EP0931215B1 - Fuel injection device for internal combustion engines - Google Patents

Fuel injection device for internal combustion engines Download PDF

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Publication number
EP0931215B1
EP0931215B1 EP98928123A EP98928123A EP0931215B1 EP 0931215 B1 EP0931215 B1 EP 0931215B1 EP 98928123 A EP98928123 A EP 98928123A EP 98928123 A EP98928123 A EP 98928123A EP 0931215 B1 EP0931215 B1 EP 0931215B1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
valve
fuel injection
valve seat
injection device
pressure
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
EP98928123A
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
EP0931215A1 (en
Inventor
Friedrich Boecking
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Robert Bosch GmbH
Original Assignee
Robert Bosch GmbH
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE19732802 priority Critical
Priority to DE1997132802 priority patent/DE19732802A1/en
Application filed by Robert Bosch GmbH filed Critical Robert Bosch GmbH
Priority to PCT/DE1998/000944 priority patent/WO1999006690A1/en
Publication of EP0931215A1 publication Critical patent/EP0931215A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP0931215B1 publication Critical patent/EP0931215B1/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02MSUPPLYING COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL WITH COMBUSTIBLE MIXTURES OR CONSTITUENTS THEREOF
    • F02M63/00Other fuel-injection apparatus having pertinent characteristics not provided for in groups F02M39/00 - F02M57/00 or F02M67/00; Details, component parts, or accessories of fuel-injection apparatus, not provided for in, or of interest apart from, the apparatus of groups F02M39/00 - F02M61/00 or F02M67/00; Combination of fuel pump with other devices, e.g. lubricating oil pump
    • F02M63/0012Valves
    • F02M63/0014Valves characterised by the valve actuating means
    • F02M63/0015Valves characterised by the valve actuating means electrical, e.g. using solenoid
    • F02M63/0026Valves characterised by the valve actuating means electrical, e.g. using solenoid using piezoelectric or magnetostrictive actuators
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02MSUPPLYING COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL WITH COMBUSTIBLE MIXTURES OR CONSTITUENTS THEREOF
    • F02M45/00Fuel-injection apparatus characterised by having a cyclic delivery of specific time/pressure or time/quantity relationship
    • F02M45/02Fuel-injection apparatus characterised by having a cyclic delivery of specific time/pressure or time/quantity relationship with each cyclic delivery being separated into two or more parts
    • F02M45/04Fuel-injection apparatus characterised by having a cyclic delivery of specific time/pressure or time/quantity relationship with each cyclic delivery being separated into two or more parts with a small initial part, e.g. initial part for partial load and initial and main part for full load
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02MSUPPLYING COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL WITH COMBUSTIBLE MIXTURES OR CONSTITUENTS THEREOF
    • F02M47/00Fuel-injection apparatus operated cyclically with fuel-injection valves actuated by fluid pressure
    • F02M47/02Fuel-injection apparatus operated cyclically with fuel-injection valves actuated by fluid pressure of accumulator-injector type, i.e. having fuel pressure of accumulator tending to open, and fuel pressure in other chamber tending to close, injection valves and having means for periodically releasing that closing pressure
    • F02M47/027Electrically actuated valves draining the chamber to release the closing pressure
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02MSUPPLYING COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL WITH COMBUSTIBLE MIXTURES OR CONSTITUENTS THEREOF
    • F02M2200/00Details of fuel-injection apparatus, not otherwise provided for
    • F02M2200/70Linkage between actuator and actuated element, e.g. between piezoelectric actuator and needle valve or pump plunger
    • F02M2200/703Linkage between actuator and actuated element, e.g. between piezoelectric actuator and needle valve or pump plunger hydraulic
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02MSUPPLYING COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL WITH COMBUSTIBLE MIXTURES OR CONSTITUENTS THEREOF
    • F02M2200/00Details of fuel-injection apparatus, not otherwise provided for
    • F02M2200/70Linkage between actuator and actuated element, e.g. between piezoelectric actuator and needle valve or pump plunger
    • F02M2200/703Linkage between actuator and actuated element, e.g. between piezoelectric actuator and needle valve or pump plunger hydraulic
    • F02M2200/704Linkage between actuator and actuated element, e.g. between piezoelectric actuator and needle valve or pump plunger hydraulic with actuator and actuated element moving in different directions, e.g. in opposite directions

Abstract

The invention concerns a fuel injection device for internal combustion engines, wherein the displacement of a member closing the fuel injection valve is controlled by pressure prevailing in a control chamber (25). The pressure prevailing in said chamber is further controlled by a pilot valve (31) whereof the closure member can be actuated by a piezoelectric drive (65), the movement being transmitted via a hydraulic chamber. Said closure member comprises two sealing surfaces (37, 39) which co-operate with valve seats (36, 40), and when it passes from one valve seat to the other, a brief discharge occurs in the control chamber (25), to control a brief fuel injection. In order to obtain larger amounts of injected fuel, the pilot valve can be put in open or closed position.

Description

    State of the art
  • The invention is based on a fuel injection device for internal combustion engines according to the preamble of claim 1. In a fuel injection device of this type known from DE-C1-195 19 192, the control valve is designed as a single-acting flat seat valve, which controls the outlet of the drainage channel from the control chamber with its sealing surface. The valve member of this control valve is actuated by a piston which has the pressure shoulder. The piston is supported by a compression spring on a second piston, which in turn can be adjusted by the piezo drive and, with its end face, adjacent to the pressure shoulder, delimits the hydraulic pressure chamber. This known control valve works so that it either opens or closes the drain channel. Accordingly, the injection valve member of the fuel injection valve assumes either an open or a closed position.
  • Advantages of the invention
  • The fuel injection device according to the invention with the characterizing features of claim 1 has against it the advantage that two valve seats are provided in the course of the drain channel, and the closing body with its sealing surfaces is adjusted from one valve seat when actuated by the piezo drive to the other valve seat in a single movement sequence, after an initial closure of the drain channel it being opened in the meantime via the valve space is then closed again. In the sequence of movements of the closing body, this leads to a very brief relief of the control space, which results in the fuel injection valve member opening with a very short fuel injection as well. In this way, very small injection quantities can advantageously be controlled, which are determined by the sequence of movements of the closing body from one valve seat to the other. This sequence of movements is essentially dependent on a single excitation of the piezo drive and can therefore be limited to a very short period of time. The time required for this injection can be kept technically much smaller than if the control valve for the same process of pre-injection is opened twice with a first excitation of the piezo drive and then closed by reducing the excitation with a fuel injection device of the generic type. This switching always requires a time-consuming reversal of the movement of the control valve member and a time component must also be included, which is required for the respective change in the excitation state of the piezo drive. The loss time for the control of the injection sequence pre-injection and main injection in the solution according to the invention is thus considerably less.
  • It is possible according to the fuel injection device according to the invention to hold the closing body in an intermediate position, in the above position, by appropriate metering of the excitation of the piezo drive The control chamber is relieved for a longer period of time and then the desired main injection quantity can then be injected following the pre-injection quantity introduced in the manner described above and an injection pause. With the fuel injection device according to the invention, an injection can thus be realized in a highly precise manner in which exactly very small fuel pre-injection quantities are injected, exactly a period of time between the pre-injection and the main injection can be maintained and subsequently also in the usual manner also produces the main injection in a very precisely metered manner becomes.
  • In an advantageous manner, the stroke of the closing body is matched to the actuating speed by the piezo drive in such a way that the desired pre-injection quantity is achieved.
  • Advantageous developments of the invention are given in claims 3 to 9. They are explained in more detail using the drawings and the description below.
  • drawing
  • An embodiment of the invention is shown in the drawing and will be described in more detail below. 1 shows the schematic representation of a fuel injection device of known type, FIG. 2 shows the design of the control valve for the fuel injection device according to FIG. 1 and FIG. 3 shows the movement sequence of the valve member of the control valve plotted over the stroke course of the injection valve member of the fuel injection valve.
  • Description of the embodiment
  • FIG. 1 shows a fuel injection device of a known type with a fuel injection valve 1 which has an injection valve housing 2 with a bore 3 in which an injection valve member 5 is guided. This has at one end a conical sealing surface 6 which cooperates with a conical valve seat 7 at the end of the bore. Fuel injection openings 8 are arranged downstream of the valve seat 7 and are separated from a pressure chamber 9 when the sealing surface 6 is placed on the valve seat 7. The pressure chamber 9 extends over an annular space 10 around the part 11 of the injection valve member, which adjoins the sealing surface 6 upstream and has a smaller diameter, towards the valve seat 7. The pressure chamber 9 is in constant communication with a high-pressure fuel source 14 via a pressure line 12. In the area of the pressure chamber 9, the part 11 of the injection valve member with a smaller diameter merges with a pressure shoulder 16 pointing towards the valve seat 7 into a part 18 of the injection valve member with a larger diameter. This is tightly guided in the bore 3 and continues on the side facing away from the pressure shoulder 16 in a connecting part 19 up to a piston-shaped end 20 of the injection valve member. In the area of the connecting part, this has a spring plate 22, between which and the housing 1 of the fuel injection valve a compression spring 21 is clamped, which acts on the fuel injection valve member in the closed position.
  • The piston-like end 20 defines an end face 24, the area of which is larger than that of the pressure shoulder 16, in the housing 2 of the fuel injection valve, a control chamber 25 which is in constant communication with the high-pressure fuel source 14 via a first throttle 26 and via a second throttle 27 arranged in a drain channel 28 is connected to a relief chamber 29. The passage of the drain channel 28 is controlled by a control valve 31, with which the drain channel is either opened or closed.
  • The control valve 21 in the embodiment now designed according to the invention can be seen in FIG. 2. There, in turn, the piston-like end 20 of the injection valve member is shown, which delimits the control chamber 25 in the fuel injection valve housing 2. An inflow channel 33 containing the first throttle 26 opens into the control chamber, so that the control chamber 25 is continuously connected to the high-pressure fuel source 14. The discharge channel 28 with the second throttle 27 leads away from the control chamber 25 coaxially to the piston-shaped end 20. The drain channel opens into a valve chamber 35 and has a first valve seat 36 at the confluence thereof, which is preferably designed as a conical valve seat. A likewise conical first sealing surface 37 of a closing body 38 interacts with this, which is adjustably arranged in the valve chamber 35 and on its side facing away from the first valve surface 37 has a second, likewise conical sealing surface 39, which with a corresponding position of the closing body 38 has a second valve seat 40, which is also conical, acts together.
  • The closing body 38 is located at the end of a plunger 42 which is guided in a guide bore 43 in the housing 2 of the fuel injection valve. The guide bore 43 ends in an annular space 44, which extends between the guide bore 43 and the second valve seat 40 or the second sealing surface 39 and is delimited by the tappet 42 and the wall of the housing 2. The annular space 44 is in constant communication with a further part 46 of the Drain channel leading to the relief chamber 29. At the other end, the guide bore 43 opens into a spring chamber 48, within which the plunger 42 has a spring plate 49, between which and the housing 2 of the fuel injector a compression spring 50 is supported, which acts on the plunger together with its closing body in the direction of the first valve seat 36. From the spring chamber 48, the tappet continues in a guide bore into a hydraulic pressure chamber 52, which is enclosed by a first piston 53 at the end of a cylinder bore 54, which serves to guide this piston. A second piston 56 is guided coaxially to the first piston 53 in a blind bore 57 of the first piston, which limits the pressure chamber 52 with its first end face 58 acting as a pressure shoulder and together with the adjacent end face 59 of the first piston 53 as a movable wall. The second end face 60 of the second piston 56 includes a first relief region 61 in the blind bore 57, which passes through a bore 62 through the bottom of the first piston 53 into a second relief region 62.
  • On the end face 59 facing away from the end face 59 of the first piston 53, which delimits the relief region 62 in the cylinder bore, a piezo drive 65 acts as a drive, which can be composed of several elements in a known manner and excites or excites by a control device (not shown further here). is de-energized and experiences a linear expansion with high force when excited, which is transmitted to the first piston 53.
  • The first piston 53 is held in constant contact with the piezo drive 65 by a plate spring 66, which is arranged in the hydraulic pressure chamber 52. In the position shown in FIG. 2, the piezo drive 65 is not energized and the plunger 42 is acted upon by the compression spring 50, that the first sealing surface 37 is in tight contact with the first valve seat 36 and thus the control chamber 25 is closed. Accordingly, there arises the pressure which also prevails in the high-pressure fuel source 14 because of the constant connection between the latter and the control chamber 25 via the inflow channel 33. This high pressure loads the injection valve member in such a way that it opposes the pressure forces acting on the pressure shoulder 16 Is held in the closed position, supported by the compression spring 21.
  • If the piezo drive is now energized, the first piston 53 is displaced, which increases the pressure in the hydraulic pressure chamber 52, so that as a result of the pressure acting on the end face 58 of the second piston 56 connected to the tappet 42, the latter evades and continues dips into the blind bore 57, displacing fuel from the first relief region 61 into the second relief region 62. This has increased in volume and supports the immersion movement of the second piston into the blind bore 57. The operation in turn has the consequence that the plunger 42 moves against the force of the compression spring 50 and thereby the closing body 38 lifts off the first valve seat 36. At the moment, the control chamber 25 is relieved, since the drain channel 28 is connected to the further drain channel part 46 through the now open valve seats 36 and 40. If the excitation of the piezo drive 65 is so great that the plunger 42 brings the closing body 38 with its second sealing surface 39 to the second valve seat 40, then the drainage channel is reclosed, which has the consequence that in the control chamber 25 again after a relief the full pressure of the high-pressure fuel source is built up. If this process described above is carried out in this way, there will be between opening on the first valve seat 36 and reclosing the drain channel on the second Valve seat 40 temporarily relieves the control chamber 25. The result of this is that the injection valve member 5 is also relieved and is briefly moved into an at least partially open position. On the basis of the short relief period, a very small fuel injection quantity can thus be injected. Arrived at the second valve seat 40, the closing body subsequently keeps the drain channel 28-46 closed, and the pressure build-up in the control chamber 25 brings the injection valve member 5 permanently into the closed position. Following this very small fuel injection, which can preferably be a pre-injection quantity, the control chamber 25 for actuating the injection valve member for a main injection can subsequently be relieved again after a break in injection, in that the piezo drive is actuated in such a way that the closing body 38 is in an intermediate position between the first valve seat 36 and the second valve seat 40 remain. This is the special advantage of a piezo drive that it can also take intermediate positions according to excitation. This intermediate position is now maintained until the required main injection quantity is injected and then the 'excitation of the piezo drive is completely canceled, for example, so that the plunger with the closing body 38 comes back into the closed position on the first valve seat 36 under the action of the compression spring 50.
  • FIG. 3 shows the sequence of movements of the control valve in the upper curve and the sequence of movements of the fuel injection valve member 5 in the lower curve. The upper curve shows that when the piezo drive is excited at point 0 of the abscissa, the plunger 42 travels a negative stroke over time from h a until the closing body 38 has reached the second valve seat 40 at height h 0 . About this stroke results there is an injection valve member movement V corresponding to a pre-injection in the diagram below. After a pause P, over which the fuel injection valve member 5 has returned to the closed position with a certain lag behavior, there is, for example, partial excitation of the piezo drive, which moves the plunger 42 to an intermediate level h z , so that both valve seats 36 and 40 are open. The resulting relief of the control chamber 25 results in the needle stroke H of the injection valve member 5 for the main injection. When the piezo drive is de-energized further, the plunger 42 returns to the starting position corresponding to the stroke h a under the action of the compression spring. The injection valve member closes in the wake behavior, which is also due to the dynamic relief of the control chamber 25 and the design of the throttles 26 and 27.
  • With this solution according to the invention, the smallest injection quantities can be achieved for operating an internal combustion engine with pre-injection and main injection. This arrangement has the particular advantage that the piezo drive is only excited when an injection is to take place. The piezo drive is therefore de-energized for most of the operation of the internal combustion engine and electrical energy is only required for the injection processes.

Claims (9)

  1. Fuel injection device for internal combustion engines, having a high-pressure fuel source from which fuel is supplied to a fuel injection valve (1) which has an injection valve member (5) for controlling injection openings (8) and a control space (25) which is delimited by a moveable wall (24), which is at least indirectly connected to the injection valve member (5), and which has an inlet passage (33), which is dimensioned by means of a throttle (26) and arrives from a high-pressure source, preferably from the high-pressure fuel source, and an outlet passage (28, 46) with a defined maximum outlet cross section (27) to a relief space (29), at which outlet passage a valve seat (36) of a control valve (31) is formed, which control valve has a valve member (42, 38), which is acted on towards the valve seat (36) by a spring (50), is provided with a sealing surface (37) interacting with the valve seat (36) and, at its end which is remote from the sealing surface (37), has a pressure shoulder (58) which is directed towards the valve seat (36) and delimits a hydraulic pressure space (52) which on the other side is closed off by a moveable wall (59) which is actuated by a piezo drive (65) and the surface area of which is larger than the surface area of the pressure shoulder, characterized in that the valve member (42, 38) has a lifter (42) which is guided in a guide bore (43) and which has the pressure shoulder (58) arranged at its end which projects out of the guide bore (43) and has a closure body (38) arranged at its other end which projects out of the guide bore, which closure body can be moved in a reciprocating manner in a valve space (35) by the lifter (42) and, on its side facing towards the control space (25), has the one, first sealing surface (37), which interacts with the one, first valve seat (36), and has a second sealing surface (39) which lies on its side which is remote from the first sealing surface (37) and interacts with a second valve seat (40), which lies opposite the first valve seat (36), at the outlet passage (28, 43), the distance between the first valve seat (36) and the second valve seat (40) being so great that the closure body (38), in an intermediate position, is not in contact with any of the valve seats, and a connection between the outlet passage parts (28, 43) which adjoin the valve seats is produced via the valve space (35).
  2. Fuel injection device according to Claim 1, characterized in that the travel of the closure body (38) from the position in which it is in contact with one of the valve seats to the position in which it is in contact with the other of the valve seats is sufficiently great for pressure relief of the control space, which results in pre-injection, to take place, taking account of the displacement rate of the closure body in the period during the connection of the outlet passage parts, which is formed during this displacement from one of the valve seats to the other, until this connection is interrupted when the closure body comes into contact with one of the valve seats.
  3. Fuel injection device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the first valve seat (36) is designed as a conical valve seat.
  4. Fuel injection device according to Claim 3, characterized in that the second valve seat (40) is designed as a cone seat.
  5. Fuel injection device according to Claim 3, characterized in that the second valve seat is designed as a ball seat.
  6. Fuel injection device according to Claim 3, characterized in that the second valve seat is designed as a flat seat.
  7. Fuel injection device according to one of the preceding Claims 3 to 5, characterized in that the closure body is designed as a ball.
  8. Fuel injection device according to one of Claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the guide bore (43) opens out into an annular space (44) which is formed between the lifter (42) emerging from the guide bore, the second valve seat (40) and the wall of the housing (1) of the injection valve and from which the outlet passage (43) leads to the relief space (29).
  9. Fuel injection device according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the pressure shoulder (58) is arranged on a first piston (56), which is connected to the lifter (42) and can be displaced in bore (57) in a second piston (53) which is guided in a cylinder bore (54), encloses the hydraulic space (52) by means of its end face (59) lying next to the pressure shoulder (58) and is held in contact with the piezo drive (65) arranged on the other side by a spring (66).
EP98928123A 1997-07-30 1998-04-03 Fuel injection device for internal combustion engines Expired - Lifetime EP0931215B1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE19732802 1997-07-30
DE1997132802 DE19732802A1 (en) 1997-07-30 1997-07-30 Fuel injection device for internal combustion engines
PCT/DE1998/000944 WO1999006690A1 (en) 1997-07-30 1998-04-03 Fuel injection device for internal combustion engines

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP0931215A1 EP0931215A1 (en) 1999-07-28
EP0931215B1 true EP0931215B1 (en) 2003-01-29

Family

ID=7837363

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP98928123A Expired - Lifetime EP0931215B1 (en) 1997-07-30 1998-04-03 Fuel injection device for internal combustion engines

Country Status (8)

Country Link
US (1) US6021760A (en)
EP (1) EP0931215B1 (en)
JP (1) JP2001501272A (en)
KR (1) KR20000068640A (en)
CN (1) CN1095033C (en)
DE (1) DE19732802A1 (en)
RU (1) RU2193102C2 (en)
WO (1) WO1999006690A1 (en)

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US6021760A (en) 2000-02-08
WO1999006690A1 (en) 1999-02-11
CN1095033C (en) 2002-11-27
KR20000068640A (en) 2000-11-25
RU2193102C2 (en) 2002-11-20
EP0931215A1 (en) 1999-07-28
JP2001501272A (en) 2001-01-30
CN1236417A (en) 1999-11-24

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