first carriage translation 36A, mounted rolling on a floor of the ship.

The second strand of cable 2B goes into under the train and comes out on the other side of this one. It passes around a second mobile sheave 21B, mounted on a second translation carriage 36B, mounted also rolling on a ship floor. Both translation carriages 36A and 36B are connected between them elastically by a first spring 38A. One of them, in this case the second carriage 38B, is itself elastically connected to the rod mobile 41 of a hydraulic cylinder 40 fixed.

For their part, the two strands 2A and 2B are wound on the winch drum 20A, between its passage on the first mobile sheave 21A and its passage on the second mobile sheave 21B. Whatever position of the 20A winch, in relation to the two sheaves mobile 21A and 21B, this must be established so that cable 2 goes around these two mobile sheaves 21 and 21B, over a quarter of a turn, in opposition to requests due to the fixing of two strands 2A and 2B of cable 2 to the ground train of lead.

It is easy to understand that in the case where the hydraulic cylinder 40 pushes its movable rod 41 towards the two translation carriages 36A and 36B, the two strands 2A and 2B of the cable will be stressed in tension in relation to their attachment to the mobile train. As a result, the jaws of the two pairs of jaws 16 will be stressed and be close together, freeing up in translation the moving lead mass train 12. The 20A winch can then fulfill its command function by translation of the train, which is no longer immobilized in the housing 3.

We add that the hydraulic cylinder is controlled by an opening valve due to lack of current, such as a three-way valve 42. In others terms, the relaxation of the two strands 2A and 2B of the cable done by opening the valve due to lack of current, which increases the overall reliability of the system, by compared to a tensioner using an electric jack and therefore requiring the availability of power electric for the relaxation of the two strands 2A and 2B of the cable. In this case, the tension of cable 2, that is to say, the train is released by activation of the hydraulic cylinder 40 by actuation of valve 42.

The use of a hydraulic cylinder 40 allows also to reduce the mass of the control means compared to those described in the device of the Patent application 2,687,978, previously described. The bearing force generated by the hydraulic cylinder 80 is independent of the position of the movable rod 41 of this last and only depends on the pressure used and the cylinder piston section, which is constant. The indication of a pressure gauge 48 makes it possible to monitor directly the tension forces of the two strands of the cable.

We therefore see that, in the present case, all of the cable control members 2, both in displacement that in tension, is localized on only one side of the train, that is, on one side of the ship. The only element belonging to the device found in the opposite side is the fixed sheave, referenced 17 in the figure 2.

In FIG. 4, is also represented, in dashed lines, a second control assembly, identical to that shown in solid lines. he this is the control assembly of a device balancing identical to that previously described and right next to it. Indeed, in order to be able to be effective on a large tonnage vessel, the balancing device according to the invention must be used in multiple copies. It turns out indeed advantageous to have four or five devices balancing according to the invention at the front and four or five balancing devices aft of the ship. It is pointed out that such a balancing device can move ten masses of lead 12, each weighing about two tonnes. Using ten devices balancing, according to the invention, it is thus possible have two hundred tonnes of balancing on the same ship.

In addition, if one of these ten devices balancing has failed, its 20A winch or 20B can be coupled to the winch 20B or 20A of the device which adjoins it by means of coupling temporary 50 and symbolized by a broken line, connecting the two winches 20A and 20B. So it is possible to motorize the winch of a device balancing faulty by coupling with the winch of the neighboring device to activate it, even at reduced speed. This is particularly useful if the moving masses of the train of the balancing device in on one side. Indeed, the device neighbor can then move the train by temporary coupling from one winch to another and position the faulty moving train in the middle of the ship.

It should be noted that, in the event of rupture a strand 2A or 2B of the cable, the pair of jaws can no longer be activated and remains therefore blocked by jaw spacing, blocking thus the train in its position. This constitutes, well heard, security.

With reference to Figure 7, each of the two strands 2A and 2B of the cable is wound on part of the peripheral surface of the winch 20. In addition, each end 43 of each strand 2A and 2B is fixed to the winch, for example by means of a bolt 44 and a baffle 45 wedging the end 43 of a strand of the cable. In other words, the surface of the periphery cylindrical of winch 20 is reserved for winding of each of the two strands 2A and 2B of the cable.

Figure 8 shows the advantageous presence of two grooves 46 each provided to receive a strand 2A or 2B of the cable. In addition, if the fixation of each ends 43 of the two strands 2A and 2B, at a end of the cylinder constituting the winch 20, one can consider that the throat 46 is common to the two strands 2A and 2B. Indeed, during a rotation of the winch 20, one of the two strands 2A is wound and the other 2B is or, conversely, the amount of length of groove 46 used being substantially constant. So, the unwinding of a 2A strand frees up space for their winding from the other strand 2B of the cable.

Advantages of the device according to the invention

The parallelepiped shape of the masses lead mobile 12 optimizes the volume of the tunnel formed by box 3. Thus, we gain space, and therefore weight, using such moving masses. The effectiveness of the device is therefore increased.

The use of a pair of jaws 16 to each end of the train allows not to stress the train coupling hooks during the numerous periods of immobilization thereof. This constitutes the considerable advantage, especially when the ship has an inclined position. We thus protect ourselves from a accidental breakage of one of the coupling hooks.

Maintenance and control of pairs of 16 jaws are relatively simple. It is however much simpler than the maintenance of central jaws, referenced 34, of the prior art. Indeed, the latter is located at middle of the train, which is enclosed in the box; he is therefore practically inaccessible.

In the event of one of the two strands breaking cable, train recovery is relatively easy, thanks to the shoulder 23, between each strand 2A and 2B and the jaw support 22.

The presence of two braking systems, such constitutes each pair of jaws 22, constitutes security, in particular in the case of rupture of one of the two strands of cable 2, during a maneuvering the moving train.

The juxtaposition of two devices balancing, according to the invention, including the winches 20A and respective 20B are temporarily coupled, allows to troubleshoot one of the devices that may have fallen breakdown and immobilized in a harmful position for balance of the ship.

The constitution of lead masses 12 mobile, equipped with four casters 13, allows them to move on the wings of standard profiles 35, constituting the lateral parts of the box.

The use of towing hooks 15 of ball type or similar allows some freedom movement between the masses of lead 12, in particular in angle. The use of a system with two mobile sheaves, constituting a double-stage tensioner, provided with a single hydraulic cylinder 40, makes it possible to tension the two strands 2A and 2B of the cable without position and relax them without energy.

The respective winding of the two strands 2A and 2B of the cable on the winch 20, as described previously, avoids winding by cutting.

Claims (12)

  1. Balancing device for ships, especially in roll, comprising:
    a train of moving masses rolling on a track;
    train immobilization means;
    a cable (2) for pulling the train and controlling the immobilization means;
    motor means for actuating the cable (2); and
    means for adjusting the tension of the cable (2) in order to control the immobilization means and comprising two mobile sheaves for adjusting the tension of the cable (2),
    characterized in that the adjustment means comprise a fixed sheave (17), placed on one side of the device and two mobile sheaves (21A, 21B) being controlled by a single jack (40) and being both placed on the side opposite the fixed sheave (17), with the motor means and the jack (40).
  2. Device according to claim 1, characterized in that the mobile sheaves (21A and 21B) are connected to each other, in an elastic manner, the cable (2) passing around the two mobile sheaves (21A, 21B).
  3. Device according to claim 2, characterized in that the first mobile sheave (21B) is elastically connected to the jack (40).
  4. Device according to claim 1, characterized in that the drive means are consisting of a winch (20, 20A, 20B), placed between the two mobile sheaves (21A, 21B).
  5. Device according to claim 1, characterized in that the jack (40) is a jack hydraulic.
  6. Device according to claim 5, characterized in that the hydraulic cylinder (40) is controlled by an undercurrent solenoid valve (42).
  7. Device according to claim 1, in which the means for guiding a train are two side profiles (35), characterized in that the immobilizers include a pair of jaws (24), at each end of the train, the jaws (24) being held apart against the internal surface of the side rails and connected to a end of the cable (2) whose tension causes approximation of the two jaws (24) of a pair of jaw (16).
  8. Device according to claim 7, characterized in that the two rails being profiles in standardized I, of the “IPN” type (35), having at least an internal concave part consisting of a surface internal vertical (28A) and two internal surfaces inclined (28B), characterized in that the jaws (24) have three friction surfaces, one vertical friction surface (26A) and two surfaces inclined friction (26B), leaning respectively on the three internal surfaces (28A, 28B) of the corresponding side rail (35).
  9. Device according to claim 1, characterized in that the moving masses are consisting of lead masses (12) of a form almost parallelepiped and mounted on casters (13) driving on the track.
  10. Device according to claim 1, characterized in that the track is formed by the lower internal surface (7) of a box (3) metallic and installed transversely to the axis of the ship.
  11. Device according to claim 2, characterized in that the two strands (2A, 2B) of the cable (2) are fixed on the winch (20, 20A, 20B) so inverted, and around which it is wound and therefore take place alternately and simultaneously.
  12. Device according to claim 1, characterized in that each winch (20A, 20B) has temporary coupling means (48) with the winch (20B, 20A) of an adjacent device, so that one can lead the other, in case of failure of one of the of them.
EP20000403572 1999-12-20 2000-12-18 Arrangement for stabilizing a vessel, especially in roll Expired - Fee Related EP1110857B1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FR9916066 1999-12-20
FR9916066A FR2802504B1 (en) 1999-12-20 1999-12-20 Improved device for balancing a vessel especially rolling

Publications (3)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP1110857A2 true EP1110857A2 (en) 2001-06-27
EP1110857A3 EP1110857A3 (en) 2001-08-08
EP1110857B1 EP1110857B1 (en) 2005-10-26

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EP20000403572 Expired - Fee Related EP1110857B1 (en) 1999-12-20 2000-12-18 Arrangement for stabilizing a vessel, especially in roll

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US (1) US6349660B2 (en)
EP (1) EP1110857B1 (en)
JP (1) JP4718680B2 (en)
DE (1) DE60023432T2 (en)
FR (1) FR2802504B1 (en)

Cited By (3)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2009026964A1 (en) * 2007-08-30 2009-03-05 Speed 4 Sail S.A. Movable ballast for sailboat and ship
WO2011028102A3 (en) * 2009-09-04 2011-11-03 Itrec B.V. Offshore wind turbine installation
US9038554B2 (en) 2011-04-20 2015-05-26 Vincent de Troz Mobile ballast device

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FR2831135B1 (en) 2001-10-18 2004-01-23 Technicatome Balancing device for low tonnage vessels
US20070084394A1 (en) * 2005-10-19 2007-04-19 Peter Gudmundson Power generation in watercraft
KR101533392B1 (en) * 2007-10-11 2015-07-02 아이티알이씨 비. 브이. Vessels with roll damping mechanism
WO2009120062A2 (en) * 2008-03-26 2009-10-01 Itrec B.V. Heave compensation system and method
CN102079364B (en) * 2009-11-27 2013-04-10 三一电气有限责任公司 Wind turbine installation vessel and gravity center adjusting devices for same
US9150291B2 (en) * 2013-01-23 2015-10-06 Elliott B. Dollar Weight distribution device and method for modifying wake
US9926052B2 (en) 2015-12-30 2018-03-27 Abb Schweiz Ag Control mechanism for transformer in-situ inspection device
KR101847737B1 (en) 2016-10-17 2018-04-10 (주)한국해사기술 Appratus and method for preventing the buckling of piston rod
KR101847739B1 (en) 2016-10-17 2018-04-10 (주)한국해사기술 Stroke twice transport device
WO2018125229A1 (en) * 2016-12-30 2018-07-05 Abb Schweiz Ag Control mechanism for transformer in-situ inspection device

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Cited By (4)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2009026964A1 (en) * 2007-08-30 2009-03-05 Speed 4 Sail S.A. Movable ballast for sailboat and ship
WO2011028102A3 (en) * 2009-09-04 2011-11-03 Itrec B.V. Offshore wind turbine installation
US8701579B2 (en) 2009-09-04 2014-04-22 Itrec B.V. Offshore wind turbine installation
US9038554B2 (en) 2011-04-20 2015-05-26 Vincent de Troz Mobile ballast device

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Publication number Publication date
US6349660B2 (en) 2002-02-26
US20010003963A1 (en) 2001-06-21
FR2802504B1 (en) 2002-03-01
JP2001206287A (en) 2001-07-31
DE60023432D1 (en) 2005-12-01
EP1110857B1 (en) 2005-10-26
DE60023432T2 (en) 2006-07-27
FR2802504A1 (en) 2001-06-22
EP1110857A3 (en) 2001-08-08
JP4718680B2 (en) 2011-07-06

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