EP0754255B1 - Method for making a nonwoven fabric lap using pressurised water jets, and apparatus therefor - Google Patents

Method for making a nonwoven fabric lap using pressurised water jets, and apparatus therefor Download PDF

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Publication number
EP0754255B1
EP0754255B1 EP19950943283 EP95943283A EP0754255B1 EP 0754255 B1 EP0754255 B1 EP 0754255B1 EP 19950943283 EP19950943283 EP 19950943283 EP 95943283 A EP95943283 A EP 95943283A EP 0754255 B1 EP0754255 B1 EP 0754255B1
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EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
porous support
water
drum
web
water jets
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
EP19950943283
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German (de)
French (fr)
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EP0754255A1 (en
Inventor
André Vuillaume
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
ICBT Perfojet
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ICBT Perfojet
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to FR9501473A priority Critical patent/FR2730246B1/en
Priority to FR9501473 priority
Application filed by ICBT Perfojet filed Critical ICBT Perfojet
Priority to PCT/FR1995/001741 priority patent/WO1996023921A1/en
Publication of EP0754255A1 publication Critical patent/EP0754255A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP0754255B1 publication Critical patent/EP0754255B1/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • DTEXTILES; PAPER
    • D04BRAIDING; LACE-MAKING; KNITTING; TRIMMINGS; NON-WOVEN FABRICS
    • D04HMAKING TEXTILE FABRICS, e.g. FROM FIBRES OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL; FABRICS MADE BY SUCH PROCESSES OR APPARATUS, e.g. FELTS, NON-WOVEN FABRICS; COTTON-WOOL; WADDING ; NON-WOVEN FABRICS FROM STAPLE FIBRES, FILAMENTS OR YARNS, BONDED WITH AT LEAST ONE WEB-LIKE MATERIAL DURING THEIR CONSOLIDATION
    • D04H18/00Needling machines
    • D04H18/04Needling machines with water jets

Abstract

A method for making a nonwoven fabric lap using pressurised water jets, wherein the lap (10) is positively fed over an endless porous support (1), delivered to a perforated rotary cylindrical drum (20), and squeezed between the porous support (1) and the rotary drum (20), and a water curtain (31) is sprayed onto the lap, whereafter the elemental fibres are entangled by spraying a row of high-pressure water jets (42, 43, 44) onto the resulting wet squeezed lap (40). An apparatus for carrying out the method is also disclosed.

Description

    Technical area
  • The invention relates to an improved process for the manufacture of a light, non-woven textile sheet, by the technique known under the name of "water jets" under pressure; the invention also relates to an installation for implementing this method.
  • Previous techniques
  • In documents US-A-3 214 819, 3 485 706, 3 508 308 and 4 190 695, a process has been described for the manufacture of nonwoven textile fabrics in which the cohesion and the intertwining of the elementary fibers between them is obtained. no longer mechanically, but by a plurality of high pressure water jets passing through a moving web or sheet.
  • Like needles, the water jets at a usual pressure of at least 30 bars, sometimes 100 bars and more, cause the elementary fibers to become entangled with each other, which gives cohesion to the nonwoven web obtained. . These nonwoven sheets are known in the literature under the American term "spunlace" or "spunlace". It is therefore not useful to describe here in detail this hydraulic interlacing technique.
  • Essentially, this technique consists first of all in making a base ply formed of elementary, natural, synthetic fibers, or formed of a mixture of these fibers, in particular with carding or lapping to obtain a highly aerated ply. several centimeters, even ten centimeters thick, and weighing only a few tens of grams per square meter, for example one hundred grams per 80 mm thick.
  • The elementary fibers of this sheet are then entangled by means of a ramp of contiguous jets of water under high pressure (50 to 200 bars) to bring the aerated base sheet to a thickness of the order of one to several millimeters.
  • To overcome this drawback, it was then proposed to pass the aerated base ply in motion on a mooring ramp or in a soaking tank. However, before subjecting the aerated sheet to the jets of water under high pressure, it is important to compress it to reduce its volume. It has thus been suggested to compress the sheet by passing it between two rollers. Unfortunately, this means is not very effective, in particular due to the elasticity of the sheet which then tends to return in part to its initial volume.
  • The invention overcomes these drawbacks.
  • Brief description of the invention
  • It relates to an improved process of the type in question for the manufacture of a nonwoven textile sheet by water jets, in which:
    • . advancing a ventilated base sheet formed of elementary fibers;
    • . this base sheet is compressed;
    • . the fibers are intermingled by means of at least one ramp of contiguous jets of water under high pressure acting on the base ply;
    • . and receiving the woven interlaced fibrous web obtained.
  • According to the invention, this process is characterized in that, continuously:
    • the base web is positively advanced on an endless porous support;
    • this base sheet is brought to the moving porous support in the vicinity of a perforated rotary cylindrical drum, inside which a partial vacuum is applied;
    • the base ply is mechanically compressed between the porous support and the rotary drum which both advance at substantially the same speed;
    • then, when the base ply is compressed, a curtain of water is directed over it successively passing through the porous support, the compressed ply, the perforated drum, so as to suck the excess water by partial vacuum;
    • and finally, the elementary fibers are intermingled by directing the ramp of high-pressure water jets onto the wet compressed sheet obtained.
  • In other words, the invention consists, continuously, first of all in positively advancing the base ply on an endless porous support, then in compressing the ply when it is in place on this porous support by a perforated drum advancing at the same speed as the porous support, and finally wetting the compressed sheet by a curtain of water under slight pressure acting through the assembly: porous support, compressed sheet, rotary drum, so that the sheet wet tablet obtained adheres to the periphery of the perforated rotary drum, before undergoing on this drum which rotates the intermingling action of at least one ramp of contiguous jets of water under high pressure.
  • In other words, the dry sheet leaving the card or lapper is compressed between a porous support fabric and a perforated rotary cylindrical drum, then after having been previously wetted, is subjected to tangling by hydraulic means in the compressed state. wet, on the same drum.
  • In practice, the vacuum inside the perforated rotary drum is between one hundred and one thousand millimeters of water column; indeed, it has been observed that if this partial vacuum is less than 100 mm of water, the sheet is too wet to be effectively tangled; Similarly, if it is a partial vacuum greater than 1000 mm of water, no proportional improvement is observed and energy is spent unnecessarily.
  • Advantageously, the endless porous support in motion, supporting the aerated base ply, is supported on a sector of the rotary drum to compress the ply just before wetting. It follows a slight entanglement of the elementary fibers, favorable for giving a handling cohesion to the compressed tablecloth wetted before the action of the jets of water under high pressure, which cause the main entanglement.
  • As already said, the invention also relates to an installation for implementing this method. This installation is characterized in that it includes:
    • an endless porous support conveyor, intended to receive a ventilated basic fibrous sheet formed of elementary fibers;
    • means for driving this porous support;
    • a perforated rotary cylindrical drum, comprising drive means, in synchronism with the speed of advance of the porous support, arranged tangentially by one of its generatrices to the porous support;
    • a fixed hollow cylindrical drum coaxial with the rotary cylindrical drum, connected to a vacuum source and having on one of its generators a first slot intended to be positioned in the vicinity of the point of tangency of the rotary drum with the porous support;
    • a first ramp of water jets disposed on the other side of the porous support relative to the rotary drum and in alignment with the first slot;
    • at least a second ramp of high pressure water jets disposed in the vicinity of the rotary drum, opposite a second slot disposed on a generator of the fixed drum, for entangling the elementary fibers;
    • and means for receiving the woven compressed compressed web obtained.
  • In practice, the endless porous support is a canvas made of synthetic monofilament, in particular polyester, having a porosity of between 30 and 60%, that is to say a ratio between the solid surfaces and the empty surfaces of between 30 and 60%, preferably close to 50%. It is therefore important that the support is strongly perforated to let the dampening water pass under slight pressure and allow the curtain of water not only to wet the compressed sheet, but to carry out a first light intermingling, favorable for the immediate continuation of the process.
  • It has been observed that if the porosity of the fabric is less than 30%, there is a loss in wetting efficiency, since the water coming from the ramp too frequently encounters the monofilaments. If this porosity is greater than 60%, it becomes difficult to effectively compress the aerated base sheet, since the elementary fibers tend to want to pass through the network of the fabric.
  • The first ramp of water jets, intended to form the continuous curtain of water under slight pressure, is arranged opposite the porous support fabric at a distance of between 10 and 100 mm from said porous support. The pressure of the water from these jets is between 3 and 15 bars, preferably around 5 to 8 bars. Below 3 bars, the curtain disperses too quickly, and beyond 15 bars, the additional cost is no longer justified. It is important that the curtain of water coming from this first ramp perpendicularly hits the moving base sheet which advances and compresses, so as to wet it under optimal conditions.
  • The perforated rotary drum intended to come into contact with the moving fabric is advantageously covered with a fabric made of steel or plastic monofilaments, having a porosity of between 10 and 20%, so as to allow the evacuation of the while remaining compatible with the tangle of hydraulic entanglement.
  • In practice, the rotary drum has a diameter of between 300 and 1000 mm, so as not to unnecessarily increase the investment cost.
  • According to another characteristic of the invention, the perforated rotary cylindrical drum surrounds a second hollow fixed coaxial cylindrical drum, connected to a source of partial vacuum to form a suction box. This fixed hollow drum has a vacuum of one hundred to a thousand millimeters of water column, so as to properly evacuate the water not retained by the sheet, coming either from the pre-wetting ramp or from the entangling injectors.
  • The first slot, arranged on the generator of the fixed internal drum facing the water ramp, has a width of between 10 and 20 mm, in order to recover all the excess water coming from the ramp and not retained by the water table. compressed.
  • This mooring ramp is formed of contiguous conventional injectors arranged at predetermined distances to ensure the formation of a continuous and thin curtain.
  • As already said, it is important that the linear speeds of the porous support and the rotary drum are substantially equal to avoid shearing and sliding of the elementary fibers in the sheet.
  • As during the whole process, the aerated base sheet is held positively and that the dampening water curtain exerts its action orthogonally on a compressed sheet and through a porous support, and that the pre-wetting water passes completely through the sheet to not only cause a first slight tangling, but above all to be eliminated entirely by the partial vacuum of the suction box, it follows that not only are surface defects due to the action of the first jets at low pressure eliminated, but also it facilitates the transfer of the web from the porous supply support to the periphery of the perforated rotary drum, before the action of the jets of intermingling water under high pressure.
  • Thanks to the compression carried out between two porous surfaces, the elimination of air from the aerated base sheet is facilitated without disturbing the organization of the elementary fibers. Furthermore, the slight partial vacuum of the fixed drum forming a suction box ensures good retention of the wet sheet against the periphery of the rotary drum and thereby ensures the transfer to the jets of water under high entanglement pressure.
  • Likewise, wetting carried out under slight through pressure makes it possible to wet and successfully treat hydrophobic fibers, such as polyester or polypropylene fibers, which present notable difficulties of implementation by the techniques of the prior art. .
  • It is important that the base sheet is compressed before being wetted. It follows that in practice the point of impact of the dampening curtain must be placed immediately after the point of compression tangency of the perforated rotary drum with the porous support in motion. Thus, the pre-wetting characteristic of the invention is carried out on a compressed and firmly maintained sheet.
  • The compressed wet sheet which advances on the rotary drum is then tangled in a conventional manner by one or more parallel ramps of jets of water under high pressure, alternated or not, according to the desired results. Each ramp arranged in the vicinity of the rotary drum is parallel to the pre-wetting ramp and is also arranged opposite a slot made for this purpose on a generator of the fixed drum forming a suction box.
  • The manner in which the invention can be implemented and the advantages which result therefrom will emerge more clearly from the embodiment which follows, in support of the single appended figure.
  • Brief description of the figures
  • The single attached figure is a schematic representation of an installation according to the invention.
  • Way of carrying out the Invention
  • The installation according to the invention comprises an endless porous conveyor (1), formed by a canvas of polyester monofilaments having a porosity close to 50%, that is to say having a ratio between the solid surfaces and the empty surfaces close to half. This endless fabric (1) is driven in movement by a driving roller (2), actuated for example by an asynchro motor, and passes over guide rollers (3,4,5) for return. Conventionally, the tensioning of the fabric (1) is carried out by a tension cylinder not shown.
  • On this moving canvas (1), a base ply referenced (10) from a card or a conventional tabler not shown is deposited. This sheet (10), which advances in the direction indicated by the arrow (F1), for example made of polyester fibers 60 mm in length, has at this stage an average thickness of eight centimeters, for an average weight of one hundred grams at square meter.
  • According to a characteristic of the invention, the installation comprises a perforated rotary cylindrical drum (20) disposed in the immediate vicinity and in contact with the fabric (1) on the descending portion, disposed between the driving roller (2) and the guide roller (3). This perforated rotary drum (20) is rotated by an asynchronous motor not shown, at the same linear peripheral speed as the speed of movement of the fabric (1). This rotary drum (20) is covered with a steel monofilament fabric which has a porosity of 15%.
  • As seen in the figure, the perforated rotary drum (20) is in contact with the fabric (1) which passes over a portion of a bow. In other words, there is close contact between the perforated rotary drum (20) and the porous support (1) on a portion of an arc of a circle designated by the reference (A) from 10 to 20 ° for example. This close contact ensures progressive compression of the ply (10).
  • According to another characteristic of the invention, this rotary perforated cylindrical drum (20) has inside a second fixed hollow coaxial cylindrical drum (25) connected to a vacuum source not shown, so as to form a suction box.
  • According to another characteristic of the invention, the installation comprises a first ramp (30) of water jets, arranged to the left of the fabric (1) relative to the area (A), so as to form a curtain d water (31) directed orthogonally to (A). The water comes out of the ramp (30) under a pressure of 5 bars.
  • According to another characteristic of the invention, the fixed hollow drum (25) forming a suction box, present in alignment with the water curtain (31), a window (32) fifteen millimeters in width disposed over the entire generator of the cylinder (25), so as to draw excess water from the water curtain (31).
  • It follows that the sheet (10) which advances on the porous support (1) is progressively compressed by pinching between the porous support (1) and the rotary perforated drum (20), which both advance at the same linear speed, then is wetted by the curtain of water (31) and the excess water not retained by the compressed base ply, is sucked into the central box (25). The obtained wet compressed web (40) is held on the periphery of the perforated rotary roller (20) due to the vacuum in (25). This ply (40) which advances in the direction of arrow F2 is then subjected to the action of three injector ramps, respectively (41,42,43), directing on this ply (40) a plurality of jets of contiguous water at a pressure of 100 bars. Opposite each of the high-pressure jet ramps (41,42,43), the hollow fixed central cylinder (25) has slots (45,46,47) similar to (32) and also arranged on generators, for suctioning and remove the intermingling water.
  • The tangled spunlace sheet obtained (50) is detached from the rotary cylinder (20) by passing over a detour roller (51), then from there is conveyed at (52) to the rest of the usual interlacing installation.
  • A spunlace sheet (50) of polyester fibers having a density of 0.14 g / cm 3 is thus obtained.
  • The method and the installation according to the invention make it possible to successfully treat hydrophobic fibers or mixtures of these fibers with other hydrophilic fibers or even sheets entirely of natural fibers.

Claims (8)

  1. Improved process for the manufacture of a nonwoven textile web using pressurized water jets, in which:
    . an aerated base web formed from elementary fibers is advanced;
    . this base web is compressed;
    . the fibers are entangled by means of at least one injector rail of contiguous high-pressure water jets acting on the base web; and
    . the wet entangled fibrous web obtained is taken up,
    characterized in that:
    - the base web (10) is advanced positively on an endless porous support (1);
    - this base web (10) on the moving porous support (1) is brought close to a perforated rotary cylindrical drum (20), inside which a partial vacuum is applied;
    - the base web (10) is mechanically compressed between the porous support (1) and the rotary drum (20), which both advance substantially at the same speed;
    - then, when the base web is compressed, a curtain of water (31) is directed onto it, said curtain of water penetrating, in succession, the porous support (1), the compressed base web (10) and the perforated drum (20), so that the excess water is sucked up by the partial vacuum; and
    - finally, the elementary fibers are entangled by directing the injector rail of high-pressure water jets (42, 43, 44) onto the wet compressed web (40) obtained.
  2. Improved process according to Claim 1, characterized in that the pressure of the vacuum inside the drum (20) is between one hundred and one thousand millimeters of water column.
  3. Improved process according to Claim 1, characterized in that the moving endless porous support (1) presses against a sector (A) of the rotary drum (20) in order to compress the web (10) just before wetting.
  4. Installation for the manufacture of a nonwoven textile web using water jets, characterized in that it comprises:
    - an endless porous support conveyor (1), intended to receive an aerated fibrous base web (10) formed from elementary fibers;
    - means (2) for driving this porous support (1);
    - a perforated rotary cylindrical drum (20), comprising drive means in synchronism with the speed of advance of the porous support (10) placed tangentially to the porous support (1) by one of its generatrices;
    - a hollow fixed cylindrical drum (25) coaxial with the rotary cylindrical drum (20), connected to a vacuum source and having, on one of its generatrices, a first slot (32) intended to be positioned close to the point (A) where the porous support (1) is tangential to the rotary drum (20);
    - a first injector rail (30) of water jets which is placed on the other side of the porous support (1) with respect to the rotary drum (2) and in alignment with the slot (32), so as to form a curtain of wetting water (31);
    - at least one second injector rail of pressurized water jets (41, 42, 43) which is placed close to the rotary drum (20), opposite a second slot (45, 46, 47) lying along a generatrix of the fixed drum, in order to entangle the elementary fibers; and
    - means (52) for taking up the entangled wet compressed web obtained.
  5. Installation according to Claim 4, characterized in that the endless porous support (1) is a fabric made of man-made monofilaments and has a porosity of between 30 and 60%.
  6. Installation according to Claim 4, characterized in that the perforated rotary drum (20) is covered with a fabric (21) made of steel monofilaments, having a porosity of between 10 and 20%.
  7. Installation according to one of Claims 5 and 6, characterized in that the rotary drum (20) has a diameter of between 300 and 1000 mm.
  8. Installation according to one of Claims 5 to 7, characterized in that the first slot (32) has a width of between 10 and 20 mm, in that the first injector rail (30) of water jets is placed opposite at a distance of between 10 and 100 mm from the porous support (1), and in that the pressure of the water (31) coming from this injector rail (30) is between 5 and 10 bar.
EP19950943283 1995-02-03 1995-12-27 Method for making a nonwoven fabric lap using pressurised water jets, and apparatus therefor Expired - Lifetime EP0754255B1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FR9501473A FR2730246B1 (en) 1995-02-03 1995-02-03 Process for the manufacture of a non-woven textile tablecloth by pressurized water jets, and installation for carrying out said method
FR9501473 1995-02-03
PCT/FR1995/001741 WO1996023921A1 (en) 1995-02-03 1995-12-27 Method for making a nonwoven fabric lap using pressurised water jets, and apparatus therefor

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
DE29521570U DE29521570U1 (en) 1995-02-03 1995-12-27 Device for producing a non-woven textile cloth by means of pressurized water jets

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP0754255A1 EP0754255A1 (en) 1997-01-22
EP0754255B1 true EP0754255B1 (en) 1997-10-01

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EP19950943283 Expired - Lifetime EP0754255B1 (en) 1995-02-03 1995-12-27 Method for making a nonwoven fabric lap using pressurised water jets, and apparatus therefor

Country Status (8)

Country Link
US (1) US5718022A (en)
EP (1) EP0754255B1 (en)
JP (1) JPH09511288A (en)
AT (1) AT158826T (en)
DE (2) DE29521570U1 (en)
ES (1) ES2109106T3 (en)
FR (1) FR2730246B1 (en)
WO (1) WO1996023921A1 (en)

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FR2781818B1 (en) 1998-07-31 2000-09-01 Icbt Perfojet Sa Process for the production of a complex non-woven material and new type of material thus obtained
US20070154678A1 (en) * 2002-07-15 2007-07-05 Emery Nathan B Napped fabric and process
JP2003503603A (en) 1999-06-25 2003-01-28 ミリケン・アンド・カンパニー Napped fabric and napping process
FR2799214B1 (en) * 1999-10-05 2001-11-16 Icbt Perfojet Sa Process for the production of nonwoven tablecloths which cohesion is obtained by the action of fluid jets
DE10006763A1 (en) * 2000-02-15 2001-08-16 Fleissner Gerold Hydrodynamic consolidation of non-woven involves fluid jet treatment of non-woven while held between continuous conveying bands
DE10018920A1 (en) * 2000-04-17 2001-10-18 Fleissner Gerold Suction extraction tube, for a water needle jet bonding assembly for nonwoven fabrics, comprises a suction slit kept open by inserted clip(s), with a self-cleaning action to prevent a build-up of fiber debris
SE516427C2 (en) * 2000-05-08 2002-01-15 Sca Hygiene Prod Ab Method and apparatus for producing nonwoven material and the use of a net in the process
WO2002072935A2 (en) * 2000-11-08 2002-09-19 Milliken & Company Hydraulic napping of fancy weave fabrics
US6668435B2 (en) 2001-01-09 2003-12-30 Milliken & Company Loop pile fabrics and methods for making same
FR2821866B1 (en) * 2001-03-06 2003-05-16 Rieter Perfojet Device and method for compacting a fiber patch with pressure adjustment applied to the patch
FR2845697B1 (en) * 2002-10-11 2005-05-27 Rieter Perfojet Method and machine for producing a non-tissue with a reduction of the speed of displacement of the compact tablet
TR200401841T3 (en) * 2002-12-19 2004-09-21 Reifenhauser Gmbh& Co.Maschinenfabrik
FR2861750B1 (en) * 2003-10-31 2006-02-24 Rieter Perfojet Machine for producing a finished nontisse.
DE102004030413A1 (en) * 2004-06-23 2006-02-23 Fleissner Gmbh Device for hydrodynamically entangling the fibers of a fibrous web
DE102005033070A1 (en) * 2005-07-15 2007-01-25 Fleissner Gmbh Apparatus for strengthening a fibrous web comprises a water-delivering compression roller, a fiber-entangling spray bar and a water-jet needling drum
EP1931482A2 (en) * 2005-09-12 2008-06-18 Sellars Absorbent Materials, Inc. Method and device for making towel, tissue, and wipers on an air carding or air lay line utilizing hydrogen bonds
IL177788A (en) * 2006-08-30 2011-03-31 N R Spuntech Ind Ltd Cylindrical suction box assembly
WO2009112008A1 (en) * 2008-03-12 2009-09-17 Fleissner Gmbh Method and device for presolidifying a non-woven
CA2751352C (en) 2008-09-11 2017-01-31 Albany International Corp. Permeable belt for the manufacture of tissue towel and nonwovens
BRPI0918561B1 (en) 2008-09-11 2019-06-18 Albany International Corp. Continuous non-fabric support members
US8764943B2 (en) 2008-12-12 2014-07-01 Albany International Corp. Industrial fabric including spirally wound material strips with reinforcement
US8728280B2 (en) 2008-12-12 2014-05-20 Albany International Corp. Industrial fabric including spirally wound material strips with reinforcement
CN102317525A (en) 2008-12-12 2012-01-11 阿尔巴尼国际公司 Industrial fabric including spirally wound material strips
ES2690377T3 (en) 2012-05-11 2018-11-20 Albany International Corp. Industrial fabric that includes spirally wound material strips with reinforcement
CN102333917B (en) 2009-01-28 2015-07-22 阿尔巴尼国际公司 Papermaking fabric for producing tissue and towel products, and method of making thereof
DE102013101431B4 (en) * 2013-02-13 2016-06-23 TRüTZSCHLER GMBH & CO. KG Apparatus and method for the hydrodynamic consolidation of nonwovens, fabrics and knitted fabrics
DE202018107163U1 (en) 2018-12-14 2020-03-13 Autefa Solutions Germany Gmbh Jet suction box

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Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
FR2730246B1 (en) 1997-03-21
US5718022A (en) 1998-02-17
EP0754255A1 (en) 1997-01-22
FR2730246A1 (en) 1996-08-09
DE29521570U1 (en) 1997-08-28
DE69500811T2 (en) 1998-01-29
ES2109106T3 (en) 1998-01-01
DE69500811D1 (en) 1997-11-06
JPH09511288A (en) 1997-11-11
AT158826T (en) 1997-10-15
WO1996023921A1 (en) 1996-08-08

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