EP0611407A1 - Prefabricated building elements, process for producing the same and for building with them - Google PatentsPrefabricated building elements, process for producing the same and for building with them
- Publication number
- EP0611407A1 EP0611407A1 EP19920922647 EP92922647A EP0611407A1 EP 0611407 A1 EP0611407 A1 EP 0611407A1 EP 19920922647 EP19920922647 EP 19920922647 EP 92922647 A EP92922647 A EP 92922647A EP 0611407 A1 EP0611407 A1 EP 0611407A1
- European Patent Office
- Prior art keywords
- Prior art date
- Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
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- E—FIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
- E04C—STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
- E04C1/00—Building elements of block or other shape for the construction of parts of buildings
- E04C1/40—Building elements of block or other shape for the construction of parts of buildings built-up from parts of different materials, e.g. composed of layers of different materials or stones with filling material or with insulating inserts
- E—FIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
- E04C—STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS; BUILDING MATERIALS
- E04C1/00—Building elements of block or other shape for the construction of parts of buildings
- E04C1/39—Building elements of block or other shape for the construction of parts of buildings characterised by special adaptations, e.g. serving for locating conduits, for forming soffits, cornices, or shelves, for fixing wall-plates or door-frames, for claustra
- E04C1/392—Building elements of block or other shape for the construction of parts of buildings characterised by special adaptations, e.g. serving for locating conduits, for forming soffits, cornices, or shelves, for fixing wall-plates or door-frames, for claustra for ventilating, heating or cooling
SYSTEM, COMPOSITE MATERIALS AND FERTI GBAU-
ELEMENTS SOWI E METHOD OF MANUFACTURING
AND CONSTRUCTION ITIGEN APPLICATION
The invention relates to systems, composite materials and finished components for constructive, static load-bearing building construction for wall, floor, ceiling, or roof works and / or for subsequent design and / or rehabilitated installation, free-standing or in Altmauerverbund, as well as for lining, consisting of of a core member in itself known any material, wherein one or more grooves are provided, which anein¬ other lined up when walling in alignment, and any a decorative final visible surface element Ma¬ terials at least one side surface of a core element which with die¬ sem in durable composite stands, and their use for the construction of anticipated heating and / or ventilation integrating buildings, as well as a process for preparing position and a method for on-site application.
In the use of building materials of a known type, there is the problem of grundsätzl cozy statischerErrichtung after necessary surface work in the sense of Isoliervorkehrungen, coarse and fine plastering inside and / or outside, as well as Anstrichs- or Vertäfelungsvorgängen with all the necessary time and material consuming steps. takes place particularly in the outer wall panel with natural stone, metal or glass plates have usually been an anchor of the visible surface elements previously ange¬ at a shell wall mounted steel grates, which in addition to the support function and the function of un¬ indirect ventilation the mounted facing panels as a result of konstruk¬ tive gap formation between belongs to this and structural masonry to prevent Schwitz¬ water education in favor of effective diffusion behavior. Relatively new are insights from biological building point of view, according to which the Baustahlantei I should be minimized. Through utter avoidance of Steel Mon- day scaffolding for Fasssadengestaltung with viewing panels would konsequenter¬, to a reduction in the total workshare of environmental radiation aufneh¬ mendem structural steel come.
STATE OF THE ART
Both especially in ancient times as well as the Renaissance all the blocks of marble were sawn into block-like brick elements and, as a building material hervor- ragenstes exklusivster architectural use. Such Ver¬ application separates today from material cost reasons, as, of course, building physical reasons. usually using natural stone slabs to dekora¬ tive quality cladding of existing buildings. in this context, particularly in order to avoid condensation, ventilated stone facades with or without integrated thermal insulation known. As things stand the Tech¬ technology, specifically in VertäfeIungen with natural stone or granite slabs extremely labor-intensive multi-part assembly and ventilation professional Ikonstruktionen for stable stürm- and weatherproof anchoring inevitable.
A known finished components for prefabricated buildings contradict the erf.gem. Object according to any static and architectural arranging the components.
From DE-OS are 2852944 bricks, as well as wall or Mauerfertig¬ provided simulations at iebigernMaterial to simplify particular Elektroinstal I or known for performing heating or water pipes, in which the brick with one or more Ri I len or Itzen ski teileaus is beimVermauern diesich luchtend string together and thus form one or more continuous durch¬ Querrilien in the wall, be inserted in the EiektroinstaNationen and then plastered. The task of this system is to avoid the expensive and tedious attaching the wall grooves by the brick-laying of the stones len to a wall composite continuous horizontal or Vertikalri I arise in the masonry. - This system offers ausschfleßlich ADVANTAGES le in Instal lations- verarbeltung by millings be spared, however, does not improve the final product, viz I the building section generated. Pickled pipes must be as elsewhere been customary plastered in a conventional manner. There ent are no advantages in terms of Sichtflächenendgestaltung.
The DE-OS 3,516,533 relates to an internally ribbed side air duct stone, said air-conducting channels comprise inwardly extending in the direction of the channels ribbing, which is formed only on one side. This air-carrying stone favors the heat and moisture transfer from the air supplied to the component material on one side by the caused to the ribbing surface extension. The block is substantially Power On strength and accordingly has no decorative Endsichtfläche represented by LuftkanäIeunmitteIbarhinterIÜftetwäre. AuchhierwerdenkeInerIei physikaI isehe or economic ADVANTAGES le I bezügl a Sichtflächenendgestaltung created. From DE-OS 3835623 is a concrete product with a surface ent holding projecting stone and fine-grained aggregates of natural stone, which are distributed between the projecting stone for grouting is known, and a method for its production, soft the steps of arranging surface decoration aggregates having a wi I Ikürl cozy distance from one another on a base plate, filling of fine-grained Verfugungsaggregaten in this intermediate space between the bottom plate and that the surface forming aggregates, casting concrete to obtain the schichtför strength structure, and compacting this layer structure by pressing, and by shaking. - This revelation reminiscent of well-known washing concrete blocks for Bodenverklei¬-making as well as for the construction of enclosures, supporting or base walls. It han¬ delt are so-called. Concrete stones that have a ready for their intended visible surface. Saves decisions plasterwork, paneling and Verblen¬ and has a relatively maintenance-free for the question, but architecturally restricted use areas surface. The DE-OS 3530 138 relates to a sandwich module for external except works with two outer layers of stone of a higher compressive strength and which is arranged an intermediate, firmly connected to the outer stone layers, preferred wise of the thermal insulation serving core layer of lower compressive strength, wherein the core layer by pouring is fixedly connected between the two outer layers of stone and curing thereto. To improve the strength of the outer layers of stone have on their side facing the core layer side, the surface enlarging structures and profiles, between which the Kern¬ layer is anchored. The profiles can be longitudinal ribs sind.- where appropriate serrated even once the visible surfaces are no Endsichtflächen, but must be plastered in a conventional manner or paneling. plasterboard quality decorative Endsichtflächen such as natural stone, ceramic, metal or Gips¬ also consist mostly of materials Druckfestig¬ lesser resistance and are not be profiled in preferably wise favorable weight of reduced thickness on its rear side. Furthermore, should diffusion-promoting between decorative view plates and a core member at least tw. consist ventilation.
From PCT / GB86 / 00113 - WO 86/05226, a composite stone is known, comprising an outer casing preferably made of brick clay, which is filled with a core of fill material wärmeisoI ierendem cement-based, which combines with the fired clay. Such va to improved Wärmeiso¬-regulation at the same time in this regard provided by the customer cost reduction ermög¬ be light. Instead of the ceramic material, the sheath may bestehen.- With a view to ensuring the necessary diffusibility between Sichtflächen- and core material also made of glass, natural or artificial stone, as well as the connectivity of the filled core material in the casing shell, the selection of the visible surface materials is severely restricted, since here provided no immediate ventilation of the visible surface material.
Based on the WO 86/05226, the GB-A 2,204,892 relates to a multi-faced building block, which sets einge¬ in conventional mortar-design for construction of the wall will, in which between a vertical side view of a standing surface and at right angles thereto waggrechten Bausteinober-, or subpage an L-shaped groove is formed so that in cross-section the height of the Kernele¬ mentes is greater than the height of the side surfaces. So it should come to a de facto mortar savings in conventional optical distance of the building blocks of each other via their point of view in case of application, and the processing are generally relieved. Furthermore, the vertical wall load is exclusively occur are supported by core elements, while on the visible surfaces entfällt.- no pressure, however, the distance between the individual bricks depends as well as customary to date, non-standardized by the height of the mortar layer.
Furthermore, from US-PS 3660214 a building block with a visible surface, which optically fingiert the arrangement of several bricks, and a diesbezügl iches herstel averaging method is known. A convention ionel ler block is heated first vorge and coated with a liquid bonding material. Then a thicker matrix layer is applied and become embedded in adjacent thinner slices of a clay tile so that a visually gemörtelte design is simulated. As a result, sand is sprinkled over the building material, and solidifying the matrix in a curing process. The matrix binds the vision panel flat ZiegeIschei s and protects the covered surface against penetrating Feuchtigkeit.- Such a product appears to be very labor-intensive in Hin¬ view of its limited design and uses. Above all, hermetic coverage by poly erisierendes Klebematerlal, as well as the arrangement of a Kunststoff¬ is due to the sichtseltlg vol Ifiächigen die between concrete and facing stone even the minimal natural diff inhibited fusion capability of the bearing block outwards, which initially strongly complicates Bauaustrocknung and in the follow to haze, substance comminuted disturbing condensation in the wall area and thus unhealthy physikali¬ rule ratios results. over the treated relevant disclosures, it was in the building materials and construction industry after dzt. prior art, a production and use of static supporting and clad components for a free architectural building design with single or multi-sided any attractive Sichtflächenendgestaltung, and for interior work, not worn Rech¬ voltage, just as the use of sichtflächenendbehandelten and / or heating or Lüftungsinstal presentations integrating and unmittel¬ bar instal lationsabdeckenden by the simultaneous arrangement of decorative quality Ensichtflachen, temperature storable ready-blocks to obtain absolute endgestalteter in a linear Bauer direction process architecture, with just building materials in the construction industry increased demand with ready-and consists of components erf.gem type which working time in the civil engineering and material economically and for the consumer from can be used attractive architektoni¬ rule construction and equipment result here.
DISCLOSURE OF ERF I MEMORANDUM
The invention is essentially based on the object to change the chronology ImBauablauf in Hinbl ick aufBauzei efficiency undArbeitsaufwandreduktion in the sense of a firm and ultimate construction technology to the effect that generally a calculable single- or multiple-diffusible, preparing Sichtflächenendgestaltung hinterlüf¬ already anticipated at each finished building material module is anticipated as well such as, preferably an integrative involvement of the mounting requirements for the areas of heating and / or ventilation.
The invention preferably keeps track of the idea bereftzustellen a Gesamtbausystem for denHochbau, wherein in jewei Is an I inearen operation statically load-bearing walls, or floors, ceilings and roofs with integrated hoch¬ monohydric or multi-sided element, the diffusibility of the respective Kern¬ but not limited to, ventilated and accordingly physlkal ish and biologically advantageous and durable with a core element ver¬ bundener Sichtflächenendgestaltung be built.
To achieve the erfi to the invention task that a trag¬ capable core element of any known type of a directed each to a visible surface member side, one or more vertical or horizontal or tapered at any angle or radius of curvature channel-shaped grooves than for a visible surface element immediate rear ventilation channels is provided, any having geo¬ metric cross-section and volume that a visible surface element ventilation ducts with the tangential plan final ribs between each adjacent Hinter¬ is permanently bonded, that the ventilation channel in the volume area of a Hinter¬ exposed surfaces preferably punched with known Sub¬ to diffusive heat and / or moisture insulation are coated.
The array of ventilation channels is used on the one hand a Kern¬ element for the conservation of their own diffusion ability, on the other hand to Hinter¬ ventilation of any scale Sichtflächenendgestaltungsmaterials.
It is in the context of the invention, elements of this structural principle on a set weight-bearing blocks and components, in particular wall and Deckenele¬, roof elements, building boards, finished line elements, Betongußfertigelemente, prefabricated elements for facade, finished wall parts in floor height, with ready-partitions in ceiling height, Fertigwandtei to refer le with many more window undTüraussparungen. Thus, the poss opened ichkeit, buildings in a modular system with simultaneous Außenfassaden-, as well as, if necessary, perform auszu¬ in a linear operation also interior wall, floor and / or ceiling and Dachendgestaltung. In addition, components of the invention are suitable for Supplementary order cozy flächi¬ gen cover architecturally unattractive facades, the Ver¬ composite building materials as a result of their capacity in total building height be set up at without first scaffolds and the like. To have as was previously usual, arrange for natural stone facades.
A core element, a known module, a Betongußelement, a wall member in multi-story or floor height, a solid ceiling element, a Massiv¬ roof element, a Fertigestricheiement as well be any carrying, fixed and totally or partially plan area building material for building construction.
A viewing surface element is preferably a rough or break endbe¬ acted natural stone, artificial stone, Karamik-, glass, metal and / or gypsum board.
In a development it is provided that a oberflächenendgestaltete, building physics structured solid slab of known solid deckeneIe ducks for a tongue and groove composite exists as core elements, to which the federal government building material in continuous composite in the sense of a compact self-Ver¬, each ceiling-Sichtflächenendgestaltungsmaterial and connect / or ceiling heating one hand, and, preferably, known dry screed layers and / or heating floors, as well as flat-bottom Oberflächenendgestaltungsmaterial other.
Furthermore, it is provided that in a per se known solid roof element for the tongue and groove composite as the core element in permanent frictional composite in the sense of a compact self-roof composite element as flächi¬ gesAußensichtflächen-EndgestaItungsmateriaI bruchrauheoderendbehandeIteNatur- stone, artificial stone, Kara IK, clay connecting or concrete slabs directly, wherein vertically or horizontally extending channel-shaped grooves are arranged as a direct ventilation ducts for the conservation of their own diffusion behavior of a supporting core member, as well as for direct ventilation of a flat outer visible surface Endge- staltungs aterials -. When provided by the customer application of the tongue and groove assembly is preferably sealed mi teis known materials.
In an advantageous embodiment of the invention the use of inventive system, composite materials and finished components for the construction of advance, with respect to the oriented to Gebäudeinnensefte immediately extending behind a visible surface element ventilation ducts, heating and / or ventilation integrating buildings be provided, weichean any type vonweiterleit¬ bare heat energy generating or er¬ give air-exchanging, temperature-controlling be¬ known systems. connectable heating or ventilation lines and / or regions in the immediate heating or LUftungsfunktion without externally visible aggregates that either heat or cold-storing decorative surface elements vision panel floor, wall -, ceiling or roof-integrated, or or any other static bearing or in an analogous manner in static supporting or free-standing columns clad Bautei len are integrated, wherein the heating or ventilation units directly within the ventilation channels between core member and a decorative element visible surface run. Such er¬ already be located directly in the static wall construction vertical and / or horizontal parallel storable heating and / or ventilation roads.
According to another feature of the invention, heating or ventilation may include integrating composite materials respectively on the rear ventilation channels angeord¬ designated visible surface elements, soft to the respective core elements by means of hinges hinged carrier plates in dauerhafemVerbundstehen.
To prepare the erfndungsgemäßen products is seen vorge proceed according to that one
(A) channel-shaped grooves for ventilation provides on a visible surface with a member to be provided side of a core member, respectively;
(B) attaching a diffusible substance protective coating on the side surfaces of the ventilation channels;
(C) a visible surface element tailoring the format of a building material to be covered side;
(D) finally treated preferably a surface of the visible surface element by grinding and / or polishing;
(E) successively erfolgendem order of an adhesion promoter and an adhesive bridge to the Neutral ization of the binding forces and beidenzu verklebendenOberflächen of the Physical isehen Reagibl1ität, both to verkle¬ Bende rear surface of a Sichtflächenelernentes as pretreated also be¬ striking surface of a core element and
Cf) a pretreated einpaßgenaues pretreated Sichtflächenelementmit
Core member side under Order of adhesive material in the low-pressure process compressed under heat.
For the konstrukti e durability of these composite materials, it is necessary, the phase transitions between a core element and desired VertäfeIungs- plates according to neutralize I ity and build adhesion bridges of their thermal and Kältereagibi, as well as to ensure ventilation between a natural stone plate and a core member to va in also hin¬ clearly to avoid outdoor use area substance harmful condensation and moisture congestion imminent danger of frost.
Despite called integrations into a single erf.gem. Verbundbau¬ material element, is further, as a result of force-fitting connections on the one hand, and räumintegrierten cavities on the other hand, a compact erf.gem. ein¬ scarf strength before supporting system building material.
Is exceeded at vor¬ zugsweiser increasing the contact plane between two or side by side angeordnetenVerbundbaustoffenbzw for on-site use of the products according to the invention. FertigeIementen I hinsichtI derKerneIemente opposite upstream Sichtflächeneiementen, provided that the fusion ability and the air flow necessary for the Diff vertical and horizontal joints distance is standardized in each case by means of a plug connection which has a spacer plate or a spacer frame as well as U-shaped guide profi les, which in the ventilation channels between the rest of the core member and a flat Sichtflächenendgestaltungsmaterial be inserted, wherein the distance between two devices is the value of the strength of a spacer plate in the direction of the rear ventilation channels, and bauübl Icher Klebematerial- order follows this standardized distance. With a continuous application of the connectors, together with the guide profiles, the rear ventilation channels are aligned in un¬ broken alignment, said spacers plate of each individual Ab¬ - at the front to the viewing surface toward an open guide profile - free circulation of air through the joint spacing of Sichtflächeneiemente above and / or next to each other adjacent similar erf.gem. takes place blocks or components to each other.
In variant standardized distances of the components can be manufactured with one another for the production of air circulation enabling joint distances between the visible surface elements in each case by means of anchors, including leveling discs.
In preferably using the ventilation ducts for the integration of heating and ventilation, the guide profiles in the block or Scharenge- are joined such run in a development of constructional side application principle of the invention, to strip ventilation channels in question jewei Is vol lauskleidend.
According to a further feature of the invention may be provided for on-site application that a flat Sichtflächenendgestaltungsplatte to mindes¬ least overlaps one side with subsequent corresponding roof composite elements, wherein the core member superior overlaps flush with the surface intended for flush surface structure in at each subsequent corresponding roof composite elements add appropriate Materiaiabstufungen.
For diffusivity of the core material, as well as for uniform aeration flow in the sense of the known cold roof system subsequent ventilation channels are respectively applied to the back of a flat Sichtflächenendgestaltungsplatte within the Bausyste structure in preferably of uninterrupted alignment, so that a one in the eaves area and exiting ventilation flow at respective ridge elements with korrespondieren¬ off the ventilation openings or may occur.
Roof Verbundeimente be aufgemörtelt either without the need for roof truss directly on the gable walls, or the chair in any format at this assembled on the basis of a Dach¬.
The essential difference compared with conventional building materials Kon¬ zeptionen is its built-up structure wherein a portion of at iebiger whole Gebäude¬, which includes the building material according to the invention, in terms of building physics properties such as diffusion behavior, immediate Hinter¬ ventilation of specially arranged Sichtflächeneiemente, insulation, and Is implies bau¬ technical properties such as preferably wise integration of heating undLüftung, the consistent sense of oberflächenendgestalteten prefabricated modules kon¬ structurally in each individual element. It, is considered physically required overall properties eg. A large Natursteinvertäfelung on an outside wall as early as the individual inventive module which is to have an outside natural stone visible face, to be considered. This concerns especially heat and Kältereaglbl l ity, moisture resistance and ventilation between the natural stone and masonry to maintain the Dlffuslonsverhaltens a building material core element.
It generally takes place in all erf.gem. Composite materials, the direct bonding of a Sichtflächenendgestaltungsmaterials, such as, a natural, artificial or ceramic plate, with a core element of a known type, such as a tile, a plane plate or a block diagram.
In a preferred embodiment, the arrangement is a bond only at, for example, a maximum of 50% of a surface element to the rear side of the vision panel parallel side surface of the core member, at preferably regular change from anschließ¬ directly to a visible surface element forming Hinterlüftungskanäien and located between these raised ribs, and in Welters make simultaneous enlargement of the surface to Sichtflächen¬ element facing side surface of the core member due to the formation of Hinterlüftungskanäien which be¬ the diffusion behavior of the core element in its geometric cross-section, in their number and their volume expansion arbitrarily changeable. That is in spite of bonding with a final vision panel surface element on at least one side surface has a core member per se towards one of its erfindungs¬ with a visible surface element according connected side surfaces throughout still its entire constructively provided, original diffusivity depending on the design, number and geometry the ventilation channels. A further control mechanism for Kal¬ kulation the baufinalen diffusivity is the type of coating the exposed side surfaces of the rear ventilation channels, as well as the chemical adhesive bonding composition. Accordingly, by In the Kernelement¬ volume immediately behind the back of the sight-area cover plate inte¬ grated ventilation ducts the diffusion behavior of both the core material as well as the top layer are even favored by the known large scale. From this can be extremely effective Wärmedäm behave achieved with heat transfer coefficient k <0.3 / m2K with almost no transmission heat losses. Through all these measures thermo technical vulnerabilities by unter¬ schiedliche material properties can be avoided.
Of what importance the inventive measures are already results from the fact that a fertiggeste11ter gegenständI ieher building material undergoes not only a quality change compared to materials previously known type but static bearing rather a genereile change in the system as well as its uses, as known by the user in a single operation Materials, kal¬ kulierbare facade and / or interior design, or guide, for example in another Aus¬, static load-bearing ceiling, floor, calculable Plafond- and Fußbodenendgestaltung - all with anticipated integrated known installation recordings preferably - can be processed.
The other advantages lie in the areas of anticipated kalkulier¬ cash processing precision, a genereilen cost savings, since operations have usually been consecutively executed are made in a single linear Bauer direction operation, and ichkeiten the increased overall staltungsmögl, whereby the best possible in the core region the client interest by kal¬ kulierbar building materials an effective construction cost Bauwert ratio can be provided over at precise processing and geringstmög¬ Lichem working time factor.
In addition, the question of the compatibility of different materials in the layer structure is already anticipated through to finished finally treated visible surface. It is provided auszu¬ go of commercially available block types as key elements to edit it first imSinn an inventive strain to make subsequently a further composite processing in the sense of contemporary personality changes erfindungs¬. Due to the preferred use for the inventive processing bewähr¬ ter suitable building materials as a core material, the respective component of the invention with respect to its Kernfüliung respectively related physical, technical, chemical and biological properties. Of course, any type of single or multi-page sheet-like building material can be used as a core element for the inventive processing.
The invention seeks a simplification over the prior art at, ichkeiten an increase in planerisehen poss design, as well as an overall samtbauzeitreduktion by the introduction of new materials in general.
The content of the previously used term "shell" for the completion of the static phase of construction is in this context by the erfindungsge¬ MAESSEN materials properties and re¬ lativiert the resulting Komplettbausytem!. The Gesamtbaufortschritt turns out many times faster, because different otherwise only consecutive additional constructional Ausbau¬ account for progress. The problems associated with the invention, further advantages are a wide range of variability of the principle according to the invention within wide limits depending on the structural application. DESCRIPTION OF THE NAMES ZI
Further advantages and features of the invention are from below
Description of the schematic Ausführungs¬ shown in the drawings examples visible. Show it:
FIG. 1 is a schematic representation of the manufacturing process;
FIG. 2 is a perspective view of a erf.gem. Block type solid core element;
FIG. 2A according to a perspective view of a connector for senk¬ right flock composite blocks. FIG.2;
FIG.3 is a perspective view of a erf.gem. Installation Bau¬ stone;
FIG. 3A according to a perspective view of a connector for senk¬ right flock composite blocks. FIG.3;
FIG. 4 is a schematic view of application examples for erf.gem. Block types;
FIG. 5 is a perspective view concerning system. Erf.gem. wan integrated Heizungsbauten;
FIG. 6 is a transparent front view einererf.gem. Facade structure;
FIG. 7 is a perspective translucent plan view of a cut out Dachab¬ erf.gem. Roof composite materials;
FIG. 7A is a perspective side view of roofing composite materials.
Referring now to the drawings: The embodiment of FIG. 1, the manufacture of a pact there are suitable static supporting block -13- with ventilated Gebäudeaußensicht¬ -2- surface and not ventilated Gebäudeinnenslchtflache -2' of polished natural stone, and in a variant of the method relates to the preparation of a erf.gem. -15- block with both ventilated outdoor-2, as well ventilated Innenslchtflache -2'. gem in step l. FIG. 1 is a block ziegeiförmiges core element is first -1- prepared from known Baustoffmateriallen. For unavoidable HinterlUftung a later process step VII vorge provided for building outside view flat stone plate -2-, a block core element -1-, in method step II with one or more channel-för strength grooves -4- as ventilation channels on the staltungsmaterial with planar Sichtflächenendge¬ -2 - is provided to be provided side by milled -3-. The In this embodiment, block-like core element 1 can NATURALLY l ch already in erf.gem. more necessary design -4- wholly or partly. grooved - for example by casting -. hergestel be It. Step II is selbstver- I ständl executable in longitudinal and / or transverse direction of a block core element surface -1-. In order to preserve the structure of the ventilation channels -4-, more particularly sondere to prevent a permanent end substanzschädi sands, as well as the acid protection and additional heat and Kältedä mung proves to be a drive in step II Ver¬ l shown behalf of a diffusible substance protective sealing -6- onto the inner walls of the channel-shaped grooves -4- advantageous. In the steps of IV to VI are used to Neutrali¬ tion of the binding forces of the, in the process steps VII and VIII to ver¬ adhesive surfaces -1,2 sequentially an adhesion promoter -8-, -9- and a bridge Haft¬ adhesive -10- all mounted to a known species, to the ribs between the channels -37- -4- under flashing off the in each case previously aufge¬ transferred layer. In step I 1 the exact Zu¬ carried cut a Natursteinpiatte -2- in the format of the overlapping area Baustein¬ -1-. In step II 'the subsequent visible surface of the slab Natur¬ -2- is ground -5-, in step IM' flächenendbehandlung polished in the sense of the top and sealed -7-. The method steps II 'and IM' omitted if the natural stone visible face is to remain unbreakable rough. The method steps IV to VI 'relate analogous to the steps VI to IV, pretreatment of the natural stone plate -2- to neutralize the binding forces to be bonded in step VII surfaces -1,2 through back the application of adhesion promoters -8-, -9- bonding and adhesive -10-. In step VII, the precisely fitting pretreated Naturstein¬ is plate--2- with the likewise pre-treated component surface -1- connected and in process step VIII the connection -12-, wherein preferably using pol imerisierenden adhesives -10-, -11- in the low pressure method under heat pressed. If in this embodiment, the target Herstellungs¬ a erf.gem. Block with only external side of ventilated Natursteinsicht¬ area -12-, this is already available after the complete execution step in the process product IX. In step X, the inner side of a building zu¬ facing side surface of the block core element by the application of adhesion promoters -1- mid -8-, -9- and bonding adhesive is subjected to a pretreatment -10- analogously to the steps, and thereby IV to VI. An steps already described Verfahrens¬ I 'to VI' accurately fitting pretreated natural stone plate is -2' method step in Ver¬ XI with a likewise pretreated component core element area -1- connected, and in step XII this connection -13-, analogously to step VIII , pressed at preferably using pol imerisierenden adhesives -10-, -11- in the low pressure method under heat, in this exemplary embodiment, the need for a rear ventilation -4- for the inside of the building stone visible face -2' was not accepted. Nor were erf.gem in this. Module version Installation -13- -4,44- channels, as shown below in Figures 4 and 5, is provided below the inside visible surface -2', whereby the method steps II and III herein for Vorberei¬ processing of innense11igen Natursteinendsichtflächen -2' entfal len. In Verfahrens¬ XIII step of this embodiment is a composite block -13- with external side of ventilated -2- and inner-side endbehandelter Naturstein¬ visible surface -2' ago.
In a variant embodiment in Figure 1 furthermore the manufacture of a erf.gem. Block with both a rear-ventilated external stone 2, as well -Innenslchtflache -2' how even down to the 4 and 5 run, provided DAR. Here, a block core member is -3,6,8,9,10- from step I In steps tl pretreated on both sides to VI -1-. Such bau¬ stone-like core elements -1- can of course in erf.gem. more necessary Ge staltung, wholly or partly. grooved surface in longitudinal and / or transverse direction of a Bausteinober¬ -4,44-, also by casting, or in appropriate shapes manufacturing are provided.
In FIG. 2 is a compact static bearing erf.gem. Block -13- bäudeinnensichtfläche with ventilated building exterior visible surface -2- and not ventilated Ge -2' polished or bruchrauhem stone darge provides. This block -13- is erf.gem based on any known Baustein¬ types -1- as core elements. possible. in this Aus¬ is preferred management for aerated concrete as the core element used, particularly because its mineral components - limestone, quartz sand - ver¬ those of natural stone are comparable, and th structural engineering and building physics advantageous Eigenschaf¬ such as high compressibility, produce superior thermal insulation, good thermal storage, standard-compliant sound insulation, yield and optimal fire protection. So results from the use of the materials aerated concrete -1- and -2- natural stone, as well as suitably ge -8- adhesion promoter, bonding adhesive materials -9- and -10-, a physically almost homogeneous Materialverbünd. To particularly lightweight components -13- of the inventive type to get, preferably Na¬ turstein- or granite facings are used -2- physically lowest possible levels, as have already been generated by the dzt. Art. The außensichtflachige natural stone plate -2- is with respect to the element surface in the Kern¬ Integrated kanalförmlgen grooves -4- raised, tangential plan final ribs -37- in durable composite conclusive. A innen¬ slchtflächige natural stone slab -2 * - is fully laminated to the core element -1- here. Through the ventilation ducts -4- construction and arrangement of a venting of mortar or adhesive layers is unproblematic.
In order to realize the diffusion capability of the ventilation ducts -4- when flock composite within each block row, it is possible in a variant embodiment to carry out the außensichtflachige natural stone plate -2- in its height slightly lower than the height of core element -1-. in this variant, the Luftzugängl ichkei of channels -4- is the value of this format difference. Otherwise, by applying bauüblicher adhesive materials, such as mortar or special glue between the block flocks in only 2 to 4 πvn adhesive is ateriaiauftrag sufficient vertical distance between the blocks given -13- in order to ensure sufficient diffusion between the individual air ducts -4-.
The necessary for diffusion capacity vertical or horizontal distance can erf.gem., As shown in FIG. 2A, be standardized -70-by means of a plug connection which has a spacer plate -71-, a strip -77- Abstand¬ holder and / or a spacer frame -76-, as well as U-shaped guide profiles -72-, which in the kanalförmlgen grooves between the rest of the core element -1- and a flat Sichtflächenendgestaltungsmaterial be -2-introduced. The distance between two components -13- in the direction of the grooves kanal¬ förmlgen -4- is the value of the thickness of the spacer plate -71-. Bauüblicher Klebemateriaiauftrag follows this standardized distance. The guide profiles -72- additionally ensure that no adhesive or mortar occurs with processing in the ventilation ducts -4-. With a continuous application of the connectors, together with guide -70- -72- profi les rear ventilation channels are arranged in an uninterrupted -4- vertical alignment, as well as in the application examples of FIG. 3, 6 and 7. FIG. At the level of each spacer plate -71- at the front to the viewing surface open towards Führungs¬ profile -72- -36- free circulation of air through the resulting ventilation columns -35- takes place. The plug connection -70- can run with one or more an¬ closing blocks -13-, so that As a result of improved building block composite side additional stiffening of the construction materials is achieved -13- also over more than one block -13- in the sense of an overlap. The erf.gem. structured connector -70- still further provides a reinforcement is such that a substantial increase in strength of the walls, for example. Also in key elements -1- results of clay or concrete, and, for example. Wand¬ greater tensile forces are absorbed from temperature and reducing distortions and higher resilient components -13- in economic wall thickness are possible.
FIG. 3 shows a erf.gem. combined bearing block -15- visible surface of a core member -1- with außense111ger perpendicular ventilated -4- Naturstein¬ -2-, as already described above in Figure 2, as well as an inside natural stone visible face -2' behind softer preferably to Heizungsin ¬ stal lationsaufnähme -40- appropriate channel-shaped grooves -4- in the vertical direction are Aus¬. Within the core element -1 or between two slices Kern¬ element -1- is a known core insulation -30- to increase the storage capacity of the total block -15- may preferably be located.
FIG. 3A shows a correspondingly adapted connector -70- of the type already described for Figure 2, the guide profiles -72-, however, both in the ventilation, as also engage the Heizinstallationskanäle -4-. When using the channel-shaped grooves -4,44- as instal latlonskammern -44- the FUhrungsprofi le -72- for the block-furrow structure are preferably designed such that they each vol stripping the channel-shaped grooves concerned -4- lauskleidend, whereby the Wärme¬ memory capacity can be further increased.
FIG. 5 shows, in connection with the to Figure 3 of completed, a wand¬ integrated heater system -40-. Such a wall heating is both construction! I originally -18,19,19A, 20, 15,115-, such gem as Supplementary order Icher Sanierstein -21A. , According Fig.7- before Altmauerwerk -200. FIG. 7- erected possible. The individual heating installations -40- receiving blocks -20, 115,52,18,19A- preferably each have an over the installation ducts -4,44- angeord¬ designated storable viewing area -2- of natural, artificial stone or ceramic, with which the core member concerned -1- by about hinge -50- aufklapp¬ face, attached to its rear side carrier plate -51- in durable composite is. This support plate -51- is preferably of heat conduction of metal I and adheres In lapptem fed state magnet -33- on the core element -1-. This arrangement favors ev. Line repair first names within the meaning uncomplicated maintenance. quality vision panel go above and beyond when installing damage most surfaces -2,2' not lost. For this structure structure arising in any desired paral allel series waggrechte and / or vertical Heizstraßen -40- under the view-area top layers -2,2' of the walls. Heizinstallationsleitungen and tubes -40- can, starting from any heat generating sources, are pro¬ inserted without any problem without preparation immediately after wall construction and / or retracted. Also, warm air heating lines run in conjunction with the already repeatedly described erf.gem. Connectors -70- in terms of a calculable hot air outlet to a workable solution. Ge Nerell save heating pipes and -pipes -40- hardly any heat, so to die¬ sem purpose previously radiators were necessary. The relative arrangement of block core elements -1, Heizinstallationsleitungen -40- and speicher¬ enabled natural stone, cast stone or ceramic tops -2,2' on thermal conductivity fähfgen support layers -51-, there is erf.gem. a complete heating system Gesamtraum- -40- of known tiled stoves or continuous heat storage effect. The memory capacity proves to analog according to the embodiment at a heating stone assembly -20,115,18,19-. Flg.5 - exceeded two Heizsteinreihen or next to each other - as a result even heat distribution as a much cheaper compared to conventional radiators. Installation -52- stones to instru¬ ment rush Hefzungs-Bedlenungs -52-, as well as connecting nodes stones -19A- for Leitungsvertei payments and direction changes are erf.gem. Supplementary elements. The resulting Heizstraßen -40- Heizsteinanordnungen be up and down, or sideways, depending on the wall by corresponding planning erf.gem. Blocks -13, 17, and Fig.4- added to a surface-flush overall construction of the Wall.
FIG. 4 shows examples of application in a schematic view of the erf gem.. Block places. Depending on the configuration, the erf.gem own. Systembau¬ stones -12 to 24 for use in both direct to constructive static building construction, as well as for the subsequent design, be rehabilitated, stabili¬-stabilizing and / or installer's construction -12A, 16A, 21A, free-standing or wall composite in Alt¬ -200- , After building construction such connecting blocks -12 to 24, both known per se shell properties, analogously to the core elements used -1-, and further expansion of progress in the sense of a consistent predictable sichtflächenendgestalteten -2- and / or instal lationsauf¬ receiving -40- construction of prefabricated modules integrating already in itself, wherein the JE weiligen embodiments building physical factors, such as va Fassadenhinter- ventilation -4-, already anticipated in the manufacture of each individual block are taken into be¬.
All erf.gem. Block types comprise a core element -1-, including, if necessary, integrated vertically or horizontally extending channel-shaped grooves -4,44- as außenwandige ventilation or innenwandige installation ducts for the conservation of their own diffusion behavior, as well as for ventilation of a flat Sichtflächenendgestaltungs -2- aterials and / or to instal lations-- micrograph -40- of the heating, ventilation, plumbing and / or electrical system, and on one or more surfaces -1- planar decorative design Sichtflächenend¬ -2,2' material, preferably stone break rough or final treated Natur¬, artificial stone - or Karamikplatten or plasterboard. According to the date of completed, can be eg. The following erf.gem. different block types and blocks could have static bearing
(A) -12 gem.FIG. 4 with the outside rear-ventilated -4- natural stone visible face of the core member used -1- corresponding -2- visible surface and on the inside;
(B) -13- with the outside rear-ventilated and not ventilated inside NatursteinsichtfIäche;
(C) -14- with more surface area on the outside inter ventilated natural stone visible surfaces;
(D) -15- with the outside rear-ventilated natural stone visible face, and the inside of natural stone visible face towards integrating heating duct -40-;
(E) -16- with inner-side non-ventilated natural stone visible face and on the outside of the core member corresponding viewing surface used;
(F) -17-with both sides rauninnenseitiger not ventilated natural stone visible face;
(G) -18- with a space inside of two sichtfläc strength Naturstein¬ plates oriented towards integration heating channel;
(H) -19- with about two by two space inside view Naturstein¬ flat plates oriented toward integrations heating channel; (I) -21- with oriented towards the space inside natural stone visible face HeizkanaI integrationundaußenseitigdemverwendetenKerneIemententsprechen- the visible surface; and furthermore
(J) -23- static pillars stones, solid or with SchaIsteinkern¬ element, with all-round ventilated natural stone visible face, or (k) -24- with on all sides oriented areas under the Natursteinsicht¬ extending heating channel integration; and further to nachtragl cozy design, be rehabilitated, stabi I isierenden and / or instal I ierenden construction (I) equipment stones (12A, 16A, 21A), which for example can be. employed in REAR Altmauerverbund, and (k) chimney bricks (22) depending on the location, one or more sides, if necessary, visible surfaces are inter ventilated covered with natural stone. When using the erf.gem. Block types imHochbau can be prevented as a result of continuous building material uniformity generally cold bridges etc..
The application example gem. FIG. 6 shows that with continuous use of the plug-in connections together with the guide profiles -70- -72-, above be¬ attributed to Figure 2A, the ventilation channels are aligned in an uninterrupted vertical or horizontal alignment -4,44-. The physical construction operation of a continuous ventilation flow through the ventilation channels -36- -4,44- as well as through the ventilation slots -35- between the block flocking extends to erf.gem. designed cast elements -29,55- in special shapes such as Rund¬ arches and profiled portal 26- and Sims elements -28-, and specifically such daßHinterIüftungskanäIe-4.44-reIativzuerf.gem. AnschIußmauerwerkkompatibeI be executed. Such compatible as I ity can be particularly precise in Ver¬ application known CAD computer technology for analog taking place in construction planning production programming to the relevant block and component production realized, so that maximum precision at the factory already finished internal processing of the teleological by planned erf.gem. Prefabricated components -12,12A; Is given 28,29-. The erf.gem. Building material structure is also prefabricated wall parts or clothing parts Wandver¬ apply by analogy in Stockwerks- or room height.
FIG. 7 and 7A show another in a consistent application of the erf.gem. Building material system a known plane plate -101-, preferably concrete from Gas¬, in use as a core element of a erf.gem. baukompletten Dachverbund¬ element -90- for the tongue and groove composite -92,91-, wherein as a flat Außen¬ visible surfaces -2--Endgestaltungsmaterial a fragmentary rough or final treated Na¬ turstein, artificial, Kara LK, clay or concrete slab to connecting the core element -101-. To maintain the own Dlffusionsverhaitens of a supporting core member -101-, as well as the rear ventilation of the sheet AußensichtfIächen- Endgestaltungsmaterials -2- vertically or horizontally extending grooves are kanal¬ -4 provided as ventilation ducts. The laminates -101,2- are in permanent frictional composite -8,9,10- in mind of a compact single baufertϊgen total element -90-. The tongue and groove composite -91,92- the Dach¬ composite elements with each other is, for example -90-. Sealed by means of rubber gasket -98- ab¬.
In a further embodiment of the invention it can be provided that the sheet-like Sichtflächenendgestaltungsplatten -2- overlap at one or more sides with subsequent corresponding composite roofing elements -90-, as shown in FIGURE 7A, where the core elements -101- superior for flush surface structure, preferably aluminum-reinforced -94- overlaps -93,2- flush and seamless in the each subsequent Dachverbund¬ elements -90- corresponding estimated material gradations -87- add. The connection beading -96- are to be sealed in the usual manner.
For diffusivity of the core material, as well as for uniform DurchIüftungsströmung -36- in the sense of the known cold roof system, are embedded in the core elements -101-, endgestaltungsplatten provided -2- subsequent ventilation channels -4- to the back sides of the planar Sichtflächen¬ which within the roof system laminate structure -90- alignment are in continuous Aus¬ so that ventilation flow -36- mono- or emerge at a lowermost Dachver¬ bundetement -90A- and a corresponding Dachfirst¬ element -85- with corresponding exhaust air and supply air openings - 35- hide or may occur. Replacement elements for possible Suspension systems -97- and tensioning worlds, individual elements as ausstellbare roof ventilation plates -95- and An¬ adjustments to skylights and other roof accessories -210- is under Bei¬ behaltung an analog erf.gem. Structural shape possible.
The present invention is not limited to the embodiments which are shown, for example, but includes variations, modifications and generalizations one, as they result in the following claims.
(For this purpose, 7 sheets drawings)
Priority Applications (3)
|Application Number||Priority Date||Filing Date||Title|
|AT0220991A AT403599B (en)||1991-11-07||1991-11-07||Prefabricated building element and method for manufacturing and on-site application|
|PCT/AT1992/000142 WO1993009308A1 (en)||1991-11-07||1992-11-06||Building system, composite materials and prefabricated elements, process for producing the same and for building with them|
|Publication Number||Publication Date|
|EP0611407A1 true EP0611407A1 (en)||1994-08-24|
Family Applications (1)
|Application Number||Title||Priority Date||Filing Date|
|EP19920922647 Withdrawn EP0611407A1 (en)||1991-11-07||1992-11-06||Prefabricated building elements, process for producing the same and for building with them|
Country Status (4)
|US (1)||US5964067A (en)|
|EP (1)||EP0611407A1 (en)|
|AT (1)||AT403599B (en)|
|WO (1)||WO1993009308A1 (en)|
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|IL141467D0 (en) *||2001-02-15||2002-03-10||Industrial walls|
|US20040035068A1 (en) *||2002-01-02||2004-02-26||Maimon Eliyahu||Modular wall segments and method of making such segments|
|WO2004003307A1 (en) *||2002-06-27||2004-01-08||Eliyahu Maimon||Modular wall segments and method of making such segments|
|EP1396589A1 (en) *||2002-08-08||2004-03-10||Wolfgang Gesen||Building block for air conditioning|
|US7856773B2 (en) *||2003-07-24||2010-12-28||Wagdy Agaiby||All-in-one modular construction system|
|US20060185309A1 (en) *||2005-01-13||2006-08-24||Ness John T||Masonry blocks and masonry block assemblies having molded utility openings|
|US8091300B2 (en) *||2006-11-08||2012-01-10||Pyo John M||Modular building blocks system and method of manufacture|
|US7743565B2 (en) *||2006-11-08||2010-06-29||Pyo John M||Modular building block system and method of manufacture|
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|DE102008050741A1 (en)||2008-10-08||2010-04-15||Blumenfeld, Nikolai||Multi-layered construction system for building, has vertical composite module vertically set between supports, and horizontal composite module horizontally set at sides of supports, where modules connect framework with mortar and connectors|
|US8152608B1 (en) *||2010-10-27||2012-04-10||Aubrey Eugene Hamby||Solar energy intercept and waste heat recovery system|
|US20170016228A1 (en) *||2014-01-20||2017-01-19||University Of Manitoba||Surface Reinforced Concrete Masonry Units|
|US9182133B1 (en) *||2014-04-23||2015-11-10||Mark R. Weber||Wall construction system and component thereof|
|DE202017103204U1 (en) *||2017-05-26||2018-08-28||Werner Schlüter||Plate prefabricated component|
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