EP0719586B1 - Shower head - Google Patents

Shower head Download PDF

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Publication number
EP0719586B1
EP0719586B1 EP95119778A EP95119778A EP0719586B1 EP 0719586 B1 EP0719586 B1 EP 0719586B1 EP 95119778 A EP95119778 A EP 95119778A EP 95119778 A EP95119778 A EP 95119778A EP 0719586 B1 EP0719586 B1 EP 0719586B1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
perforated plate
jet
shower head
shower
nozzle
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
EP95119778A
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
EP0719586A3 (en
EP0719586A2 (en
Inventor
Hermann Kress
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Hansa Metallwerke AG
Original Assignee
Hansa Metallwerke AG
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to DE4447114A priority Critical patent/DE4447114C2/en
Priority to DE4447114 priority
Application filed by Hansa Metallwerke AG filed Critical Hansa Metallwerke AG
Publication of EP0719586A2 publication Critical patent/EP0719586A2/en
Publication of EP0719586A3 publication Critical patent/EP0719586A3/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP0719586B1 publication Critical patent/EP0719586B1/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B05SPRAYING OR ATOMISING IN GENERAL; APPLYING LIQUIDS OR OTHER FLUENT MATERIALS TO SURFACES, IN GENERAL
    • B05BSPRAYING APPARATUS; ATOMISING APPARATUS; NOZZLES
    • B05B1/00Nozzles, spray heads or other outlets, with or without auxiliary devices such as valves, heating means
    • B05B1/14Nozzles, spray heads or other outlets, with or without auxiliary devices such as valves, heating means with multiple outlet openings; with strainers in or outside the outlet opening
    • B05B1/18Roses; Shower heads
    • B05B1/185Roses; Shower heads characterised by their outlet element; Mounting arrangements therefor
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B05SPRAYING OR ATOMISING IN GENERAL; APPLYING LIQUIDS OR OTHER FLUENT MATERIALS TO SURFACES, IN GENERAL
    • B05BSPRAYING APPARATUS; ATOMISING APPARATUS; NOZZLES
    • B05B15/00Details of spraying plant or spraying apparatus not otherwise provided for; Accessories
    • B05B15/50Arrangements for cleaning; Arrangements for preventing deposits, drying-out or blockage; Arrangements for detecting improper discharge caused by the presence of foreign matter
    • B05B15/52Arrangements for cleaning; Arrangements for preventing deposits, drying-out or blockage; Arrangements for detecting improper discharge caused by the presence of foreign matter for removal of clogging particles
    • B05B15/528Arrangements for cleaning; Arrangements for preventing deposits, drying-out or blockage; Arrangements for detecting improper discharge caused by the presence of foreign matter for removal of clogging particles by resilient deformation of the nozzle

Description

The invention relates to a shower head, in particular for a hand shower

  • a) an essentially bell-shaped housing in which at least one water space which can be connected to a water inlet channel is formed;
  • b) a shower base which closes off the bell-shaped housing and comprises:
  • ba) a perforated plate made of rigid material, which has a plurality of through holes;
  • bb) a nozzle insert made of elastic material which is detachably connected to the perforated plate and which comprises a base plate bearing against a surface of the perforated base and a multiplicity of hose-like nozzle extensions integrally formed on the base plate, each of which is penetrated by a nozzle channel ending in a water outlet opening and each through a through hole the perforated plate are passed through.
  • It is known that the water outlet openings on shower bases tend to over the life of the shower head to calcify. This is expressed first in one Spray pattern, the geometry of which differs from the new condition, as well as a lower output per liter. The Lime deposits can progress so far that eventually the water outlet openings are completely blocked are.

    For this reason it is e.g. from DE-GM 90 17 978 known, the water outlet openings on hose-like Train nozzle approaches that over the outer surface of the Extend shower base by a certain distance. The hose-like nozzle attachments are made of an elastomer Made of material and can be painted over manually be mechanically tumbled so that the on the lateral surfaces the nozzle channels, especially in the area of the water outlet openings, deposited layers of lime are blown off become. The water flow through the water outlet openings the shower base is then free again.

    A shower head of the type mentioned above is on the market known from here. His shower base is made of a rigid one Large number of perforated plates with through holes and an elastic-flexible, a variety of nozzle approaches having assembled nozzle insert. All Nozzle attachments are on a base plate of the nozzle insert formed. This is in the assembled state on the Inside of the perforated plate, so that the water pressure Presses the nozzle insert against the perforated plate. The nozzle attachments are from the inside out through the through holes passed through the perforated plate, such that the free The ends of the nozzle attachments form the water outlet openings. Are the nozzle channels through the nozzle attachments are passed and the water outlet openings at its outer end limit, clogged by limescale or dirty, the perforated bottom of the known Shower head removed from the housing. The nozzle insert can now be pulled off the inside of the perforated plate and can be drummed by hand or cleaned in any other way. After cleaning, the nozzle insert will be on it again Attached to the inner surface of the perforated plate; the pre-assembled shower base is then again on the housing of the shower head mounted. This when cleaning the However, the operation of the nozzle every time is to be carried out relatively complicated.

    The object of the present invention is a shower head of the type mentioned in such a way that the nozzle insert can be easily removed and cleaned is.

    This object is achieved in that

  • c) the base plate of the nozzle insert rests on the outer surface of the perforated plate, and
  • d) the nozzle lugs are pushed from the outside through the through holes of the perforated plate, such that their free ends are inside the shower head.
  • According to the invention, the nozzle insert is from the outside applied to the rigid perforated plate; the nozzle inserts are from the outside in through the through holes of the Perforated plate passed through, so that now not to the free ends of the nozzle tips that are inside the shower head come to rest, but on the one with the base plate end of the nozzle insert overgrown the water outlet openings are formed. Special locking devices ensure that the nozzle insert is also under that in the interior the water pressure prevailing in the shower head does not depend on the rigid perforated plate releases. An additional benefit of Design according to the invention is that the outer surface of the shower base from that made of flexible material Base plate is formed, this base plate so the entire shower base from damage by Protects bumps.

    The simplest is the embodiment of the invention in which

  • a) the outer diameter of the nozzle attachments of the nozzle insert corresponds to the diameter of the through holes of the perforated plate, and
  • b) a radially projecting retaining collar is molded onto the outer lateral surfaces of the nozzle attachments, which, when assembled, rests against the inner surface of the perforated plate.
  • The embodiment of the invention in which cleaning is even more economical in terms of cleaning options, albeit a little more expensive

  • a) the outer diameter of the nozzle attachments of the nozzle insert is smaller than the diameter of the through holes of the perforated plate;
  • b) retaining collars are formed on the base plate of the nozzle insert, each of which surrounds a nozzle attachment and the outer diameter of which corresponds to the diameter of the through-holes in the perforated plate;
  • c) a radially projecting retaining collar is molded onto the outer circumferential surface of the retaining collars, which in the assembled state rests on the inner surface of the perforated plate.
  • In this embodiment, between the nozzle approaches and the retaining collars an annular space, which in To a certain extent, the nozzles are flexed by hand even without removing the nozzle insert from the perforated plate allowed.

    The nozzle insert is removed from the perforated plate then relieved when the retaining collar on a chamfer the inner end of the corresponding through hole is applied.

    Shower heads of the type of interest here are common designed as so-called "multi-function showers". This means that this is generally via the handle incoming water by means of a diverter valve one of two water spaces formed in the housing is directed. The two water spaces communicate each with a set of outlet openings in the shower base, by suitable geometry of the water outlet openings and / or other treatment of the Water, e.g. B. an air enrichment, for a different Character of the water jets emerging in the in both operating modes. Most common is the design of the multi-function shower, at which in a mode of operation so-called "hard blasting" at relatively high speed and tight Cross-section and so-called in the second operating mode "Soft rays" enriched with air and one have a relatively large cross-section, emerge. If one applies the inventive idea to one of these Multi-function shower on, that is the design the invention particularly advantageous, in which the free ring spaces communicate with one of the water spaces and also via openings in the form of ring segments are connected to the outer surface of the shower base. The Exit openings of one type of rays, e.g. the Soft rays are essentially on the same Place like the outlet openings different kind of Rays, e.g. that of hard rays; the "rough" spray pattern the shower head is the same in both modes.

    Embodiments of the invention are explained in more detail below with reference to the drawing; show it

    Figure 1:
    an area from a radial section through the shower base of a shower head;
    Figure 2:
    a radial section, similar to Figure 1, through a second embodiment of a shower base;
    Figure 3:
    a radial section, similar to Figure 2, through a third embodiment of a shower base.

    In Figure 1, the reference numeral 1 is a multi-part Called shower base, which in the conventional way lower end of a bell-shaped, not shown Housing forms. It is generally circular and goes on its outer circumference - in one piece or via a detachable connection - into the housing of the shower head.

    The shower base 1 comprises a perforated plate 1 a out of proportion rigid material in concentric circles to its no longer shown in the drawing, by this central axis to be thought further to the right several sentences of through holes 3.

    The shower base 1 also includes a nozzle insert overall carries the reference symbol 1b. The nozzle insert 1b consists of an elastomeric, deformable plastic and can be solved in a manner to be described on the Perforated plate 1a attached. as can be seen in FIG. 1, The nozzle insert 1b comprises an essentially flat base plate 9, which is located on the outside and thus the bottom of the Perforated plate 1a extends to its outer edge. In the area of the outer edge is the base plate 9 of the nozzle insert 1b provided with an annular sealing bead 30, the in a complementarily shaped groove 31 on the underside the perforated plate 1a engages.

    Are concentric on the base plate 9 of the nozzle insert 1b to the sets of through holes 3 in the perforated plate 1a, hose-like nozzle projections 10 are injection molded, through the corresponding holes 3 of the perforated plate 1 extend into the interior of the shower head. The outer diameter of the nozzle attachments 10 corresponds to this the diameter of the through holes 3 in the perforated plate 1a.

    The lateral surfaces of the nozzle lugs 10 are each with formed an annular retaining collar 32, the axial Height is chosen so that the retaining collar 32 in the assembled Condition on the inner surface of the perforated plate 1a or one in the area of the end of the through holes there 3 attached chamfer 33 comes to rest.

    The nozzle lugs 10 are each axially of nozzle channels 13 interspersed, which is conical in its outer area taper in such a way that the flowing through here from outlet openings 15 emerging water jets a focus and experience acceleration.

    The function of the shower head described above is like follows:

    In the operation of the shower head, they become the nozzle attachments 10 penetrating nozzle channels from above with water in suitable, not relevant here. in the Over time, they accumulate inside the nozzle channels 13, but especially in the area of the outlet openings 15 with a relatively small cross-section, layers of lime which reduce the open flow cross section and eventually to a complete blockage of the nozzle channels 13 can lead. If such a situation has arisen, can the entire nozzle insert 16 by axial Train can be removed from the perforated plate 1a; at this The process is the chamfers 33 in the upper end region of the Through holes 3 of the perforated plate 1a helpful. is the nozzle insert 1b detached from the shower head, can he can be tumbled by hand so that the on the walls of the nozzle channels 13 deposited layers blasted off become. Of course there is also a cleaning the nozzle insert 1b with a suitable cleaning device, e.g. a sponge or with detergents possible.

    After cleaning is complete, the nozzle attachments 10 the nozzle insert 1b back into the corresponding through holes 3 of the perforated plate 1 a introduced. The holding collars 32 on the outer lateral surfaces of the nozzle attachments 10 are compressed through the through holes 3, until they are in the area of the chamfer 33 can spring open again. The nozzle insert 1b is now again "attached" to the perforated plate 1a.

    The cleaning of the nozzle insert 1b from limescale is possible with the shower base described, without to remove the perforated plate 1a from the shower head. moreover protects the base plate 9 of the nozzle insert 1b along the entire outer surface of the perforated plate 1a extends, the shower base, especially in the rounded Outside from damage due to impact.

    In Figure 2 is a second embodiment of a Shower base shown in radial section, which the above is very similar to that explained with reference to FIG. 1. Appropriate Parts are therefore with the same reference number, plus 100, marked.

    A perforated plate 101a can again be seen in FIG. which together with a nozzle insert 101b the shower base 101 of a shower head. The perforated plate 101a contains a large number on concentric circles around its central axis of through holes 103.

    The nozzle insert 101b integrally comprises a base plate 109 as well as nozzle attachments molded onto the base plate 109 110, each of which is axially penetrated by nozzle channels 113 become. As can be seen from FIG. 2, however Outer diameter of the nozzle lugs 110 is significantly smaller than the diameter of the assigned through holes 103 of the perforated plate 101a.

    At the base plate 109 of the nozzle insert 101b are now concentrically around each nozzle extension 110 additional Retaining collars 120 formed, the outer diameter of which Diameter of the through holes 103 in the perforated plate 101a corresponds. On her up, so inside the The retaining collar 120 has the edge pointing towards the shower head a retaining collar 132. This protrudes on the inside of the Perforated plate 101a over and secures together with the corresponding retaining collars 132 on all other nozzle attachments 110 the nozzle insert 101b on the perforated plate 101a.

    The nozzle insert 101b can thus be on the perforated plate 101a that the retaining collars 120 through the corresponding through holes 103 of the perforated plate 101a are pushed through, due to the elasticity of the material of the nozzle insert 101b is possible. As soon as the retaining collars 132 pass through holes 103 have penetrated, they spring open and thus form a fixation for the nozzle insert 101b. The insertion of the retaining collars 120 and in particular the retaining collars molded onto them 132 in the through holes 103 of the perforated plate 101a by a bevel 122 at the outer end of the through holes 103 relieved.

    The shower head shown in Figure 2 differs of that shown in Figure 1 essentially in that between the nozzle lugs 110 and the retaining collars 120 an annular space 140 is formed. by virtue of this annulus 140, it is possible without Remove the nozzle insert 101b from the perforated plate 101a some walking in the area of the water outlet openings 115 by the user by hand or Finger under pressure on the lower (outer) surface of the Brushes along the nozzle insert 101b and thereby the nozzle insert 101b in the area of the water outlet openings 115 deformed. The achievable flexion of the nozzle insert In many cases, 101b can be sufficient, deposited To blow up layers of lime from the wall of the nozzle channels 113. The removal of the nozzle insert 101b from the perforated plate 101a, as described above, is thus in the exemplary embodiment of Figure 2 only exceptionally or very much large intervals are required.

    The shower head shown in Figure 3 is a variant of the embodiment of Figure 2. Parts, such 1 correspond to the same reference numerals plus 200 marked.

    The main difference between the exemplary embodiments of Figures 2 and 3 is as follows:

    While in the embodiment of Figure 2, the annular spaces 140, which concentrically surround the nozzle lugs 110, only had the function, the walkability to facilitate the nozzle lugs 110 comes the annular spaces 140 another in the embodiment of Figure 3 Function to:

    As can be seen in Figure 3, the reason for the Annuli 240 through openings 250 with the outer surface the shower base, i.e. the outer surface of the base plate 209, in conjunction. The openings 250 are in the form of Ring segments, which the outlet openings 215 concentric surround.

    The shower base 201 from FIG. 3 becomes as follows mounted inside the shower head:

    The free ends of the Nozzle lugs 210 are in a partition of the shower head attached so that the nozzle channels 213 with a Communicate water space on the one of the shower base 201 facing away from the partition.

    The annular spaces 240, however, are with a second water space connected, which on the shower base 201 facing side of the partition is arranged.

    The function of the embodiment of Figure 3 is as follows:

    In one operating mode of the shower, the inflowing Water supplied to the water space on the is the side of the partition facing away from the shower base 201. The water then flows through the nozzle channels 213 of the Nozzle lugs 210 pass through and emerge from the water outlet openings 215 as "hard blasting".

    In the second operating mode of the shower head, the the water space adjacent to the shower base 201 with the water supply connected. The water taking this path becomes e.g. enriched with air enters the annular spaces 240 and enters the openings 250 as "soft blasting" out. The rough position of the "soft rays" essentially remains on the shower base 201 the same as that of the "hard rays", so that the spray pattern of the shower head in both operating modes is essentially the same.

    Claims (5)

    1. A shower head, in particular for a handheld shower, with
      a) a substantially bell-shaped housing in which at least one water chamber connectable to a water supply channel is formed;
      b) a shower base (1; 101; 201) which closes the bell-shaped housing downwardly and comprises:
      ba) a perforated plate (1a; 101a; 201a) of rigid material having a multiplicity of through-bores (3; 103; 203);
      bb) a jet insert (1b; 101b; 201b) of elastic material connected detachably to the perforated plate (1a; 101a; 201a), which insert includes a base plate (9; 109; 209) adjacent to one face of the perforated plate (1a; 101a; 201a) and a multiplicity of hose-like jet projections (1b; 101b; 201b) formed in one piece with the base plate (9; 109; 209), through each of which projections passes a jet passage (13; 113; 213) ending in a water outlet aperture (15; 115; 215) and each of which projections passes through a through-bore (3; 103; 203) in the perforated plate (1a; 101a; 201a),
         characterised in that
      c) the base plate (9; 109; 209) of the jet insert (1b; 101b; 201b) is adjacent to the outer face of the perforated plate (1a; 101a; 201a), and
      d) the jet projections (10; 110; 210) are pushed from outside through the through-bores (3; 103; 203) in the perforated plate (1a; 101a; 201a), in such a way that their free ends are located inside the shower head.
    2. A shower head according to Claim 1, characterised in that
      a) the external diameter of the jet projections (10) of the jet insert (1b) is equal to the diameter of the through-bores (3) of the perforated plate (1a), and
      b) a radially projecting retaining shoulder (32) is moulded on to the outer jacket faces of each jet projection (10), said retaining shoulder (32) resting against the inner face of the perforated plate (1a) in the assembled state.
    3. A shower head according to Claim 1, characterised in that
      a) the external diameter of the jet projections (110; 210) of the jet insert (101b; 201b) is smaller than the diameter of the through-bores (103; 203) of the perforated plate (101a; 210a);
      b) retaining collars (120; 220), each of which surrounds one jet projection (110; 210) and the external diameter of which corresponds to the diameter of the through-bores (103; 203) of the perforated plate (101a; 201a), are moulded on to the base plate (109; 209) of the jet insert (101b; 201b);
      c) a radially projecting retaining shoulder (132; 232) which in the assembled state rests against the inner face of the perforated plate (101a; 201a) is moulded on to the outer jacket face of each retaining collar (120; 220).
    4. A shower head according to Claim 2 or 3, characterised in that the retaining shoulder (32; 132; 232) rests against a chamfer (33; 133; 233) at the inner end of the corresponding through-bore (3; 103; 203).
    5. A shower head according to Claim 3, characterised in that the annular cavities (240) surrounding the jet projections (210) of the jet insert (201b) communicate with a water chamber to which water is supplied in one operating mode of the shower head, and in addition are connected via openings (250) having the form of annular segments to the outer face of the shower base (201).
    EP95119778A 1994-12-29 1995-12-15 Shower head Expired - Lifetime EP0719586B1 (en)

    Priority Applications (2)

    Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
    DE4447114A DE4447114C2 (en) 1994-12-29 1994-12-29 Shower head
    DE4447114 1994-12-29

    Publications (3)

    Publication Number Publication Date
    EP0719586A2 EP0719586A2 (en) 1996-07-03
    EP0719586A3 EP0719586A3 (en) 1998-02-11
    EP0719586B1 true EP0719586B1 (en) 2002-07-24

    Family

    ID=6537434

    Family Applications (1)

    Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
    EP95119778A Expired - Lifetime EP0719586B1 (en) 1994-12-29 1995-12-15 Shower head

    Country Status (6)

    Country Link
    US (1) US5730363A (en)
    EP (1) EP0719586B1 (en)
    JP (1) JP3681803B2 (en)
    AT (1) AT220955T (en)
    DE (1) DE4447114C2 (en)
    ES (1) ES2179084T3 (en)

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    AU3521102A (en) 2000-12-12 2002-06-24 Water Pik Inc Shower head assembly
    EP1245297A1 (en) * 2001-03-27 2002-10-02 I.M.P.A. F.LLI Togno S.r.l. Fast mounting nozzle for high pressure fluids, in particular for use in saunas, shower cabins and similar equipment
    USD485887S1 (en) 2002-12-10 2004-01-27 Water Pik, Inc. Pan head style shower head
    US7114666B2 (en) 2002-12-10 2006-10-03 Water Pik, Inc. Dual massage shower head
    US7740186B2 (en) 2004-09-01 2010-06-22 Water Pik, Inc. Drenching shower head
    DE102004056070B4 (en) * 2004-11-15 2019-01-31 Hansgrohe Se Sanitary shower head
    EP2007483A2 (en) 2006-04-20 2008-12-31 Water Pik, Inc. Converging spray showerhead
    US8020787B2 (en) 2006-11-29 2011-09-20 Water Pik, Inc. Showerhead system
    US8366024B2 (en) 2006-12-28 2013-02-05 Water Pik, Inc. Low speed pulsating showerhead
    US7770822B2 (en) 2006-12-28 2010-08-10 Water Pik, Inc. Hand shower with an extendable handle
    US8794543B2 (en) 2006-12-28 2014-08-05 Water Pik, Inc. Low-speed pulsating showerhead
    US7789326B2 (en) 2006-12-29 2010-09-07 Water Pik, Inc. Handheld showerhead with mode control and method of selecting a handheld showerhead mode
    US8371618B2 (en) 2007-05-04 2013-02-12 Water Pik, Inc. Hidden pivot attachment for showers and method of making same
    USD624156S1 (en) 2008-04-30 2010-09-21 Water Pik, Inc. Pivot ball attachment
    ES2399558T3 (en) * 2008-07-15 2013-04-02 Crs S.P.A. Shower head with separable nozzles, shower head kit, and maintenance method for shower head
    US8348181B2 (en) 2008-09-15 2013-01-08 Water Pik, Inc. Shower assembly with radial mode changer
    USD616061S1 (en) 2008-09-29 2010-05-18 Water Pik, Inc. Showerhead assembly
    USD625776S1 (en) 2009-10-05 2010-10-19 Water Pik, Inc. Showerhead
    JP4920765B2 (en) * 2010-05-21 2012-04-18 株式会社朝日工業社 Nozzle structure for glass substrate temperature control
    US8616470B2 (en) 2010-08-25 2013-12-31 Water Pik, Inc. Mode control valve in showerhead connector
    CN102527528B (en) * 2010-12-31 2014-03-12 厦门松霖科技有限公司 Dismounting device for sprinkler
    USD678463S1 (en) 2012-01-27 2013-03-19 Water Pik, Inc. Ring-shaped wall mount showerhead
    USD678467S1 (en) 2012-01-27 2013-03-19 Water Pik, Inc. Ring-shaped handheld showerhead
    CA2898716C (en) 2012-06-22 2020-02-11 Water Pik, Inc. Bracket for showerhead with integral flow control
    ITUD20120169A1 (en) * 2012-10-11 2014-04-12 Cps Color Equipment S P A Con Unic O Socio Manifold for dispensing nozzles
    CN103769315B (en) * 2012-10-19 2016-12-28 厦门松霖科技有限公司 The quick detachable gondola water faucet of tear-open
    WO2014201420A1 (en) 2013-06-13 2014-12-18 Water Pik, Inc. Showerhead with turbine driven shutter
    USD744614S1 (en) 2014-06-13 2015-12-01 Water Pik, Inc. Wall mount showerhead
    USD744065S1 (en) 2014-06-13 2015-11-24 Water Pik, Inc. Handheld showerhead
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    JP6657974B2 (en) * 2016-01-12 2020-03-04 トヨタ紡織株式会社 Metal-resin integrated molded product and method of manufacturing the same
    USD803981S1 (en) 2016-02-01 2017-11-28 Water Pik, Inc. Handheld spray nozzle
    MX2018009276A (en) 2016-02-01 2018-11-09 Water Pik Inc Handheld pet spray wand.
    US10265710B2 (en) 2016-04-15 2019-04-23 Water Pik, Inc. Showerhead with dual oscillating massage
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    Also Published As

    Publication number Publication date
    JPH08229437A (en) 1996-09-10
    US5730363A (en) 1998-03-24
    AT220955T (en) 2002-08-15
    ES2179084T3 (en) 2003-01-16
    DE4447114C2 (en) 1996-10-17
    EP0719586A3 (en) 1998-02-11
    EP0719586A2 (en) 1996-07-03
    JP3681803B2 (en) 2005-08-10
    DE4447114A1 (en) 1996-07-11

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