EP0834040B1 - Combustion chamber with a burner arrangement and method of operating a combustion chamber - Google Patents

Combustion chamber with a burner arrangement and method of operating a combustion chamber Download PDF

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Publication number
EP0834040B1
EP0834040B1 EP19970924865 EP97924865A EP0834040B1 EP 0834040 B1 EP0834040 B1 EP 0834040B1 EP 19970924865 EP19970924865 EP 19970924865 EP 97924865 A EP97924865 A EP 97924865A EP 0834040 B1 EP0834040 B1 EP 0834040B1
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EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
combustion
combustion air
fuel
combustion chamber
characterised
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EP19970924865
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German (de)
French (fr)
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EP0834040A1 (en
Inventor
Ahmad Al-Halbouni
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WALTER BRINKMANN GMBH
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AL HALBOUNI AHMAD
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Priority to DE19615761 priority Critical
Priority to DE19615761 priority
Application filed by AL HALBOUNI AHMAD filed Critical AL HALBOUNI AHMAD
Priority to PCT/DE1997/000817 priority patent/WO1997040315A1/en
Publication of EP0834040A1 publication Critical patent/EP0834040A1/en
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23DBURNERS
    • F23D14/00Burners for combustion of a gas, e.g. of a gas stored under pressure as a liquid
    • F23D14/20Non-premix gas burners, i.e. in which gaseous fuel is mixed with combustion air on arrival at the combustion zone
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23CMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING FLUID FUEL OR SOLID FUEL SUSPENDED IN  A CARRIER GAS OR AIR 
    • F23C7/00Combustion apparatus characterised by arrangements for air supply
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23CMETHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING FLUID FUEL OR SOLID FUEL SUSPENDED IN  A CARRIER GAS OR AIR 
    • F23C2201/00Staged combustion
    • F23C2201/20Burner staging
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23DBURNERS
    • F23D2205/00Assemblies of two or more burners, irrespective of fuel type

Abstract

With a combustion device and corresponding method for low-NOx and low-CO combustion, with largely separate feeds of fuel (4) and combustion air (5) to the combustion chamber, the entire or the greatest part of the combustion air is fed to the combustion chamber (2) in continuous gradation over numerous points in the chamber.

Description

The invention relates to a combustion chamber with a burner device and a corresponding method for an NO x - and CO-lean combustion in accordance with the preamble of claim 1 and 13 respectively.

There is a general tendency in burner construction to use a multi-stage feed of the Combustion air in the combustion chamber to the stoichiometric conditions at the To be able to influence combustion better and meet the high requirements to do justice to economic and ecological combustion.

The combustion air is usually either in a so-called mixing tube gradually added to the fuel (see GB 1444 673 A) or it is added to the Mostly outside of the fuel jet and outside the flame area supplied annular distributor. (see DE-OS 4 419 345 and DE-OS 4 231 788). Other Constructions have multiple slots or openings on the combustion chamber wall and / or Fuel rating within the combustion chamber (see US Pat. No. 5,461,865 A and US Pat. No. 4 931 012). Because of the considerable spatial distance of the combustion air distribution devices from the flame area, is in practical operation with such Burners uniform mixing of fuel and combustion air or a staged mix based on given proportions not achieved.

To overcome this disadvantage, the gas burner according to JP 57-058010 A Combustion air to a larger area of the combustion zone by means of an internal one double-walled distribution body and the lower part of the combustion zone enclosing, drilled wall distributed. This type of air grading grants a better one Mastery of the mixing ratios, but in addition to its complexity, it is also ineffective in terms of heat transfer because the outer combustion wall absorbs the heat shields from the actual combustion chamber wall.

The consistent continuation of such approaches would be too relative complicated burner designs with a variety of in the combustion zone guided or furnace or boiler walls penetrating combustion air distribution lines (see DE-OS 41 42 401 and DE-OS 39 15 704) or additional ones expensive heat-resistant materials made radiation rods for flame cooling (see DE-OS 40 41 360) lead. There is also one regarding pollutant emissions optimal control of the burner at different load levels significantly more difficult because the ratio of primary and secondary air quantities can only be changed within narrow limits.

Another development trend uses the principle of surface combustion. With this In principle, the combustion air is either with the before entering the burner body Fuel completely mixed (see EP 0631091 A), or it is mixed using a variety of openings on the inner wall of a double-walled cylindrical burner structure in the cylindrical ring-shaped space enclosed between the inner and outer wall led and mixed there with the fuel (see US Pat. No. 1,247,740). Then will the mixture ignites on the surface of the outer burner wall. All based on this principle Working surface burners require the use of expensive materials and methods particular difficulties when setting up the burner in the furnace.

Another line of development in burner construction uses the flow rate of the flame gases created negative pressure to secondary, tertiary, etc. combustion air suck in. However, this principle requires that the flame gases have a predetermined Speed at a combustion air intake Flow past the diffuser wall (see DE-OS 36 00 784). So this design shows the significant disadvantage that the intake openings for the combustion air in one zone with a very high flame temperature, which leads to the increased formation of polluting Nitrogen oxides leads.

The invention is therefore based on the object to provide a combustion chamber with a burner device and a method of operating this burner means through which an NO x - and CO-lean combustion and an intensification is the heat release reached at the wall, simple in design and for a Compact design suitable with predominantly separate supply of fuel and combustion air to the combustion chamber, in which the combustion air is fed in as many stages as possible into larger flame areas.

According to the invention, this object is achieved by a combustion chamber with a burner device and a method the characterizing features of claim 1 and 13 solved.

This achieves the following advantages:

  • Dosage of the amount of combustion air supplied per unit of time in such a way that predeterminable λ number ranges of the fuel / combustion air mixture are approximately achieved,
  • Reduction of the thermal load on the components for the combustion air supply and flame cooling as well as the use of inexpensive materials for these components,
  • No loss of heat transfer between flame and wall due to diffusers or other means
  • Design of the combustion and exhaust gas zone with a geometry adapted to the walls of the heat sink.

The basic concept of the invention, which also the claimed method for Operating the burner device involves the following: Approx. 70 to 100 vol.% Of total amount of combustion air supplied is determined by means of one or more Combustion air distribution body in a predominantly radial direction in the direction of the flame filled space between the outer wall of the firebox and the contour of the Combustion air distributors along all or a large part of the flame length fed. This results in a large-scale distribution of the combustion air to the entire flame area or on large parts of the flame area.

For this purpose there are a number of on the contour of the combustion air distribution body Openings for the combustion air outlet distributed. The number per unit area and the Cross-section of these openings distributed on the contour of the combustion air distribution body are selected so that a predetermined volume flow of Combustion air enters. This allows the stoichiometric conditions in the Control fuel-combustion air mixture better. Furthermore, can be in this way Dosing location a predetermined course of the λ number range between the flame base and Realize flame tip.

In contrast to the combustion air supply, the fuel is fed into the combustion zone exclusively in the area of the flame base located at the foot part of the combustion air distribution body by means of one or more rows of nozzles arranged around the combustion air distribution body. At an air flow rate of less than 100%, the remaining part of the combustion air required for the combustion, ie 0 to approx. 30% by volume, is mixed into the fuel before entering the combustion zone. The admixture of this part of the combustion air increases the momentum of the fuel, improves the mixing of fuel and combustion air and leads to the ignition limit being reached more quickly. The NO x values drop drastically.

The advantages of this concept are that the combustion is initially sub-stoichiometric and, with a gradually increasing air supply, only shortly before the tip of the flame changes into stoichiometry or over-stoichiometry, where complete burnout is achieved. In this way, temperature peaks in the entire flame area are suppressed and the formation of pollutants (NO x and CO) is drastically reduced. This type of feeding of the combustion air also has the advantageous effect that the flame is blown away from the combustion air distribution body, so that no direct combustion takes place on the surface of these combustion air distribution bodies. This lowers the thermal load on the combustion air distribution bodies, especially since they are additionally cooled by the combustion air flowing through them.

A further advantageous effect of the combustion air supply according to the invention, in particular in the case of large-area combustion air distributors, is that they also cool the flame, thereby reducing the formation of NO x . In addition, when using large-area combustion air distributors with a suitable shape, the geometry of the combustion zone is largely determined by the geometry of these combustion air distributors. An essential function of the combustion air distribution body is therefore seen in the fact that the size of the combustion chamber is decisively influenced by the choice of its dimensions.
Overall, even with different burner capacities, there is a low thermal load on the combustion air distribution bodies, since the cooling effect increases with increasing burner output due to the then increasing combustion air throughput.

According to the invention, there is a large variety of variants for designing the contour of the combustion air distribution bodies. Depending on the geometry of the furnace or boiler room, the choice of a suitable shape for the combustion air distribution body can optimize the NO x and CO emissions and heat transfer.

Further advantageous embodiments of the invention relate to the configuration of the Row of nozzles for the fuel supply. As particularly effective for optimal compliance It has been found to be predetermined ranges of values for the air number λ if the beam direction of the Fuel nozzles within the same row of nozzles and / or the jet direction of the Fuel nozzles of adjacent rows of nozzles to different lengths of the Aim combustion air distribution body. One more for the fuel flow To give swirl, the beam directions mentioned are at least partially skewed set. Furthermore, the combustion air distribution body and / or the Fuel nozzles can be designed to be interchangeable in order to optimally match their parameters to a adapt the specified burner output.

The solution according to the invention, including its mode of operation, is explained in more detail below using exemplary embodiments. In the accompanying drawing:

Fig. 1a
1 shows a schematic representation of a first variant of a low-CO and NO x burner device with a conical combustion air distribution body for heating purposes,
Fig. 1b
1 shows a schematic representation of a second variant of a low-CO and NO x burner device with a plurality of conical combustion air distribution bodies for industrial purposes,
Fig. 2a
a schematic representation of a selection of different geometric variants of the combustion air distribution body in side view and top view,
Fig. 2 b
1 shows a schematic representation of the interchangeability of the combustion air distribution bodies,
Fig. 3 a
1 shows a schematic illustration of variants of the jet directions of the fuel nozzles,
Fig. 3 b
a schematic representation of the interchangeability of the fuel nozzles,
Fig. 3 c
a schematic representation of the oblique fuel holes,
Fig. 3 d
1 shows a schematic representation of the fuel annular gap with an internal swirl generator,
Fig. 4 a
2 shows a graphical representation of the dependence of the NO x emission values in the exhaust gas on the burner output for a selected variant of a combustion air distribution body, work being carried out without premixing combustion air to the fuel,
Fig. 4 b
a graphical representation of the dependence of the NO x emission values in the exhaust gas on the burner output for a selected variant of a combustion air distribution body, with premixing of combustion air to the fuel being used (increased fuel nozzle pulse),
Fig. 5 a
a graphical representation of the dependency of the CO emission values in the exhaust gas on the burner output for a selected variant of a combustion air distribution body, with no premixing of combustion air to the fuel, and
Fig. 5 b
a graphical representation of the dependence of the CO emission values in the exhaust gas on the burner output for a selected variant of a combustion air distribution body, with premixing of combustion air to the fuel being used (increased fuel nozzle pulse).

According to FIG. 1 a, a cylindrical fire or combustion chamber 2 with a Longitudinal central axis 34 of a burner device from a conical combustion air distribution body 7 and a surrounding outer wall 3 made of steel. The outer wall 3 consists of a cylindrical jacket wall 3a, a cover wall 3b and one Bottom wall 3c. Firebox details are not shown in the schematic drawing like viewing openings for visual observation of the flame development in the combustion chamber, Openings for the ignition of the gas-air mixture and for temperature measurement in the lower one Part of the firebox. Also not shown are a UV probe for monitoring the Flame and a suction probe for exhaust gas extraction to carry out the concentration analysis of the exhaust gas emerging at the exhaust outlet 6. The exhaust outlet 6 is in the Cover wall 3b of the furnace arranged. The fire or combustion chamber 2 can also polygon shaped as a prism, but always has a horizontal or vertical arranged longitudinal central axis 34.

There is essentially an empty space 1 between the outer wall for the flame formation 3 and a combustion air distribution body 7 are available. This empty space is 1 that part of the combustion chamber 2, which lies below an imaginary level 10, which on the End of the head part 9 of the frustoconical combustion air distribution body 7 is seated, whose base 15 lies on the lower bottom wall 3c of the combustion chamber 2.

For heating purposes, the heat is removed from the outer wall 3 via cooling water, the either in coils 16 and / or in water chambers 17 flows around the outer wall 3.

The combustion air distribution body 7 consists of simple sheet steel with a large number of openings 11 for the exit of the combustion air into the combustion zone. While the almost horizontal head part 9 of the combustion air distribution body is closed, the foot part 8 remains open and is screwed into the air supply pipe 18. The total combustion air or most of it (> 70 vol.% of the total for the Combustion air flow rate of 100% required) is via the inner tube 18th of a coaxial tube, the combustion air supply 5 into the interior of the combustion air distribution body 7 by means of a fan 19 provided with a motor 20. The lower end of the inner tube 18 of the coaxial tube opens into the combustion air supply 5.

All fuel is mixed separately or with the rest of the combustion air Via a cylinder ring 21 arranged perpendicular to the central longitudinal axis 34 between the Inner tube 18 and outer tube 22 of the coaxial tube of the combustion zone over the Fuel supply 4 supplied. The lower end of the outer tube 22 of the coaxial tube flows into the fuel supply 4.

The cylinder ring 21 is directly on the foot part of the combustion air distribution body 7 with a Provide row of nozzles 12. This row of nozzles 12 has a variety of around Combustion air distribution body 7 arranged around fuel nozzles 13 for distribution of the fuel into the combustion zone in two perpendicular to each other Beam directions 14 crossing planes crossing the longitudinal center axis 34 are used (see Figures 3a-3d).

Investigations were carried out using natural gas H as fuel. In doing so different forms of combustion air distribution body (see Fig. 2a) used, the Number of openings 11 for the combustion air outlet into the combustion zone or whose size was varied along the contour of the combustion air distribution body, so that the mixing ratios can be changed to control the combustion process.

The burner output was determined for relatively small combustion air distributors (length 25-30 cm, width at the foot part 2-3 cm and at the head part 0-10 cm, with a length of the fire or Combustion chamber of 80 cm) to values between 10 and 22 kW and the air ratio varies between 1.1 and 1.5. However, this is not a fundamental limitation. The distribution body shown in FIG. 1a, to which the measured values in FIGS. 4 and 5 relate, was at a total length of approx. 30 cm at the foot part approx. 2.5 cm wide.

In all series of tests, a thin, dimly lit (depending on the operating variant also hardly or not visible) stable turbulent flame around the combustion air distribution body 7 around, and a complete burnout was just above the headboard level 10 of the combustion air distribution body 7. The flame touched the surface of the combustion air distribution body, it filled the empty space 1 over a large area. A intensive heat emission to the outer wall 3 of the firebox was the result. this leads to inevitably to an improved and more intensive heat exchange with the in the or arranged around the combustion chamber walls 3a, 3b, 3c in the heat transfer medium Coils 16 or in the water chambers 17th

The contour of the combustion air distribution body did not glow and remained relatively cold (below 300 ° C.) in all designs according to FIG. 2a. The exhaust gas analysis showed, as the measurement data in FIGS. 4 a, 4 b, 5 a and 5 b show, particularly with an increased fuel nozzle pulse, extremely low NO x and CO emission values, which are far below the legal limit values for industrial burners.

A major advantage of the invention is therefore the possibility of a energy-saving and environmentally friendly incinerator with compact burner and Build combustion chamber shape that is used for heat generation at smaller outputs up to 100 kW (such as in household appliances, wall-mounted heaters and boilers), with medium outputs, > 100 kW to 1 MW (e.g. in heating centers, thermal power stations and biomass combustion) and also for larger capacities> 1 MW (e.g. in power plant furnaces and rotary kilns) is suitable.

1b schematically shows an arrangement of a plurality of combustion air distribution bodies 7 in a combustion chamber for industrial purposes in power plant technology. The firebox 2 has a square cross section; the combustion air distribution body shown have the same features as in Fig. 1 a and are on the lower wall 3c, as above explained, installed. The heat is dissipated via the built in the outer wall Water pipes 23 and the evaporator and superheater heating surfaces 24 and 25. A further heat extraction is via an air preheater, which the combustion air of the Brenner preheated, reached in the exhaust duct, which is not shown in the schematic drawing is shown.

2 a shows a schematic representation of different geometric variants of the Combustion air distribution body. These can be square, cylindrical, conical, have polygon prism or pyramidal shape or their contour can be ellipsoidal or be hyperbolic. Other geometric designs are possible. In principle all combustion air distribution bodies have an internal cavity for the supply of Combustion air, a thin surrounding the cavity with a variety of Porous wall with openings, a closed head part and an open one Foot part on. The dimensions of the combustion air distribution body and the number and Geometry of the openings on their circumference should be chosen so that they are one Controlled combustion process to ensure the combustion air distribution body. The means that with the selection of these parameters the air emission to the combustion area in Dependence on the burner output according to the specific requirements of a Firing process should be controlled so that on a larger combustion area substoichiometric combustion takes place and the complete burnout is only close to that Head part of the combustion air distribution body is completed. Measurements showed that Different dimensions of the combustion air distributors for different burner capacities required are. That is why the combustion air distributors are for to manufacture certain load ranges separately and to make them interchangeable; This can, As shown schematically in FIG. 2 b, this is done as follows: The foot part 8 of the Combustion air distribution body 7 is with an external thread 26 and that Air supply pipe 18 is provided with an internal thread 27 at the pipe outlet. The Combustion air distribution body 7 is screwed into the air supply pipe 18.

In principle, the measurements confirmed that the following data should be set on the combustion air distribution body in order to achieve stable, low-pollutant and perfect combustion (see Fig. 1 a):
The length (A) of the combustion air distribution body 7 is ≥ 40-85% of the combustion chamber length (B), the diameter (C) of the combustion air distribution body 7 at the base part 8 is ≥ 10% of the combustion chamber diameter (D), and the porosity of the combustion air distribution body is <20%.

3 a shows a schematic illustration of variants of the jet directions of the fuel nozzles 13, which are positioned in a row of nozzles 12 or more rows of nozzles at the foot part of the combustion air distribution body 7 and arranged around the latter. A row of nozzles 12 contains a plurality of nozzles, the jet direction 14 of which can be changed both in the longitudinal central axis and at an angle to it. On the one hand, this allows the fuel to be distributed over different contour areas of the combustion air distribution body, which contributes to the targeted control of the mixing ratios and promotes ignition. On the other hand, by means of a suitable inclination of the jet direction, fuel swirl can be generated, which leads to more intensive mixing of fuel and combustion air and to the longer residence time of the fuel particles in the flame area. Both fuel nozzle settings (axial and tangential tilt) ensuring together in conjunction with the continuously flowing air from the openings of the combustion air distributor is a NO x - and CO combustion. The tests carried out have shown that the optimum range of the axial and tangential inclination angles of the fuel nozzles is from approximately -45 ° to + 45 ° in relation to the longitudinal direction of the combustion zone. The angle setting depends on the shape of the combustion air distribution body and has a great influence on the quality of the combustion. The admixture of small amounts of air (<30 ° of the combustion air volume flow) with the fuel leads to improved mixing of the fuel and combustion air and to faster reaching the ignition limit due to the increased impulse. The NO x values drop drastically.

The rows of nozzles are to be manufactured for different load ranges and should be exchangeable his; that can e.g. B. happen as follows, as Fig 3 b shows: The coaxial ring 21 closed and immediately before the fuel enters the combustion chamber Providing connecting channels 32 for the fuel supply into the combustion chamber, the channels 32 have internal threads 33 and the fuel nozzles 13 have external threads 28. The Fuel nozzles 13 are screwed into the connecting channels 32.

Instead of the fuel nozzles 13 within a row of nozzles 12, oblique bores 29 or an annular gap 30 can be used with an inner swirl generator 31, as shown in FIG. 3 c and 3 d illustrate.

Due to the variety of design options of the fuel nozzles, the application is liquid, gaseous or dusty fuels possible.

The graphs in FIGS. 4 a and 5 a show the NO x and CO emission values measured in the exhaust gas as a function of the burner output at different air ratios for the variant shown in FIG. 1 a with the conical combustion air distribution body. Natural gas H was fed as fuel by means of a single row of nozzles, the nozzles being adjusted such that every second nozzle was provided with a weak swirl. While the burner output for the relatively small pilot plant was varied between 10 and 22 kW, air figures for the usual and interesting range of 1.2 to 1.5 have been set for combustion plants. The NO x and CO emission values shown have been converted to 3 vol.% O 2 in the exhaust gas so that a comparison with the limit values of the TA-Luft is possible.

It can be clearly seen from FIG. 4 a that the NO x emission values in this variant of the combustion air distribution body increase slightly with the burner load due to increasing combustion temperatures. However, since the flame temperature remains below 1200 ° C for all examined load ranges, the NO x emission values tend to remain constant at higher outputs. An increase in the air ratio leads to a drastic reduction in the NO x emission values. For example, their maximum at an air ratio of 1.2 and an output of 22 kW drops from 31 ppm to 19.5 ppm at an air ratio of 1.5 and the same load.

The decisive factor for the further reduction of the NO x emission values is the influence of the pulse increase through the fuel nozzles. A slight addition of air with the fuel leads to strong turbulence and a better mixture between fuel and combustion air. The ignition limit is reached sooner. Furthermore, the flame becomes thinner, more extensive and in the present example burns hardly or not visibly even when approximately 20% combustion air is added to the fuel. FIG. 4 b shows an admixture of approx. 20% combustion air to the fuel and otherwise the same settings as in FIG. 4 a, extremely low NO x emission values for all air ratios and for all examined load ranges.

If one looks at the corresponding CO emission values in FIG. 5 a, one finds that these are generally very low and to disappear completely (zero values) with increasing Burner load and air ratio tend. The increase in momentum of the fuel nozzles through the Addition of approx. 20% combustion air to the fuel leads to, as shown in FIG. 5b perfect combustion. The exhaust gases are greater than 1.05 for air numbers and for all services examined CO-free. This behavior with regard to CO emissions is also for all other forms of combustion air distributors are typical. The experimental Studies show that by setting the fuel nozzles appropriately, the zero values of CO emissions can occur very quickly.

The axial and tangential setting of the fuel nozzles has a particular influence on the NO x and CO formation, but depending on the combustion air distribution body used there are different optimal angular positions.

Overall, it can be stated that the NO x and CO emission values of the new burner device are significantly below the limit values of TA-Luft (NO: 114 ppm, CO: 93 ppm) and the new BImSchV (NO: 45 ppm, CO: 55 ppm ) and that even the production of CO-free exhaust gas from combustion processes is possible.

Claims (14)

  1. Combustion chamber with a burner device for combustion with low emissions of NOx and CO with predominantly separate supply of fuel and combustion air to the combustion chamber, whereby the entirety or the majority of the combustion air is continuously staged at a plurality of points and supplied to the combustion chamber, characterised in that
    a) a coaxial pipe (18, 22) is provided at one end of which the inner pipe (18) is connected with at least one feed line (5) for the supply of combustion air and the outer pipe (22) is connected with at least one feed line (4) for the supply of fuel or fuel and combustion air mixture, and at the other end of which a combustion air distributor (7) is connected sealingly with the inner pipe (18) and at least one injector row (12) exhibiting a plurality of fuel injectors (13) sealingly closes the cylindrical ring (21) between the inner pipe (18) and the outer pipe (22),
    b) the combustion air distributor (7) consists of an elongated inner cavity which is surrounded by a thin perforated or porous wall and exhibits a closed top part (9), an open bottom part (8) and a plurality of distributed openings (11) for emergence of combustion air into the combustion zone,
    c) the combustion air distributor (7) is connected sealingly by its open bottom part (8) to the inner pipe (18) of the coaxial pipe,
    d) the ratio (A/B) of the length (A) of the combustion air distributor (7) to the length (B) of the combustion chamber (2) and the ratio (C/D) of the outside diameter (C) of the combustion air distributor (7) at the bottom part (8) to the inside diameter (D) of the combustion chamber (2) are such that an ignitable mixture is formed and stable combustion takes place,
    e) the direction (14) of injection of the fuel injectors inside the same injector row (12) and/or the direction (14) of injection of the fuel injectors of neighbouring injector rows (12) is adjustable separately,
    f) the burner device is installed in the combustion chamber (2) so that it passes through the outer wall (3) surrounding it and exhibits a sealed connection with it and the end of the coaxial pipe (18, 22) with the feed lines for the supply of combustion air and fuel (5 and 4) remains outside the combustion chamber (2), the entire length of the combustion air distributor (7) is located in the combustion chamber (2) and the fuel injectors (13) project into the combustion chamber (2), but do not exceed the distance from the bottom part (8) of the combustion air distributor (7) to the start of the openings (11),
    g) the combustion zone in the combustion chamber (2) is simultaneously the zone for the complete mixing of the combustion air from the openings (11) with the fuel or fuel and air mixture from the fuel injectors (13),
    h) the volume and the geometry of the combustion zone essentially correspond to the volume and the geometry of the empty space (1) which is bounded by the outer wall (3) surrounding the combustion chamber (2), the outer contour of the combustion air distributor (7) and an imaginary plane (10) disposed inside the combustion chamber (2) and sitting on the end of the top part (9) of the combustion air distributor (7).
  2. Combustion chamber according to claim 1,
    characterised in that
    a) the porosity of the combustion air distributor (7) is such that predetermined ranges of values for the air/fuel ratio λ from the sub-stoichiometric range in the vicinity of the bottom parts (8) to the super-stoichiometric range in the vicinity of the top parts (9) roughly prevail in the combustion zone,
    b) the arrangement and the number of openings (11) on the contour of the combustion air distributor (7) are chosen so that the pulse of combustion air streams from the openings (11) blows the flame away from the combustion air distributor (7) so that no combustion takes place on the wall of the combustion air distributor (7) and this wall does not exhibit any glowing,
    c) means for ignition of the mixture formed in the combustion zone are present in the vicinity of the fuel injectors.
  3. Combustion chamber according to claim 1,
    characterised in that the inner cavity of the combustion air distributor (7) is surrounded by a single wall which exhibits a square block-shaped, cylindrical, conical, polygonal prism-shaped or pyramid-shaped form or its contour is ellipsoidal or hyperbolic in form.
  4. Combustion chamber according to claim 1,
    characterised in that the wall of the combustion air distributor (7) is made of porous ceramic materials or of metal materials which take the form of a screen, perforated plate, wire mesh, grid or metal mesh, or in that the combustion air distributor (7) takes the form of a wire pressing or sintered moulding.
  5. Combustion chamber according to claim 1,
    characterised in that the combustion air distributors (7) exhibit guiding devices to impart a swirling motion to the stream of combustion air.
  6. Combustion chamber according to claim 1,
    characterised in that the combustion air distributors (7) and/or the injectors (13) or injector rows (12) are embodied so that they can be changed.
  7. Combustion chamber according to claim 1,
    characterised in that the direction (14) of injection of the fuel injectors (13) inside the same injector row (12) and/or neighbouring injector rows (12) is aimed at different portions of the length of the combustion air distributors (7) and/or the fuel injectors (13) are disposed inclined so that a swirling motion is imparted to the stream of fuel.
  8. Combustion chamber according to claim 1,
    characterised in that the fuel injectors (13) inside an injector row (12) can be embodied as oblique bores (29) or as an annular gap (30) with an inner swirl inducer (31).
  9. Combustion chamber according to claim 1,
    characterised in that the combustion chamber (2) is cylindrical in form and exhibits a wall (3, 16, 17) for removal of heat.
  10. Combustion chamber according to claim 1,
    characterised in that the length (A) of the distributor (7) is between 30% and 85% of the length (B) of the combustion chamber (2), and in that the diameter (C) of the distributor (7) in the area of the fuel outlets is between 10% and 60% of the inside diameter (D) of the combustion chamber wall (3a).
  11. Combustion chamber according to claim 9,
    characterised in that a further heat exchanger (24) is provided in the combustion chamber (2) downstream of the distributor (7).
  12. Combustion chamber according to claim 7,
    characterised in that the fuel injectors (13) are disposed parallel to one another and inclined relative to the cylindrical ring (21) so that a circular swirling motion is produced, or disposed inclined diverging or converging relative to the injector circle (35) in the cylindrical ring (21) so that a widening or contracting flow is produced, or are disposed inclined in both directions in the cylindrical ring (21).
  13. Process for operation of a combustion chamber according to claims 1 to 12, characterised in that
    a) approximately 70 to 100% by volume of the total combustion air throughput supplied is fed by means of at least one combustion air distributor (7) in a mainly radial direction into the combustion zone filled by the flame along the entirety or large parts of the length of the flame, and mixes there with the fuel or fuel and air mixture from the fuel injectors (13),
    b) the fuel is fed into the combustion zone by means of the fuel injectors (13) in the area of the base of the flame in the bottom part of the combustion air distributor (7) and around the latter,
    c) the remaining part of the volume of the combustion air required for the combustion is mixed with the fuel before entering the combustion zone,
    d) the mixture formed in the combustion zone (1) is ignited in the vicinity of the fuel injectors (13) and burns completely in the same zone without further distribution,
    e) the flame is formed throughout the combustion zone (1) and the combustion waste gases flow out through the imaginary plane (10) unrestricted and leave the combustion chamber through the waste gas opening (6),
    f) depending on operating parameters and type of fuel, a certain angular setting of the fuel injectors (13), the bores (29) or the swirl inducer (31) is selected in combination with a certain mixing ratio of the combustion air in the stream of fuel to obtain a visible or an invisible flame and/or minimize the NOx and CO emission levels in the waste gas.
  14. Process according to claim 13, characterised in that the fuel or the fuel and air mixture is fed in an angle ranging from approximately -45° to +45° relative to the longitudinal direction of the combustion zone, and the proportion of the combustion air in the stream of fuel fed in lies in a range from 0 to approximately 30% by volume of the combustion air throughput supplied overall.
EP19970924865 1996-04-20 1997-04-18 Combustion chamber with a burner arrangement and method of operating a combustion chamber Expired - Lifetime EP0834040B1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE19615761 1996-04-20
DE19615761 1996-04-20
PCT/DE1997/000817 WO1997040315A1 (en) 1996-04-20 1997-04-18 COMBUSTION DEVICE AND METHOD FOR OPERATING A COMBUSTION DEVICE FOR LOW-NOx AND LOW-CO COMBUSTION

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP0834040A1 EP0834040A1 (en) 1998-04-08
EP0834040B1 true EP0834040B1 (en) 2000-08-09

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EP19970924865 Expired - Lifetime EP0834040B1 (en) 1996-04-20 1997-04-18 Combustion chamber with a burner arrangement and method of operating a combustion chamber

Country Status (6)

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US (1) US6419480B2 (en)
EP (1) EP0834040B1 (en)
AT (1) AT195367T (en)
DE (1) DE19717721A1 (en)
ES (1) ES2151273T3 (en)
WO (1) WO1997040315A1 (en)

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Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
US6419480B2 (en) 2002-07-16
DE19717721A1 (en) 1997-10-30
US20010018171A1 (en) 2001-08-30
WO1997040315A1 (en) 1997-10-30
AT195367T (en) 2000-08-15
ES2151273T3 (en) 2000-12-16
EP0834040A1 (en) 1998-04-08

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