EP0792226A1 - Brake system for a motor vehicle - Google Patents

Brake system for a motor vehicle

Info

Publication number
EP0792226A1
EP0792226A1 EP95940245A EP95940245A EP0792226A1 EP 0792226 A1 EP0792226 A1 EP 0792226A1 EP 95940245 A EP95940245 A EP 95940245A EP 95940245 A EP95940245 A EP 95940245A EP 0792226 A1 EP0792226 A1 EP 0792226A1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
vehicle
wheel
control
brake
pressure
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Withdrawn
Application number
EP95940245A
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Inventor
Stefan A. Drumm
Alfred Eckert
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Continental Teves AG and Co oHG
Original Assignee
ITT Automotive Europe GmbH
Continental Teves AG and Co oHG
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE4441958 priority Critical
Priority to DE4441956 priority
Priority to DE4441959 priority
Priority to DE4441957 priority
Priority to DE4441956 priority
Priority to DE4441958 priority
Priority to DE4441957 priority
Priority to DE4441959 priority
Priority to DE4447313 priority
Priority to DE4447313 priority
Application filed by ITT Automotive Europe GmbH, Continental Teves AG and Co oHG filed Critical ITT Automotive Europe GmbH
Priority to PCT/EP1995/004653 priority patent/WO1996016847A1/en
Publication of EP0792226A1 publication Critical patent/EP0792226A1/en
Application status is Withdrawn legal-status Critical

Links

Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60TVEHICLE BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF; BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF, IN GENERAL; ARRANGEMENT OF BRAKING ELEMENTS ON VEHICLES IN GENERAL; PORTABLE DEVICES FOR PREVENTING UNWANTED MOVEMENT OF VEHICLES; VEHICLE MODIFICATIONS TO FACILITATE COOLING OF BRAKES
    • B60T8/00Arrangements for adjusting wheel-braking force to meet varying vehicular or ground-surface conditions, e.g. limiting or varying distribution of braking force
    • B60T8/17Using electrical or electronic regulation means to control braking
    • B60T8/1755Brake regulation specially adapted to control the stability of the vehicle, e.g. taking into account yaw rate or transverse acceleration in a curve
    • B60T8/17551Brake regulation specially adapted to control the stability of the vehicle, e.g. taking into account yaw rate or transverse acceleration in a curve determining control parameters related to vehicle stability used in the regulation, e.g. by calculations involving measured or detected parameters
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60TVEHICLE BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF; BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF, IN GENERAL; ARRANGEMENT OF BRAKING ELEMENTS ON VEHICLES IN GENERAL; PORTABLE DEVICES FOR PREVENTING UNWANTED MOVEMENT OF VEHICLES; VEHICLE MODIFICATIONS TO FACILITATE COOLING OF BRAKES
    • B60T8/00Arrangements for adjusting wheel-braking force to meet varying vehicular or ground-surface conditions, e.g. limiting or varying distribution of braking force
    • B60T8/17Using electrical or electronic regulation means to control braking
    • B60T8/1755Brake regulation specially adapted to control the stability of the vehicle, e.g. taking into account yaw rate or transverse acceleration in a curve
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W10/00Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function
    • B60W10/18Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function including control of braking systems
    • B60W10/184Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function including control of braking systems with wheel brakes
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W30/00Purposes of road vehicle drive control systems not related to the control of a particular sub-unit, e.g. of systems using conjoint control of vehicle sub-units, or advanced driver assistance systems for ensuring comfort, stability and safety or drive control systems for propelling or retarding the vehicle
    • B60W30/02Control of vehicle driving stability
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W40/00Estimation or calculation of non-directly measurable driving parameters for road vehicle drive control systems not related to the control of a particular sub unit, e.g. by using mathematical models
    • B60W40/02Estimation or calculation of non-directly measurable driving parameters for road vehicle drive control systems not related to the control of a particular sub unit, e.g. by using mathematical models related to ambient conditions
    • B60W40/06Road conditions
    • B60W40/064Degree of grip
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60GVEHICLE SUSPENSION ARRANGEMENTS
    • B60G2400/00Indexing codes relating to detected, measured or calculated conditions or factors
    • B60G2400/10Acceleration; Deceleration
    • B60G2400/104Acceleration; Deceleration lateral or transversal with regard to vehicle
    • B60G2400/1042Acceleration; Deceleration lateral or transversal with regard to vehicle using at least two sensors
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60TVEHICLE BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF; BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF, IN GENERAL; ARRANGEMENT OF BRAKING ELEMENTS ON VEHICLES IN GENERAL; PORTABLE DEVICES FOR PREVENTING UNWANTED MOVEMENT OF VEHICLES; VEHICLE MODIFICATIONS TO FACILITATE COOLING OF BRAKES
    • B60T2210/00Detection or estimation of road or environment conditions; Detection or estimation of road shapes
    • B60T2210/10Detection or estimation of road conditions
    • B60T2210/12Friction
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60TVEHICLE BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF; BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF, IN GENERAL; ARRANGEMENT OF BRAKING ELEMENTS ON VEHICLES IN GENERAL; PORTABLE DEVICES FOR PREVENTING UNWANTED MOVEMENT OF VEHICLES; VEHICLE MODIFICATIONS TO FACILITATE COOLING OF BRAKES
    • B60T2230/00Monitoring, detecting special vehicle behaviour; Counteracting thereof
    • B60T2230/02Side slip angle, attitude angle, floating angle, drift angle
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60TVEHICLE BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF; BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF, IN GENERAL; ARRANGEMENT OF BRAKING ELEMENTS ON VEHICLES IN GENERAL; PORTABLE DEVICES FOR PREVENTING UNWANTED MOVEMENT OF VEHICLES; VEHICLE MODIFICATIONS TO FACILITATE COOLING OF BRAKES
    • B60T2270/00Further aspects of brake control systems not otherwise provided for
    • B60T2270/30ESP control system
    • B60T2270/313ESP control system with less than three sensors (yaw rate, steering angle, lateral acceleration)
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W2422/00Indexing codes relating to the special location or mounting of sensors
    • B60W2422/95Measuring the same parameter at multiple locations of the vehicle
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W2520/00Input parameters relating to overall vehicle dynamics
    • B60W2520/12Lateral speed
    • B60W2520/125Lateral acceleration
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W2520/00Input parameters relating to overall vehicle dynamics
    • B60W2520/14Yaw
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W2520/00Input parameters relating to overall vehicle dynamics
    • B60W2520/20Sideslip angle
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W2720/00Output or target parameters relating to overall vehicle dynamics
    • B60W2720/14Yaw
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W2720/00Output or target parameters relating to overall vehicle dynamics
    • B60W2720/30Wheel torque

Abstract

Disclosed is a motor vehicle brake system with the following elements: means for determining the steering angle which produce a value characteristic of the steering angle; means for determining an additional yawing moment sufficient to suppress unwanted yaw angles and/or yaw rates and/or yawing accelerations, said means supplying the control unit with an appropriate value; a control unit which determines a coefficient for each wheel fitted with a brake device and calculates the braking moments for the individual wheels based on the additional yawing moment and the appropriate weighted coefficient.

Description

Brake system for a motor vehicle

The invention relates to a brake system for vehicles with more than two wheels. The brake system includes a plurality of brake devices, wherein each wheel is a brake device associated with each. The brake devices are designed such that they are capable of moments about the wheel axis of rotation exerted on the respective wheel, which cause the wheel rotational speed is reduced. These moments are to be referred to as wheel braking. The change of the rotational speed of the wheel has the result that forces are built up in the walkout surface to the roadway, which are referred to as braking forces. The braking forces in turn call forth a torque about the vertical axis (yaw movement) of the vehicle. The braking forces acting on each wheel individually, each of which produces a proportional yaw moment where these proportions cancel a rule, since the respective lever arms are directed differently. During braking of the vehicle from the straight ahead, this effect is also desirable because the vehicle is to remain directionally stable. It has been found, however, that it may be useful in some cases to provide a system in which an additional yaw moment is established about the vertical axis of the vehicle, so that skidding of the vehicle is suppressed during cornering, for example. Such arrangements are known as Dynamic Stability Control (DSC).

For the realization of such a scheme, it is necessary to detect the steering angle. The steering angle represents namely the desired curved path by the driver of the vehicle. With a stable cornering, the vehicle is to run with an approximately constant attitude angle and the same lead-bender yaw angular velocity, the target web. Deviations before this sideslip angle or from this

Yaw rate, the driver must compensate by counter-steering. but this is not always possible, especially not when the driver moves the set path with the curve limit speed. In such situations it is necessary to selectively brake the vehicle and at the same time an additional yaw moment to the vehicle actually will produce the desired yaw angular velocity of an adjustment of the deposit.

Control algorithms for the controllers that are accomplishing this have already been discussed many times, therefore need to be carried out in detail at this point.

However, there remains the problem of realizing a calculated by the control algorithm additional yaw moment in an appropriate manner by a targeted application of braking forces at the individual wheels.

Today's vehicles are equipped usually with hydraulic brakes, which are either formed as disc brakes or drum brakes. therefore, the task is concretely is to set a brake pressure to the brake device of each wheel. The aim is to realize the additional yaw torque with minimum pressures ie with minimal braking forces at the individual wheels in each braking devices can be achieved. The invention proposes for calculating the braking pressures to determine a coefficient C xx for each provided with a braking device the wheel and the wheel braking torques for each

to be produced wheels or the braking pressures from the

to identify additional yaw moment and the respective weighted coefficients. In this case, each coefficient determines the relationship between the braking pressure in a brake device and the proportion of the braking forces at said wheel on the additional yaw moment.

As already explained, it is especially in vehicle brake systems that operate on a hydraulic basis, favorable to determine the coefficients so that the brake pressure for each brake devices is immediately determined. The weighting of the coefficients is carried out in the way that the respective coefficient is divided by the sum of the squares of all the coefficients. This so-weighted coefficient determined in consideration of a sign of the ratio of the respective wheel brake pressure to the additional yawing moment.

flowing a parameter as variables in the determination of the individual coefficients that change during travel of a vehicle or from use to use the vehicle. These are, in particular - the steering angle,

- the coefficient of friction between tire and road, - the vehicle weight

- the axle load distribution.

Sizes which are included in the calculation of the coefficients, and which are specific vehicle or brake specific, are for a disc brake system, for example - the surface of the brake piston - the number of pistons per brake device - the coefficient of friction between the disc and

The brake pad (may change during a braking operation, eg by fading) - the ratio of the effective friction radius to dynamic tire radius - as well as the efficiency of the braking device.

The proposed method of calculation has the advantage that very rapidly the corresponding brake pressures can be calculated from a predetermined additional yaw moment of the vehicle. Parameters should change during the trip, this is the a change in the coefficients in

Brake pressure calculation considered.

While most influencing variables enter linearly in the calculation of coefficients, especially the dependence of the coefficients on the steering angle is not linear.

However, it has been found that a linearized estimation of the dependence between the coefficients and the steering angle supplies enough good results.

The following discussion describes first an additional yawing moment can be determined in what manner. In Chapter 3, "distribution logic" follows a description of embodiments of the invention.

System for driving stability control

1. General Structure of Driving Stability Control (FSR)

The term dynamic stability control (FSR) join four principles for influencing the driving performance of a vehicle by means of predeterminable pressures in individual wheel brakes and means of intervention in the engine management of the drive motor. It is to brake skid control (ABS), which is intended to prevent the individual wheels from locking during a braking operation, traction slip control (ASR), which prevents the spinning of the driven wheels to electronic brake force distribution (EBV), which between the ratio of the braking forces front and rear axles of the vehicle controls, as well as yaw torque control (GMR), which ensures stable driving conditions when driving through a curve.

So with vehicle, a motor vehicle is meant by four wheels in this context, which is equipped with a hy-metallic brake system. In the hydraulic brake system, a brake pressure can be built up by means of a pedal-operated master cylinder by the driver. Each wheel has a brake, which is associated with a respective inlet valve and an outlet valve. Via the inlet valves are the wheel brakes to the master cylinder connected while the outlet valves lead to a non-pressurized containers or low-pressure accumulator. Finally, there is an auxiliary pressure source available, which is able to build even independently of the position of the brake pedal pressure in the wheel brakes. The inlet and outlet valves can be electromagnetically actuated for pressure regulation in the wheel brakes. For detecting vehicle dynamic states are four speed sensors, one per wheel, a yaw rate meter, a lateral accelerometer and a pressure sensor for the minimum generated by the brake pedal brake pressure. The pressure sensor may also be replaced by a pedal travel or pedal force meter if the Hilfsdruckguelle is arranged so that a built-up by the driver brake pressure of which is indistinguishable of Hilfsdruckguelle.

Advantageously, in such a variety of sensors, a fall-back solution is realized. This means that in case of failure of part of the sensor system in each case only the part of the control is switched off, which is dependent on this part. If, for example the Gierge-schwindigkeitsmesser, so although no yaw moment control can be carried out, ABS, ASR and EBV but are more functional. The driving stability control can therefore be limited to three other functions.

In a driving stability control the driving behavior of a vehicle is influenced such that it is easier to control for the driver in critical situations or that critical situations are avoided from the outset. A critical situation is in this case an unstable driving state in which, in extreme cases, the vehicle does not follow the specifications of the driver. The function of the driving stability control system, therefore, is to give within the physical limits in such situations the vehicle the driver-vehicle behavior.

While for the brake slip control, the traction control and the electronic brake force distribution in primarily the longitudinal slip of the tire on the roadway important flow in the yaw torque control (GMR) other sizes a, for example, the yaw rate ,

For yaw moment control can be made to different vehicle reference models. The simplest calculation created with a single-track model, which means that the front wheels and rear wheels are combined in this model in pairs to a wheel which is located on the longitudinal vehicle axis. are much more complex calculations, when a two-track model is used. However, since lateral displacements of the center of gravity (Wank movements) can be considered in a two-track model, the results are more accurate.

For a single-track model, the system equations are in state space representation:

The slip angle beta and the yaw angular velocity represent the state variables of the system is acting on the vehicle is input while the steering angle δ is, whereby the vehicle, the yaw angular velocity. receives as output. The model coefficients c ii are formed as follows:

The focus c h c v and for the resulting stiffness of the tire, wheel suspension and steering elasticity at the rear or front axle. l h l and v stand for the distances between the rear axle and the front axle of the vehicle center of gravity. Θ is the yaw inertia moment of the vehicle, so the

Moment of inertia of the vehicle about its vertical axis.

In this model, longitudinal forces and shifts of emphasis are not considered. Even this approximation is valid only for small angular velocities. So the accuracy of this model decreases with smaller curve radii and greater speeds. For this, however, the computational effort is manageable. Further details on this one-track model can be found in the book "chassis technology: driving behavior" by Adam Zomotor, Vogel Buchverlag, Wurzburg 1987. In the DE 40 30 704 A1 proposes a two-track model for a vehicle in its accuracy to a single track is superior model. Here, too, are the

Yaw rate and the sideslip angle β, the

State variables. When using a two-track model is to be noted however that an enormous computing capacity is needed in order to perform a control intervention in a sufficiently short time.

How such a system can be designed for driving stability control, figures will be described below with reference to 29th The individual figures lie the following items based on:

Fig. 1 is a block diagram of the overall structure of a system for driving stability control,

Fig. 2 is a block diagram for structure of a

Yaw moment control,

Fig. 3 is a flowchart over the identification of a

Driving situation such as cornering,

FIGS. 4 and 5 each a flow chart on the determination of the

Fahrbahnreibwertes, in which Fig. 5 is to be inserted in Fig. 4,

FIGS. 6 and 8 are block diagrams of a combined

Method for determining the current values ​​of the slip angular velocity and the attitude angle in different representation, Fig. 7 is a block diagram for the direct determination of the slip angular velocity of kinematic considerations as part of the combined method of Fig. 6,

Fig. 9, a control circuit for driving stability control with dependent on the driving speed change of the computational model for the vehicle,

FIGS. 10 and 11 diagrams illustrating the dependency of the

Slip angle difference of a vehicle from the swimming angle and the velocity vector of the individual wheels can be removed,

Figs. 12 to 15 is a block diagram of a control circuit for controlling the driving stability, in which the compared in the comparator quantities represent derivatives of the yaw angular velocity,

Fig. 16 is a control circuit for determining the

Driving stability, in place as a control variable, the pressure gradient and / or the valve switching time of the vehicle brake use,

Fig. 17 block diagram for explaining the controller for calculating the additional yaw torque,

Fig. 18 block diagram for describing a

low pass filter,

Fig. 19 flowchart for calculating a corrected desired yaw rate, FIG. 20, block diagram for calculating a corrected additional yaw torque,

Fig. 21 schematic representation of a motor vehicle,

Fig. 22 block diagram for describing the distribution logic unit,

Fig. 23 schematic representation of a motor vehicle and the forces acting at eingeschlagenem steering wheel,

Fig. 24 diagram for a description of the side and

Längskraftbeiwerte in response to the wheel slippage,

FIG. 25A, B schematic representation of vehicles for the description of the under- and oversteer behavior,

Fig. 26 flowchart of a decision logic within the distribution logic unit,

Fig. 27 block diagram for calculating the switching times for inlet and outlet valves,

Fig. 28 diagram for a description of time intervals within a calculation flight,

Fig. 29 basic block diagram for determining the wheel brake pressure. A general description of the sequence of a

Driving stability control is carried out now with reference to FIG. 1.

The vehicle is the so-called controlled system:

The vehicle 1 forms the so-called controlled system:

In the vehicle 1, the sizes given by the driver act

Driver brake pressure P driver and the steering angle δ. On the vehicle 1, the resulting sizes engine torque M Motist, transverse acceleration a quer, yaw angular velocity , Wheel speeds and hydraulic signals as measured wheel brake pressures. To evaluate this data, the DSC system on four electronic controller 7,8,9 and 10, each of the Antiblokkiersystem ABS, traction control ASR, the

electronic brake force distribution or the yaw control functions are assigned. The electronic controller for ABS 7, ASR 8 and EBV 9 may correspond to the unchanged state of the art.

The wheel speeds are supplied to the controls for the anti-lock braking system 7, the traction control system 8 and the electronic brake force distribution. 9 The controller 8 of the traction control system receives additionally data about the prevailing engine torque, the actual engine torque

M Motist. This information is also sent to the controller 10 for yaw control. In addition, it receives from the sensors the data on the transverse acceleration, a transverse and yaw angular velocity of the vehicle. Since in any case, a vehicle reference velocity v Ref determined in the controller 7 of the ABS on the vehicle wheels Einzelraddrehzahlen

is the basis of which an excessive brake slip of the wheels can be determined, must be such

Reference speed are not calculated in the YMC controller 10, but is accepted by the ABS controller. 7 Where the vehicle reference speed is calculated or whether a separate calculation is made for yaw torque control, is only a small difference to the expiration of the yaw moment control. The same applies, for example for a long Längsbeschleuigung of the vehicle. Accordingly, the value could be determined for this purpose in the ABS controller 7 and passed on to the YMC controller 10th For determining the Fahrbahnreibwertes μ this is limited, since the yaw moment control an accurate certain friction is desirable, as this is determined for the anti-lock system.

All four electronic controller of the FSR, so the controls for GMR 10, ABS 7, ASR 8 and EBV 9 operate in parallel and independently of your own control strategies

Brake pressure specifications P GMR, P ABS, P TCS, P EBD for the individual wheels.

In addition, the TCS controller 8 and from the YMC controller 10 are calculated in parallel specifications ASR M and M StellM for the engine torque.

The pressure requirements of the GMR P GMR controller 10 for the individual wheel brake pressures are determined as follows:

The YMC controller 10 first calculates an additional yaw moment M G, which leads to stabilization of the driving condition within a curve when it is generated by a corresponding brake application. These M G is supplied to a distribution logic unit 2, which could also be represented as part of the GMR-regulator 10th In this distribution Logic 2 also a possibly existing driver's request for vehicle deceleration flows that will be recognized from the driver brake pressure Pfahrer. The distribution logic unit 2 is calculated from the predetermined yawing moment MG and from the desired driver brake pressure yaw moment control brake pressures for the wheel brakes p GMR, which individually can be very different for the individual wheels. This yaw moment control brake pressures P GMR be the same as calculated by the other controllers 7, 8 and 9 for ABS, ASR, EBV and for optimizing the function Print Defaults a priority circuit 3 is supplied to the wheel brake pressures. This priority circuit 3 obtained taking account of

Driver's request Sollraddrücke p set for optimum driving stability. These desired pressures may either correspond to the pressure requirements of a single of these four controllers, or represent a superimposition.

Similar to the wheel brake is moved to the engine torque. While ABS and EBD act only on the wheel brakes in GMR and ASR also an intervention in the engine torque is provided. The calculated separately in the YMC controller 10 and the TCS controller 8 defaults StellM M and M ASR for the engine torque to be evaluated again in a priority circuit 4 and superimposed to form a desired torque. This desired torque M Soll, however, can just as only the calculated setting one of the two controllers, respectively.

Based on the calculated target specifications for the wheel brake pressure P target and for the engine torque M If a driving stability control can now be made by brake and engine intervention. plus hydraulic signals or values ​​are incorporated into the pressure control unit 5, the actual the

Wheel brake play. The pressure control valve 5 generates therefrom signals that are delivered to the control valves of the individual wheel brakes in the vehicle. 1 The engine management system 6 controls in accordance with M Soll, the drive motor of

whereby again a modified engine torque is generated vehicle. This results in each case then again new input values ​​for the four electronic controllers 7, 8, 9 and 10 of the DSC system.

2. Structure of the yaw moment control (GMR)

Fig. 2 shows in a block diagram how the additional yaw torque is determined M G for the distribution logic unit 2 within the GMR regulator 10. For this purpose, flow as input variables of the steering angle δ, the vehicle reference speed v ref from the ABS controller 7, the measured transverse acceleration a q and the measured yaw rate on . The

Vehicle reference velocity vRef passes through a filter 17, which at low speeds, a constant value above zero attaches so that, at a subsequent calculation of the denominator of a fraction not equal to zero. The unfiltered value of v ref is supplied to only one of enable logic 11 which recognizes the vehicle is stationary.

This direct detection of the vehicle reference speed V ref by the activation logic unit 11 can also be omitted if it is assumed that the vehicle is stopped is present when the filtered vehicle reference speed v RefFil assumes its constant minimum value. In the YMC controller a vehicle reference model is stored 12, based on the steering angle δ, the filtered vehicle reference velocity and the measured vRefFil

Yaw rate a requirement for a change in the yaw rate calculated.

To keep the guidelines in physically possible framework, including the road friction coefficient μ is needed on these bills, which in a coefficient of friction and situation recognition 13 as an estimate is calculated. With sufficient accuracy of the friction value determined under the anti-skid control and the latter can be used. Or in the ABS controller 7 calculated in the YMC controller 10 coefficient of friction is taken.

The coefficient of friction and situation recognition unit 13 uses for its calculations the filtered reference speed v RefFil, the measured vehicle lateral acceleration a quer, the measured

δ yaw rate and the steering angle.

The situation recognition distinguishes different situations, such as straight ahead, cornering, driving backwards and the vehicle is stationary. Standstill of the vehicle is assumed when the filtered vehicle reference speed v RefFil assumes its constant minimum value. Instead of the unfiltered vehicle reference velocity including this information to detect a vehicle standstill activation logic can be applied. 11 To detect the reverse running is utilized that at a given steering angle δ, the yaw angular velocity is oppositely oriented as during forward travel. For this purpose, the measured yaw rate with the predetermined reference model of the vehicle 12 target yaw rate compared. If the signs are always opposite and the same applies to the time derivatives of the two curves, there is a reverse drive before because always for

Forward motion is calculated as usual speed sensors do not collect any information about the wheel rotation.

Finally, with reference to the filtered vehicle reference velocity V RefFil, the measured vehicle lateral acceleration a transverse as well as the measured yaw speed float angle a kinematic Speed, is

digkeitsbestimmung short kinematic Determination made.

To cut strong peaks at attitude angle changes, the calculated value of the slip angular velocity passes through a low-pass filter 15 of the first order, which on an estimate of the slip angular velocity

the activation logic unit 11 and passes to a program 16 to implement the yaw moment control law. The program 16 also uses the changes required for the yaw angular velocity, which is measured as the difference between the yaw angular velocity and the reference to the

Vehicle reference model 12 calculated target yaw rate represents. From this, the additional

Yaw moment M G determined for the vehicle which is on the

Brake pressures should be taught. The program 16 operates permanently to always have ready current control variables. Whether these controlling torques of all

recently be passed on to the position shown in Fig. 1 distribution logic unit 2, depends on the activation logic 11.

The activation logic 11 receives not only the value of the unfiltered vehicle reference speed v ref and as described by the slip angular velocity But also in terms of amount, the deviation of the target yaw angle

speed from the measured yaw rate as well as information from the situation recognition unit 13, when reverse drive is present.

If the vehicle is in reverse, so the transmission of M G is interrupted. The same applies if the vehicle is stopped is detected or when neither the estimated Schwimmwinkelgeschwindigkei nor the target for the

Yaw rate change Errei an amount

chen, who makes a provision necessary. The logic circuit for calculating the motor actuating torque M stellM is not shown.

2.1 coefficient of friction and situation recognition

In Fig. 3, 4 and 5, the logic flows in the coefficient of friction and situation recognition unit 13 are shown in the form of flow charts.

Fig. 3 shows the situation has for an object recognition. The illustrated run eight different driving situations can be distinguished: <0> vehicle is stationary

<1> constant straight ahead

<2> accelerated straight ahead

<3> delayed straight ahead

<6> reversing

<7> constant cornering

<8> accelerated cornering

<9> delayed cornering

Branching logic are shown in the flowchart as diamonds.

Starting from a given situation to be determined 51 is first determined in block 52 whether a vehicle is stopped or not. Takes the filtered vehicle reference velocity V RefFil its minimum value

v min one, then a vehicle is stationary, so assumed situation <0>. V is about v RefFil min, then in block 53 the

query result of the preceding pass of the Situations detection.

If the previously established situation in reverse, ie on situation <6> has been identified, there is still before reversing, because in the meantime no vehicle arrest has occurred. Otherwise situation <0> would indeed been recognized in block 52 in the meantime. If the previous run of situation recognition result in a situation other than situation <6>, as in diamond 54, the amount-amount of lateral acceleration a trans is polled. If this is less than a certain threshold value a min transversely, it is assumed that the vehicle is traveling straight, so that one of the situations <1> to <3> predominates. The same applies if, although the measured transverse acceleration is a transverse magnitude above the threshold a quermin, but is recognized in block 55 in the next step, that the steering angle δ is smaller in absolute value than a threshold value δ min. Then it is not surprising as the measured lateral acceleration a trans to a measurement error resulting from the fact that lateral accelerometer are usually fixedly mounted in the vehicle transverse axis and to tilt in lateral road slope with the vehicle such that a lateral acceleration is displayed that is not actually present.

So the vehicle is traveling straight, as in diamond 59, the size of the longitudinal acceleration a long is considered. If this magnitude is less than a threshold value a LongMin, so constant straight-ahead travel is assumed.

If the longitudinal acceleration a long magnitude but greater than this threshold value, then diamond 60 is different between positive and negative longitudinal acceleration. If the value of a long above the threshold a long- min, then the vehicle is in an accelerated straight travel, so the situation <2>. If the value of a long below the threshold a LongMin, it means nothing else than that negative longitudinal acceleration is present, so a delayed driving straight ahead, the situation <3>.

If none of the situations <0> to <3> before and is recognized in block 55 in terms of amount, a steering angle δ, is greater than ömin the threshold value, an inquiry is made at diamond 56, whether the vehicle is now moving backward. The detection of a reverse travel is necessary only at this point, as when driving straight ahead, the yaw rate in any case hardly differs from zero and thus a control intervention is not made. Whenever you see a turn in which the yaw moment control is active in itself, a reverse travel must be excluded with certainty. This is not possible solely on the basis of signals from the wheel speed sensors as such sensors pass on the speed only in terms of amount, without allowing conclusions about the direction of travel.

The situation <6> is determined as described previously by the measured yaw rate is compared with the detected in the vehicle reference model 12 target yaw angular velocity. If the signs

opposed and this also applies to the time derivatives of the two variables, the yaw angular accelerations and as the vehicle is in a

backward through extended curve. The sign of the yaw angular accelerations are therefore compared, so that it can be excluded that the opposite sign of the yaw angular velocities derived not only from a phase shift, which is caused by the time-delayed calculation of the target values. Are the conditions for reversing is not met, then there is a turn in the forward direction. Whether this turning takes place at a constant speed or not is examined in diamond 57th As before, when driving straight ahead in diamond 59 and 60, the amount of longitudinal acceleration a long is considered in diamond 57 initially.

If it is smaller than the threshold value a LongMin, then there is a constant cornering situation <7>. With a longitudinal acceleration a long, the greater in magnitude

than the threshold value a LongMin, is further examined in block 58 whether the longitudinal acceleration a long is positive or negative. With a positive longitudinal acceleration a long the vehicle is in an accelerated cornering, that situation <8>, while a delayed cornering is detected at negative longitudinal acceleration a long, corresponding to situation <9>.

The longitudinal acceleration a long can apply to different

As can be determined. It can be determined, for example, from the description provided by the ABS controller 7 reference speed v ref, bearing in mind that such reference speed v ref can vary during an ABS intervention of the actual vehicle speed. For an ABS case, a correction of v Ref is attached. However, the longitudinal acceleration a long can be taken over under certain circumstances directly from the ABS controller if there occurs such a calculation.

The situation recognition according to FIG. 3 is continually run through again, with the situation last determined remains stored and is in lozenge 53 available. A possible sequence for the coefficient of friction of the roadway is shown in Fig. 4 and 5. A coefficient of friction takes place then only when the yaw moment controller enters the control. Since usually entry but initially no estimated coefficient of friction is still present, the friction value is set to 1 at the beginning of the scheme μ.

Speaks the yaw moment control on the basis of an instantaneous driving situation, so it can be assumed that the vehicle is at least in the vicinity of the interface to unstable driving situations. Thus, it can be concluded from a consideration of the current measurement values ​​on the vehicle's current road friction coefficient. The friction coefficient then determined in the rules on entry provides later in the base for limiting the target yaw angular velocity and thus also for the classified information forwarded to the GMR control law 16 system deviation for the yaw rate , The determination of the coefficient of friction is carried out for the first time upon entry into the control, connected to a subsequent phase of updating for the limitation of the desired yaw angular velocity to physically meaningful values. In this case, - starting from the initial predetermined coefficient of friction μ = 1 - at the entrance control, a maximum coefficient of friction determined which is then used as a basis of calculating the additional yaw moment M G.

For this, first, an internal friction from the gemes

Senen transverse acceleration, a transverse and a calculated value for the longitudinal acceleration a long calculated which, assuming that complete adhesion utilization is present, corresponding to the current coefficient of friction. must be because gen but ausgegan fact that has not been reached at the control entry of the maximum frictional connection is the internal friction by means of a table, a characteristic curve or a constant factor, a higher coefficient of friction assigned. this friction the control is then supplied. Thus, it is possible in the next processing step with a road friction coefficient adapted to the target yaw rate expected and improve regulation. Also during the yaw moment control acts on the vehicle, the estimated coefficient of friction must be updated because a coefficient of friction could set during regulation. If the control due to the adjustment of the friction coefficient in the vehicle reference model by the resulting modified control deviation of the yaw angular velocity is not checked, the friction coefficient is up to a number of T μEnd

Steps further updated. When the yaw moment control is not used within this update phase, the estimated coefficient of friction is reset to 1.

An adaptation or updating of the estimated friction value can fail in certain situations. Such situations are, for example, straight ahead, reversing, or the vehicle is stopped, so the situations <0> to <4>. These are situations where in any case no yaw moment control is made so that a Reibwertabschätzung is unnecessary. An update of the coefficient of friction can then be dispensed with if the time derivative of the coefficient of friction so δ is negative and the amount of the time derivative of the steering angle, so | δ | exceeds a predetermined threshold. In the latter case it can be assumed that a change in the transverse acceleration a transversely based on a change of the steering angle δ, rather than on a coefficient of friction. Generally for the thus calculated coefficient of friction that this is an average coefficient of friction for all four vehicle wheels. Each individual wheel of the friction value can not be determined in this way.

The method of the coefficient of friction will now be explained with reference to Fig. 4. In any driving situation in the vehicle behavior of the prevailing road friction coefficient flows to box 61st To determine the friction coefficient associated the measured lateral acceleration a is first transversely in accordance with step

62 filtered. That is, the measured values ​​are either smoothed or the curve passes through a low-pass filter, so that no extreme peaks occur. Step 63 comprises the situation recognition according to FIG. 3. The detected driving situation is later for the update phase in step 74 is important. In diamond 64 it is determined whether the need for a control intervention is given. Such statements of Anfangsreibwert μ = 1 is first used. A scheme is deemed necessary, it is checked in block 65 whether this was also the state at the end of the previous run of the coefficient of friction. In the event that this is a regulatory admission, it has previously obtained no recognition to control, and consequently, an internal friction in step 67

is determined for the first time. It is calculated using the following equation:

Where g is the gravitational constant g = 9.81 m / s 2.

Next, in step 68, the parameter is Old reg for

Step 65 is set to 1. Additionally, the count parameter T μ is set to 1 corresponding to the fact that the first coefficient of friction of the internal friction coefficient has been made. In

Step 69, an assignment of an estimated friction coefficient the calculated internal friction , This is done under the assumption that the existing acceleration components are not full on a

Adhesion utilization based. The estimated coefficient of friction

So is usually between the determined internal friction and the first order for the coefficient of friction is complete.

Unchanged driving situation provided - - the next run of this coefficient of friction is so decided in diamond 65 gold on re = 1st is-here in the further course then a determines which takes the place of the determined in the previous pass. an update

the determined parameters in box 68 does not take place because the updating is carried out during a control.

Already in the run previously reg old had been set to 1 and remains unchanged. The number T μ the performed runs remains 1 because it is only incremented when no regulation takes place. Also, the updated value is then - as described earlier -

μ assigned by means of a table, a non-linear relationship or a constant factor, an estimated coefficient of friction. If it is determined in one run in block 64 that a control is not necessary, continues to be interrogated in block 71 whether the parameter reg old was last set for the control to 0, or the first If it has been set in the last run to 1, in block 72 the number is T μ of

Runs queried. This T μ 1 when the last

Pass, a control is carried out. Was carried out in the penultimate run a scheme, then T μ = 2 and so on. As long as the T μ has not yet reached a specific T pEnd in step 72, it is increased by 1 in step 73 and in step 74 to restart the update of the

internal friction coefficient made. Then, if in one of

following runs the number T μEnd is achieved without any control has taken place, the parameter reg old for controlling reset to 0 (75). The estimated coefficient of friction is the Ausgangsreibwert μ = equated. 1 In order for the update phase is complete for the coefficient of friction.

When it is then detected again on the next pass in block 64 that no control is required, then in block 71 with reg old = 0 Ausgangsreibwert = 1 retained in the field 76th Only when the need for a control intervention is detected at diamond 64, a coefficient of friction is performed again.

The criteria for an update of the internal coefficient of friction after step 74 are shown in Fig. 5. Starting from the target in the field 77 that the internal friction coefficient is to be updated, the zeitli¬ in step 78

Chen derivatives of the estimated coefficients of friction previously formed or and steering angle δ formed.

If is then recognized in block 79 that the vehicle is neither resting nor running straight, so that one of the situations <6> to <9> is present, the results are out

Step 78, evaluated in step 80th Only if - as already explained above - a declining coefficient of friction is not due to a steering maneuver, a coefficient of friction is made. No Reibwertaktualisierung occurs when either the vehicle when traveling straight - or is in the standstill of the vehicle or a decrease of the estimated friction coefficient - forward or backward can be attributed to a steering maneuver.

2.2 and determination

A measure of the stability of a driving state is the predominant slip angle beta and its time derivative, the slip angular velocity , The determination of these values ​​is explained below. 2.2.1 Kinematic -Determination

the kinematic Determination 14 includes nothing more than that - detached from any car models - the slip angle speed The acceleration a transversely of the vehicle center of gravity crosswise to: is determined from measured or calculated from measured values of quantities as follows purely by physical considerations

Longitudinal axis in the plane of movement is measured. The center of gravity of the vehicle V moves relative to the velocity vector to an inertial system:

Here, ψ denotes the yaw angle and ß the sideslip angle. The acceleration vector a is obtained as the derivative with respect to time t:

The acceleration sensor measures the projection of the acceleration vector to the transverse axis of the vehicle:

After linearization of the trigonometric functions (Sinß = ß; cosß = 1) can be reformulated to the equation

The swimming angular velocity can now be calculated according to the above equation. As parameter go next to the cross acceleration a trans the Gierwinkelgeschwindigkei , The scalar vehicle speed v and its time derivative on. For the determination of ß the previous statement can be integrated numerically, wherein first the -Determination Is accepted. A

Simplification results when the last term is neglected in general, so that no SS needs to be determined.

The proposed method has the advantage that the

Swimming angular velocity is directly derived from the sensor signals and can thus be determined in the nonlinear region of the lateral dynamics. A disadvantage is the sensitivity of the method compared to measurement noise and the measurement errors Aufintegrieren act, thereby determining a slip angle may be very inaccurate. These disadvantages are avoided by the combination with a model-based method. As such a combination of kinematic and based on an observer model determining the sideslip angle speed may be designed, Fig. 6, which is inserted in place of the broken-line block 18 in Fig. 2. In such a model-based method additionally flows as an input value of the steering angle δ, as indicated by a dashed arrow. By mutual interference and correction of the combined methods of determination of the slip angular velocity is also a less erroneous calculation of the slip angle ß itself is possible, so that the latter then as the control can be provided. This is also indicated by a dashed arrow.

2.2.2 combination of kinematic Determination with an observer vehicle model

With the illustration of FIG. 6, the dashed circled portion 18 of Fig. 2 can be replaced. This makes it possible to determine not only the present Schwimmwinkelge-speed, but also the prevailing attitude angle ß.

In contrast to a purely kinematic calculation of the slip angular velocity is here in addition to the

kinematic Determination 83, an observer vehicle model

84 used for the determination of the driving condition. As an input variable, the observer vehicle model 84 is - just like the vehicle reference model 12 for determining the yaw rate - δ the steering angle. The filtered vehicle reference velocity v RefFil flows as a parameter. The measurable output quantities lateral acceleration a transverse and yaw angular velocity become the kinematic Determination 83 needed, but not for the observer vehicle model 84 that creates similar sizes in the principle itself. A further term Y, which is identical in the simplest case with the calculated from the GMR control law additional yaw torque, represents the change of the vehicle behavior caused by a control intervention. Thus, Y for exposing the same conditions the simulated vehicle of the observer, such as the real vehicle.

Except for a slip angle speed are the Be

obachterfahrzeugmodell also a value for the yaw angular acceleration. From the kinematic

Determination derived size of the float angle velocity is a after passing through the low-pass filter with

Weighting factor k multiplied, while originating from the observer vehicle model size for the swimming angular velocity Y after addition of a correction factor from the measured Gierwinkelge-speed multiplied by a correction factor determining the size of the h - with a weighting factor (1-k) is multiplied. The value of k is always between 0 and 1 would be no observer vehicle model k = 1. After addition of the two

Swimming angular velocities is the sum of integrated up to an estimated float angle , This is in addition to the kinematic slip angle speed is also the made arrangements available. In addition, the slip angle to both the kinematic Determination 83 and passed to the observer vehicle model 84th A similar correction amount is calculated by the observer vehicle model 84 yaw acceleration.

First, this is integrated to a yaw angular velocity and flows to a back of the observer vehicle model 84, and on the other hand subtracted from the measured yaw rate. this difference

is multiplied by 2, which determines the size of the next control steps in the correction of the observer vehicle model 84, and s is provided with the dimension l /. h by a factor Multiplied by this factor h 2

Yaw rate thus has the same dimension as the yaw angular acceleration So that both variables may be added to each other and, after further integration form a refluxing correction quantity for the yaw angular velocity. During a yaw torque control, the term Y-zero values corresponding to the applied Zusatzgiermonent M G assumes. By dividing by the yawing inertia moment of the vehicle 0 Y also contains the dimension of a yaw angular acceleration and is added to the sum of the yaw angular accelerations, so that the aufintegrierte correction quantity takes into account the control effects.

When an observer vehicle model is provided by FIG. 6, 84, which allows a more reliable determination of the ß-floating angle than with a purely kinematic determination of the slip angular velocity and Aufintegra would tion possible thus determined slip angle can be passed on to the actual yaw moment controller 10th

the kinematic Determination, the one in combination with

Beoachterfahrzeugmodell expires, is shown in Fig. 7. As shown in FIG. 6, the lateral acceleration go a transverse and yaw angular velocity as measured output variables in the calculation according to Equation 91

F 2.6 a.

The filtered vehicle reference speed v is differentiated RefFil in box 93 to the vehicle reference acceleration Which is divided in field 94 by the filtered vehicle reference speed v RefFil, leading to multiplication nichtlineafer 95 to a factor f β. This non-linear multiplier 95 causes the β with a small ratio of the factor f and v RefFil set equal to zero

is so that this factor before the attitude angle is can be neglected. Only when the vehicle acceleration achieved a significant size, the slip angle beta at the kinematic Determining considered. The used here is the combined how it is used as a variable for the control and for feedback to Fig. 6. After the invoice 91, the value calculated for the slip angular velocity passes through as previously described a low-pass filter 92 and produces the estimated slip angular velocity.

The filtered vehicle reference speed v is differentiated RefFil in box 93 to the vehicle reference acceleration in field 94 by the filtered Fahrzeugreferenz¬

RefFil speed V is divided, which leads to non-linear multiplier 95 to a factor f ß. This non-linear multiplier 95 causes the ß with a small ratio of the factor f and v RefFil set equal to zero

is so that this factor before the attitude angle is can be neglected. Only when the vehicle acceleration reaches a signifi-edge size, the slip angle beta at the kinematic Determination considered. The used here is the combined, as it is used as a variable for the control and for feedback to Fig. 6. After the bill 91, the value determined by running for as previously described a low-pass filter 92 and gives the estimated

Swimming angular velocity ,

Such as the observer vehicle model 84 operates in FIG. 6, is shown in Fig. 8. Here, a template illustration has been chosen, wherein constitute "→" scalar and "⇒" multi-dimensional structure.

The matrix representation is based on the equations F 1.1 to F 1.3. The state variables are ß and to a

State vector x (t) summarized so that the following system of equations:

with the system matrix A (v (t)) of the input matrix B (v (t)), the state vector x (t) and the input vector u (t):

The input vector u (t) as input variables the steering angle δ and the term Y, which is the additional yaw torque generated by the yaw moment control.

Instead of weighting factors for the weighted addition of the determined variables a weighting matrix K 1 and a

Weight vector k 2 is used.

For suppression of the state variables two vectors c and ß are introduced which remove one component of the state vector x (t):

The dynamics of the observer vehicle model, so the size of the correction steps is determined by a vector h, whose first component h 1 is dimensionless and the second component 2 h the dimension (1 / s) comprising:

Based on the vehicle model in the state-space description (F1.1 and F1.2) then results ß means of an observer of Figure 8. In the structure of Fig described below for determination of the attitude angle. 8, the vehicle 101 only for distinguishing between input variables and output variables shown. It does not form part of the combined method for determining the slip angle speed.

In the adder 104, the system equations are formed according to F 2.7. For this purpose, the system matrix A is multiplied by the state vector x and the input matrix d. δ with the input variables and Y u so multiplying the input vector. The only variable parameter is the current vehicle reference speed v RefFil flows both in the system matrix A and in the input matrix B. By

Addition in the adder 104 formed time derivative x of the

State vector x will be the weighting matrix K 1 for F

2.9 multiplied and fed to a further adder 105th

In parallel with these operations is the direct process 103, a slip angular velocity estimated. To this end, the filtered vehicle reference speed v as well as their RefFil in the differentiator 102 (same as 93 in Fig. 7) determined time derivative of the measured cross-

a transverse acceleration and the measured yaw rate is used according to Equation F 2.6. Here, in

neglected first step, the last term of the equation, since no value of the float angle ß is present. After determination of the slip angular velocity is still passing through these, as already shown in Fig. 7, the low-pass filter 92, after which the resulting estimated sideslip angle speed of the bill further ge available provides is. This corresponds to that in Fig. 2

is led out of the broken-line box. the scalar is multiplied by the weight vector k 2, so that the result is a vector whose first component has the dimension of an angular velocity and whose second component is equal to zero. this vector is also supplied to the adder 105th Of the sum of the time derivative x of the state vector x formed according to Equation F 2.7 and the recovered from the multiplication by k 2

Vector resulting vector is integrated by the integrator 106 for x state vector. By scalar multiplication by vectors c and β one of the components is respectively ß or hidden from the state vector as a scalar and further processed. While the hidden for a GMR control law 16 and the other supplied to the direct process 103, which is calculated used only as a state variable within the observer and the estimation error determination within the combined procedure. In the adder 107 to this, the difference is formed between the yaw angular velocity determined from the observer vehicle model and the measured yaw rate. This difference is with a vector h

multiplied, whose first component is dimensionless and the size of the correction steps for the slip angle speed defines, and whose second component,

Dimension s -1 and transmits the size of the control steps in the

Correction of the yaw rate certainly. Also, the slip angle rückge as a correction variable

leads and that in the direct method of the kinematic - Determination of Fig. 7, so that the last term of Equation F can be 2.6 assigned a value in the subsequent control interval.

The mutual correction of the two calculation Enver-drive, so the calculation based on a vehicle model and the calculation based on kinematic considerations, a much more accurate determination of the float angle is possible

so that this can be supplied as a control variable the GMR control law sixteenth

2.3 vehicle reference models

Subsequently, the vehicle reference model on the basis of Fig. 9 to 15 will be explained.

In Fig. 9, the control loop of FIG. 1 and FIG. 2 for regulating the driving stability of a vehicle is shown again in simplified. The controller 7 to 9 in FIG. 1, the associated priority circuit 3 and the engine management system 6 have been omitted and the distribution logic unit 2 shown combined with the pressure controller 5. Within the control loop an additional yaw moment M G is calculated about the vertical axis of the vehicle and adjusted so that the curved path desired by the driver is maintained. The additional yawing moment M G is generated by selective braking of the individual wheels, wherein the course of the braking process and the selection of the braked wheels is determined by the distribution logic. 2 The desired direction of travel, the driver sets determined by a corresponding angular position of the steering wheel. The steering wheel is coupled in a fixed gear ratio (steering ratio) to the steered wheels. In this way a certain steering angle δ of the wheels is adjusted.

2.3.1 Dynamic track model

In the YMC controller 10 is a so-called. Vehicle reference model (Fig. 2) is 12 = 302 (Fig. 9) provided with the input data (velocity v, represented by v ref, steering angle δ) is supplied. In the vehicle reference model 302 is calculated on the basis of the input data, how great the change in the yaw angle per unit time (yaw angular velocity ) should be. In a downstream comparator 303, the target value of the yaw angular velocity is with the measured actual value of the yaw angular velocity

compared. At baseline, the comparator 303 delivers an output corresponding to the difference between and

equivalent. The thus determined difference value is a control law 16 supplied for controlling the yaw moment. The control law is calculated on the basis of on

additional yaw moment M G, which is supplied to the distribution logic. 2 The distribution logic unit 2 sets due to the additional yawing moment M G and possibly of a user's desire to brake pressure build-up in the p outputs of driver determined.

These may be brake pressure values ​​or valve switching times. In the area of ​​low velocities optimum operation of the vehicle reference model 302 is important. To this end, the vehicle reference model 302 may be provided in addition to the above-described linear dynamic single-track model 311 with a stationary circular travel model 306th

applies to the circular movement

With

Where: v = forward; h = the rear; m = mass; l = distance of the axis from the center of gravity; , Β corr = correction terms for Φ, ß.

For the linear dynamic single-track system equations F1.1 and F1.2 apply.

The changeover between the mathematical models 306 and 311 is carried out automatically by a not shown in the drawing switch in the vehicle reference model 302 in dependence on the speed of the vehicle. Here, a hysteresis of a few km / h for the switchover from one model to another is planned. Below the threshold, the target yaw rate calculated according to the model of stationary circular travel 306th Exceeds the speed of a low speed coming the force in that direction

Threshold, the calculation of the target value of the yaw angular velocity using the dynamic Einspurmo is

made dells 311th In this way the most important for the regulation at higher speeds dynamic processes in the model can involve.

During the transition from the circular travel model 306 to the single-track model 311 calculated by the circular travel model setpoints are as ß and as start values ​​for the Einspurmo used dell. Thereby avoiding transients during switching. Further calculation is now carried out by means of the single-track model 311 until the lower speed at decreasing speed threshold is exceeded. To keep here transient low, are necessary for the circular travel model correction factors and ß corr with previously in the Einspurmo

dell calculated values ​​for and SS as well as the A

gang sizes speed δ calculated v ref steering angle.

The correction values ​​have the following size:

These factors take their influence over time exponentially after the law: F second 17 corr (n + 1) = corr (n) * λ can accept wherein λ values ​​between 0 and less. 1 With n and n + 1, the calculation cycles are counted.

In this way, abrupt changes are avoided as give different results in the stationary case the two calculation methods. Thus, the possibility is given by the calculation model changes, up to speeds of v = 0 km / h determine the setpoints for control quite precisely.

In connection with FIG. 9 has been explained that different models are suitable as a vehicle calculation models. A preferred model can thereby be the stationary circular travel. According to this model, the yaw rate diminishes the above formula calculation

NEN. If one wants to represent such a vehicle computing model, so it makes sense to supply a computing circuit the measured values λ and v Ref and the output value then the target value of the yaw rate tap off.

2.3.3 Simplified model

The following is a very simple model for determining a desired yaw rate is established. There should be an alternative to the previously described combination model. It is characterized by the fact that an acceptable result is achieved with little computing power. According to this model the desired yaw rate is calculated at

This equation results from F2.12, with equation F F 2.14 and 2.15 when the rigidities to c and v c assumes very large h.

This approach is based on the following considerations.

In the described previously vehicle reference model, the desired yaw rate is (Called stationary circular travel value) either by means of a dynamic vehicle model (for example, a single-track) or by a static model is calculated and compared with the measured yaw rate. In each of these approaches but depends

the default (and thus also the control intervention) directly on the quality of the vehicle model from. Since these are linear Ersatzmodeile, the model differs in some cases considerably from the actual vehicle behavior.

additionally changes the actual vehicle behavior due to, for example, loading or wear of individual components, the model describes the vehicle only insufficiently. Accordingly, a model adaptation should by means of a continuous parameter estimation are carried out, with the following problems: For the estimation of an excitation must be present, ie, the driver would have to sufficiently stimulate the vehicle by means of steering input in the linear range (<0.4 g). This is hardly in normal driving.

Further, it is not possible to estimate all parameters of the linear single-track directly. Thus, certain parameters must be selected.

The regulation on the basis of model assumptions can therefore always offer a satisfactory solution only regarding the model specifications. In many cases, it may therefore be sufficient to proceed for a simpler control principle.

An important goal of driving stability control is to tune the drivability that the reaction of the vehicle to steering, braking and accelerator pedal inputs of the driver is always predictable and well controlled. Accordingly sub- and controlling operating conditions of the vehicle must be detected and corrected by a corresponding braking or engine management engagement to neutral behavior.

The idea for a simplified control principle is to use a direct measure of under- / oversteer behavior as a control variable. According to one of definition for the control behavior of a motor vehicle, the middle slip angle of the front and rear axles (α v, α H) are compared thereto. For larger slip angles front the vehicle has an understeering then, in the opposite case an oversteering behavior. Neutral behavior is present, by definition, when the slip angle are the same front and rear. thus applies

F2.19

> 0: untersteuernd

α vh = 0: neutral

<0: oversteer

Based on the skew angle difference, it is possible to determine the current state of the car directly. Using, as an approach, the single-track vehicle model (Fig. 10), can be from the slip angle depending on the steering angle δ, ß the slip angle, yaw angular velocity derived and the vehicle speed v, as follows:

Since the slip angle is not directly measurable or easily predictable, no explicit calculation of the individual slip angle can be made. But their difference is formed, it is possible to calculate this variable on the basis of the existing values (steering angle, yaw angular velocity), the known from the ABS controller vehicle reference speed v ref and the constant wheelbase. 1

This provides size available, as a measure of

Under- / oversteer can be used.

Referring still to the known relationship between the instantaneous turning radius R of the curved path of the vehicle center of gravity and the slip angle difference

so it can be seen that assuming F 2.23 α v - α h = 0

a neutral driving state F2.19 the curve radius R is determined α only by the steering angle, namely

It is therefore a regulation possible directly used as a control variable, the calculated slip angle difference. Default for this control is to keep the controlled variable magnitude small to achieve approximately neutral behavior. It may be useful to set this tolerance threshold asymmetric, so that the tolerance can be selected to be lower in the direction of oversteering behavior.

After these considerations, the target yaw rate can calculate (F2.18). This target yaw rate is then compared with and FIG. 1 of Re

gelung used.

2.3.5 Setpoint limitation

A regulation of the driving behavior of the vehicle is only as long as sense as the liability of the vehicle wheels on the roadway allowed to leave the calculated additional torque to take effect on the vehicle.

For example, it is undesirable that the control forces the vehicle in any case to the δ predetermined curved path by the steering angle when the steering wheel was too strong or too quickly taken with regard to the existing vehicle speed.

It should therefore be prevented is made under any circumstances, according to the selected vehicle reference model for prescribing. If one follows the reference model alone, then this may in fact lead under unfortunate circumstances to that in inadvertently set to be large steering wheel angle with high speed over the then too large the actual yaw rate is so far moved that the vehicle is turning in the extreme case around its own axis, as it moves with its center of gravity substantially straight. This condition is still very much less favorable than the state in which the vehicle due to poor friction conditions can not follow the driver's intent and strong understeer straight pushing for the driver. For in the latter case, the vehicle is at least only straight and not present simultaneously rotate around their own axis. To avoid these adverse consequences in special cases, computational algorithms are in the vehicle reference model additionally provided, which allow, on the coefficient of friction valid for the currently measured speed maximum yaw angular velocity set. The is determined in the Reibwerterkennung. 13 The calculation algorithms are based on the theory of stationary circular travel, for which it holds that = A transverse / v

(F2.18).

The maximum permissible transverse acceleration a qlim may be substantially as a function of the friction value of the speed v, the Längsbescheunigung a long and possibly determine other parameters. This will F 2.25 in a ql = f (mu, v, a l ong,...)

The maximum yaw rate is calculated as follows.

It is therefore possible to set a limit for the yaw rate, which is no longer wearing the driver's direct statement, but should help to ensure that when the vehicle breaking this but did not fall turns around its vertical axis.

For details on the appropriate μ-determination are discussed further in section 2.1 in detail.

It can also be provided to permit a control intervention only under certain conditions. One possibility can consist in the fact that the activation logic no current passes M G 11 in Fig. 2 to the distribution logic unit 2 when a is determined to a large slip angle,

which can be done depending on the currently prevailing speed.

2.4 Governing Law

In the following, the program structure of the control law 16 of the yawing moment controller 10 is described. The program calculates four input variables the additional yawing moment M G around the vertical axis of the vehicle, which is necessary to obtain a stable vehicle behavior especially when cornering. The calculated yawing moment M G is the basis for

Calculations of einzusteuernden into the wheel brakes pressures.

As inputs to the control law are available (see Fig. 17)

In the event that the skew angle difference is used as a base, located at the entrance 500 and Δλ at the input 501 Δλ.

The input 503 is optional. He is particularly available when a so-called observer vehicle model 84 is provided in the overall calculation system.

The value at input 500 is the difference between the measured yaw rate and the calculated by means of a vehicle reference model 12 desired yaw rate ,

The value at input 501 is obtained either as a temporal change in the size of the entrance 500 to calculation loop calculation loop divided by the loop time T 0, or

Difference of the time derivative of the measured

Yaw angular velocity and the time derivative of the calculated desired yaw rate.

Under a calculation loop is meant a computing passing through the FSR regulator according to Figure 1. Such passageway receives by its structure a particular real-time, the loop time T 0th For effective control, this must be kept sufficiently small.

The values ​​at the inputs 500 and 501, namely, and a low-pass filter are supplied to 510 and 511, respectively, first.

The two low-pass filters have the same structure in principle and have a structure as shown in the figure 18th The input of low pass filter 520 of FIG. 18 is referred to as u 521 with the output y. The output 521 is supplied to a register 522 and is available as the previous value y (k-1) in the next calculation. The output value of 521 for the calculation loop is then calculated using the following formula

F 2.27 y (k) = λ * y (k-1) + (1-λ) * u * k p

wherein λ can take values ​​between 0 and 1, λ describes the value of the low-pass filter. For the limit value λ = 0, the Rekursionfunktion is eliminated: the previous values ​​y (k-1) are not relevant for the calculation of the new output value 521st The more approaches the value of λ 1, the stronger effect the previous values, so that the current input value 520 passes through only slowly as the output value 521st k p is a linear scoring factor.

The low-pass filtering just described is carried out for the two input values ​​500 and 501, resulting in filtered values ​​515.516.

A similar low-pass filtering 512 is performed for the input variable 502, namely , The filtered value 517 is as well as the unfiltered value supplied 503 non-linear filters. These filters have the task for small A input values ​​the output value to 0 to set and input values ​​that are above a certain threshold to pass a reduced to the limit input value. The limitation is both negative and positive. the limits and ß th may be solid in the program implemented sizes should be, but also quantities that depend on other parameters, for Beispielvom coefficient of friction between the tires and the roadway. The limits are in this case calculated separately as a linear function of the friction coefficient.

All four sizes, namely, 515,516,517 and 518 are weighted in a further step, 530,531,532 and 533, respectively, each with a linear factor.

These factors are to be implemented in the computing system. They can be on the order calculated from corresponding vehicle models, but generally require fine tuning by driving tests. In this way, a corresponding set is determined by linear factors for each vehicle or for each type of vehicle. The thus weighted inputs 500,501,502,503 are added, wherein (adder 540), the additional yaw moment M G obtained, which is based on the further calculation process of the program.

In practice, however, been found that even

Modifications of the calculated yaw moment necessary.

These two approaches can be made:

1. The input variables, in particular Be modified.

2. The calculated yawing moment M G is a filtering

subjected. With either approach, an attempt is made to perform control not only of the yaw rate but also taking into account the attitude angle.

2.4.1 Modification of the input variables

a target value for the yaw rate calculated - using a vehicle reference model is - as already explained. Since the vehicle reference model used with the actual conditions may not completely match, it is usually necessary to correct the result of the model calculation again. In the reference model, the values ​​are evaluated essentially that a

provide yaw rate sensor and a steering angle sensor. A correction of the calculated desired yaw rate can be done by the values ​​are also taken into account that provides a lateral acceleration sensor.

The evaluation can be done in several ways. In the following, a way is proposed, in which first the measured lateral acceleration in a float angle velocity is converted. This value is a corrective

ture of the desired value for the yaw rate made.

The calculation of z. B. Use the kinemati

rule Determination 14, 15 (Fig. 2).

The process is carried out according to the given scheme in Figure 19. The estimated value of the slip angle speed

is optionally compared to a low-pass filtering with a first threshold th (diamond 400). The significance of this comparison arises only after a correction of the desired value for the yaw rate and is therefore explained hereinafter in more detail.

If th 1, the amount of is connected to a second

Threshold value th, compared (diamond 401), wherein the second threshold value is greater than the first threshold th. 1

Will this threshold is exceeded, then carried to the next integration 402 of the float angle velocity over time. For this, the slip angle speed is multiplied by the loop time T 0 and added to the previous integration result Intg il. The integration steps are counted with n, so that the number n after the integration is increased by 1 (step 403). The integration time is thus represented by the number n of integration steps were carried out. The integration result Intg n ver

aligned with a threshold ß s (diamond 404). The threshold size represents a maximum allowable deviation from a theoretically be observed sideslip angle. The threshold ß s is of the order of about 5 degrees.

If this threshold is exceeded, then the

Desired yaw rate by an additive constant S reevaluated (step 405), which is dependent on the instantaneous slip angle velocity and the number n

the integration steps. That is, s is exceeded, with each new loop, in which the threshold value Q, the desired yaw rate is further reduced. The additive constant S is, depending on the sign of either

added or subtracted, so that the amount-related value of the desired yaw rate is reduced in any case. Achieved Intg n is not the threshold value ß s, then is not limited (step 407).

On a return passage, is again checked whether the amount of the estimated sideslip angle speed is less than the threshold th. 1 If this is the case, then this is interpreted to mean that the vehicle has stabilized. This has the consequence that n is reset to 0 in step 406 and that a desired yaw rate is not corrected is used as a basis for the further calculation, at step 407, that is identical to the value that is present as a result of the vehicle reference model. In addition, the start value Intg n-1 integration is set to zero.

Exceeds a swimming angular velocity magnitude Although th first but not th 2, the old value Intg n remains unchanged, ie the integration is suspended for a loop. The previous limit is retained. If the threshold value th 2 be exceeded again, the integration continues.

2.4.2 Correction M G

A further possibility is to manipulate the yaw moment M G, which is calculated by the control law 16. For this purpose, the difference between the previous value M1 (k-1) to the current value M 1 (k) is formed. The index 1 indicates that these values ​​are the immediate results of the yaw moment control, are therefore not calculated on the basis of the following correction. This difference is based on the loop time T 0 and produces .DELTA.M. 1 At this gradient .DELTA.M 1 a Korrekturgradient is added, composed of mul plied by a correction factor is obtained. The thus corrected gradient is multiplied by the loop time T 0 and added to the yaw moment M (k-1) of the preceding statements. This results in the current moment M G (k) of the further

Calculation is based.

This calculation is realized by a logic as shown in FIG 20th The calculated moments that result from the subroutine "control law 16" are introduced into a shift register 420th At the first location 421 of the shift register 420 is in each case the current value M 1 (k); in the second place 422 of the shift register 420

is the previous value M1 (k-1). Once a new

Value exists M 1, the value from the register 421 in which is

Register pushed 422 and the value replaced in the register 421 by the new value. The values ​​in the registers 421 and 422 are supplied to a calculation logic 430, which calculates a .DELTA.M the following formula:

The calculation logic 430 is to also from the kinematic Determination fed to the estimated slip angle velocity. Furthermore, in a memory, a value for a correction factor a is defined with which the

Float angle velocity is converted to a torque change. The calculation of the new torque M (k) is done according to the following formula

F 2:29

M (k) = M (k-1) + .DELTA.M

In the register 431, the current value of the corrected torque is stored in the register 432, the value from the previous calculation. The value in register 431 is used as a basis for subsequent calculations.

3. Distribution Logic

3.1 additional yaw torque by applying braking forces

In order to achieve a stable running of the vehicle in a curve, it is first necessary to detect the steering angle. The steering angle represents the curved path desired by the driver of the vehicle. At a stable stationary cure venfahrt, the vehicle is to run with an approximately constant attitude angle and yaw angular velocity constant the web. Deviations from this slip angle or from this yaw rate, the driver must compensate by counter-steering. but this is not always possible, especially not when the driver rides the curve with the curve limit speed. In such situations it is necessary to selectively brake the vehicle and additional moments around the vertical axis applied to the vehicle, which will cause an adjustment of the actual to the desired yaw rate. Control algorithms that describe these relationships have been described previously, therefore need to be carried out in detail at this point.

However, there remains the problem, a calculated by the control algorithm additional yaw moment M G in a suitable manner to a targeted by applying braking forces

realize.

In hydraulic braking, the object is therefore virtually therein to set a brake pressure for each wheel brake. The aim is to realize the moment about the

Vertical axis with minimal pressures in the individual brakes are achieved. It is therefore proposed to determine a coefficient for each wheel and to determine the brake pressures from the vehicle yaw moment to be generated and the respective weighted coefficients.

As already explained, it is especially in vehicle brake systems that operate on a hydraulic basis, favorable to determine the coefficients so that immediately the braking pressure to the individual wheel brakes can be determined. The weighting of the coefficients is carried out in the way that each individual coefficient is divided by the sum of the squares of all the coefficients.

In this case, each coefficient determines the relationship between the wheel brake and the proportion of the individual wheel braking forces thus generated at the yaw moment of the vehicle. incorporated parameters as variables in the determination of the individual coefficients that change while driving a vehicle. These are, in particular - the steering angle δ

- the coefficient of friction μ between the tires and the road surface,

- the vehicle mass m

- the axle load distribution N z.

Sizes which are included in the calculation of the coefficients, and which are specific vehicle or brake specific, are, for example, for a disc brake system - the area A of the brake piston

- the number n of pistons per wheel brake

- μ the coefficient of friction between the disc and R

brake lining

- the ratio s to dynamic friction radius of effective tire radius

- as well as the efficiency η of the brake.

The proposed method of calculation has the advantage that very rapidly the corresponding brake pressures can be calculated from a predetermined additional yaw moment. the above parameters will be altered while driving, this is considered a change in the coefficient in the brake pressure calculation.

While some influencing variables enter linearly in the calculation of coefficients, especially the dependence of the coefficients on the steering angle δ nonlinear.

However, it has been found that a linearized estimation of the dependence between the coefficients and the steering angle supplies enough good results. 21 shows schematically a vehicle in straight running with four wheels 601,602,603,604. Each of the wheels is assigned a wheel brake 605,606,607,608. This can be controlled independently of each other, wherein braking forces in the footprint of the wheel are generated on the road surface by the force exerted by the wheel brakes wheel braking torques. Thus, for example generates a braking force F at a control of the wheel brake 605 to the wheel 601, the

in turn, a moment M (positive counted in the example) generated around the vertical axis.

Such moments around the vertical axis of the vehicle can be used specifically in order to keep a vehicle stably on a driver's desired path.

In the vehicle sensors are still present. These include wheel sensors, the angular speed of the wheels

capture 601,602,603,604. In addition, the steering wheel angle is detected by a steering sensor 612th Further, a sensor 613 is provided for the yaw angular velocity.

For these sensors, on the one hand the other hand, detect the driver's request, the behavior of the vehicle, an to be realized yaw moment can be calculated that, when applied, is able to bring the yaw rate of the vehicle and its attitude angle with the driver's request in accordance. For this, the wheel brakes

605,606,607,608 independently driven, to which a control device is provided, which is a part of a complex program for regulating the driving stability.

The basic situation is illustrated in the figure 22nd At 16, a program module is called which calculates the yawing moment M G. 22 shows the calculated pressures p xx, which are to be controlled in the individual wheel brakes 605,606,607,608 a control device. The determined pressure values ​​622, 623,624,625 may be further evaluated and into corresponding control signals for the wheel brakes

are converted 605,606,607,608.

The control device itself consists of two parts, namely a first part 630 in which coefficients are calculated for the individual wheels xx c. The coefficients c xx establish a linear relationship between the pressure in the wheel brake and the proportional yaw moment by the

Braking force on the corresponding wheel is caused. In the second part 631 by weighting the individual

Coefficients and taking into account the realizable yaw moment M G, the individual pressure values p xx

622,623,624,625 calculated.

The pressure values ​​and the coefficients are designated indices.

The following applies: v: h front: rear

l: left r: right

x: represents either v / l or h / r

The first calculation part 630 takes into account the steering angle is provided to the calculation process by evaluating 632 of the steering sensor 612th To calculate the coefficients of the coefficient of friction μ is taken into account, which is derived in an evaluation unit 633 from the wheel rotational behavior, (see also section 2.1.) The wheel rotational behavior in turn is determined by a signal of the wheel sensors at the individual wheels. Furthermore, the vehicle mass and the load distribution N z flows, which are determined in an evaluation unit 634, in which the vehicle behavior is analyzed in different situations. The first part of the program 630 has access to a memory 635 that contains the vehicle-specific and radbremsspezifischen above values.

For the above values of a coefficient c xx is calculated for each wheel, the values can be computed in parallel or sequentially 640,641,642,643. The calculation is performed by a function that is implemented in the program. In this capacity, the known relationships between the brake pressure and braking force are taken into account. As a rule, the relationship is linear. δ only the steering angle has to be considered separately. As the steering angle can be taken into account in a suitable manner, will be described below.

In the second calculation step 631 are either parallel or gradually from the individual coefficients

640,641,642,643 according to the following formula, the pressure values ​​for the individual wheel brakes is determined:

The calculation of the individual pressures according to this formula has the advantage that in order to achieve the calculated braking torque, only relatively low pressures must be inserted into the wheel brakes. To further the brake pressure control can be very sensitive and quickly to changes in particular the steering angle and the friction values.

The steering angle δ is in the calculation of coefficients taken into account as follows: Figure 23 shows to a schematic representation of a vehicle, the front wheels 601 and 602 are shown wrapped. With the spacing S of the front wheels is designated with l v is the distance of the

Gravity 610 to the front axle.

The wheel planes 650, 651 include steering angle 652.653 with the longitudinal axis of the vehicle a. For simplicity, it is assumed that the steering angle δ 652.653 are equal. The effective lever arm h l and h r based on the braking force

F acting in the plane of 650.651, calculated-as a result of proximity considerations for small steering angles as follows.

Since the approximation "small steering angle" is not always met, it has proven to be favorable if necessary to count on the following formula.

Should the calculated lever arms of less than zero, they are set to zero.

The Radkoeffizienten c xx can now be calculated as follows, namely,

F 3.4 C = C xx hydxx * h k, r, where all the parameters are out of the steering angle δ taken into account in hydxx c. In this way, the coefficients can be represented as the product of second terms, with one term determines the effective lever arm and the other term of the steering angle is independent.

3.2 additional yaw torque by reducing lateral forces

One method, single acting to apply braking forces is to control the wheel brakes such that the wheels are braked to different degrees. A method which does this is described in the previous section.

This process then reaches a limit when a driving stability control is to take place during a pedal braking, so when a certain braking pressure is set in the wheel brakes only because of the deceleration by the driver. In principle, the method described above can also be applied in this case. Changes in the already set braking pressures are determined rather than absolute pressures.

Here, however, the following problems occur. Is in a wheel brake already introduced controls a very high pressure, so that very high braking forces are realized, so an increase of the brake pressure would not necessarily lead to an increase in braking force, as the limit of adhesion between tire and road is reached. The model in the aforementioned assumed linear relationship between the brake pressure and

Braking force is no longer possible in this case. The not to be exceeded limit of the braking force on one side of the vehicle can be compensated for in terms of a yaw torque control by a braking-force reduction on the other side of the vehicle.

However, this has the advantage that the deceleration of the vehicle is reduced by reducing the braking force the disadvantage. This is not always acceptable because the vehicle is to be stopped over the shortest possible distance in a eingeleitetem by the driver braking. An excessive reduction of the actual deceleration of the vehicle against the driver's request can not be accepted, therefore, in general. To solve this problem the following approach is taken.

The wheel brakes at least one wheel is driven so that the longitudinal slip of the wheel 2 is adjusted so that it is greater than the longitudinal slip at which the maximum frictional connection is reached. In this method, use is made that the transmitted braking force, which is the longitudinal force on the tire, its maximum value at a longitudinal slip of approximately 20% (0% - free rolling wheel; 100% - locked wheel) reached and at values ​​above 20%, the transferrable braking force decreases only a little, so that no significant loss occurs during the deceleration of the vehicle in a wheel slip between 20% and 100%.

However, considering the same time, the transferable side force which is the force which acts perpendicularly to the wheel plane, it shows a strong dependence on the wheel slip, which manifests itself in the fact that the transferable lateral force decreases strongly with increasing slip. In the slip range of over 50%, the wheel exhibits a similar behavior as a locked wheel. This means it lateral forces are rarely applied. By a clever selection of which a high longitudinal slip is set of wheels, a controlled

Skidding of the vehicle can be provoked, which is to correspond to the induced with the skidding change of the yaw angle of the desired change. Since in this method the longitudinal forces are essentially retained, the lateral forces are significantly reduced, however, can be carried out a control of the yaw angular velocity, without the vehicle deceleration is reduced too much.

The choice which is at least temporarily moved with a higher longitudinal slip of the wheel, according to the following rules. For this purpose we consider an intended by the driver turns right. For a left turn appropriate "mirrored" rules apply. In this case, the case may occur that the vehicle is not as strong in turns in the curve as expected. In other words, the vehicle is understeering. In this case, the rear inside wheel is driven with increased slip values. However, the vehicle turns too sharply into the curve, this case is called oversteering, so the front outside wheel is operated with high slip values.

In addition, the pressure can be prevented at a front wheel. This is done according to the following rules. In a driving situation in which the vehicle behaves under steering, the braking pressure reduction at the bend-outward front wheel is prevented. In a situation in which the vehicle behaves oversteer, the pressure reduction at the inner front wheel is prevented. The actual control of the brake pressure can be carried out as follows. As explained earlier, the braking pressure in the individual wheel brakes in response to the yaw moment to be achieved and the weighted Radkoeffizienten is determined.

In calculating the coefficient a dependent on the brake slip factor can be introduced, which is adjusted such that the desired brake slip as described above is established. The limitation of the pressure reduction to a wheel can be achieved by setting a lower threshold for the corresponding coefficient.

In the following the implemented in the control program of the brake system method will be explained in more detail.

The control program calculates the brake pressure which must be generated in each wheel brake on the basis of the weighted coefficients. More problematic is the calculation when the vehicle is braked, in particular if it is delayed by utilizing the limit of frictional connection between tire and road. In such cases, it is quite possible that first used an anti-skid control before a superimposed driving stability control is required.

In such cases, the principal considerations for an unbraked vehicle can not be adopted because, for example in increasing a pressure in a wheel brake the appropriate braking force does not increase linearly, because the limit of frictional connection is reached. Increasing the pressure in this wheel brake would therefore not generate additional braking force and thus no additional torque. Although the same effect, to produce an additional yaw moment will be caused by the reduction in the wheel brake of the other wheel of the axle. But this overall reduction in braking force would be effected, which in turn collided with the requirement that the vehicle is to be stopped over the shortest possible distance.

It is therefore exploited the behavior of vehicle wheels shown in FIG 24th This graph shows on the X-axis slip values ​​λ between 0 and 100%, with a locked wheel is marked with 0% a freely rolling wheel and at 100%. The Y-axis shows the friction and lateral force values μ B and μ s in

Value range between 0 and 1. The solid lines show the dependence of friction coefficient on the slip for different skew angle α. Especially for small

Skew angle can be seen that the curve has a value in the range Maxi space slip λ = 20%. Towards 100% of the coefficient of friction decreases slightly. For a skew angle of 2 °, the maximum friction coefficient is approximately 0.98, while having at λ = 100% still has the value 0.93. Looking at the other hand, the lateral force values, the result especially for larger slip angle an extreme decrease over the slip region. For a skew angle of 10 ° of the lateral force value is for a slip value of 0% at 0.85 and sinks for slip values ​​of almost 100% to 0.17.

The curves of Figure 24 can be removed so that relatively high braking forces, but only small lateral forces can be transmitted at slip values ​​in the range between 40 and 80%. This wheel behavior can be exploited to selectively reduce the lateral force of a certain wheel of the vehicle. The selection of the wheel is carried out according to the following scheme, which will be explained with reference to the figures 25a and 25b.

Figure 25 a, b shows a vehicle in a schematic representation in a right turn. According to the curve radius and the speed of the vehicle, the vehicle must turn around its vertical axis, that is, it must be present in a clockwise direction a certain yaw speed.

The vehicle has, as already explained, a yaw rate sensor. If the measured yaw rate from the to be achieved , the solution should an additional

Moment M G be applied around the vertical axis of the vehicle.

If the measured yaw rate in the manner of the to be obtained from that the vehicle does not rotate enough, then there is a so-called understeering behavior. It must be applied an additional moment, which is counted negatively in this situation. It is intended to ensure that the vehicle in turns in the curve. This could be achieved in the present case in that the brake pressure is increased in the right-hand vehicle wheels.

When the vehicle is braked but already by the driver, it may be possible that these wheels have transmitted maximum braking force. When this is detected by an electronic evaluation unit, the pressure in the right rear wheel brake is increased so that the wheel is running at slip values ​​in the range between 40 and 80%. The wheel 604 is therefore marked with an "λ". This, as already explained, a significant reduction in side force. It will be constructed only small lateral forces at the right rear, with the result that the vehicle breaks with the tail to the left, thus begins to rotate clockwise. The minimization of the lateral force is maintained until the actual yaw angular velocity of the target Gierwinkelgeschwin

speed corresponds to the vehicle.

In the Figure 25b the situation of oversteering vehicle is shown. The vehicle turns faster about the vertical axis, as this corresponds to a calculated desired yaw rate. In this case, it is proposed to reduce the lateral force on the front left wheel six hundred and first This is likewise characterized in that controls are at this wheel slip values ​​between 40 and 80%. The wheel 601 is therefore here marked with a "λ".

For both cases in the control program, a subroutine can be stored, that a further reduction in pressure on the curve-outward front wheel 601 in the case of understeer (Figure 25a) and on the bend-inward front wheel 602 in the case of the oversteer (Figure 25b) is effected. These wheels are each labeled with "P min". For a left turn, the appropriate controls carried out laterally reversed.

The regulation of the pressure in the individual wheels can now take place in the manner that a coefficient is determined for each wheel, which represents the relationship between change in pressure and the calculated additional yaw moment M G. These coefficients are a function of parameters that describe the vehicle or the wheel brakes, and of sizes that vary during a ride. These are in particular the steering angle δ and the coefficient of friction μ mating

Road / tire (s. Section 3.1). For the above-mentioned control a function of the longitudinal slip of the respective wheel is now introduced in addition. The suppression of the pressure reduction at the individual wheels can be realized that are defined for the coefficient lower limits, the calculated magnitude of the coefficients is replaced by the minimum value if the minimum value is undershot.

In Figure 26, a corresponding algorithm is shown. First, the additional yaw torque M G is calculated (program 640). From that moment, the associated

Braking force change or brake pressure variations determined for the individual wheels (program part 641). The brake pressures are determined are compared with thresholds p th, which are determined inter alia by the Reibwertpaarung road / tire (diamond 642). The thresholds p th determine whether further

Increase the wheel brake pressure with a simultaneous increase in the braking force is possible. Remain the einzusteuernden pressures below these limits, then the control is performed according to the method mentioned in section 3.1 method. If the calculated brake pressures above this threshold, the calculation of the pressures according to the scheme presented above is carried 644. 4. priority circuit

To be set in the wheel brakes pressures are calculated (section 3) from the additional yawing moment M G by means of a distribution logic.

These pressures control signals are calculated for intake and exhaust valves and output in a subordinate pressure control circuit. In this subordinate pressure control loop, the actual wheel brake pressures are brought into line with the calculated.

When control signals of other controllers (ABS7, ASR8, EBV9) to be included (section 1), it is necessary that the control signals are first converted with the aid of a hydraulic model stored in the computer of the wheel brakes in pressure values.

The pressure requirements of the GMR regulator 10 are then related to the pressure requirements of the ABS controller and additional controllers. This is done in a priority circuit that decides to be given what requirements of preference, or output to what extent averaged pressures to the pressure control unit 5 for the wheel brakes. The pressure control unit 5 in turn converts the pressures into valve switching times.

The priority circuit may be supplied instead of target pressures and target pressure changes (s. Section 7).

In this case, the priority circuit 3 supplies the output of the pressure changes Dp at its output according to the rule by that the demand for a reduction in pressure on one of the wheels is preferably satisfied, and to maintain the pressure in a wheel brake the demand priority over the demand for has pressure increase. So that the individual claims to the priority circuit are processed according to the rule that will be ignored when there is a demand for pressure reduction demands for maintaining the pressure or pressure build-up. In the same way, no pressure build-up is made when pressure maintenance is required.

5. priority circuit with direct comparison of valve switching times

Alternatively, a different method can be applied.

The distribution logic is calculated from the additional yawing moment M G is not pressure, but directly Valve switching times, as the other regulators as well. The valve switching times of the GMR can thus be compared with the required valve switching times such as the ABS. In the priority circuit are then not - as previously - evaluated different pressure requirements, but different valve switching times.

To obtain valve switching times, the distribution logic calculates changes in pressure initially set for each wheel brake.

By means of a downstream non-linear control element are calculated from the pressure changes switching times for the on-control for the individual wheel brakes.

This nonlinear control element z can. Example, a counter. This counter resets the predetermined pressure changes in order to measure numbers. For this, the loop time T0 is divided into about 3 to 10 switching intervals (cycles). The maximum number of cycles per loop time is a fixed size that is determined by the quality to be achieved generally.

By the calculated number of cycles is determined how long a valve to be actuated within a loop time.

In general, since two valves per wheel brake are provided, wherein the one valve (inlet valve), the pressure medium supply to the wheel brake and the other valve (outlet valve), the

Pressure fluid discharge from the wheel brake controls, a total of eight signals are to be generated.

These clock speeds of the priority circuit are supplied, which receives the clock numbers further regulator in other channels.

The priority circuit decides which controller is to be given priority, which clock speed is thus taken to the actual valve control.

The reaction of the vehicle to the generated by the actuation of the wheel brakes braking forces is a modified yaw angular velocity. This is detected by the YMC controller 10, which is now in turn determines a new additional yaw moment.

It will therefore be calculated at any point of the control loop brake pressures or. Therefore, the control algorithms need no information on the wheel, in particular no information on the relationship between volume uptake of the wheel brakes and the resulting brake pressures. One way to calculate the cycle time will be explained based on Fig. 27.

From the additional yaw torque M G are on the distribution logic

700 brake pressures calculated to be established in the individual wheel brakes. How this is done can be found in sections 3.1 and 3.2. As a result of the calculation within the distribution logic are a

A four-wheel vehicle has four pressure values p 1 to p 4 in front. These variables must be converted into switching times for the valves that control the pressure medium supply (booster) and the pressure medium outlet (pressure reduction) into or out of the wheel brakes. The switching times for the valves - as already mentioned - not calculated from the absolute values ​​for the printing requirements, but from the change in the pressure setting. Therefore, each value is p n (n = 1 to 4) a shift register

701 fed. On the first register location 702, the current value is written. In the second register location 703 of the previous value from the first register place 702 is recorded, so that there is the print request from the preceding calculation loop is enrolled. This value is denoted by p n *.

In a next step 705 the current pressure requirement p n is read from the first register location 702nd the program If this value is 0 or less than a minimum value, branches into a loop 706, with the aim is to ensure that the wheel brake is removed so much pressure medium that the resulting pressure becomes zero. For this, the inlet valve is closed and the outlet valve of at least one loop time T 0th If the current requested pressure value above this minimum value, the difference from the two register values ​​702 is formed and the 703rd This is done in the subtractor 707. The calculated pressure change Dp may be either larger or smaller 0th If it is greater than 0, the pressure must be increased in the respective wheel brake. If it is less than 0, the pressure in the respective wheel brake must be lowered. For the case of pressure increase, the program passes through the right decision path 710. Taking into account the adjusted pressure difference and the pressure requirement or if appropriate signals are present, due to the actual pressure in the wheel brake, an opening time t is a calculated for the inlet valve. The opening time t from the

Exhaust valve is set to zero. Conversely (decision path 711), the opening time t set a of the intake valve to zero in the event of the requested pressure-lowering, whereas the opening time t out of the outlet valve from the requested pressure differential and the actual pressure in the wheel brake or the requested pressure, the is written in the first register location 702 is calculated.

Usually there is a linear relationship between the opening time t and the intended pressure change Ap.

As explained is not expected with the opening times themselves, but with cycle numbers. This is explained in more detail 28 in the diagram of FIG.. The calculations described above are carried out at constant time intervals (loop time T 0), where are set for the valves of the wheel brakes in the next loop as a result of calculation of the control signals. A loop time T 0 is about 3 ms. To run the scheme as finely depending on each loop time is divided into N Zeitabsschnitte T 0th

In the diagram of Fig. 28, a partition is provided in six steps. The switching times for the valves are then no longer be output as time quantities, but as the number of cycles in a loop in which the valve is to be opened. For n = 3 there is such. Example, as Fig. 28 it can be seen, an opening time of 1.5 ms.

If the requested opening time be greater than the loop time, n is set to the respective maximum value N (in the illustrated example, six).

This calculation is performed for each wheel, for a four-wheeled vehicle that is, four times. The calculations can be parallel or sequentially. As a result, we have eight values, four values ​​for the intake valves, four values ​​for exhaust valves. These values ​​are fed to a modified priority circuit 720th In this priority flow circuit 720, the switching time requirement also in terms of cycle times, an ABS controller and other knob.

This control is performed so that a change in pressure results in the wheel brakes. Thus, the braking forces and thus applied to the vehicle moments change. This results in a change in the variables which describe the driving dynamics of the vehicle. These can be detected directly or indirectly by means of sensors and, in turn, supplied to the calculation.

From this it again follows a change in torque demand, which is converted into new control signals for the valves as described above. The calculation of the adjusted pressure difference based on the pressure requirements from the preceding calculation loop. but these do not actually have been adjusted so that distinguish the actual pressures in the wheel brakes of the respective calculated printing needs. It is therefore necessary to synchronize in certain situations the actual pressure in the wheel brake with the Drukkanforderungen. This can happen most easily when the pressure requirement is zero, thus the distribution logic 700 requests a value corresponding to the pressure zero in a wheel brake. In such a case, not the difference is formed from the previous value and from this the control signals, but at step 705 in the

Loop 706 is branched off for calculating the switching times, that in fact, a pressure value is set to zero which is to ensure. This takes place in that the switching time .DELTA.t from the exhaust valve is set for at least the loop time T 0th

It may also be necessary to give corresponding information to the priority circuit 720, so that this time requirement, which should lead to a zero pressure in a wheel brake, is not overlaid by other requirements of the controller. It can also be defined in this information that the pressure reduction is to take place over several loop times, so that it is ensured that, in fact, a complete pressure reduction takes place.

6. Radbremsdruckerkennung

The described to Section 4 FSR pressure regulator returns the result brake pressures for the wheel brakes. This value specifications must be realized. One method is to measure the pressures in the wheel brakes and to compare with the value specifications. A pressure regulator which operates according to the usual laws regulating the wheel brake pressure on a the predetermined desired value. This process requires each a pressure sensor per wheel brake, ie for a four-wheeled vehicle four pressure sensors.

In general, is for reasons of cost alone try to get along with as few sensors. In addition, each sensor represents another potential source of interference. The failure of a sensor may cause the entire control system must be shut down.

It is therefore proposed to provide an evaluation system, which derives a print size on the basis of data available from the already existing sensors, which corresponds to the pressure in the wheel brakes. For this, the following concept is proposed.

The pressure in each wheel brake, as already explained, controlled by two valves. The inlet valve controls the supply of pressure medium, while the exhaust valve controls the pressure fluid discharge.

The signals emitted by a pressure controller are therefore control times which indicate how long a valve open or should be closed. A loop time is divided into a fixed number of times (cycles). The timing can then be represented as Taktahl, which indicates how many time periods to be opened or closed, a valve.

The basic idea now is to give these control signals not only to the wheel brakes, but as calculated variables to a vehicle model. The real vehicle reacts to the applied brake pressure, with a specific gravity set speed v and wheel rotation speeds ω i of the individual wheels. The speed of the vehicle is not measured directly, but also from the wheel speeds of the individual wheels i ω derived in particular computational steps. It is therefore referred to as a reference speed v Ref.

Corresponding values ​​can be reproduced within a vehicle model.

From a comparison of the actual values of ω i, v ref with the calculated or on the basis of the vehicle model estimated values for ω i and v ref, a correction variable for the pressure in the individual wheel brakes can be determined, wherein a by means of the correction quantity of a hydraulic model calculated pressure can be modified so that a better estimation of the wheel brake pressures can be given.

The basic structure just described is explained in greater detail in FIG 29th

With a pressure controller 800 is designated bearing the number 5 in FIG. 1. The pressure control calculated from a first value 801, which characterizes the pressure to be set and a second value 802, which marks an existing in the wheel brake, estimated or measured pressure control times for the valves of the wheel brakes. The timing is shown here as output 803rd With the vehicle 810 is designated. This is intended to illustrate that the vehicle reacts to the forces which are caused by the set in the wheel brakes pressures. In this case, the wheel speeds ω i of each wheel change. The vehicle 810 also includes wheel sensors to which detect the wheel speeds of the wheels, so that the values of ω i are immediately available.

The vehicle 810 also includes an evaluation unit for ω i, which represents a portion of an ABS controller in the control, which under certain conditions from the wheel speeds, a so-called reference speed v ref is calculated, corresponding to the actual speed of the vehicle ω i of each wheel should.

From the individual wheel speeds and the vehicle reference speed, a slip can be calculated .lambda..sub.i for each wheel.

The values ω i, v Ref are available as output values 811 available. The slip λ i represents a value 812 is available.

The calculation model used is referred to as a whole with the 820th It includes three models, namely a hydraulic model 821

a vehicle model 822

a tire model 823

in two approximation formulas, the hydraulic model 821 describes the relationship between the braking pressure p and the enclosed volume V in the wheel brake as well as the change .DELTA.V of the volume when the inlet and exhaust valve are open for a certain time. F 6.1

p = a * V + b * 2 V

The parameters a, b and c are variables which describe the braking system and are stored as values ​​in corresponding memory. p describes the actual pressure in the wheel brake. V describes the current volume enclosed in the wheel brake.

Dp is measured via either the intake valve or the exhaust valve, wherein the difference between a pressure source and p is detected in the measurement via the inlet valve, while the difference between p and the pressure in a reservoir is determined at the measurement via the outlet valve, the is generally from 1 bar and can be neglected it.

Assuming that are set at the start of control of the pressure in the wheel brakes as well as the enclosed volume to 0, it can be traced via the pursuit of the valve opening times, the volume change and thus the change in pressure in the individual wheel brakes.

However, it is clear that the formulas given only can play roughly the actual conditions much so that a corresponding correction is necessary. The vehicle is described in the model 822 in general by a rigid body, which in four points uprising (wheel contact surfaces) is set to one level. The body may extend parallel to the plane that is, in x and y directions to move and to rotate around its center of gravity, said pivot axis is perpendicular to the movement plane.

Forces acting on the body, the braking forces to the wheel contact and air resistance forces.

The wheel loads F Z, V and F z, h calculated on the basis of these considerations:

Such a model is sufficient in general to carry out the desired pressure correction. If necessary, the model can of course be refined. For further calculation, the model essentially x supplies the loads F of the footprints depending on the focus delay. The wheel is considered to be rotatable disc, which has a certain inertia.

The delay moments acting on the wheel are linearly determined from the wheel brake pressure.

F 6.5

M = C Br Br * p

In the tire model, it is assumed that the adhesion utilization f, namely the ratio of braking force to the wheel load, changes linearly with the slip of the wheel.

F x ~ λ * F z

F 6.6

The equations given make it possible to calculate the wheel speed of each wheel and the reference velocity of the vehicle model.

These values ​​can be 811 ver-matched with the actual values. This is done in the comparison point 830. From the difference between the measured and the estimated wheel speed of each wheel, an additional volume can be determined taking into account a correction factor k. This additional pressure medium volume .DELTA.V is added to the calculated target volume and gives the new target volume from which a wheel brake pressure can be derived according to the formula F 6.1, which corresponds to relatively accurately the actual wheel brake pressure.

The accuracy of the estimate depends of course on the k correction factor that may have to be determined by tests beforehand.

This factor will be different from vehicle to vehicle and, among other things also depend on how well the vehicle model reflects the actual conditions.

In the additional volume is also a tolerance volume may be included, should be taken into account by that the volume flow rate is not proportional to the switching times through the valves. When opening and closing a valve extended or the opening cross section of the valve narrows slowly, so that only a reduced volume flows in the periods in which the wide opening still ascending or is broken down.

7. Substitution of a yaw rate sensor

For the above-described control, the yaw angular speed is a particularly distinctive size, since it serves as a controlled variable, whose deviation should be minimized.

but it can also find other control variables used with advantage as described below. For simplicity in this section, the following terms are used:

The same applies to the target values ​​shown in FIG. 9, which are each provided with the index "s".

The measured Gierwinkelgschwindigkeit in Fig. 12 is usually determined by means of a yaw angular velocity sensor 321, which outputs the output signal g I. Such known yaw rate sensors with direct delivery of the yaw rate but are quite complex built and therefore very expensive. The same applies to the downstream comparator, as well as belonging to the control circuit controls. It is therefore desirable to remedy this situation and to present a simpler sensor and a simpler design controller.

Fig. 13 shows a sketch of the mode of action of a novel sensor 321, having a first lateral accelerometer 322 and a second lateral accelerometer 323rd The two accelerometers 322,323 are each arranged on the vehicle longitudinal axis to the front or rear axle. In principle, the lateral accelerometer may be disposed at any location outside the center of gravity SP, in which case an appropriate conversion is performed.

In Fig. 15, the square outline 324 of a vehicle with its tires 325 and sensors is indicated. Due to this arrangement, the front lateral accelerometer 322 measures the lateral acceleration a qv above the front axle 326 and the rear lateral accelerometer 323, the transverse acceleration a q h in height of the rear axle 327th

The two lateral accelerometer are able to provide a dependent of the yaw angular velocity size. For mathematical derivations can be shown that can be as follows determine from the measurement results of the lateral accelerometer yaw acceleration and the lateral acceleration a trans of gravity SP:

Here, as shown in Fig. 13, l v, l h the distances of the lateral accelerometer 322,323 of the center of gravity SP, whereas v is the velocity of the vehicle and the slip angle ß is. Thus it can be seen from the cross accelerations and the distances between the accelerometer 322,323 the yaw angular acceleration determine. Therefore, the yaw angular acceleration is proposed a

add, instead of the proposed in the previous sections yaw angular velocity. Or it is also possible to perform a linear weighting of the inputs to the comparator similar to the known state regulation. The yaw rate may g and the slip angle from the yaw angle ß pressure and the

Swimming angular velocity by means of a band-limited

Integration or a scaled low-pass filter of the first order are calculated in order to obtain from the sensor 321 sizes that correspond to the output values ​​of the vehicle reference model 302 in its dimension (section 2.3.1).

The following applies for the band-limited integration

while one is in the application of a low-pass filter to the following dependence

The slip angular velocity obtained after evaluating the relationship

It is thus seen that by the use of two

a well-known yaw rate meter can be replaced cross accelerometers though. but it must be taken while the measures just described, to transform the yaw acceleration into the yaw rate. After forming Δg and may be unchanged connect the control law 16 of FIG. 1,. In Fig. 14, the thus calculated torque M G is also in the control law

16 converted by time derivative into a change in moment M.

but it is possibly more appropriate to a non-linear control according to FIG. 17 to pass, when the yaw acceleration both as an actual value and setpoint when He

result is supplied from the vehicle reference model 302 to the comparator 303rd These corresponding derivatives must be formed within the vehicle reference model.

As a consequence, that instead of the yaw rate difference Δg at the output of the comparator 303, the deviation of the yaw angular acceleration is obtained is present and approaching as an input variable to the control law sixteenth Furthermore, the slip angular velocity can the yawing moment control law 16, as shown in Fig. 15, for more precise determination of the torque variation in addition be supplied. As already mentioned for Fig. 14, we walk from one additional yaw torque M G as an output signal of the control law 16 and using the torque change Ṁ instead as the output signal. In a modified distribution logic, the change in torque M, that is, the derivation of the additional yaw torque M G is converted into individual pressure changes. This means that the pressure changes are allocated to the individual wheel brakes so that a total of the desired additional yaw moment M G is obtained. Details are given further below in conjunction with Figure 16..

It should be noted that perhaps a certain pressure distribution in the wheel brakes is present at the same time by a driver's braking operation. In this case it is better to be determined by integrating the torque change Ṁ the moment M G, from which then directly

can determine pressure differences that need to be applied with regard to the ruling already in each wheel brake pressure. The advantageous, above explained further by the use of the derivatives of the controlled variables used in sections 1 to 3 can also be combined with the distribution logic of section. 3 Herewith are two control principles are available, one of which is an additional yaw torque M G and the other an amendment to the additional yaw torque Ṁ provides by default. It can be provided to switch between the principles. A switchover to the jweils other control principle must then take place in particular when the other calculation of additional controlled variables (sideslip angle etc.) of a principle can not be performed with sufficient accuracy (see, for example from cut 2.2.2) It should also be noted that the control law unit 16 according to Fig. 15 can be supplied in addition to Δg as a correction-large also .lambda..sub.g.

In the control law unit 16 according to FIG. 15, in addition to adjusting amplifiers k1, k2, k3 two threshold switch S2, shown S3, which improve the control characteristics within the control law 16 and to adjust the influence of the introduced sizes optimally in dependence on the speed of the ideal control response. A similar task have the amplifier k1 to k3. The individual values ​​are then added in an adder, and output as output signal of the GMR controller 10th Allegmeine Notes to control law, which apply accordingly, can be found in Section 2.4.

In connection with Fig. 1, the pressure requirements at the output of the controller has been shown, as in a priority circuit 3 are associated with the pressure setting of a distribution logic unit 2 7,8,9. Using print requirements will generally require a prior forming in these specifications donor institutions. Through the measures described below, the effort for the exchange of information between the program modules of the control circuit can be simplified.

In Fig. 16, the control loop for regulating the driving stability of Figures 9, 14 is shown again greatly simplified, whereby the introduced there designations are retained.

The YMC controller 10 of FIG. 1 is modified to the extent here than at the output of the variation m of the additional yaw torque

M G is present, the desired together with the driver

Pressure distribution is input to the brake (brake request) in the distribution logic. 2 To calculate Ṁ be upon

12 refer to FIG.. The distribution logic unit 2 has a logic block 340 and a pressure gradient 341st The essential task of the logic block 340 is to ensure that, despite engagement of the driving stability control, the vehicle is a total of not more decelerated than is desired by the driver by presetting its pressure signal at the input of the distribution logic. 2 This is to prevent that instability still be brought about by the addition driving stability control. Thus, when a brake pressure at a wheel is provided due to the braking request of the driver and the other, on the FSR knob on one or two wheels, a pressure increase and a pressure reduction is required on the opposing wheels to the additional yawing moment to he-rich, so may regard of the individual wheels are mutually contradictory requirements, namely, pressure build-up with simultaneous pressure reduction. With respect to other wheels then the requirement may result in that the pressure not only due to the braking request of the driver, but will be constructed at the same time because of the stability control is to. The logic block now ensures that is lowered first in the respective wheels, the brake pressure, while following an increase in the brake pressure can be done by the driver's request, up to a certain limit. Thus, taking into account the induced by the FSR control additional turning moments is not larger than desired by the driver is ensured that the average Bemskraft seen on all wheels.

As explained in Section 3.2, a targeted increase in the longitudinal slip λ can be applied to a wheel to reduce the lateral forces, while the Bremkraft is retained in the longitudinal direction. In this manner, a yaw moment can be applied without the vehicle deceleration decreases. In the pressure gradient 341 of the distribution logic unit 2, the changes in pressure .DELTA.P xx at the individual wheels xx basis of predetermined constants d and the torque change xx

Ṁ calculated, and also the difference between the desired brake pressure P by the driver included in the calculation driver to the actual measured brake pressure P XXIst. Thus, it is the relationship

with the proviso

xx ∈ [vr, vl, hr, hl]

and g 1 = proportionality factor

The actual Bremdruck p is XXIst either by a

decreased pressure gauge at the affected wheel or calculated by a brake model that follows the prescribed to the wheel pressure changes and therefore an image of the prevailing just the wheel pressure (Section 6). The calculated pressure requirements are fed to a priority circuit 3 and evaluated there (see above section 4).

The foregoing description assumes that in the priority circuit pressure gradient were processed immediately. but this is not necessary. It is also possible that the valve switching times .DELTA.t 3 are processed in the priority circuit. (Section 5). In this case, however, a valve switching time circuit 343 must be switched between the distribution logic unit 2 and the priority circuit 3, whereby the valve switching times .DELTA.t be issued from the other controllers 7,8,9 then. The priority circuit then operates the valve switching times .DELTA.t off to an appropriate scheme, as described in section 4 already for the brake pressures. Outputs of the priority circuit are valve switching times. The conversion of the pressure changes required .DELTA.t xx of the individual wheels xx in valve switching times Dp, is done according to the equation

F 7.7

S xx = Kr · p XXIst Ap xx

Here, Kr xx is a gain factor which depends on the actual pressure of the individual wheels and pressure build-up according to the following rule is calculated, while for pressure reduction

applies, it is again xx an index which indicates the position of the individual wheels.

Claims

claims
1. braking system for a motor vehicle with more than two
Wheels, wherein at least some of the wheels with a
Brake device are provided, wherein each associated with a wheel braking device is operable independently of the other,
a control device which determines the individual braking torques, due to the provided to it input data to perform the braking devices and outputs the appropriate control commands to the brake devices,
Means for detecting the steering angle, which outputs a steering angle variable characterizing,
to stop means for determining an additional yawing moment about the vertical axis of the motor vehicle that is sufficient to undesirable yaw angle and / or yaw rates, and / or yaw accelerations, and which outputs a corresponding value to the control device,
wherein the control means for each provided with a wheel brake device determines a coefficient and determines the brake torque for the individual wheels from the additional yawing moment and the respective weighted Koeffezienten.
2. A brake system according to claim 1, characterized in that means are provided which determine the other sizes, the change during the journey of the motor vehicle and from insert to insert the motor vehicle, wherein respective variables are delivered to the control device, and this by the control erection are utilized in determining the Radkoeffizenten.
3. A brake system according to claim 2, characterized in that one of the further means is able to determine the coefficient of friction between tire and road.
4. A brake system according to claim 2, characterized in that one of the further means is able to determine the vehicle weight.
5. A brake system according to claim 2, characterized in that one of the further means is able to determine the axle load distribution.
6. A brake system according to claim 1, characterized in that in the control device motor vehicle-specific values ​​are stored which are taken into account when determining the coefficients.
7. A brake system according to claim 1, characterized in that a memory is provided in the control device, are stored in the specific values ​​for the brake devices, which are considered in the determination of the coefficients.
8. A brake system according to claim 1, characterized in that the weighted coefficients are determined from the individual coefficients in such a way that each coefficient is divided by the sum of the squares of all the coefficients.
9. Brake system according to one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the brake devices to build up a braking torque by hydraulic means, with the individual coefficients are defined such that the applied pressure is immediately determinable.
10. Braking device according to claim 8, characterized in that the braking torque or the braking pressure for the braking device of a wheel is determined from the product between the respective weighted coefficient and the additional yaw torque.
11. Brake system according to claim 1, characterized in that the individual coefficients are formed from a first value which is independent of the steering angle and a second value, which is determined from the steering angle.
12. Brake system according to claim 11, characterized in that the second value (h r, h l) is determined by the distance between the center of gravity of the vehicle and the instantaneous wheel plane of the respective wheel.
13. Brake system according to claim 12, characterized in that the second value (h r, h l) is set to zero when the second value is negative is calculated.
EP95940245A 1994-11-25 1995-11-25 Brake system for a motor vehicle Withdrawn EP0792226A1 (en)

Priority Applications (11)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE4441956 1994-11-25
DE4441959 1994-11-25
DE4441957 1994-11-25
DE4441956 1994-11-25
DE4441958 1994-11-25
DE4441958 1994-11-25
DE4441957 1994-11-25
DE4441959 1994-11-25
DE4447313 1994-12-31
DE4447313 1994-12-31
PCT/EP1995/004653 WO1996016847A1 (en) 1994-11-25 1995-11-25 Brake system for a motor vehicle

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP0792226A1 true EP0792226A1 (en) 1997-09-03

Family

ID=27511785

Family Applications (6)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP95940245A Withdrawn EP0792226A1 (en) 1994-11-25 1995-11-25 Brake system for a motor vehicle
EP95941021A Expired - Lifetime EP0792229B1 (en) 1994-11-25 1995-11-25 Driving stability control system
EP95941020A Expired - Lifetime EP0794885B1 (en) 1994-11-25 1995-11-25 Directional stability controlling system
EP95940244A Expired - Lifetime EP0792225B1 (en) 1994-11-25 1995-11-25 Braking system
EP95940247A Expired - Lifetime EP0792228B1 (en) 1994-11-25 1995-11-25 Directional stability control system
EP95940246A Expired - Lifetime EP0792227B1 (en) 1994-11-25 1995-11-25 Driving stability control unit with friction-dependent limitation of the reference yaw rate

Family Applications After (5)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP95941021A Expired - Lifetime EP0792229B1 (en) 1994-11-25 1995-11-25 Driving stability control system
EP95941020A Expired - Lifetime EP0794885B1 (en) 1994-11-25 1995-11-25 Directional stability controlling system
EP95940244A Expired - Lifetime EP0792225B1 (en) 1994-11-25 1995-11-25 Braking system
EP95940247A Expired - Lifetime EP0792228B1 (en) 1994-11-25 1995-11-25 Directional stability control system
EP95940246A Expired - Lifetime EP0792227B1 (en) 1994-11-25 1995-11-25 Driving stability control unit with friction-dependent limitation of the reference yaw rate

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US (3) US5671982A (en)
EP (6) EP0792226A1 (en)
JP (4) JPH10504785A (en)
KR (5) KR977006152A (en)
CN (5) CN1166810A (en)
AU (6) AU4176196A (en)
CZ (5) CZ158697A3 (en)
DE (20) DE19515059A1 (en)
HU (4) HUT77027A (en)
PL (2) PL320164A1 (en)
WO (6) WO1996016850A1 (en)

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