EP0659264B1 - Artillery shell propellant gas sealing device - Google Patents

Artillery shell propellant gas sealing device Download PDF

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Publication number
EP0659264B1
EP0659264B1 EP19940909163 EP94909163A EP0659264B1 EP 0659264 B1 EP0659264 B1 EP 0659264B1 EP 19940909163 EP19940909163 EP 19940909163 EP 94909163 A EP94909163 A EP 94909163A EP 0659264 B1 EP0659264 B1 EP 0659264B1
Authority
EP
European Patent Office
Prior art keywords
piston
projectile
chamber
pressure
charge
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Expired - Lifetime
Application number
EP19940909163
Other languages
German (de)
French (fr)
Other versions
EP0659264A1 (en
Inventor
Claude Boutet
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Giat Industries SA
Original Assignee
Giat Industries SA
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to FR9303096A priority Critical patent/FR2702833B1/en
Priority to FR9303096 priority
Application filed by Giat Industries SA filed Critical Giat Industries SA
Priority to PCT/FR1994/000254 priority patent/WO1994021981A1/en
Publication of EP0659264A1 publication Critical patent/EP0659264A1/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of EP0659264B1 publication Critical patent/EP0659264B1/en
Anticipated expiration legal-status Critical
Expired - Lifetime legal-status Critical Current

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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B5/00Cartridge ammunition, e.g. separately-loaded propellant charges
    • F42B5/02Cartridges, i.e. cases with charge and missile
    • F42B5/10Cartridges, i.e. cases with charge and missile with self-propelled bullet
    • F42B5/105Cartridges, i.e. cases with charge and missile with self-propelled bullet propelled by two propulsive charges, the rearwardly situated one being separated from the rest of the projectile during flight or in the barrel; Projectiles with self-ejecting cartridge cases
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42BEXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION
    • F42B14/00Projectiles or missiles characterised by arrangements for guiding or sealing them inside barrels, or for lubricating or cleaning barrels
    • F42B14/02Driving bands; Rotating bands

Abstract

A propellant gas sealing device for artillery shells comprising a projectile and a propellant charge, including a piston (10) attached to the back of the projectile by a separable connector (12) to separate the projectile from the explosive charge, a low pressure seal (14) supported by the piston for sealing the piston from the weapon chamber, and a high pressure plug (17) supported by the piston (10) for sealing the piston from the weapon barrel. The device is suitable for shells in which the propellant charge is separate from the projectile.

Description

The present invention relates to the field of ammunition fired by cannon and it concerns, more specifically, those which are fired via a propellant charge which may be independent of the projectile itself or not.

FR-A-380 063 (preamble to claim 1) describes a small munition caliber with the bullet at its rear part of a disc thrust to ensure the tightness of the tubes whose scratches are very deep. It is mainly in this document to increase the gas pressure surface of propulsion by reducing the load of the projectile section.

US-A-3,216,356 describes a weapon ammunition without recoil including a projectile and a fragmentable case containing a propellant charge. The projectile carries a sealing belt and a ring whose role is to ensure correct axial positioning of the projectile relative to the launch tube. The problem of low and high tightness pressure is not discussed in this document.

The trend today is to increase the caliber (tube diameter) of the barrels, and more particularly of the tank guns. We can thus obtain initial speeds of upper projectiles.

However, the diameter of the chamber is generally not not increased in the same proportions in order to limit the diametrical size of the weapon.

Weapon designers are therefore obliged increase the length of the chamber in order to maintain a expansion ratio (total tube + chamber volume / chamber volume) to obtain the desired speed performance.

In this context, the problem of congestion of ammunition. This problem is solved the most often by dividing the load into two burdens (one burden carrying the projectile and possibly powder, and a burden of powder alone).

If with such a division of the ammunition it is possible to design projectile ammunition of arrow type (sub-calibrated bars stabilized by empennage) whose length of the burden remains relatively limited, it is however not possible to define ammunition with an explosive projectile without being obliged:

  • increase the length of the projectile load,
  • to reinforce the mechanical resistance of the projectile, therefore to decrease its stability and its effectiveness.

Indeed, the arrow bars can penetrate relatively deep in the powder with no holding problem mechanical.

The explosive ordnance envelope cannot penetrate inside the explosive charge without it becoming essential to increase its thickness, which results in decreased stability and reduced internal volume devoted to the explosive charge, therefore efficiency.

The gas-tight shutter must therefore be find on the back of the shell of the explosive projectile, this which obliges to increase the length of the projectile burden.

The invention aims to allow the realization of a ammunition to be fired by an increased caliber cannon, ammunition not to be excessively long or to have too thick a projectile shell.

The invention is thus likely to apply in all cases where it is sought to fire a projectile the rear part of which must not be subjected, at least initially, to the pressure of the propellant gases, that is to say to say:

  • a thin-shelled projectile, such as a missile, cargo ship,
  • a projectile carrying a propellant charge which is either ignited later in the tube or on trajectory.

The invention could in this sense find an application as well with ammunition in two bundles as with a ammunition carted in a single burden.

The invention aims to solve the general problem which is to allow the cannon firing of projectiles sensitive to the gas pressure without requiring a reinforcement of their structure.

To achieve the above objective, the invention relates to a device for sealing against propellant gases for artillery ammunition comprising a projectile, a propellant charge, and a piston fixed to the rear of the projectile by a connecting device. separable, piston isolating the projectile from the propellant charge, characterized in that it comprises:

  • a low pressure seal carried by the piston and intended to ensure the seal between the piston and the chamber of the weapon.
  • and a high pressure shutter carried by the piston intended to ensure the seal between the piston and the barrel of the weapon.

Such means therefore make it possible to define ammunition explosives with relatively small axial dimensions since the projectile may be entirely within inside the room.

These means also allow firing from a tank gun ammunition sensitive to gas pressure such missiles. These will be isolated of a propellant ejection charge by means of a piston according to the invention. Of timed ignition means will initiate a propellant charge specific to the missile after its exit from the tube.

These means finally allow the firing of ammunition carrying a charge on-board propellant (concept of "Traveling Charge"), a charge which is integral with the projectile and whose initiation is only ordered when the latter is in the tube.

In this case, the piston will separate the main load from the load on board. Timed ignition means will light the load secured to the projectile at a given time inside the tube (this concept known increases the speed by limiting the pressure).

Various other characteristics will emerge from the description given below with reference to the accompanying drawings which show, by way of example not limiting, an embodiment of the subject of the invention.

Fig. 1 is a schematic view of a projectile equipped with the device of the invention.

Fig. 2 is a sectional elevation showing, on a larger scale, a constructive detail of the device.

Fig. 3 is an elevation illustrating, on a smaller scale, an example of application.

Fig. 1 shows schematically the tube 1 of a barrel, the rear part of which delimits a loading chamber 2 capable of being closed or opened by a movable breech 3 .

The chamber 2 is connected by a forcing cone 4 to the core 5 of the tube 1 , in a way defining the caliber of the barrel in which a munition 6 must be engaged by introduction into the chamber 2 .

According to FIG. 1 , the ammunition 6 comprises a front load 7 which may be constituted by a projectile proper or even by an envelope 11 ( Fig.2 ) inside which the projectile is disposed.

The ammunition further comprises a rear burden 8 mainly constituted by a propellant charge, confined in a case 9 which may or may not be combustible.

The sealing device according to the invention consists of a piston 10 made of any suitable material to withstand the thermal and mechanical stresses generated by the ignition of the charge 8 . By way of example, the piston 10 is made of light alloy, for example aluminum alloy or carbon fiber with or without a metallic insert.

The piston 10 is adapted either to the rear part of the load 7 , or directly on the casing 11 , of the latter, by means of a separable connecting device 12 . The connecting device 12 is, for example, constituted by pins (or a thread) which shear under the effect of the pressure of the propellant gases or else of acceleration. This connecting device 12 shears at the time of firing, which allows separation of the piston 10 and the casing 11 under the influence of the aerodynamic forces which are exerted on the projectile at the outlet of the barrel of the weapon.

The device 12 can advantageously be with controlled operation rather than automatic and in such a case, it can be advantageous to incorporate in the piston 10 a trigger 13 sensitive to pressure and / or to heat and responsible for controlling, in a deferred manner , the neutralization function of the separable connecting device 12 . The trigger 13 is of known type and, for example of that disclosed by patent FR-A-2,635,178.

The trigger 13 can, of course, be used to assume another function such as the delayed ignition of a load loaded inside the load 7 .

The piston 10 has at its rear part a gasket 14 called low pressure which has, in the rest state, a cross section greater than the diameter of the chamber 2 so that the engagement of the projectile 6 establishes a cooperation of surface, by deformation of the lining then able to establish a tight contact.

Preferably, the lining 14 is produced so as to comprise at least one peripheral lip 15 which is elastically deformable and chosen from a material such that its own reaction to the elastic deformation keeps it in permanent peripheral contact with the wall of the chamber 2 .

The lining 14 can be of the simple type made for example of polyethylene or possibly of the complex type including one or more elastic inserts making it possible to apply the lip 15 against the chamber 2 . Preferably, the lining 14 comprises at least one lip that is over-calibrated, for example by 5 to 10% relative to the diameter of the chamber 2 . Such a lip could for example have an axial contact length close to 10 to 20 mm for a chamber diameter of 170 mm.

The lining 14 is fitted in a housing 16 in the rear part of the piston 10 and is held there by gluing or overmolding.

The lining 14 is designed so as to be able to be constrained in the centripetal radial direction, in order to occupy, under maximum stress, a section compatible with the passage of the forcing cone 4 and with the caliber of the core 5 . For this purpose, provision may be made to make the lining shearable during the passage of the forcing cone 4 .

The sealing device is also provided in the front part of the piston 10 with a hoop or a sealing belt 17 constituting a high-pressure shutter, responsible for cooperating by forced constraint, with the core 5 .

In the position illustrated in FIG. 1 , the ignition of the charge 8 supplies a quantity of gas under pressure which is confined in the chamber 9 via the gasket 14 . At this stage, the gas pressure to which the lining 14 is subjected is a low pressure of the order of 200 MPa. Thus, the rear part of the projectile 6 and more particularly of the burden 7 , although extending in the chamber 2 , is guided in the latter, without the excess annular volume being directly concerned by the active confinement of the charge placed fire.

The energy developed is therefore confined in a defined volume and acts on the useful transverse surface of the piston 10 to propel the burden 7 inside the core 5 .

The progression of the burden in the direction of the arrow f 1 causes the shutter 17 to cooperate with the forcing cone 4 inside which it is constrained to establish a high pressure peripheral seal between the burden 7 and the core 5 . This high pressure seal intervenes in relay of the lining 14 and before the latter has approached the forcing cone 4 , so that the combustion gases developed remain effectively confined in the expansion chamber with variable volume, which is defined between the cylinder head 3 and the rear face of the piston 10 inside the chamber 2 .

In the practical constitution, the piston 10 is adapted as said above to the rear part of the burden 7 or of the casing 11 , and may include appropriate means for ensuring a connection with the burden, so as to facilitate the operations of handling and loading of the projectile 6 in a unitary form. Such means may consist, for example, of snap-on pins or of attachments based on additional hookable elements of the type of those known under the brand "VELCRO" and which are taught in this application by patent FR-A-2 672 672.

Fig. 3 shows an exemplary embodiment according to which the piston 10 is adapted at the end of a housing 20, for example of plastic material which is fixed by a flange or internal studs 21 on a peripheral groove 22 presented by the body 23 of the projectile 6 of the tail type. The housing 20 can thus be compared to the envelope 11 .

The housing 20 , which is substantially of the caliber of the barrel 1 , has a rupture initiator 24, for example annular located behind the flange or the studs 21 .

The case 20 thus envelops the rear part of the ammunition or of the projectile which can be of the explosive type and comprise a stabilizing stabilizer 25 protected by the case 20 and the piston 10.

The piston 10 then carries a pyrotechnic composition 13 which is initiated with delay by the ignition of the charge 8 , for example by means of a retarder device 26 . In this way, the gas pressure caused by the ignition of the composition 13 causes the separation of the projectile and the housing in line with the rupture initiator 24 at the outlet of the barrel 1 .

In the example described, the lining 14 is arranged at the rear of the piston and of the shutter 3 . An inverted arrangement could be envisaged consisting in placing the lining 14 in front of the shutter 17 which then receives the gas pressure as soon as the explosive charge is ignited.

The invention is not limited to the example described and shown since various modifications can be made without departing from its scope.

Claims (6)

  1. A sealing device for the propellant gases of a piece of artillery ammunition (6) incorporating a projectile (7), a propellant charge (8), and a piston (10) fastened to the rear of the projectile by a removable connecting device (12), characterized in that it comprises:
    low pressure packing ring (14) carried by the piston and intended to provide gas-tighting between the piston and the weapon chamber (2),
    and a high pressure obturator (17) carried by the piston (10) and intended to provide gas-tightness between the piston and the weapon barrel.
  2. A device according to Claim 1 characterized in that the packing ring (14) is positioned to the rear of the piston and behind the obturator (17).
  3. A device according to Claim 1, characterized in that the piston (10) carries a removable connecting device (12) comprising delayed operation separating means, which can be automatic or controlled.
  4. A device according to Claims 1 or 3, characterized in that the piston carries a pressure-sensitive trigger (13) designed to control, in a delayed manner, the separation of the projectile from the piston.
  5. A device according to Claim 4, characterized in that the piston carries means controlling the delayed ignition of an additional propellant charge integral with the projectile.
  6. A device according to Claim 2, characterized in that the packing ring (14) has at least one flexible lip whose diameter, in its initial position, is greater than that of the loading chamber (2) into which the projectile must be loaded.
EP19940909163 1993-03-18 1994-03-08 Artillery shell propellant gas sealing device Expired - Lifetime EP0659264B1 (en)

Priority Applications (3)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
FR9303096A FR2702833B1 (en) 1993-03-18 1993-03-18 Propulsion gas tightness device for artillery ammunition.
FR9303096 1993-03-18
PCT/FR1994/000254 WO1994021981A1 (en) 1993-03-18 1994-03-08 Artillery shell propellant gas sealing device

Publications (2)

Publication Number Publication Date
EP0659264A1 EP0659264A1 (en) 1995-06-28
EP0659264B1 true EP0659264B1 (en) 1998-07-29

Family

ID=9445079

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
EP19940909163 Expired - Lifetime EP0659264B1 (en) 1993-03-18 1994-03-08 Artillery shell propellant gas sealing device

Country Status (6)

Country Link
US (1) US5492064A (en)
EP (1) EP0659264B1 (en)
DE (1) DE69412048T2 (en)
FR (1) FR2702833B1 (en)
IL (1) IL109018A (en)
WO (1) WO1994021981A1 (en)

Families Citing this family (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
AT407921B (en) * 1998-04-17 2001-07-25 Intertechnik Tech Produktionen Projectile which can be fired from a tube
US6860187B2 (en) * 1999-04-07 2005-03-01 Metal Storm Limited Projectile launching apparatus and methods for fire fighting
DE10157668B4 (en) * 2001-11-24 2014-05-22 Rheinmetall Waffe Munition Gmbh bullet
AU2003902297A0 (en) * 2003-05-13 2003-07-24 Metal Storm Limited External propellant initiation system and projectile
GB0713369D0 (en) * 2007-07-04 2008-03-12 Bae Systems Plc Charge Mount
DE102008026645A1 (en) * 2008-06-03 2009-12-10 Diehl Bgt Defence Gmbh & Co. Kg propellant
DE102009032158B4 (en) * 2009-07-07 2013-03-14 Rheinmetall Waffe Munition Gmbh Weapon system
US20120321413A1 (en) * 2010-02-12 2012-12-20 Fernando Masas Apparatus for installing fasteners and explosive loads for use therewith
DE202014005442U1 (en) * 2014-07-03 2014-08-12 Bundesrepublik Deutschland, vertreten durch das BMVg, vertreten durch das Bundesamt für Ausrüstung, Informationstechnik und Nutzung der Bundeswehr Artillery shell with a sealing ring

Family Cites Families (13)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US648243A (en) * 1899-12-18 1900-04-24 Vickers Sons & Maxim Ltd Gas-check for projectiles.
FR373960A (en) * 1906-04-03 1907-05-31 Schneider & Cie Belts obturator projectile
FR380063A (en) * 1906-07-19 1907-11-28 Carl Puff Canon for hand guns and artillery, with extensive scratches
US868938A (en) * 1907-07-25 1907-10-22 Carl Puff Barrel for portable firearms and cannon with deepened grooves.
US3216356A (en) * 1964-01-30 1965-11-09 Jr William F Kaufmann Projectile
US4043269A (en) * 1976-05-27 1977-08-23 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Sealed sabot projectile
US4384529A (en) * 1981-02-02 1983-05-24 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Projectile seal
DE3243430C2 (en) * 1982-11-24 1987-01-08 Mauser-Werke Oberndorf Gmbh, 7238 Oberndorf, De
US4800816A (en) * 1983-12-16 1989-01-31 Honeywell Inc. Delay discarding sabot projectile
GB8630848D0 (en) * 1986-12-24 1988-02-03 Royal Ordnance Plc Discarding sabots
USH403H (en) * 1987-05-07 1988-01-05 The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army Gun launched kinetic energy penetrator
FR2635178B1 (en) * 1988-08-04 1990-10-12 France Etat Armement Locking opening device for shells
FR2672672B1 (en) * 1991-02-11 1993-04-16 Giat Ind Sa Container that can receive a propulsive charge.

Also Published As

Publication number Publication date
FR2702833B1 (en) 1995-05-12
DE69412048T2 (en) 1998-12-17
US5492064A (en) 1996-02-20
IL109018A (en) 1998-09-24
WO1994021981A1 (en) 1994-09-29
EP0659264A1 (en) 1995-06-28
DE69412048D1 (en) 1998-09-03
FR2702833A1 (en) 1994-09-23

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