EP0911453A1 - Method for producing pressure-proof and air-permeable light construction materials - Google Patents

Method for producing pressure-proof and air-permeable light construction materials Download PDF

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Publication number
EP0911453A1
EP0911453A1 EP98120045A EP98120045A EP0911453A1 EP 0911453 A1 EP0911453 A1 EP 0911453A1 EP 98120045 A EP98120045 A EP 98120045A EP 98120045 A EP98120045 A EP 98120045A EP 0911453 A1 EP0911453 A1 EP 0911453A1
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EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
lightweight
lightweight building
polyurethane
mold
wetted
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
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Application number
EP98120045A
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German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Erwin Härtwich
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Erwin Härtwich
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Publication date
Priority to DE1997147189 priority Critical patent/DE19747189A1/en
Priority to DE19747189 priority
Application filed by Erwin Härtwich filed Critical Erwin Härtwich
Publication of EP0911453A1 publication Critical patent/EP0911453A1/en
Withdrawn legal-status Critical Current

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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04BGENERAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS; WALLS, e.g. PARTITIONS; ROOFS; FLOORS; CEILINGS; INSULATION OR OTHER PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS
    • E04B1/00Constructions in general; Structures which are not restricted either to walls, e.g. partitions, or floors or ceilings or roofs
    • E04B1/62Insulation or other protection; Elements or use of specified material therefor
    • E04B1/74Heat, sound or noise insulation, absorption, or reflection . Other building methods affording favourable thermal or acoustical conditions, e.g. accumulating of heat within walls

Abstract

Filler particles (1) are wetted with a plastics binder and poured into a mold (3). A breathable cover (7) comprises a layer of vegetable fibers, with synthetic fibers or fabric placed over the material before tool closure. The mold can be vibrated during the 30 minute curing time. There are Independent claims for: a) a compression resistant and breathable lightweight material; b) uses of the material.

Description

The invention relates to a method for producing pressure-resistant and breathable Lightweight building materials, the lightweight building material itself and its use.

It is known in the prior art to use a binder such as polyurethane a filler, such as cork granules or cork flour, as loose Fill the fill into a mold and form the molded part by curing. Resulting from it molded parts, for example for medical purposes as a shoe insert or similar can be used. Above all, such molded parts must be elastic in order to to meet the requirements for comfort when wearing.

It is also known to produce molded parts in the manner mentioned as dampers in the area mechanical engineering. Here, too, there are elastic properties of the molded part Foreground.

DE 195 47 156 A1 also describes the production of soft, elastic molded parts from a polyurethane / cork granulate mixture known for inserting flowers and other decorative items.

EP 0 411 598 B1 also describes a process for producing polyurethane / cork granule compositions, where the polyurethane and the cork grains as Batch filled into a mold and the desired molded parts by heating and compression be formed. Moldings formed in this way are suitable for example for the production of soles for footwear.

DE 30 04 840 C2 describes a process for the production of cork granules under Use of a thermoplastic binder, in which the plates by repeated Presses are made. The cork granulate panels produced in this way are lightweight usable. However, they are not breathable, which when used, for. B. can lead to a moisture or heat build-up.

Based on this prior art, the present invention was based on the object to provide a lightweight material that is pressure-resistant and breathable and at the same time can be produced inexpensively.

This object is achieved by a method in which filler particles are mixed with a binder wetted and the filler particles wetted in this way are filled into a mold as a loose fill be, the lightweight building material is formed by curing the molded part. As a result of that the filler particles are only wetted with the binder, with as little as possible from the binder used, one obtains breathable, moisture and Light building materials that prevent heat build-up.

The binder is preferably a plastic and this plastic is particularly preferred a polyurethane.

As is known, polyurethanes consist of an isocyanate and a polyol component. When carrying out the process according to the invention, diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and preferably polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate (PMDI) is used as the isocyanate component.
The polyurethane preferably cures at room temperature in a pot life of approximately 30 minutes.

In a preferred embodiment, the polyol component of the polyurethane consists of vegetable oil. Vegetable oils include, in particular, sunflower, castor, soy, Rapeseed oil and mixtures thereof in question. However, the invention is not based on use of such vegetable oils. In principle, all polyols can be used as polyol components are used, which are not used in the polymerization reaction to form the polyurethane or just lightly foam and a pot life of about 30 min. exhibit.

The filler is preferably selected from the group consisting of cork granules, Expanded clay, expanded pearlite, vegetable fibers and mixtures thereof. Together with the The polyol component mentioned above has the particular advantage that it is a lightweight material can be made essentially from materials occurring in nature exists and its use in the field of ecological building is possible.

As a further process variant, the mold can be shaken during curing. Thereby becomes an intimate connection between the only wetting binder and the Filler reached, but without leading to compression and the pores in the formed Close lightweight building material and prevent breathability.

In a further embodiment of the method according to the invention it is provided that the shape after filling the wetted filler particles on their open side essentially full surface with a breathable cover in the form of a coherent Layer of vegetable or artificial fibers or fabrics is provided. This Measure may be required to keep the lightweight building material smooth on this side To give surface. This effect can be improved by the fact that the cover is pressed against the wetted filler particles. There is only so much pressure as required to cover the entire surface substantially with the surface of the in to connect the filled, wetted filler particles. The pressure so exerted should do not serve to compact the particles themselves.

The invention also relates to a pressure-resistant and breathable lightweight building material is obtainable by the process according to the invention.

The invention further relates to the use of such a lightweight material as insulation, in the form of a floor slab, as a wall element and as a roof slab.

When using the lightweight building material as an insulating element, its breathability is particularly important to carry. In the isolation of z. B. house walls acts according to the invention Insulating element against moisture and heat build-up. The use of a very high proportion of natural raw materials possible, which makes the lightweight material also suitable for ecological building.

If the lightweight building material is used in the form of floor panels, the special one exists Advantage that it can be used in conjunction with underfloor heating. This is due to the fact that the breathability of the lightweight building material does not result in heat build-up can. Rather, the heat given off by the underfloor heating becomes even the room, which is provided with the floor tiles according to the invention, given. The lightweight building material according to the invention is in principle also suitable as a replacement screed.

The use according to the invention as a roof tile enables the replacement of roof tiles. This has significant advantages in terms of the statics of the house, since roof tiles are a significant one Weight and thus put a great burden on the statics of a house. For this In this case, however, it is necessary to face the roof panel in the form of the lightweight building material to be provided with a waterproof layer. This use is advantageous further that the lightweight building material can also be formed in roof tile form, what is easily accessible by appropriate design of the form and what the usual Appearance of a house roof can be preserved.

Although preferred fillers in connection with the method according to the invention have been mentioned, it is obvious to those skilled in the art that the invention not limited to these fillers. Rather, any known fillers can be used.

If it doesn't matter, a lightweight material with the most natural materials possible plastic fibers can also be used instead of the vegetable fibers.

In the following the invention will be explained with the aid of examples and the attached drawing. The shows

only figure:
is a schematic representation of a device for producing lightweight materials according to the invention.
Examples 1) Manufacture of lightweight building material panels

The polyol component of the polyurethane used consisted essentially of sunflower, Castor, soybean or rapeseed oil. The manufacture of the lightweight building board was in each case performed so that each of the oils mentioned is used as the polyol component has been.

Polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate (PMDI) is used as the isocyanate. A polyurethane is formed which consists of about 40% by weight of vegetable oil, which in turn makes up 90% by weight of the polyol component. The polyol and the isocyanate components are mixed in a ratio of 1: 1 and cork granules are wetted with them as filler particles. A mechanical compulsory mixer is used for this. The ratio of the binder to the filler varies depending on the filler used. Therefore, the respective shares are determined on site according to the following principles:

  • only as much binder is used as is necessary to wet the surface of the filler components;
  • the amount of binder used is optimized so that as little binder as possible is used.

The ratios of binder and filler are determined on site by a person skilled in the art.

The filler particles 1 wetted in this way are in the form of a loose bed in one Figure filled with 3 designated plate shape. The pot life for curing the polyurethane binder is about 30 minutes, the temperature of the surroundings being about 20 ° C. By increasing the ambient temperature, the pot life required for curing can be increased be significantly reduced. This was the case with a variation in the production of floor panels the ambient temperature is set to around 130 ° C, which results in a pot life of about 1 min. revealed.

After filling in the form 3, the filler particles 1 with one in the drawing not shown and known vibrator throughout shaken pot life indicated above. The shaking favors the wetting of the filler with the binder. At the same time, it causes the lightweight building material to solidify slightly, which, however, is not sufficient, as in the pressing processes known in the prior art, to reduce or destroy the breathability of the lightweight building material. The slight solidification means better placement and alignment of the filler particles to understand each other and causes essentially no compression.

Depending on the size of the selected form 3, lightweight building boards are created, either already have the size of the desired panels or are manufactured and made as larger units can be sawn to the desired dimensions at a later date. For example a block of slabs 2 to 3 m long, 1 m wide and 1 deep deep also made 1 m in a suitably large form 3 and then in slices sawn a desired thickness to give the lightweight building boards according to the invention. This method of production has proven itself to quickly produce a large number of plates to be able to manufacture.

1a) Lightweight building material panel with cover

The filler particles 1 wetted according to example 1) form within the boundaries 5, 5 ', 5''of the mold 3 and, due to this, form smooth and uniform surfaces. By shaking the mold, an essentially smooth surface is also formed on the open side of the mold 3. In order to further improve this surface, an approximately full-area cover 7 in the form of a thin paper layer is applied here. Paper is also breathable and light, so that the advantages of the lightweight building board according to the invention are not diminished by the application of this layer.
In order to achieve an intimate connection of the cover 7 in the form of the paper layer with the surface of the wetted filler particles 1, a stamp 9, which is not completely shown in the figure, is now applied, the stamp surface 11 of which approximately corresponds to the opening of the mold 3 and thus its open side. The pressure exerted by this stamp 9 is chosen so large that the paper layer is thereby pressed onto the surface of the batch 1 essentially over the entire surface. At the same time, this compensates for the surface in such a way that unevenness and uneven filling of the batch 1 into the mold 3 are compensated for. The stamp 9 is then removed again. It should not compress the filler particles.

1b) Use of the lightweight building material panel as a floor panel

The lightweight building material panel produced according to example 1) and optionally additionally according to example 1a) was used as the floor panel. The floor slab produced in this way shows a capillary effect, via which moisture and air can be exchanged with the surroundings. This floor panel according to the invention is therefore particularly suitable as a covering where there is underfloor heating.
The floor slab is also pressure resistant. Tests have shown that the compressive strength is sufficient for heavy pieces of furniture, such as cupboards.

1b) Production of a further floor slab:

The floor plate of this embodiment is manufactured in the same way as under example 1 and 1a). However, the cover 7 is not paper, but a jute fabric applied the surface of the filler particles 1. All polyol components specified in Example 1) have also been used successfully here.

2a) Production of a lightweight building material in the form of an insulation element:

Rapeseed oil as the polyol component and PMDI as the isocyanate are mixed in a ratio of 1: 1 and mixed with expanded clay as a filler so that there is wetting of the expanded clay particles. The procedure is as described in Examples 1 and 1a). As cover 7 a layer of paper is used. The other polyol components specified in Example 1) have also been used successfully.

2b) Production of a further insulation element:

Rapeseed oil as the polyol component and PMDI as the isocyanate are mixed in a ratio of 1: 1 and mixed with expanded pearlite in such a way that the pearlite particles are wetted. Otherwise the procedure is the same as that given in the exemplary embodiment under 2a). Also the cover 7 again consists of a paper layer.

3a) Production of a lightweight building material in the form of a house wall element:

Rapeseed oil as the polyol component and PMDI as the isocyanate are mixed in a ratio of 1: 1 and mixed with hemp fibers. Otherwise, the procedure is the same as in the exemplary embodiment 1) and 1a). The cover 7 also consists of a paper layer.

A house wall element produced in this way can be used, for example, for the expansion of a Attic are used.

3b) Production of a further house wall element:

This house wall element is also manufactured as described under 3a). Instead of Hemp fibers, however, are flax fibers.

4) Production of a lightweight building material in the form of a roof panel:

Such a lightweight building material roof panel is manufactured essentially like the floor panel in Example 1b). However, in order to be able to use it as an umbrella system, this is Provide the roof panel with a waterproof layer on the side facing outwards. Such a water-impermeable layer can be in the form of a polyurethane layer, for example are applied in a manner known per se.

By choosing a suitably trained shape, not shown in the drawing, it is also possible to design the roof tiles according to the invention as lightweight building material roof tiles. In this case, the lightweight building material roof panels have the shape of roof tiles. However, due to the lightweight construction, they advantageously lack the roof tiles own weight, so that there are considerable advantages for the statics of using the lightweight roof tiles provided house. In doing so, these lightweight building material roof tiles have to be fixed with the surface on which they are attached.

The exemplary embodiments shown here represent exemplary possible combinations of binder and filler as well as cover. It is of course also possible Manufacture floorboards using hemp or flax fibers or in one other way for insulation, roof panels and / or house wall elements another one large number of possible fillers and / or covers to use. Also as a binder Not only is polyurethane considered, but many other plastics can also be considered Binders can be used.

Claims (14)

  1. Process for the production of pressure-resistant and breathable lightweight materials, at the filler particles (1) wetted with a binder and the filler particles so wetted (1) as a loose fill in a mold (3), the lightweight material is formed by curing the molded part.
  2. A method according to claim 1, characterized in that the binder is a plastic is.
  3. Method according to claim 2, characterized in that a polyurethane is used as the plastic is used.
  4. A method according to claim 3, characterized in that the isocyanate component of Polyurethane PMDI is used.
  5. Method according to one of claims 3 or 4, characterized in that the polyurethane at room temperature in a pot life of about 30 min. hardens.
  6. Method according to one of claims 3 to 5, characterized in that the polyol component of the polyurethane is selected from the group consisting of sunflower, Castor, soybean, rapeseed oil and mixtures thereof.
  7. Method according to one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that a filler is used, which is selected from the group consisting of cork granules, expanded clay, puffed pearlite, vegetable fibers and mixtures thereof.
  8. Method according to one of claims 1 to 7, characterized in that the mold (3) is additionally shaken during curing.
  9. Method according to one of claims 1 to 8, characterized in that the mold (3) after filling the wetted filler particles (1) on their open side essentially full surface with a breathable cover (7) in the form of a coherent Layer of vegetable or artificial fibers or fabrics is provided.
  10. Pressure-resistant and breathable lightweight building material, available after the process one of claims 1 to 9.
  11. Use of the lightweight building material according to claim 10 as an insulating element.
  12. Use of the lightweight building material according to claim 10 as a floor slab.
  13. Use of the lightweight building material according to claim 10 as a house wall element.
  14. Use of the lightweight building material according to claim 10 as a roof panel.
EP98120045A 1997-10-24 1998-10-23 Method for producing pressure-proof and air-permeable light construction materials Withdrawn EP0911453A1 (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE1997147189 DE19747189A1 (en) 1997-10-24 1997-10-24 Process for the production of pressure-resistant and breathable lightweight building materials
DE19747189 1997-10-24

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EP0911453A1 true EP0911453A1 (en) 1999-04-28

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Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP2000508A3 (en) * 2007-06-02 2009-11-25 Glunz Ag Method for producing a lightweight flexible moulded article based on lignocellulose containing fibres
DE102008048541A1 (en) 2008-09-15 2010-04-15 Härtwich, Erwin Layer-composite element e.g. wall panel, for use in vehicle, has filler material layer formed as long fiber injection material layer, where material layer is formed from mixture of glass fibers and two-component binder
US8846776B2 (en) 2009-08-14 2014-09-30 Boral Ip Holdings Llc Filled polyurethane composites and methods of making same
EP2853821A1 (en) * 2013-09-25 2015-04-01 Köhler, Bettina Heating device
DE102014000036A1 (en) * 2014-01-06 2015-07-09 Erfurt & Sohn Kg Inner panel
US9481759B2 (en) 2009-08-14 2016-11-01 Boral Ip Holdings Llc Polyurethanes derived from highly reactive reactants and coal ash
US9932457B2 (en) 2013-04-12 2018-04-03 Boral Ip Holdings (Australia) Pty Limited Composites formed from an absorptive filler and a polyurethane
US10138341B2 (en) 2014-07-28 2018-11-27 Boral Ip Holdings (Australia) Pty Limited Use of evaporative coolants to manufacture filled polyurethane composites

Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE3004840A1 (en) 1980-02-09 1981-08-20 Siempelkamp Gmbh & Co Non-cracked cork granule plate mfr. - by applying pressure and heat to the granules mixed with binder (PT 16.7.81)
EP0354526A2 (en) * 1988-08-10 1990-02-14 Jacques Leclerc Blend of cork for soundproofing floors
US4947611A (en) * 1988-01-22 1990-08-14 Michio Otsuka A wall material, and method of preparing a wall material of soils and vegetable materials
EP0411598A2 (en) 1989-08-02 1991-02-06 Gianfranco Losio Process for obtaining polyurethane compounds containing granules of cork or similar substances, particularly for the manufacture of soles for footwear, apparatus for realising this process, and the product so obtained
US5345738A (en) * 1991-03-22 1994-09-13 Weyerhaeuser Company Multi-functional exterior structural foam sheathing panel
DE19547156A1 (en) 1995-03-31 1996-10-02 Felsing Ohg Mfr. of moulded part for flower arranging

Patent Citations (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
DE3004840A1 (en) 1980-02-09 1981-08-20 Siempelkamp Gmbh & Co Non-cracked cork granule plate mfr. - by applying pressure and heat to the granules mixed with binder (PT 16.7.81)
US4947611A (en) * 1988-01-22 1990-08-14 Michio Otsuka A wall material, and method of preparing a wall material of soils and vegetable materials
EP0354526A2 (en) * 1988-08-10 1990-02-14 Jacques Leclerc Blend of cork for soundproofing floors
EP0411598A2 (en) 1989-08-02 1991-02-06 Gianfranco Losio Process for obtaining polyurethane compounds containing granules of cork or similar substances, particularly for the manufacture of soles for footwear, apparatus for realising this process, and the product so obtained
US5345738A (en) * 1991-03-22 1994-09-13 Weyerhaeuser Company Multi-functional exterior structural foam sheathing panel
DE19547156A1 (en) 1995-03-31 1996-10-02 Felsing Ohg Mfr. of moulded part for flower arranging

Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP2000508A3 (en) * 2007-06-02 2009-11-25 Glunz Ag Method for producing a lightweight flexible moulded article based on lignocellulose containing fibres
DE102008048541A1 (en) 2008-09-15 2010-04-15 Härtwich, Erwin Layer-composite element e.g. wall panel, for use in vehicle, has filler material layer formed as long fiber injection material layer, where material layer is formed from mixture of glass fibers and two-component binder
US8846776B2 (en) 2009-08-14 2014-09-30 Boral Ip Holdings Llc Filled polyurethane composites and methods of making same
US9481759B2 (en) 2009-08-14 2016-11-01 Boral Ip Holdings Llc Polyurethanes derived from highly reactive reactants and coal ash
US9932457B2 (en) 2013-04-12 2018-04-03 Boral Ip Holdings (Australia) Pty Limited Composites formed from an absorptive filler and a polyurethane
US10324978B2 (en) 2013-04-12 2019-06-18 Boral Ip Holdings (Australia) Pty Limited Composites formed from an absorptive filler and a polyurethane
EP2853821A1 (en) * 2013-09-25 2015-04-01 Köhler, Bettina Heating device
DE102014000036A1 (en) * 2014-01-06 2015-07-09 Erfurt & Sohn Kg Inner panel
US10138341B2 (en) 2014-07-28 2018-11-27 Boral Ip Holdings (Australia) Pty Limited Use of evaporative coolants to manufacture filled polyurethane composites

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Publication number Publication date
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