EP0997203B1 - Method and system for controlling cooling lines - Google Patents

Method and system for controlling cooling lines Download PDF

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Publication number
EP0997203B1
EP0997203B1 EP19990119331 EP99119331A EP0997203B1 EP 0997203 B1 EP0997203 B1 EP 0997203B1 EP 19990119331 EP19990119331 EP 19990119331 EP 99119331 A EP99119331 A EP 99119331A EP 0997203 B1 EP0997203 B1 EP 0997203B1
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Prior art keywords
cooling
temperature
characterised
strip
calculation
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German (de)
French (fr)
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EP0997203A1 (en
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Siegfried Latzel
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SMS Siemag AG
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21BROLLING OF METAL
    • B21B37/00Control devices or methods specially adapted for metal-rolling mills or the work produced thereby
    • B21B37/74Temperature control, e.g. by cooling or heating the rolls or the product
    • B21B37/76Cooling control on the run-out table
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21DMODIFYING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FERROUS METALS; GENERAL DEVICES FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS METALS OR ALLOYS; MAKING METAL MALLEABLE BY DECARBURISATION, TEMPERING OR OTHER TREATMENTS
    • C21D11/00Process control or regulation for heat treatments
    • C21D11/005Process control or regulation for heat treatments for cooling
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21DMODIFYING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FERROUS METALS; GENERAL DEVICES FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS METALS OR ALLOYS; MAKING METAL MALLEABLE BY DECARBURISATION, TEMPERING OR OTHER TREATMENTS
    • C21D9/00Heat treatment, e.g. annealing, hardening, quenching or tempering, adapted for particular articles; Furnaces therefor
    • C21D9/52Heat treatment, e.g. annealing, hardening, quenching or tempering, adapted for particular articles; Furnaces therefor for wires; for strips ; for rods of unlimited length
    • C21D9/54Furnaces for treating strips or wire
    • C21D9/56Continuous furnaces for strip or wire
    • C21D9/573Continuous furnaces for strip or wire with cooling

Description

The invention relates to a method and a system for control a cooling section, in particular the cooling section of a Plant for rolling steel sheets and strips.

While the requirements for the geometric dimensions, the surface texture and mechanical properties from hot-rolled ribbons are constantly rising, growing at the same time the desire for greater flexibility of production facilities for a variety of different steels. There is therefore a need for automatic working Cooling systems, the exact temperature profiles and various Cooling strategies, i. Cooling processes, with high flexibility and ensure simultaneous production of high quality steels.

The so far developed for the realization of such requirements Process optimization and control method for automation The laminar hot strip cooling sections are usually based on mathematical process models.

Here, the classical concept is the modeling of the System in the form of ideal band points. at the modeling of a band point is considered that the band point by heat conduction, convection and radiation Exchanging energy with the environment. Furthermore, by microstructural transformation produces internal energy. For modeling the band point becomes the transient in the band thickness direction solved one-dimensional heat equation of FOURIER. The geometric limit of modeling is the location of the model Fertigstraßenpyrometers, so the entry point of the ideel imaginary Bandpunktes in the cooling section, as well as the installation site of the reel pylon. Between these two places can by locally distributed control interventions the target temperature of the band.

Here, two different approaches have become known: On the one hand, the process model is integrated into a control loop. on the other hand it is separate from it. In the second case it comes before the inlet of the belt to be cooled to a default the positioning systems of the cooling line (Setup), where a Pre-control and regulation during rolling only for Control of remaining disturbances and inaccurate setup settings serve.

In both cases, individual band sections become segments divided and tracked during transport through the cooling section. These segments are the measured process and Assigned control signals.

After a segment has reached the barrel pyrometer, the first case a retroactive accounting of this segment with the help of Process model performed. The resulting difference between measured and calculated reel temperature is adapted and for a subsequent adjusted setting the positioning systems under consideration of the current process state (Finishing temperature, belt speed, etc.). This calculation process is performed during the rolling process cyclically repeated.

The model adaptation is known to, the prediction accuracy to increase the cooling model. Here is the Calculation result of the model constantly with the actual, measured cooling results and an error minimization carried out.

This classic concept shows on the one hand the disadvantage that due to the integration of the band segments a large number of data must be determined and processed. Next to it are the control systems of the cooling device, such as the local Distribution of cooling water and the number of actuated Chilled beams, not flexible and adjustable fast enough. There is thus the risk that tape sections at a rapid change of the belt speed undercooled or overheated.

This klaasische concept is for example in the article of Leitholf M.D. et al., "Model reference control of runout table cooling at LTV ", Iron and Steel Engineer 66 (1989), August, no. 8, Pittsburgh, PA, US. This is the band divided into ideele sections / segments and for each Band segment performed a calculation.For each segment During rolling the required amount of water or Number of cooling valves under consideration of the current process status calculated. By means of tape tracking is the transport each segment tracked over the roller table. The selected ones Valves become correct in time and place switched on. Subsequently, a recalculation with the Aim to minimize any existing model errors.

Based on this prior art, it is the task of present invention, a method and a system control a cooling section, in particular a cooling section of Rolling equipment, to create a fast control process guarantee and reduce the logistical effort.

This object is achieved by means of the method with the features solved according to claim 1 and according to claim 7. advantageous Features are disclosed in the subclaims.

The proposed method is based on the basic idea the total system of the cooling section is not considered a sum of individual Band points or segments to consider, but the temperature condition of the strip over the length of the cooling section, i.e. the temperature curve falling due to the influence of the cooling effect, by means of a mathematical process model continuously to calculate or observe this temperature curve to compare with a reference temperature curve and the deviations over the cooling length individual auszuregeln. The model that underlies the calculation is hereby preferably adapted continuously.

The control loop proposed according to the invention consists of the following cyclical steps during the cooling process:

  • Calculation of the strip temperature profile in the cooling section as a function of the current process parameters and the specific process state of the strip,
  • preferably the adaptation of the model underlying the calculation by means of a specifically recorded temperature measured value T meas by changing the model parameters with the aim of minimizing the error of the model,
  • Precalculation of a reference temperature profile with error-minimized model on the basis of a predetermined reference temperature T ref ;
  • individual control of the process parameters of the cooling section by comparing the reference temperature profile with the calculated temperature profile.
  • Here, the calculation of the band temperature curve takes place realistically. Based on the preferably error-minimized Model, the reference temperature profile is calculated in advance.

    In the proposed model underlying the method, eliminates the division of the band into individual segments, as the classic model envisages. Therefore, the Data volume clearer and the data logistic effort much lower. In addition, the proposed procedure allows significantly shorter settling times, since the consideration is longer Data transport times are eliminated.

    Under the term process parameters iS. of claim 1 become understood the current settings of the cooling section. This are recordable, the number of activated chilled beams and / or the amount or the speed of the cooling water and the cooling water temperature. The regulation of these actuators The cooling section is done individually and in adaptation to the reference temperature curve and thus allows one greater speed and flexibility of the individual actuators.

    Under specific process state are in this context understood the properties of the band to be cooled, such as the belt speed, the belt thickness, the finishing temperature or the material properties of the tape.

    The actual measured temperature measurement value T meas or the given reference temperature T ref is preferably the actual or setpoint temperature of the material to be cooled shortly before entry into the coiling device or at the outlet of the cooling device. Thus, by means of the proposed control method, it is possible to adjust reel temperatures with low temperature tolerances and to largely compensate for differences in the speed and finish roll temperature values over the tape length.

    Preferably, the cooling path comprises a plurality of cooling devices. As a particularly preferred embodiment, it is proposed that upper and lower actuators of the cooling devices independently for separate cooling of the Band upper or lower band are regulated.

    Advantageously, it is proposed that a precalculation the expected band temperature curve as a function of specific process state of the material to be cooled before Intake into the cooling section before the actual control process perform. With the help of this upstream Setup calculation of the belt temperature curve becomes an operating point created for the subsequent control process, which makes it faster.

    By including thermo-physical and fluid-dynamic Relationships is an accurate process image in the rule cycle guaranteed.

    The system according to the invention is composed of the following units according to claim 8:

  • a unit for calculating the belt temperature profile (observer) as a function of the currently set process parameters and the specific process state of the belt;
  • a unit for the precalculation of a reference temperature profile as a function of a predetermined reference temperature (T ref ) taking into account the process parameters and the process status (predictor),
  • a device for controlling the actuators of the cooling devices (la to li) of the cooling section.
  • Hereinafter, the proposed method or system will be described schematically with reference to the accompanying figures. Hereby show:

    FIG. 1
    a schematic functional overview of the proposed regulatory process;
    FIGS. 2 to 4
    schematic representations of successive steps of the proposed method;
    FIG. 5
    a schematic overview of the system elements of the temperature controller;
    Figures 6,7
    schematic overviews of the thermodynamic approach of the model.

    FIG. 1 shows a schematic overview of a laminar band cooling system 1, which is located on the outlet roller table of a hot rolling wide strip line between the last rolling stand 2 of Finishing line and the driver 3a or reel 3b is located. The Strip cooling system consists of several cooling devices 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d, 1e, 1f, 1g, 1h and 1i together independently each other and their actuators in each case with regard to Bandober- and bottom are separately controlled. Between the last rolling mill 2 of the finishing train and beginning of the belt cooling system 1, seen in the transport direction of the tape 4, is provided a first pyrometer 5 for measuring the belt temperature. A second pyrometer 6 is just before Driver 3a or reel 3b.

    Furthermore, the individual steps of FIG illustrated Regellungszyklusses invention.

    During rolling, a strip temperature profile is calculated (observed) by means of the cooling model, and the measured reel temperature T meas is compared with the corresponding calculated temperature T calc . The measured reel temperature T meas is understood to mean the strip temperature which is measured with the aid of the pyrometer 6. T calc is the corresponding discrete temperature value on the observed temperature curve .

    It also follows the adaptation of the model and the transfer the calculated temperature profile to the temperature controller.

    To increase the speed of the control process on the tape head, the control process is preceded by a setup calculation. It is the band temperature curve depending on specific process state of the material to be cooled before Inlet into the cooling section precalculated. This precalculated Belt temperature profile is used during the rolling process as operating point for the temperature control.

    Figure 2 illustrates the model calculated, i. watched Course of the belt temperature [° C] over the belt length [m]. This first step of the control loop concerns the calculation of the strip temperature profile in the cooling section between the pyrometers 5 and 6 depending on the current set process parameters by means of a model, i. the so-called "observation". The cooling curve has in the illustrated Example, a relatively large drop in the area of the first four activated cooling devices 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d, then slowly drop off.

    During the control cycle, in a second step, a specific final temperature value T meas is measured at a defined point in the strip after passing through the cooling section. The final temperature value is preferably the temperature of the belt just before it enters reel device 3b. It is measured by means of the reel pylon 6.

    The belt temperature at the height of the reel depends essentially depends on the material quality to be produced and moves usually in a range of 250 to 750 ° C.

    If the concrete final temperature value T meas , that is to say the reel temperature, deviates from the corresponding value on the calculated curve, as shown in FIG. 2, an adaptation is carried out to minimize the error of the model (see FIG. This adaptation is done by a suitable change of the model parameters, so that an adapted curve develops, on which the measured reel temperature lies.

    Based on this now minimized model, a reference temperature profile is calculated using a given reference temperature T ref , usually a desired reel temperature. This step is shown in FIG. 4.

    This course is based on the same initial value as the first calculated temperature profile, but on a different final value, ie the reference value T ref .

    By comparing the calculated temperature profile with the Reference temperature profile is an individual control each cooling zone, separated for the upper or lower band surface. This regulation happens here by means of the actuators the cooling means of the cooling device.

    Figure 5 shows schematically the units of the system for carrying out the proposed method. With the aid of the process observer or model, the temperature state of the strip within the cooling section is continuously monitored or calculated. If a deviation between calculated and measured reel temperature is detected, an adaptation of the model occurs, ie the calculated reel temperature is compared with the concrete measured value T meas .

    Furthermore, there is one unit for calculating the reference temperature profile, the so-called Predictor. This calculation takes place cyclically to the correct process within the cooling section to reach a predetermined reel temperature depending on time-dependent process disturbances like variations in tape speed, tape thickness, To ensure finishing temperature etc.

    In addition, a process monitor controller is provided which the entire system with conventional control techniques, for example, with an I-controller, if equal despite adaptation of the model still a deviation of the achieved is present from the predetermined reel temperature. The process monitor compensates metrologically not detectable interference and malfunctions of the overall system and thus provides one perfect product quality by comparing the reference and the currently measured reel temperature safe.

    In Figure 6 it is visible that each cooling zone by comparison with the associated reference value is individually adjustable, if the current course of the belt temperature over the belt length within the cooling section is known. This means that for Any number of discrete location coordinates within the Cooling section of the temperature condition of the band at each time point must be known. The course of the belt temperature is within the cooling section not measurable, but must be modeled calculated or observed.

    The underlying the proposed method mathematical Model for calculating the temperature curve of the strip in the cooling section is based on the following thermodynamic and aerodynamic fundamentals.

    The rolling process becomes thermodynamically a transient flow process adopted in an open system. Become the finishing street pyrometer, the hoist pyrometer and the band top and Bottom side as thermodynamic system boundaries of the cooling section is chosen, so flows on the finishing street pyrometer mass as well Energy in the form of enthalpy in the system, on the reel pylon Mass as well as energy in the form of enthalpy from the system and at the top and bottom of the band energy in the form of heat from the system. It is also assumed that the Cooling section can be divided into any number of sub-processes can that the overall thermodynamic system of a Chain of sub-processes and that for each sub-process the energy and mass balance must be fulfilled.

    In general, the general balance equation applies to the accounting of an extensive variable, such as energy, mass, momentum, etc. in any system that is fixed in space e v t = - diν i S + Γ Y With

    e v
    the density of the extensive size
    i s
    the stream of the extensive size transported per surface and area unit through the surface
    Γ v
    the amount of extensive size produced or destroyed per unit of time and volume

    The mass balance for a sub-process is as follows. The mass of the system is made up of the mass of the substructures p i (with Σp i = 1) together with ρ i as density and V as volume m = Σ V i ρ i ( T ) p i ( T ) neglecting residual proportions follows for a mixed structure consisting of austenite (γ) and ferrite (α) m = V · Ρ ( T ) = V ·[(1 - p ( T )) · Ρ α + p ( T ) · Ρ γ ]

    For the specific mass, ie the density follows

    Figure 00120001

    Due to the transport process, mass flows through the system limits via mass flow. i = m = ρ ( T ) · V = ρ ( T ) · S · z

    Figure 00130001
    with s as the surface vector and z ˙ as the velocity vector .

    The mass of the spatially fixed system produced or destroyed per unit of time can only result from temporal changes in the density. With 1.3 follows

    Figure 00130002

    Taking into account that the mass flow only flows in the coordinate direction z 1 (longitudinal direction), follows for the mass balance in Cartesian coordinates p ( T ) = - z 1 · dp ( T ) dz 1 + T · dp ( T ) dT

    The energy balance for a sub-process is as follows. According to the first law of thermodynamics, the energy of a system is composed of enthalpy as well as potential and kinetic energy. Since there is no change with respect to the kinetic and potential energy for the present stationary system, the energy E is calculated exclusively from the enthalpy H with U = internal energy e = H ( T ) = U ( T ) + m · p · V

    and from this neglecting the volume change work p * V with u = specific energy

    Figure 00130003

    Energy flows in the form of heat W and enthalpy H with h = specific enthalpy via the space-fixed system boundaries i = H (T) + Q ( T ) = m · H (T) + s · q ( T )

    Figure 00140001

    Depending on the cooling rate and target reel temperature is the released reaction energy during microstructural transformation (γ → α conversion).

    The enthalpy of the band is thus calculated H ( T ) = Σp i (T) H i (T)

    Neglecting residual proportions follows for a mixed structure consisting of austenite and ferrite: H (T) = p α (T) · H α (T) + p γ (T) · H γ ( T )

    The energy produced or destroyed per unit of time and volume is calculated as too Γ = H (T) = m (T) · h (T) + m (T) · H (T)

    Figure 00140002

    Inserting the equations yields, taking into account cp ( T ) = ie ( T ) dT = you ( T ) dT with cp = heat capacity q -Grad = (λ (T) ∂T z ) with λ = thermal conductivity for Cartesian coordinates the sought energy balance equation

    Figure 00150001

    In (1.19) it is assumed that there is no directionality for the thermal conductivity λ (T). The heat conduction in the width direction is neglected; Furthermore, the enthalpy flow takes place exclusively in the longitudinal direction of the cooling zone z 1 .

    If the total system is subdivided into subsystems, equations (1.8) and (1.19) result in a system of coupled differential equations. The substitution of, for example, difference expressions provides a network for calculating the temperature state over the length coordinate z 1 and band thickness coordinate z 2 . The discretization of the temperature network is carried out in the longitudinal and thickness directions with non-equidistant distances from node to node (Figure 7).

    In addition to the thermomechanical approach, a fluidic approach is included in the modeling. With this model, the flow rate of the cooling water can be calculated when exiting the cooling device. The flow rate has a significant influence on the calculation of the heat transfer coefficients for the upper or lower band surface. They arise concretely due to the hydro-hydrodynamic relationships between the tank and the cooler tubes of the coupling and thus the total removal of the cooling water from the tank. In particular, the switching on and off of cooling devices has an influence on the calculation of the current heat transfer coefficient until a stationary flow state has been established. Assuming that the cooling water is a frictionless and incompressible fluid, for the fluid dynamic relationship of two points of the same current thread, the unsteady equation for incompressible fluids according to BERNOULLI applies:

    Figure 00160001
    With

    c i
    Flow rate at the point i
    s
    Stromfadenkoordinate
    z
    Height coordinate of position i
    p i
    Pressure at the point i
    Δρ
    Pressure loss due to friction and internals
    ν
    Outlet location of the cooling water from the pipe system
    ρ
    Density of the fluid
    G
    Constant.

    The mechanical installation involves geometrically simple container shapes and a chain of pipe sections of different diameters. Assuming discontinuous pipe transitions, following the continuity equation: c υ +1 = A υ A υ +1 c υ With

    n =
    υ-1 streamline sections
    A =
    Cross sectional area
    from (2.20) the differential equation sought to describe the transient flow state between the water level in the elevated tank and any point u in the pipeline system.
    Figure 00160002
    With
    Figure 00170001
    Figure 00170002
    b 2 1 2 = · (A 2 υ -A 2 1 ) Cross-section constant b 3 = A 2 υ Ausflußkonstante Δρ / ρ Pressure loss due to fittings and pipe lengths

    Equation 2.22 describes the transient flow state of a single cooling bar. For the modeling of the entire control system, this second-order non-linear differential equation must be set up for each chilled beam. The coupling of the n K differential equations takes place via the continuity equation, as for the water level of the high tank

    Figure 00170003
    With

    A p
    Pipe cross-section of the pump
    V p
    pumped volume flow
    must be fulfilled.

    Claims (10)

    1. Method of regulating a cooling path, particularly the cooling path of a rolling train for sheets and strips of steel, characterised in that the regulating circuit comprises the following cyclically elapsing steps:
      calculation of the strip temperature course in the cooling path in dependence on the actually set process parameters as well as the specific process state of the strip,
      advance calculation of a reference temperature course with presetting of a reference temperature (Tref) and
      individual regulation of the process parameters of the cooling path by comparison of the calculated temperature course with the reference temperature course.
    2. Method according to claim 1, characterised in that the model on which calculation of the strip temperature course is based is adapted by means of an actually detected temperature measurement value (Tmess).
    3. Method according to claim 2, characterised in that the actually detected temperature measurement value (Tmess) is the temperature of the material, which is to be cooled, shortly before entry into the coiling equipment (3b).
    4. Method according to claim 1, characterised in that the process parameters of the cooling path are settable by way of setting elements by several cooling devices (1a, 1b, 1c, 2d to 1i).
    5. Method according to claim 4, characterised in that the upper and lower setting elements of the cooling devices are regulated independently of one another for separate influencing of the strip top side or underside.
    6. Method according to claim 4 or 5, characterised in that the setting elements of the cooling devices comprise the number of actuated cooling bars and/or the quantity or speed of the cooling water.
    7. Method according to claim 1, characterised in that the anticipated strip temperature course is calculated in advance before the actual regulating process in dependence on the specific process state of the material, which is to be cooled, before entry thereof into the cooling path and the corresponding process parameters of the cooling path are set.
    8. System for carrying out the method according to the preceding claims, which comprises:
      a unit for calculation of the strip temperature course in dependence on the actually set process parameters as well as the specific process state of the strip,
      a unit for advance calculation of a reference temperature course in dependence on a preset reference temperature (Tref) and
      a device for controlling the setting elements of the cooling devices (1a to 1i) of the cooling path.
    9. System according to claim 9, characterised in that it comprises a measuring instrument (6) for determining an actual temperature value (Tmess) of the strip (4) as well as a unit for adaptation of the model on which the calculation is based.
    10. System according to claim 9, characterised in that a process monitor regulator is provided which compensates for an overall system subject to error despite adaptation.
    EP19990119331 1998-10-31 1999-09-29 Method and system for controlling cooling lines Expired - Lifetime EP0997203B1 (en)

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    DE1998150253 DE19850253A1 (en) 1998-10-31 1998-10-31 Method and system for controlling cooling sections
    DE19850253 1998-10-31

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    EP0997203B1 true EP0997203B1 (en) 2004-02-11

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    Cited By (3)

    * Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
    Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
    EP2540407B1 (en) 2010-07-22 2016-01-20 Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corporation Steel plate cooling system and steel plate cooling method
    EP2873469A1 (en) 2013-11-18 2015-05-20 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Operating method for a cooling section
    WO2015071200A1 (en) 2013-11-18 2015-05-21 Siemens Aktiengesellschaft Operating method for a cooling zone

    Also Published As

    Publication number Publication date
    US6185970B1 (en) 2001-02-13
    JP2000135507A (en) 2000-05-16
    EP0997203A1 (en) 2000-05-03
    ES2216402T3 (en) 2004-10-16
    AT259262T (en) 2004-02-15
    DE19850253A1 (en) 2000-05-04
    JP5059254B2 (en) 2012-10-24

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